26 20Annexure 20XB 20Ref Cattle by zG5H1M7

VIEWS: 35 PAGES: 115

									                  ANNEXURE –XB
                            CATTLE
1    Anatomy and Histology
2    Biochemistry
3    Bio-products
4    Biotechnology
5    Breeding
6    Economics and marketing
7    Epidemiology
8    Extension
9    Genetics
10   Gynecology and obstetrics
11   Immunology
12   Meat
13   Medicine
14   Microbiology
15   Milk and milk products
16   Nutrition
17   Nutrition Rumen
18   Parasitology
19   Pathology
20   Pharmacology
21   Physiology
22   Reproduction- Embryo
23   Reproduction Female
24   Reproduction Male
25   Reproductive physiology
26   Statistics
27   Surgery
28   Toxicity
29   Zoonoses




                                 1418
Anatomy and Histology
Specialization: Anatomy and Histology
Subject: Type and shape of pattern ridge characteristics of dermatoglyph
of muzzle.
Year of publication: 1999
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Production and Management. 1999;
15(2): 67-68
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Sharad Mishra; Tomer, O S; Kalm, E
Content:
Muzzle prints were collected from cattle yard of National Dairy Research
Institute, Karnal (India) and Karkendam research farm of the Institute of
Animal Breeding and Animal Husbandry, Christian-Albrechts University
(Kiel, Germany). The muzzle prints were collected by modified cyclostyle
ink procedure. All the pattern ridges of each muzzle were traced out and duly
recorded. In this study 2 shapes, cylindrical and club, were observed. The
mean values were 1.24 and 5.39 for club and cylindrical shape pattern ridges
respectively. Depending on the presence and absence of intercepts and
vibrissae the pattern ridges were classified into 4 types, complete, complete
intercepted, fragmented and fragmented intercepted. The mean values were
0.75, 5.01, 0.14 and 0.77 for complete, complete intercepted, fragmented and
fragment intercepted types respectively.

Specialization: Anatomy and Histology
Subject: Age-related changes in the cortical bone characteristics of Surti
buffalo and Kankrej ox.
Year of publication: 2000
Journal: Buffalo Journal. 2000; 16(2): 175-179
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Dubal, S C; Vyas, K N; Vyas, Y L
Content:
The material properties of cortical bones of forelimbs and hindlimbs of six
male, young and adult, Surti buffalo and Kankrej oxen were each determined
and compared at the Gujarat Agricultural University, Gujarat, India [date not
given]. The mean +or- S.E. of the elastic modulus of calves and adults were
11.60+or-0.10 and 16.30+or-0.10 GN/m2, respectively. Values for strength
economy were 33.88+or-0.010 and 54.89+or-0.03 km2/second2, for calves
and adults, respectively. Stiffness economy mean values for the calves and
adults were at 4.90+or-0.05 and 6.22+or-0.01 Mm2/second2, respectively.
The adult animals had significantly (P<0.01) higher mean values with both
biometrical and biomechanical characteristics of cortical bones, than the
young animals in both species studied. However, the effect of species or
limbs on cortical bone characteristics was not significant (P>0.05). It was
concluded that cortical bone behaves as a pseudo-ductile material during
loading.

Specialization: Anatomy and Histology
Subject: Certain factors influencing the skin thickness in crossbred
cattle.

                               1419
Year of publication:
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Research. 2000; 34(2): 136-138
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Muralidharan, M R
Content
The skin thickness measurements of various age groups, breeds and sex of
cattle were studied in correlation to performance. 742 crossbred cattle were
used in the study. The flank region was chosen as the representative site for
skin thickness measurements. Skin thickness readings were recorded for
different crossbreds of cattle under 11 age groups. Skin thickness varied
among the breeds, with the highest overall average skin thickness being
recorded in Friesian x non-descript crossbreds which was 4.71+or-0.05 mm.
The overall average skin thickness of different age groups and genotypes in
Exotic x Zebu crosses was 4.45+or-0.04 mm and was highly significant
(P<0.01). For the Kankrej and Jersey cattle, skin thickness significantly
increased with the age of the animals. Skin thickness of crossbreds was found
to reach a peak of 5.59+or-0.12 mm. Males significantly (P<0.01) recorded
higher values (5.08+or-0.09 mm) than females (3.83+or-0.22 mm). Mean
skin thickness was highest in the dry stage and lowest during lactation in the
crossbreds.

Specialization: Anatomy and Histology
Subject: Anatomical study of the median and ulnar nerves (sub-carpal
region) in Indian cow (Bos indicus) and Indian water buffalo (Bubalus
bubalis).
Year of publication: 2001
Journal: Journal of Interacademicia. 2001; 5(3): 372-375
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Chatterjee, A; Roy, M M; Ghosh, R K; Das, P
Content
The distribution pattern of the median and ulnar nerves below the carpal joint
are recorded and compared on the basis of 10 forelimbs each from zebu cattle
and buffaloes (5 left and 5 right limbs). Differences in the branching patterns
of the nerves between these two species is presented.

Specialization: Anatomy and Histology
Subject: Comparative anatomy of the lips of mithun (Bos frontalis), yak
(Bos grunniens) and zebu (Bos indicus).
Year of publication: 2001
Journal: International Journal of Animal Sciences. 2001; 16(1): 159-161
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Sarma, M; Sarma, K; Bhattacharya, M
Content
Gross anatomical study of the lip revealed that the upper and lower lips of
mithun [gayal], yak and zebu were two fleshy folds bounding the oral cleft.
The upper lip of mithun was relatively longer than that of the yak and zebu.
The philtrum was distinct in mithun. The planum nasolabiale was highly
pigmented in the yak.

Specialization: Anatomy and Histology
Subject: Comparative gross anatomical and biometrical study of the

                                1420
abomasum of cattle and buffalo.
Year of publication: 2001
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 2001; 78(3): 231 233
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Shankhapal, V D; Dhande, P L; Gaikwad, S A
Content
Normal abomasum were collected immediately after slaughter from 24 adult
cattle and buffaloes. In both species, the abomasum was an elongated sac
situated on the abdominal floor, and had 12 spiral grooves extending from
the sides of the abomasal groove towards the pyloric part. Biometrical
measurements of the greater and lesser curvature, volume and weight of the
abomasum from buffaloes were significantly greater than those for cattle.

Specialization: Anatomy and Histology
Subject: Gross anatomical studies of the Superior Sesamoidean Ligament
in relation to biomechanics in buffalo in comparison with cattle.
Year of publication: 2001
Journal: Buffalo Journal. 2001; 17(3): 371-382
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Gaikwad, S A; Dhande, P L; Shankhapal, V D
Content:
Gross anatomical studies of the Superior Sesamoidean Ligament (SSL) of all
4 limbs from 6 adult males each of Murrah buffalo and cattle (Khillar breed)
were conducted. Fine dissection of SSL was carried out immediately after
slaughter. The origin, insertion, gross anatomical structure, and biometrical
observations of various divisions were recorded. The various divisions of the
SSL were designated as main, postero-medial and lateral, antero-medial axial
and abaxial, antero-lateral axial and abaxial and central strand. The average
length of main, postero-medial and lateral and central strands was
significantly higher in cattle and significantly higher in hindlimb. The
average width of various divisions of SSL was significantly higher in
buffalo. The length-width ratios of various divisions of SSL showed
significant difference between the species, as well as between the limbs. The
average length of all divisions of SSL was greater in cattle compared to
buffalo. However, the width of various divisions of SSL was greater in
buffalo compared to cattle.

Specialization: Anatomy and Histology
Subject: Histomorphology of hair follicles in the skin of Deoni cattle.
Year of publication: 2001
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 2001; 78(8): 718-720
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Mugale, R R; Bhosle, N S
Content
The hair follicle characteristics viz. outer, inner and stubble diameter and
depth of hair fibres were studied in mid-biopsy during summer, rainy and
winter seasons of 0.5- to 3.5- and 4- to 6-year-old male and female Deoni
cattle. The hair follicles were encircled by two sebaceous glands in the
dermis and were accompanied by sweat gland and arrector pili muscles. The
inner, outer and stubble diameter of the hair follicles were comparatively
higher in males during winter. The outer and stubble diameter of the hair

                               1421
follicles were greater in females during winter and summer, respectively. The
hair depth increased with age, and was maximum in winter followed by rainy
and summer seasons.

Specialization: Anatomy and Histology
Subject: Microscopic structure of the sebaceous glands in the skin of
Deoni cattle.
Year of publication: 2001
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 2001; 78(7): 624-626
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Mugale, R R; Bhosle, N S
Content
Pieces of skin measuring 1 x 1/2 inches were collected from the middle
region of the intercoastal space between the 12th and 13th ribs of 12 Deoni
cattle aged 0-1/2, 2 1/2-3 1/2 and 4-6 years during the summer, rainy and
winter seasons. The histology and micrometry of the sebaceous glands with
reference to age, sex and season were then determined. Histological
observations revealed that the sebaceous glands surround the hair follicles at
the papillary layer of the dermis. The glands were multilobulated and showed
squamous cells with distinct cell boundaries. Almost two sebaceous glands
were associated with one hair follicle. The average depth of the glands was
252.85+or-0.18 micro m. The difference in depth between sexes was
insignificant. The depth was increased with advancement of age in summer,
rainy and winter seasons for both sexes. The depth was at its maximum
(291.52+or-0.42 micro m) during the rainy seasons compared to the two
other seasons. From this observation, it was concluded that the glands
became superficial due to the increased secretory activity in order to protect
the animal from excessive heat during summer.

Specialization: Anatomy and Histology
Subject: Morphology of sweat glands of back region in Deoni cattle.
Year of publication: 2001
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 2001; 71(11): 1045-1047
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Mugale, R R; Bhosle, N S
Content
The effect of age and season on the morphology of sweat glands along the
dorsum of 60 male and female Deoni cattle was investigated. The length,
diameter and volume of the sweat glands increased while the shape decreased
with the advancement of age. There was a significant change in the shape
ratio of the gland during summer and winter.

Biochemistry
Specialization: Biochemistry
Subject: Biomethanation of a mixture of salty cheese whey and poultry
waste or cattle dung: a study of effect of temperature and retention time.
Year of publication: 1996
Journal: Applied biochemistry and biotechnology (USA). (Aug 1996). v.
60(2) p. 159-166. AB:
Country of Origin: India

                               1422
Author’s name: Patel, C.; Madamwar, D.
Institution: Sardar Patel University, Gujarat, India.
Content:
 This paper describes the results of a study aimed at improving the efficiency
of anaerobic digestion of salty cheese whey in combination with poultry
waste or cattle dung. Best results were obtained when salty cheese whey was
mixed with poultry waste in the ratio of 7:3, or cattle dung in the ratio of 1:1,
both on dry weight basis giving maximum gas production of 1.2 L/L of
digester/d with enriched methane content of 64% and 1.3 L/L of digester/d
having methane content of 63% respectively. Various conditions such as
temperature and retention time have been optimized for maximum process
performance.

Specialization: Biochemistry
Subject: Species variations in duodenal fluid lactase activity in bovine
and buffalo calves.
Year of publication: 1997
Journal: Proceedings 5th World Buffalo Congress, Royal Palace, Caserta,
Italy, 13-16 October, 1997. 1997; 320-325 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Christi, K S; Vadodaria, V P; Mehta, V M
Content:
This is the first known attempt to concurrently study in situ the duodenal
fluid lactase level in cattle (n=10) and Surti buffalo (n=12) calves after
cannulating the duodenal lumen. Samples were collected 30 mins. before
(BF) and after (AF) feeding during the morning and evening until the rumen
became functional (15 weeks). Effect of age on lactase was not significant,
but lactase activity increased from birth in both species. The increase was
greater in the cattle than in the buffaloes. Diurnal variations were not
significant. Overall post-prandial stimuli increased lactase in cattle calves
(19.63%; 0.32 U/mg protein) but decreased it in buffalo calves (28.57%; 0.40
U/mg protein). Average values (U/mg protein) in cattle calves were 1.56+or-
0.16 during colostrum feeding, 1.62+or-0.10 during MRP feeding, 1.80+or-
0.10 with concentrate and hay feeding and 1.98+or-0.11 with fodder feeding.
The corresponding values in buffalo calves were 0.09+or-0.02, 0.14+or-0.01,
0.15+or-0.01 and 0.19+or-0.01. Results did not reveal any significant effects
of age or diurnal variations on duodenal fluid lactase activity. However,
cattle calves were born with a 23.83-fold greater lactase activity than buffalo
calves. Buffalo calves are therefore likely to suffer from lactase
insufficiency.

Specialization: Biochemistry
Subject: Monitoring of mineral profiles in a crossbred herd.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1998; 68(3): 251-253 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Rajora, V S; Pachauri, S P
Content:
This study presents the variations in blood mineral profiles (Ca, P, Mg, Cu,
Fe and Zn) during the different stages of lactation and pregnancy in cows.
During the early stage of lactating pregnancy, low levels of Ca, P and Mg

                                1423
were recorded, while in pregnant non-lactating cows, calcium levels are low
especially during the late stage of pregnancy. Results also indicated the need
to supplement animals with extra copper, iron and zinc during late
pregnancy.

Specialization: Biochemistry
Subject: Serum constituents of indigenous and crossbred cattle.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1998; 68(5): 474-475 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Sharma, M; Bisoi, P C; Mohanty, B P
Content:
Clinically important serum constituents of indigenous and crossbred cattle
were analysed, to provide baseline data for the diagnosis and interpretation of
various clinical cases. Morning blood samples were collected from
apparently healthy indigenous and crossbred (Jersey F1 crosses) cattle, from
different villages in Orissa (India). Animals of 3 age groups were included:
0-6 months of age (female calves), 1.5-2.5 years (heifers) and 3-5 years
(cows). Age of the animals showed significant differences in all the
constituents except albumin, uric acid, cholesterol (in indigenous cattle); and
uric acid, cholesterol and phosphorus (in crossbreds). Between the breeds,
there was a significant difference for the various parameters analysed, except
cholesterol.

Specialization: Biochemistry
Subject: Fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic studies on
bovine lactoperoxidase.
Year of publication: 1999
Journal: Bio Metals . 1999; 12(3): 219-225 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Deva, M S Z W; Behere, D V
Content:
Intrinsic steady-state fluorescence of lactoperoxidase (LPO) and its ligand-
bound complexes has been characterized as a structural probe of its structure
in solution. On excitation at 295 nm, a broad emission maximum is observed
around 338 nm for LPO and for its ligand-bound complexes. The quantum
yield is 0.0185+or-0.0005 for LPO and indicates tryptophan -> haem energy
transfer. Tryptophan residues are located away from haem and are
approximately equally distributed among hydrophobic and hydrophilic
environments. From Forster resonance energy transfer equations, the
'average' distance between tryptophans and haem within the enzyme is
computed to be 25.1+or-0.2 A. These fluorescence properties are consistent
with the recent theoretical three-dimensional model for LPO and reveal that
Trp337 and Trp404 dominate the intrinsic fluorescence, and together
contribute ~64% of the observed intensity. The effects of the denaturing
agents guanidine hydrochloride and urea on the intrinsic fluorescence of LPO
and CD of the backbone amide chromophores have been examined. The
considerably red shifted emission maximum at 356 nm indicates that
tryptophans, buried in the hydrophobic environment, are exposed to the
solvent on denaturation. A simple two-state transition between the native and
denatured forms of the protein has been used to explain the results.

                                1424
(Denaturant)1/2~5.5 M, determined from both these experiments, indicates
that LPO is relatively stable toward the denaturing agents. Quenching studies
using I-, Cs+ and polar neutral acrylamide are consistent with this picture.
Acrylamide can penetrate the protein matrix. It is an efficient quencher and
the quenching process is essentially homogenous with all the tryptophans
being accessible. Cs+ ion is a very inefficient quencher but the iodide ion
shows the quenching process to be predominantly heterogeneous with widely
differing tryptophan accessibility. The Stern-Volmer constants deduced are
Ksv=8.4+or-1.4 M-1 and Ksv=4.05+or-0.65 M-1 for acrylamide and iodide
quenching, respectively. The fractional accessibility, fa, deduced is
fa=0.52+or-0.03 for iodide quenching.

Specialization: Biochemistry
Subject: Characterization of alkaline phosphatase from post granular
fraction of buffalo and cattle polymorphonuclear leucocytes.
Year of publication: 1999
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Research. 1999; 33(1): 63-66         AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Meena Kataria
Content:
Alkaline phosphatase (AP) in the post granular fraction of
polymorphonuclear leukocytes of buffaloes and cattle was characterized. AP
of cattle was more stable than AP of buffaloes. On the basis of heat stability
at 56 and 65 degrees C, AP isoenzymes were classified in 3 types (liver, bone
and kidney types). Inhibition studies with L-phenyl alanine revealed
isoenzymes of non-placental type (liver, bone and kidney type) and studies
with urea revealed renal type isoenzymes. AP was relatively insensitive to
urea inhibition. It is concluded that alkaline phosphatase of post-granular
fraction of leukocytes is of heterogeneous type.

Specialization: Biochemistry
Subject: Comparative study of mineral profile between Bos indicus and
Bos frontalis.
Year of publication: 1999
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1999; 76(7): 659-660 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Kalita, D J; Sarmah, B C; Goswami, S
Content:
Concentrations of minerals were determined using atomic absorption
spectroscopy in blood samples collected from 5 mithun and 10 zebu. There
were no differences between the species in concentrations of Ca, Zn, Fe, Cu
and Mo. Concentrations of Mn were higher and Mg were lower in mithun
(0.59 ppm and 9.97 mg%) than in zebu (0.37 ppm and 10.44 mg%) (P<0.05).

Specialization: Biochemistry
Subject: Influence of age on the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes of non
descript hill cattle of Arunachal Pradesh.
Year of publication: 1999
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1999; 76(8): 704-706 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Sarkar, M; Das, D N; Mondal, D B; Mohanty, T K

                               1425
Content:
The osmotic fragility and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were measured
in 5 healthy female calves of 3-6 months, 6 of 6-12 months, 5 heifers of 1-2
years, and 5 cows of 2-3 years of age. The animals were on a semi-range
system of management at 1500 m above mean sea level. Osmotic fragility
increased with age and the MCV decreased.

Specialization: Biochemistry
Subject: Hematology of crossbred (Hariana x Friesian) calves in tropical
climate.
Year of publication: 1999
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1999; 69(12): 1077-1078 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Prabha, B; Singh, C; Murtuza, M; Pandey, R P
Content:
Blood samples were collected from crossbred calves (Hariana x Friesian) to
estimate the values of blood parameters. The study was carried out at a
Research Institute in Pusa (Bihar, India) between December 1997 and
January 1998. The haemoglobin (Hb, 9.6+or-0.09 g/dl) and total erythrocyte
count (TEC, 4.87+or-0.06 million/ micro l) in preparturient cows were
significantly (P<0.05) lower than the Hb and TEC of calves at birth and at
one month of age. The packed cell volume (PCV) in calves at birth
(23.32+or-0.32%) and at one month of age (19.73+or-0.16%) was
significantly (P<0.01) lower than the PCV determined in preparturient cows
and calves at 4-5 and 10-11 months. A significantly higher (P<0.01) mean
corpuscular volume (MCV, 66.35+or-0.95 micro 3) associated with lower
mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC, 29.70+or-0.33%) was
observed in preparturient cows, as compared to calves at birth and calves at
one, 4-5 and 10-11 months of age.

Specialization: Biochemistry
Subject: A differential study of serum proteins' profile in camel
(Camelus dromedarius) vis-a-vis some other species.
Year of publication: 2000
Journal: Journal of Immunology and Immunopathology. 2000; 2(1/2): 52-
55 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Kataria, A K; Kataria, N; Sharma, K N
Content:
The electrophoretic fractionation of principal serum proteins in camel, cow,
buffalo, sheep, goat, horse, rabbit and man revealed that various protein
fractions and subfractions differed in per cent concentrations. Among
different globulins r-2 subfraction was highest in camel serum. The
comparison of various species revealed a major difference indicating
conspicuous absence of prealbumin proteins in camel serum.

Bioproducts
Specialization: Bioproducts
Subject: Multiapplication of earthworms on animal excreta and their
effect on C.N. ratio.

                              1426
Year of publication: 1996
Journal: Bulletin of Entomology New Delhi. 1996; 37(1/2): 41-44 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Patekar, M T; Patil, S P
Content:
Earthworm species are widely used to produce compost from various types
of animal excreta, household and farm waste. Multiapplication of
earthworms depends on the type of media. Growth and reproduction of
exotic species, such as Eisenia foetida, is r id in cow dung supplemented with
farm waste compared to local species, Pontoscolex corethrurus. Chemical
changes within these waste materials during composting are enhanced by the
earthworms and the CN ratio of treated waste is reduced.

Specialization: Bioproducts
Subject: Status of utilization of various implements in Akola district.
Year of publication:
Journal: PKV Research Journal. 1999; 23(1): 44-45 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Narkhede, N N; Ingle, P O
Content:
A survey was conducted in the Akola district (Barshi Takli and Akot) of
India to determine the types and usage of bullock-drawn and tractor drawn
implements. There were 26 respondents to the survey and results are
presented showing the number of days per annum that each implement is
used for ploughs, cultivators, seed drills and sprayers. The results are briefly
discussed and observations on implement usage and supply are made.

Specialization: Bioproducts
Subject: Techno-economic feasibility of cow-manure recycling in fish
pond
Year of publication: 1999
Journal: Indian Journal of Hill Farming. 1999; 12(1/2): 1-7 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Borah, B C; Bhagowati, A K; Baruah, U K
Content:
A study was conducted on the feasibility of fish farming with application of
fresh cowdung without supplemental feed and inorganic fertilizer. The
efficacy of the system in terms of its production, net return and input cost
was compared with a control set of ponds, run as per package of practices for
composite carp culture technology. Average calculated fish production was
3390 kg/ha in the experimental and 3814 kg/ha in the control. Although fish
production was 12.5% lower in the experimental units, net return was 44.5%
higher than the control units. Input cost was 29.5% lower in the experimental
unit. The system was suitable for fish farming in homestead ponds of rural
NE India.

Specialization: Bioproducts
Subject: Characteristics and use of draught animal power in India.
Year of publication: 1999
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1999; 69(8): 621-627 AB:
Country of Origin: India

                                1427
Author’s name: Gyanendra Singh
Content:
Analysis was made to quantify growth and use of draught animals in Indian
agriculture. It revealed that the total bovine population has increased whereas
the working animal population has reduced from 77.81 to 77.69 million
during 1961-62 to 1991-92. The analysis also revealed that the male and
female ratio in cattle has declined from 1.22 to 1.02 and in buffaloes from
0.39 to 0.29. The selection of implement depends upon draught power
developed from the animals and therefore investigation was carried out to
estimate the matrix of size distribution of draught animals. It revealed that as
per their body weight, 41% draught cattle were (200-300 kg) small and 44%
medium (300-400 kg) in size. Large (400-500 kg) and heavy (>500 kg)
draught cattle comprised only 15% of the total draught cattle surveyed.
Computed on the basis of weight, speed and draught matrix distribution, the
weighted average draught power developed by the Indian breeds of animals
was 0.24 kW. The analysis on All India basis, further revealed that, DAP use
has declined from 159 to 109 animal-pair-hour per hectare ( AP/h /ha) during
1972-91.

Specialization: Bioproducts
Subject: Effects of continuous use of cattle manure and fertilizer
phosphorus on crop yields and soil organic phosphorus in a Vertisol.
Year of publication: 2000
Journal: Bioresource Technology. 2000; 75(2): 113-118 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Reddy, D D; Rao, A S; Rupa, T R
Content:
Soil organic phosphorus plays a significant role in P nutrition of crops
especially in high-P-fixing soils of the tropics. Soil management practices,
which favour the accretion of organic P, would, therefore, help in improving
soil P fertility over time. In a six-year field experiment with soyabean-wheat
rotation on a Vertisol, the effects of continuous additions of four rates of
animal manure (0, 4, 8 and 16 t/ha per year) with and without fertilizer P (22
kg P/ha) on crop yields and soil organic P were examined. Soyabean and
wheat yields, and P uptakes increased significantly with the addition of
manure and fertilizer P. For the similar amount of P input, the yield increases
were larger with manure P than with fertilizer P. Combined use of manure
and fertilizer P resulted in a greater crop yield and P uptake than their
solitary application. Irrespective of the treatment, P content in different
organic P fractions followed the order: moderately-resistant organic P
(MROP)>moderately-labile organic P (MLOP)>highly-resistant organic P
(HROP)>labile organic P (LOP), with their relative proportion being in the
ratio of 22:8:5:1. Continuous annual application of manure increased the
content of all the soil organic-P fractions, except the HROP, over the control.
Addition of fertilizer P together with manure promoted the accretion of soil
organic P. Generally the increases in organic P fractions due to manure
additions were strongly associated with a concomitant increase in the soil
organic carbon. Cropping without manure and fertilizer P depleted soil
organic P, while regular additions of manure and fertilizer P favoured its
accumulation. The magnitude of depletion/build-up was larger in MLOP and
MROP fractions compared to others, indicating that these two fractions are

                                1428
major sources and sinks for plant-available P in soil.

Specialization: Bioproducts
Subject: Influence of organic manures on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
associated with Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. in relation to tissue
nutrients and soluble carbohydrate in roots under field conditions.
Year of publication:
Journal: Biology and Fertility of Soils. 2000; 31(2): 114-120 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Muthukumar, T; Udaiyan, K
Content:
The interaction of plant nutrients, root-soluble carbohydrate availability and
arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi was examined in field grown cowpea
(Vigna unguiculata) at a site in Tamil Nadu, India. Plant nutrients were
altered through application of cow dung, sheep manure, and green manures
(sunnhemp, Pongamia). Organic amendments increased plant growth, AM
fungal colonization, soluble carbohydrate concentration in roots, and spore
numbers. Percent total colonization, root length with vesicles and spore
numbers in soil were negatively correlated with the concentration of soluble
carbohydrates within roots, which in turn were related to tissue nutrient
levels. However, a positive correlation existed between soluble carbohydrate
concentrations within root and root length with arbuscules. But the
mycorrhizal parameters were related more to plant nutrient level and their
ratios, indicating that tissue nutrients have another level of control in addition
to their effect on soluble carbohydrate concentration in roots. Increased AM
colonization due to organic amendment significantly reduced nutrient
imbalances. The strong relationship between colonization and root-soluble
carbohydrate concentration levels validates the basic assumption that
mycorrhizal fungi act as a 'strong sink' for photosynthates. This study
indicates that the host influences AM colonization by regulating the
formation of AM fungal structures and spore formation via availability of
root carbohydrates.

Specialization: Bioproducts
Subject: Mineralization and denitrification in upland, nearly saturated
and flooded subtropical soil II. Effect of organic manures varying in N
content and C:N ratio.
Year of publication: 2000
Journal: Biology and Fertility of Soils. 2000; 31(2): 168-174 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Aulakh, M S; Khera, T S; Doran, J W
Content:
Nitrogen and carbon mineralization of cattle manure (6 g N kg-1; C:N=35),
pressmud [filter cake] (17.4 g N kg-1; C:N=22), green manure (26.8 g N kg-
1; C:N=14) and poultry manure (19.5 g N kg-1; C:N=12) and their influence
on gaseous N losses via denitrification (using the acetylene inhibition
technique) in a semiarid subtropical soil (Typic Ustochrepts) were
investigated in a growth chamber simulating upland, nearly saturated, and
flooded conditions. Mineralization of N started quickly in all manures,
except pressmud where immobilization of soil mineral N was observed for an
initial 4 days. Accumulation of mineral N in upland soil plus denitrified N

                                 1429
showed that mineralization of cattle manure-, pressmud-, poultry manure-
and green manure-N over 16 days was 12, 20, 29 and 44%, respectively, and
was inversely related to C:N ratio (Rsuperscript 2=0.703, P=0.05) and
directly to N content of organic manure (Rsuperscript 2=0.964, P=0.01).
Manure-C mineralized over 16 days ranged from 6% to 50% in different
manures added to soil under different moisture regimes and was, in general,
inversely related to initial C:N ratio of manure (Rsuperscript 2=0.690,
P=0.05). Cumulative denitrification losses over 16 days in control soils
(without manure) under upland, nearly saturated, and flooded conditions
were 5, 23, and 24 mg N kg-1, respectively. Incorporation of manures
enhanced denitrification losses by 60-82% in upland, 52-163% in nearly
saturated, and 26-107% in flooded soil conditions over a 16-day period,
demonstrating that mineralized N and C from added manures could result in
2- to 3-fold higher rate of denitrification. Cumulative denitrification losses
were maximum with green manure, followed by poultry manure, pressmud
and cattle manure showing an increase in denitrification with increasing N
content and decreasing C:N ratio of manure. Manure-amended nearly
saturated soils supported 14-35% greater denitrification than flooded soils
due to greater mineralization and supply of C.

Specialization: Bioproducts
Subject: Tractive performance of draught animals in mountain farming
systems: a study of central Himalaya, India.
Year of publication: 2000
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 2000; 70(6): 632-642 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Vir Singh; Part -T
Content:
This per examines performance of draught animals from 12 villages in 4
agro-ecological zones (the Shivaliks or foothills, the Middle Himalaya under
traditional agriculture, the Middle Himalaya under transformed agriculture,
and the Greater Himalaya) representing different farming systems in the
Indian Central Himalayan mountains. 404 families were involved in the
study. Tractive effort by bullocks, in terms of body weight ranges from 9%
during weeding-earthing-up operations to 19% during puddling operations at
speeds of 2.6 to 1.6 km/hour. Tractive effort during ploughing is about 16%
of animal's body weight at a speed of 2.4 km/hour. These high values are
indicative of the special ability of the light weight and hardy native draught
animals to generate a greater percentage of body weight as tractive effort. A
pair of bullocks, on an average, ploughs and levels 1100 square metres/day
during 8 hours work. Taking draught power developed during ploughing as a
standard, per animal (average weight 250 kg) draught power output comes to
0.26 kW (0.35 hp). Transformed Middle mountain agriculture requires
maximum bullock and human hours and energy (11 696 hr and 1419 kWh)
per hectare per year, followed by hill agriculture (10 807 hr and 1419 kWh).
While traditional middle mountain agriculture uses more energy/ha area (592
kWh) than high mountain agriculture (533 kWh), the former requires less
work hours (3917) than the latter (4685). Bullocks work for only 59 days a
year in the high mountains, but in the transformed middle mountains they are
used for as many as 236 days a year. Of the total animal energy, high
mountain agriculture uses only 41% D , hill agriculture about 52%,

                               1430
transformed agriculture about 54%, and traditional agriculture as much as
62% D for crop cultivation.

Specialization: Bioproducts
Subject: Vermicomposting of crop residues and cattle dung with Eisenia
foetida.
Year of publication: 2000
Journal: Bioresource Technology. 2000; 73(2): 95-98 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Sudha Bansal; Kapoor, K K
Content:
Vermicomposting of mustard residues and sugarcane trash mixed with cattle
dung using Eisenia fetida was studied in a 90-day composting experiment.
Vermicomposting resulted in significant reduction in C:N ratio and increase
in mineral N, after 90 days of composting, over treatments uninoculated with
earthworms. Microbial activity, as measured by dehydrogenase assay,
increased up to 60 days and declined on further incubation. There was more
total N in the compost prepared by earthworm inoculation. However, the
differences were not significant. Total P, K and Cu contents did not differ in
compost prepared with earthworm inoculation from the uninoculated
treatments.

Specialization: Bioproducts
Subject: The effect of inoculation with Eisenia foetida and N-fixing or P-
solubilizing microorganisms on decomposition of cattle dung and crop
residues.
Year of publication: 2000
Journal: Biological Agriculture and Horticulture. 2000; 18(2): 103-112
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Singh, K P; Vivek Kumar; Hooda, J S
Content:
Nutrient concentration in various crop residues (including Pennisetum
glaucum and paddy rice) in association with cattle dung and pure dung was
studied for microbial and enzymatic activities during vermi- and traditional
composting. N fixing bacteria, Azotobacter chroococcum, and phosphate
solubilizing fungi, Aspergillus awamori, caused a marked decrease in the
C:N ratio and an increase in P conc. of vermicompost prepared from farm
wastes and cattle dung with Eisenia foetida. Inoculated microbial count was
maximum (29.7 x 106/g of vermicompost A. chroococcum; 18.7 x 103/g of
vermicompost A. awamori) on day 45. Similarly, the enzymes
dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase showed maximum activity of 867.7
micro g TPF g-1 vermicompost h-1 and 327.5 micro g of p-nitrophenol
released g-1 vermicompost h-1, resp., on day 45 and then declined on day 90.
IAA was also detected in the vermicompost. The increased P conc. and
decreased C:N ratio was higher in microbial and worm inoculated treatments
than in the control indicating maturation of the vermicompost.

Biotechnology
Specialization: Biotechnology

                                1431
Subject: cDNA cloning and sequence analysis of bubaline growth
hormone.
Year of publication: 1999
Journal: DNA Sequence. 1999; 10(2): 101-103 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Sulekha Verma; Anuja Ghorpade; Gunjan Tiwari; Das, P;
Garg, L C
Content:
The cDNA for buffalo Bubalus bubalis growth hormone (GH) was cloned
and sequenced using a reverse transcription-PCR approach. The nucleotide
sequence of buffalo GH cDNA was in a single reading frame coding for a
protein of 191 residues containing a putative signal sequence of 27 amino
acids. Homology comparison of the sequence with other mammalian GH
cDNAs showed a very high degree of evolutionary conservation. The buffalo
GH sequence shared a homology of 99.5%, 99.5%, 98.6%, 87.6% and 61.9%
with that of its homologues from sheep, goat, cattle, pig and man respectively
at the amino acid level. The nucleotide sequence reported has been deposited
with the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases with the accession number
X72947.

Specialization: Biotechnology
Subject: Molecular markers and their applications in livestock
improvement.
Year of publication: 1999
Journal: Current Science. 1999; 77(8): 1045-1053 1999 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Abhijit Mitra; Yadav, B R; Ganai, N A; Balakrishnan, C R
Content:
Molecular genetic markers (DNA sequence polymorphisms) are described.
The possible applications of molecular markers in livestock improvement are
discussed with reference to conventional and transgenic breeding strategies.

Specialization: Biotechnology
Subject: Does the natural resistance associated macrophage protein
(Nramp) gene confer resistance/susceptibility in bovines against
mycobacterial infection?
Year of publication: 1999
Journal: Current Science. 1999; 77(6): 809-812 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Kumar, G S N; Govindiah, M G; Nagaraj, C S; Bindu, A;
Rasool, T J
Content:
The progression of mycobacterial infection in mice is known to be controlled
by the 'Bcg' locus which harbours the Natural resistance associated
macrophage protein (Nramp) gene. In mice, specific point mutations at this
locus have been shown to segregate with resistance and susceptibility to
tuberculosis (TB). In order to verify whether a similar situation exists in the
bovine genome, Nramp genomic sequences from 10 TB-infected and 10
uninfected cattle were analysed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction
fragment length polymorphism. AluI and TaqI were the best restriction
endonucleases for determining haplotypes; they detected 3 and 2 allelic

                                1432
patterns, respectively. The polymorphism at the Nramp locus was small and
there were no significant differences in the pattern and frequency of the
alleles between the infected and non-infected groups. It is concluded that it is
unlikely that Nramp alone is responsible for conferring resistance against TB
in cattle.

Specialization: Biotechnology
Subject: Cloning of a cellulolytic gene from rumen bacteria using pUC18
vector.
Year of publication: 2000
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 2000; 70(3): 225-227 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Vijayarani ; Velmurugan, R; Nachimuthu, K; Padmanaban,
VD
Content:
The present work describes the cloning of a cellulolytic gene from the rumen
bacteria Ruminococcus albus using pUC18 vectors. In pUC18 cloning, 3
white recombinant colonies with cellulase activity by congored assay was
obtained out of 68 colonies screened. Out of 3 colonies, 1 has a 1.4 kb Hind
III insert resembling endoglucanase gene. The homology between the cloned
product and genomic DNA of R. albus was checked by dot-blot
hybridization. Expression of the gene was tested by growing the recombinant
cells in media containing cellobiose and carboxymethyl cellulose.

Specialization: Biotechnology
Subject: Studies on multiple arbitrary amplicon profiling in cattle using
a single, virus-specific, 22-mer oligonucleotide primer.
Year of publication: 2000
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 2000; 77(11): 941-943 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Mukhopadhyaya, P N; Mehta, H H; Rathod, R N
Content:
A 22-mer oligonucleotide primer, specific for a promoter region of the
bacteriophage T7, belonging to the family Podoviridae, was used for PCR to
generate multiple amplicons in cattle. No sequence information of the
template DNA was required to demonstrate the phenomenon. The
methodology involved a primary amplification at low stringency followed by
a final amplification at a higher stringency of annealing temperature. The
generality of the technique was tested by application to non descript breeds
of buffalo, sheep and goat.

Specialization: Biotechnology
Subject: Cloning strategy of repetitive DNA elements from farm animals.
Year of publication: 2000
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Health. 2000; 39(1): 30-32 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Ghosh, S K
Content:
The genomic DNA of local (Indian) strains of livestock species, cattle,
buffalo, goat, sheep and pig were digested with different restriction
endonucleases (PstI, EcoRI, Sau3A, TaqI, etc.) to visualize the repetitive

                                1433
bands on agarose gels. Species-specific and enzyme specific band(s) were
found to be 500 bp for cattle, buffalo, goat and sheep DNA digested with
PstI, 820 bp for goat DNA with EcoRI, 200 bp for cattle and buffalo DNA
with TaqI and 150 bp for pig DNA with Sau3A. These repetitive DNA
fragments were eluted, purified and cloned in the respective enzyme site of
M 13 mp 18/mp 19, screened with a probe prepared from an aliquot of the
DNA fraction used in this cloning strategy.

Specialization: Biotechnology
Subject: A common method for MHC typing of farm animals using PCR-
RFLP.
Year of publication: 2000
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 2000; 70(7): 716-717 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Rasool, T J; Dechamma, H J; Sreekumar, E
Content:
Exon 2 of the DR-B gene in the class-II region of the MHC is known to be
highly polymorphic and forms part of the antigen recognition site. To test
whether there are any conserved regions within the sequence, PCR was used
to amplify exon 2 from cattle, buffaloes, sheep and guinea pigs (4 animals
per species) using a pair of bovine-specific primers. All the animals produced
a fragment of the same size, showing that the same pair of primers can be
used for MHC typing of different farm animals using the PCR-RFLP
method.

Specialization: Biotechnology
Subject: DNA fingerprinting technology and its applications in farm
animals.
Year of publication: 2000
Journal: Indian Dairyman. 2000; 52(8): 39-50 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Yadav, B R; Ganai, N A; Singh, R P
Content:
This paper describes the history and technique of DNA fingerprinting, and
discusses its use in parentage determination, pedigree analysis, testing of
zygosity, demographic studies, quality control of cell lines, sex diagnosis,
detection of pathogens and somatic mutations, and taxonomic studies.

Specialization: Biotechnology
Subject: Genotyping of dairy animals using DNA from milk somatic cells.
Year of publication: 2000
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 2000; 70(9): 944-946 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: De, S; Singh, R K; Gupta, P K; Palia, S; Butchaiah, G
Content:
Genomic DNA was isolated from bovine milk somatic cells. Three milliliters
(minipreps) and 30 ml (maxipreps) of milk samples were processed for
isolation of genomic DNA. Use of this DNA for genotyping of cattle based
on alpha -lactalbumin loci by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment
length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) indicated that milk somatic cells can be
easy and reliable source of DNA for genotyping of farm animals or any other

                               1434
enzymatic reactions.

Specialization: Biotechnology
Subject: The ALU I-induced band pattern in cattle and buffalo
chromosomes.
Year of publication: 2000
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 2000; 77(5): 408-411 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Tomar, S S; Goswami, S L
Content:
Treatment of cattle and buffalo chromosomes with Alu I revealed a C-like
band pattern. Whereas X-chromosome and few small acrocentrics of cattle
were C-band negative, modified/reduced C-like bands were observed on few
other autosomes. Some buffalo chromosomes also revealed reduced C-like
bands. Conspicuous heterochromatin blocks were present on submetacentric
autosomes of buffaloes. Polymorphic C-like bands were also evident on
some chromosome pairs of these species. The results suggested the
heterochromatin heterogeneity in bovines.

Breeding
Specialization: Breeding
Subject: Association of age at first calving with first lactation yield.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: PKV Research Journal. 1998; 22(2): 196
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Varade, P K; Ali, S Z
Content:
The correlation between age at first calving and milk yield in first lactation
was investigated from 1995-1998 in 89 Jersey crossbred cows (25% Guolao
[Gaolao?] x 25% Tharparkar x 50% Jersey) kept on the Government cattle
breeding farm at Yavatmal (India). No signifcant correlation was found.

Specialization: Breeding
Subject: Association of production efficiency traits with lifetime milk
production in Karan Fries cattle.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Production and Management. 1998;
14(3): 191-192
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Bhattacharjya, T K; Gandhi, R S
Content:
Data on 796 Karan Fries cattle were analysed from records collected during
1970-95. Phenotypic production efficiency correlations were tabulated for
first lactation milk yield per day of first lactation and per day of first calving
interval and per day of second calving interval. Corresponding calculations
were also tabulated for the second lactation. All production efficiency traits
were highly and significantly correlated with lifetime traits (up to 6 and 8
years of age).

Specialization: Breeding

                                 1435
Subject: Blood profile of three-breed croossbred cows in estrus phase.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Production and Management. 1998;
14(4): 233-234
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Singh, S K; Singh, V P; Singh, N P; Yadav, R S
Content:
Between 1 December 1991 and 31 August 1992 at the Jawaharal Nehru
Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya livestock farm (Jabalpur, India) haematological
characteristics of 121 Friesian x Jersey x Gir cattle during oestrus and non-
oestrus phases were studied. The packed cell volume, percentage
haemoglobin and total erythrocyte count were significantly higher and the
erythrocyte sedimentation rate and total leucocyte count were significantly
lower in the non-oestrus phase than in the oestrus phase. These effects were
most marked when the symptoms of oestrus were most intense.

Specialization: Breeding
Subject: Genetic parameters of linear type traits in Karan-Fries cattle.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Production and Management. 1998;
14(3): 170-174
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Abhijit Mitra; Joshi, B K; Kale, M M
Content:
Data on 219 Karan Fries cows of different parities and stage of lactation were
collected for 13 type traits using a linear scale (range, 50-99). Stage of
lactation significantly influenced (P<0.01) dairy character and rear udder
width. Parity affected significantly (P<0.01) foot angle, dairy character, fore
udder attachment, rear udder width and udder depth. The overall means for
type traits score were: stature (79.77+or-0.88), rear leg side view (80.45+or-
0.76), foot angle (76.26+or-0.88), rump width (79.89+or-0.75), rump angle
(82.35+or-0.61), chest and body (80.47+or-0.47), dairy character (78.77+or-
0.51), fore udder attachment (80.22+or-0.96), rear udder height (82.75+or-
055), rear udder width (80.07+or-0.74), udder depth (82.15+or-0.89),
suspensory ligament (86.34+or-0.83) and teat placement (78.29+or-0.95).
Heritability estimates of stature, rear leg, rump width, rear udder width and
suspensory ligament were 0.49, 0.25, 0.43, 0.58 and 0.23 respectively. Most
phenotypic correlations among type traits were low to moderate. Genetic
correlations were either beyond range or associated with large standard
errors. It was concluded that linear type trait scoring can be used for
selection.

Specialization: Breeding
Subject: Milk production performance of Jersey crossbreds in foothills of
Nagaland.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Production and Management. 1998;
14(4): 237
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Rohilla, P P; Verma, S
Content:

                                1436
Milk production records were collected for Jersey crossbred cows [sample
size not given] maintained at the centre in Nagaland in 1991-93. For the 3
years mean values for daily milk yield, monthly milk yield, 305-data milk
yield ranged from 6.093 to 7.771, 182.79 to 233.14, and 1858.30 to 2370.15
litres respectively.

Specialization: Breeding
Subject: Performance of purebred, half-bred and three-breed crosses of
Sahiwal with exotic dairy breeds.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Production and Management. 1998;
14(4): 203-205
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Mishra, A K; Prasad, R B
Content:
Data on 793 Sahiwal, Jersey, Danish Red and Holstein cows and their 2 and
3 breed crosses, which completed their first lactation between 1961 and
1981, were recorded at the livestock research centre in Pantnagar, India. The
12 breed types were compared for age at first calving (AFC), weight at first
calving (WFC), peak yield in first lactation (FPY), milk production
efficiency per kg body weight (MPEW), milk production efficiency per day
of calving interval (MPEC) and first lactation milk yield (FLMY). Mean
values for the respective traits were 33.87 months, 322.75 kg, 13.66 kg, 8.20
kg, 6.06 kg and 2522.78 kg. Significant differences among the breed types
were found for all the traits (P<0.01). The lowest peak yield and FMLY were
observed for Sahiwal cows (7.73+or-0.35 and 1734.80+or-68.34 kg) and the
highest were observed for Danish Red cows (17.92+or-0.55 and 3315.75+or-
107.24 kg). Crossbreds had ~2-fold better milk production efficiency than
Sahiwal cows and also tended to have lower AFC and greater yield.

Specialization: Breeding
Subject: Status of Gangatiri cattle in Uttar Pradesh.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Production and Management. 1998;
14(3): 148-149
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Singh, R V; Nivsarkar, A E
Content:
Gangatiri cattle (a strain of Hariana cattle) are numerically important in Uttar
Pradesh. This paper describes the performance of Gangatiri cattle at the
Government Livestock Farm, Arazilines, Varanasi (169 animals) and the
Livestock Government Farm, Majhara, Khiri (69 animals) during 1971-91.
Age at first conception, age at first calving, total milk yield, 300-day milk
yield, lactation length, milk yield per day of lactation length, dry period and
calving interval for Arazilines Farm averaged 1148 days, 1419 days, 1154
kg, 1121 kg, 252 days, 4.58 kg, 171 days and 418 days respectively.
Corresponding values for Majhara Farm were 1002 days, 1290 days, 1167
kg, 1133 kg, 278 days, 3.90 kg, 167 days and 429 days, and for the overall
average performance of both farms were 1105 days, 1381 days, 1157 kg,
1124 kg, 259 days, 4.39 kg, 170 days and 421 days.


                                1437
Specialization: Breeding
Subject: Studies on economic traits of zebu crosses with Jersey and
Holstein Friesian.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: PKV Research Journal. 1998; 22(2): 198-200
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Govekar, S P; Narayankhedkar, S G; Nehete, S B; Umrikar,
U D; Sawane, M P
Content:
Data on 642 cattle from the Dairy Project Dapcheri (India) was analysed. The
cattle were divided into 4 groups: group 1, Jersey x zebu; group 2, Holstein-
Friesian x zebu; group 3, (Jersey x zebu) x Holstein-Friesian; group 4,
(Holstein-Friesian x zebu) x Jersey. Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 consisted of 286,
227, 76 and 53 animals respectively. Age at first calving, first-lactation milk
yield, duration of 1st lactation, duration of first dry period, duration of first
service period, calving interval and breeding efficiency were recorded. Age
at first calving was significantly lower for group 1 compared with groups 2
and 3, first-lactation milk yield was significantly higher for group 2 than for
the other groups. The length of the first lactation was significantly longer and
the length of the 1st dry period was significantly shorter for the groups with
50% zebu inheritance compared with the groups with 25% zebu inheritance.
Cows with 50% zebu inheritance had significantly higher breeding
efficiencies than those with 25% zebu inheritance. Heritabilities, estimated
by paternal half-sib correlation, were beyond the normal range and had large
standard errors; this was attributed to sampling effects.

Specialization: Breeding
Subject: Studies on peak yield in crossbred cows.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Health. 1998; 37(2): 7-11
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Jana, D N; Suman, C L
Content:
The effect of peak yield (PY) and days to attain peak yield (DAPY) on
various associated traits were studied in crossbred cows. The overall average
PY and DAPY were 13.20+or-0.11 kg and 38.70+or-1.18 days respectively.
It was found that genetic groups, parity and season of calving had significant
effect on PY and DAPY. High-yielding cows required more days to attain
PY than low yielders. High PY directly influenced the higher total lactational
yield. The range of 45-75 days to attain PY was optimum for better yield.

Specialization: Breeding
Subject: Comparative efficiency of four lactation curves used in Jersey-
Sahiwal cows.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1998; 68(3): 257-258
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Singh, A K; Kumar, D; Manohar Singh; Singh, R V
Content:
This study shows the use of the inverse polynomial function as the best
model for explaining the first lactation curve based on monthly as well as

                                1438
weekly milk records of Jersey x Sahiwal F1 cows.

Economics and marketing
Specialization: Economics and marketing
Subject: Livestock research and production in south Asia.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: CA: Consultation on Global Agenda for Livestock Research.
Nairobi (Kenya). 18-20 Jan 1995. Gardiner,-P.; Devendra,-C. (eds.).
International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi (Kenya). Global agenda
for livestock research. Proceedings of a consultation. Nairobi (Kenya).
ILRI. 1995. p. 41-48.AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Singh, K.
Institution: Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Krishi, Bhavan, New
Delhi 11001, India
Content:
Livestock farming is primarily a small-scale unorganised rural activity
closely associated as an integral part of a sound system of diversified
agriculture. Cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, horses, camels, pigs, poultry, yak,
mithun etc. It is only poultry farming and to some extent dairy farming which
recently have been developed as an industry with large units involving high-
producing genotypes provided with adequate housing, feed and health cover.
This paper highlights resources and trends in India with partic. ref. to
priorities for research and development, constraints, researchable areas and
issues, and national agricultural research systems (NARS) capacity.

Specialization: Economics and marketing
Subject: Opportunities for collaboration in livestock research in Asia
with ICRISAT.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Consultation for the South Asia Region on Global Agenda for
Livestock Research. Patancheru (India). 6-8 Jun 1995. Devendra,-C.;
Gardiner,-P. (eds.). International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi
(Kenya). Global agenda for livestock research. Proceedings of the
consultation for the South Asia Region. Nairobi (Kenya). ILRI. 1995. p.
23-26.AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Anders, M. Principal Scientist, Agronomy,
Institution: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics
Content:
Since ICRISAT's formation in 1972, the Centre has focused on improving
the production of its five mandate crops [sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.)
Moench), pear millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br.), groundnut (Arachis
hypogaea (l.)), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh) and chickpea
(Cicer arietinum (L.))]. Of these five crops, sorghum, pearl millet, groundnut,
and pigeonpea are used as dry or green fodder in most of the world's semi-
arid areas. Livestock (cattle and buffalo) numbers have steadily increased in
Asia largely because of increasing demands from a growing human
population. More than 70 percent of these large ruminants are owned by
small-scale farmers who depend heavily on crop residues produced on their

                                1439
farms to feed these animals. These systems are under intense pressure and
will need to significantly increase their production to meet future demands.
ICRISAT's recent structural shift to a "project structure" with projects
targeted to specific production systems and constraints in these systems will
allow a greater focus on improving these crop/livestock systems. ICRISAT is
committed to improving the production and sustainability of these systems
and strongly feels its success in doing this will come through close
collaboration with crop and livestock research and extension organisations in
the region.

Specialization: Economics and marketing
Subject: Research priorities for animal production systems in Sri Lanka.
Year of publication:
Journal: Consultation for the South Asia Region on Global Agenda for
Livestock Research. Patancheru (India). 6-8 Jun 1995. Devendra,-C.;
Gardiner,-P. (eds.). International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi
(Kenya). Global agenda for livestock research. Proceedings of the
consultation for the South Asia Region. Nairobi (Kenya). ILRI. 1995. p.
115-126.AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Ranawana, S.S.E.; Perera, B.M.A.O.
Institution: Veterinary Research Institute, P.O.Box 28, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of
Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
Content:
Animal husbandry in Sri Lanka is predominantly a smallholder activity
carried out to provide a subsidiary source of income. Past research has
identified the major livestock farming systems in the different agroclimatic
zones, and provided information on the performance of indigenous as well as
improved cattle and buffaloes. Studies have also been done on feed
resources, nutrition, reproduction and diseases of the major livestock species.
Over the past two years, the participation of planners, policy makers,
scientists, farmers, processors and traders have helped to identify the major
constraints to improve livestock productivity and to define priority areas for
research over the medium term. There is a need to further characterise and
economically analyse the farming systems and to develop computer models
which are of predictive value. Alternative intensive systems based on crop
residues and using multi-purpose animals need to be developed for the new
irrigated settlement areas. Marketing of animals and their products,
epidemiology of zoonoses, better utilisation of animal wastes, and the
potential of non-traditional species (e.g. micro-livestock) need to be studied.
Systematic studies are also needed to document the characteristics of the
indigenous varieties of livestock and poultry. In each species the needs are
for studies on the most appropriate genotypes, feeding strategies,
reproductive management and disease control, with the aim of developing a
package of technologies that can improve the efficiency of production at the
small farm level. The role of ILRI could include the facilitation and co-
ordination of inputs, and the initiation of regional networks or co-ordinated
research programmes. More specifically, ILRI's expertise in farming systems
research, molecular and other biotechnologies, as well as environmental
aspects could be drawn upon to assist national and regional efforts.

                                1440
Specialization: Economics and marketing
Subject: The role of cooperative union for rural development, 2: A case
of solapur district dairy Coop Union.
Year of publication: 1997
Journal: Vocational Agriculture (Japan). (Mar 1997). v. 44(2) p. 26-33.
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Kubota, Y.
Institution: Meiji Univ., Tokyo (Japan)
Content:
This paper intends to clarify the roles of Cooperative Dairy Union for rural
development in India cooperative union has some functions on their
activities. Complementary function of primary cooperatives is most
important one. Usually primary coops. haven't enough money to construct
plant and other facilities for their business. On the other side union can raise
much capital from members or others which is needed. Primary coop.
wishes 1) to increase the members of dairy farmer, 2) to increase the numbers
of cattle and 3) to lift up milk yield per one cattle. For response to these
needs, union has to do many business. Those tasks are 1) to construct the
milk processing facilities, 2) to set up milk out-let in big cities, 3) to pay
reasonable price for milk to members throughout the year, regardless flush or
lean season, 4) to construct feed processing plants, 5) to introduce high yield
crossbreed cows and buffaloes. Dairy cooperatives have to advance the
enough money to farmers to get the cattles and purchase crossbreed cows and
buffaloes. There are many tasks they have to be solved. Most important one
is to set up effective systems for production, marketing, processing and credit
in cooperative union.

Specialization: Economics and marketing
Subject: The role of cooperative union in dairy development, 1: A case of
Sumul in India.
Year of publication: 1997
Journal: Vocational Agriculture (Japan). (Mar 1997). v. 44(2) p. 1-14. AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Kubota, Y.
Institution: Meiji Univ., Tokyo (Japan).
Content:
This paper intends to make clear the role of cooperative union in dairy
development in India. The well-known functions of the union of cooperative
are complementary ones of primary cooperatives. Basically the function of
the union of dairy cooperatives are same in another agricultural cooperative
union. They have to fulfill the function which primary cooperatives can not
perform the business by their own ability. The union has many business for
his members. They are procurement of milk, transport the milk from primary
cooperatives to their own dairy plant, pasteurizing, processing, packing the
milk to pouches and transport it to retail outlets. Besides they have to do the
business such as veterinary services, artificial inseminations. In tropical
country such as India, they have to deliver the perishable foods by cold chain
system. Though they with to have chilling facilities, they have not enough
money to set up such plants. In 1970's India started Operation Flood

                                1441
Program all over the countries. This has contributed tremendously dairy
development in India. Though there are any tasks which have to overcome.
Firstly they have too increase the milk yield of cattle. Milk yield per one
cow is only 596 l, buffalo is 1,012 l. On the average dairy farmers breed 2.5
castles and milk only one cattle, 0.5 cow and 0.5 buffalo. This low
productivity mainly comes from the fact that they breed many inefficient
male cows and buffaloes. Secondly they have to alternate from those
bovines to tractors or small type handtractors. They have also to organize
cooperatives such as machine using cooperatives and pasture land using
ones.

Specialization: Economics and marketing
Subject: Agricultural infrastructure and Hamlet dairy cooperatives: A
case of Dahigaon village in Malshras Taluks [Maharashtra, India].
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Vocational Agriculture (Japan). (Sep 1998). v. 46(1) p. 41-47.AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Kubota, Y.
Institution: Meiji Univ., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). Faculty of
Agriculture.
Content:
This paper intends to clarify the tasks of Hamlet Dairy Cooperatives for the
rural development in India. Normally there is one dairy cooperative in rural
village. In case of huge village with several thousands households it has
pluralprimary cooperatives in command area. Only one hamlet dairy
cooperative can not carry out agricultural and economical practices for dairy
farmers appropriately. Primary hamlet cooperatives have to coordinate with
another one for more rural development. But they can not exhibit leadership
among them. Taluka Milk Producers' Cooperative Union conducts a role of
coordinator between hamlet cooperatives. For the more development of rural
economy it has to promote dairy business. The tasks of taluka union are
following, 1) to procure more quantities of milk, 2) to introduce improved
high quality cows and buffaloes instead of indigenous ones, 3) to provide
cattle feed and nutritious fodder made by taluka union to members, 4) to
provide veterinary services such as artificial inseminations and extension
services. From findings of rural survey held in 1997, it was shown that
hamlet dairy farmers had achieved high productivities for milk production.
Indeed by the introducing of improved cows and buffaloes they had proved
high production. The milk yield of a cow is 1,920 kg and buffalo is 1,827kg
for a year. This level was a targeted line of Indian dairy described by Dr.
A.K. Banerjee in 1991. In case of Dahigaon village this is not any myth but
is.

Specialization: Economics and marketing
Subject: Slaughter cattle marketing in Karnataka - an economic analysis.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Agricultural Marketing. 1998; 41(3): 35-46 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Khan, H S; Rao, H S G
Content:
An analysis was conducted of slaughter cattle marketing in Belgaum

                               1442
division, Karnataka, India. Five markets were selected for the study: two
markets from Dharward district (Haveri and Hubli), two markets from
Belgaum district (Mudalagi and Hirebagewadi) and one from Bijapur district
(Muddebhihal). A sample of ten sellers and ten buyers of beef cattle was
selected from each market, making a total sample of 50 sellers and 50 buyers.
Data were collected during the reference year 1992/93. Results cover: (i) an
evaluation of marketing practices: influence of different methods of sale of
slaughter animals on their prices in weekly cattle markets; and different
methods of transport of slaughter animals; (ii) estimation of total transactions
cost and returns to seller and cost to buyer; and (iii) estimation of marketing
costs and margins in the marketing channel.

Specialization: Economics and marketing
Subject: Operation flood. A unique dairy programme in India using
recombined milk.
Year of publication: 1999
Journal: International Symposium on recombined milk and milk products.
Penang (Malaysia). 23-26 May 1999. International Dairy Federation,
Brussels (Belgium). Third international symposium on recombined milk and
milk products. Proceedings of the IDF Symposium held in Penang,
Malaysia, 23-26 May 1999. Brussels (Belgium). International Dairy
Federation. 1999. 180 p. (En). Special Issue 9902. p. 11-16. AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Shaikh, N.A.; Ganguly, N.C.
Institution: Mother Dairy, Delhi (India)
Content:
India, having the largest livestock population in the world with 204.53
million cattle and 84.2 million buffaloes, can be proud today to be the largest
producer of milk. This is no small an achievement by the dairy community in
India. This was possible because of the success of the dairy development
programme "Operation Flood", which was launched in the year 1970 by the
National Dairy Development Board. This integrated dairy development
programme, based on the experience at Kaira District Milk Producers Union
in Anand and financed out of the funds generated from recombination of
skim milk powder and butter oil donated by the WFP/EEC, succeeded in
changing the declining dairy industry to a vibrant, healthy and growing
industry. The recombination played - and will continue to play a crucial role
for dairy development in India.

Specialization: Economics and marketing
Subject: Contribution of livestock sector in India - an overview.
Year of publication: 1999
Journal: Indian Journal of Dairy and Biosciences. 1999; 10: 156-160 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Reddy, D R B; Reddy, B R; Lalith Achoth
Content:
In India, the gross value of output from the livestock sector accounts for 25%
of the total agricultural output (computed at 1980-81 prices). Buffaloes had a
higher share in milk production, contributing approximately 49% whereas,
the share of cows and goats was 48 and 3% respectively. The major
constraint in increasing the milk production in the country is the inadequacy

                                1443
of feed and fodder. The production of poultry meat and eggs increased
substantially leading to higher per capita availability. Out of the income
contributed by the livestock, approximately 79% is accounted for by milk
and milk products, 8% by meat and meat products, approximately 7% by
eggs and nearly 2% by hides and skins.

Specialization: Economics and marketing
Subject: Impact of dairy co-operatives on the rural economy in Nalanda
district.
Year of publication: 1999
Journal: Journal of Dairying, Foods and Home Sciences. 1999; 18(2): 92-
97 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Ranjit Kumar; Sharma, A K
Content:
The study revealed higher productivity of milch animals (local cows and
buffaloes) for households within the cooperative programme (5.75 and 4.75
litres/day for buffaloes and local cows, respectively, compared with 3.70 and
2.79 litres in the households not covered by the programme). Dairy enterprise
contribution to total family income was 28 and 20% for beneficiary and non-
beneficiary households, respectively. The dairy enterprise provided an
employment of about 217 and 210 days per year for family members of
beneficiary and non-beneficiary households, respectively. It is concluded that
the rural dairy cooperative society has been successful in improving the
socio-economic conditions of milk producer households, especially the
weaker households.

Epidemiology
Specialization: Epidemiology
Subject: Sero survey of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis in
various livestock species.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1998; 68(5): 460-461 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Subhash Verma; Katoch, R C; Parag Nigam; Batta, M K
Content:
The seroprevalence of Brucella abortus and B. melitensis, among different
species of animals with histories of reproductive disorders, in Himachal
Pradesh (India), was determined [date not given]. A total of 558 serum
samples were collected from buffaloes (n=43), cows (n=195), does (n=122)
and ewes (n=198). The Rose Bengal plate (RBPT) and Standard tube
agglutination (SAT) tests were used for the study. In RBPT, 4.65, 12.82, 9.83
and 11.60% of the samples, from buffaloes, cows, does and ewes,
respectively, were positive for B. abortus. This gave an overall B. abortus
seroprevalence of 11.11%. On the other hand, in SAT, 6.97, 11.79, 7.37 and
10.10% of the serum samples (buffaloes, cows, does and ewes, respectively)
were positive for B. abortus. Comparing the 2 methods, it was observed that
RBPT diagnosed more positive reactions than SAT. Based on SAT, 2.32,
6.15, 15.57 and 19.19% of the serum samples of the animals, respectively,
were sero-positive for B. melitensis. The overall seroprevalence of B. abortus

                               1444
and B. melitensis, in the animals tested, was 6.09%. There were serum
samples that reacted for both the Brucella antigens, indicating mixed
infections with B. abortus and B. melitensis.

Specialization: Epidemiology
Subject: Sero-incidence of bovine brucellosis in Peshawar district of
Pakistan.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1998; 68(5): 457 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Ghani, M; Zeb, A; Siraj, M; Naeem, M
Content:
The seroprevalence of brucellosis in the Peshawar district, Pakistan was
determined using: standard plate test (SPT), standard tube test (STT),
Rivanol test (RT) and 2, mercapto-ethanol (2, ME) [date not given]. A total
of 500 cattle (250 live and 250 slaughtered) were tested. There were 7
(1.40%), 5 (1.00%), 5 (1.00%) and 3 (0.60%) serum samples that were
positive for brucellosis, in the SPT, STT, RT and 2, ME, respectively.
Seroprevalence was higher in the slaughtered (n=240) as compared to the
live animals (n=240), when tested by the respective tests (1.25, 1.25, 1.25
and 0.83% vs. 1.66, 0.83, 0.83, 0.41%). Bulls (n=20 live; n=20 slaughtered)
were found to be negative for the disease in all 4 tests. Out of the 400 'old'
cattle (above 4 years old), 1.75, 1.50, 1.25 and 1.00%, were found to be
positive, using the respective tests, whereas no positive sera were detected in
100 buffaloes, that are below 4 years of age. Results indicate that the
seroprevalence of brucellosis in Peshawar district is low. Several
epidemiological factors, such as age, sex, breed, lactation number, herd size
and living conditions, influence the seroprevalence of brucellosis.

Specialization: Epidemiology
Subject: Incidence of keratinophilic fungi at Gaya (Bihar State).
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Journal of Phytological Research. 1998; 11(2): 199-200 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Namita Kumari; Shambhu Dayal; Upendra Prasad; Mridula
Kumari; Prasad, B K
Content:
A total of 19 species of keratinophilic fungi were isolated from various
substrata (including samples of soil, bird feathers, animal stables, vegetable
field soil, burning ghat, hair of animals and man). Trichophyton verrucosum
was of common occurrence in soil. Monosporium apiospermum
[Pseudallescheria boydii] and Microsporum canis were found in samples
from sheep stables, piggery, washing places, burning ghat and vegetable
field. Chaetomium homopilatum, Aspergillus terreus, A. flavus, A.
caespitosus, Torula graminis, Curvularia lunata [Cochliobolus lunatus] and
Rhizopus oryzae were observed in association with bird feathers.
Chaetomium globosum, Trichophyton verrucosum, Torula graminis,
Trichoderma lignorum, A. candidus, A. oryzae and T. viride were associated
with hairs of domestic cattle and human nail. Histoplasma capsulatum was
observed in the soil of burning ghat only. A. flavus, A. oryzae, C. lunatus, H.
capsulatum, P. boydii, M. canis and T. verrucosum were positive on

                                1445
dermophytic test medium.

Specialization: Epidemiology
Subject: An outbreak of gastrointestinal nematodosis in dairy cattle in
Hisar, India.
Year of publication: 1999
Journal: Journal of Veterinary Parasitology. 1999; 13(1): 23-26 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Yadav, C L; Sadana, J R
Content:
An outbreak of gastrointestinal nematodiasis dominated by Haemonchus
placei was investigated in a herd of 50 exotic and crossbred dairy cattle, aged
10 to 30 months, in Hisar, Haryana, India. 40 of them developed typical
clinical signs of the disease in February 1996, and 13 died. Post-mortem
examination of 5 of these revealed gross lesions in the abomasum including
oedema, hyperaemia, scattered foci of haemorrhages and bleeding ulcers,
with the abomasal contents reddish brown and fluid in nature. The pyloric
end was more severely affected, with destruction and desquamation of
mucosal epithelium. The liver was pale, friable and fatty in appearance with
no evidence of any parasites in the parenchyma. No other organs showed any
appreciable change. The majority of the recovered worms were H. placei,
numbers of which varied from 1800 to 9150 (mean+or-SD 5670+or-2996.6).
A few Oesophagostomum radiatum (74.4+or-70.2), Bunostomum
phlebotomum (16.00+or-19.9) and Trichuris globulosa (1.0+or-1.0) were
also found in 3 animals. Animals treated with anthelmintics (fenbendazole or
ivermectin) and supportive therapy responded well, except for one of the
fenbendazole-treated group which died on the 10th day of treatment. Faecal
egg counts before and 10 days after treatment indicated that fenbendazole
and ivermectin were both highly effective in reducing the worm load.

Specialization: Epidemiology
Subject: Epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminths in dairy animals in
and around Madras, India.
Year of publication: 1999
Journal: Journal of Veterinary Parasitology. 1999; 13(2): 163-164 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Raman, M; Anandan, R; Joseph, S A; Sanyal, P K
Content:
An epidemiological study of gastrointestinal helminths was carried out in 4
villages in and around Madras, India [date not given]. 27 faecal samples were
collected from each village, each month. The intensity of strongyle infection
was highest in non-descript cattle, followed by buffaloes and crossbred
cattle, with peak infection found between November and January.
Strongyloides sp. was moderately prevalent throughout the year, with a peak
in November and April. The prevalence of fluke infection was generally low.
Haemonchus, Mecistocirrus, Cooperia and Bunostomum were also found.

Specialization: Epidemiology
Subject: Observations on epidemic bovine dermatitis.
Year of publication: 1999
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1999; 76(8): 743-744 AB:

                                1446
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Kulkarni,-M-D; Bandod,-R-S
Content:
A non-infectious, sporadic dermatitis is reported on the lower parts of the
legs of about 12% of the 500 animals in a herd in Maharashtra in July-
October, 1989. High rainfall in July may have been a causal factor, or silage
waste material may have caused continuous irritation and resulted in the
dermatitis.

Specialization: Epidemiology
Subject: Preliminary report on the seroprevalence of Japanese
encephalitis among animals in Tamil Nadu.
Year of publication: 1999
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1999; 76(9): 776-778 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Kumanan, K; Ramesh, A; Velmurugan, R; Seema, M T;
Nachimuthu, K; Padmanaban, V D
Content:
The seroprevalence of Japanese encephalitis virus was assessed among
animals in Tamil Nadu, where 1165 blood samples were collected and
assessed by the haemagglutination inhibition test. The highest seroprevalence
was in pigs (60 of 272, 22.05%), followed by birds (3 of 30, 10%), buffaloes
(2 of 39, 5.10%), cattle (2 of 45, 4.40%) and horses (1 of 54, 1.80%); no
positive results were found in 609 samples from sheep, 115 from goats and 1
from a rabbit. Of the 8 districts in which samples were collected, positive
results were found in 3; the maximum incidence was in Chingleput (32.2%),
followed by Chennai (7.78%) and Madurai (1.94%).

Specialization: Epidemiology
Subject: Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infections in cattle and
buffaloes of Kheda district of Gujarat.
Year of publication: 1999
Journal: Journal of Veterinary Parasitology. 1999; 13(2): 147-149 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Hirani, N D; Katariya, M A; Abdullah Patel; Hasnani, J J;
Kathiria, L G; Patel, P V
Content:
Examination of 929 faecal samples of cattle and buffaloes in Kheda, Gujarat,
India, from February 1995 to January 1997 revealed that 38.86% were
positive for gastrointestinal parasites. The predominant infections were of
amphistomes (21.85%), coccidia (7.86%) and strongyles (7.53%). Also
found were Fasciola (2.58%), Trichuris (0.97%) and Moniezia (0.11%).
Significant increases in amphistomes and coccidia were observed from
December to June and August to March, respectively, whereas with
strongyles significant increases were observed from September to October
and January to March. All 3 types of infection were higher in the summer
season.

Specialization: Epidemiology
Subject: Seroepidemiology of bluetongue disease in Andhra Pradesh,
India.

                               1447
Year of publication: 1999
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1999; 69(5): 292-294 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Sreenivasulu, D; Rao, M V S
Content:
A serological survey involving 976 sera samples from different species of
healthy animals (selected at random from different districts of Andhra
Pradesh) was conducted employing the competitive ELISA. The study
revealed the presence of BTV antibodies in 45.71% of sheep, 43.56% of
goats, 33.11% of cattle and 20% of buffaloes. Prevalence of BTV antibodies
was more in crossbreeds than in native sheep and cattle. Neutralizing
antibodies to 13 BTV serotypes 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13, 14, 16,17,18 and 19
were detected in different parts of the state. Region-wise seroprevalence was
46.75% in Rayalaseema, 46.05% in Telangana and 33.54% in Costal regions
of Andhra Pradesh.

Specialization: Epidemiology
Subject: Seroepidemiology of Trypanosoma evansi infection by using
CATT.
Year of publication: 1999
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1999; 76(9): 842-844 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Dhami, D S; Juyal, P D; Singla, L D
Content:
Of 88 animals (75 buffaloes and 13 cattle) tested in some districts of Punjab
State for Trypanosoma evansi infection by the Card Agglutination
Trypanosomal Test (CATT), 40 (45.45%) were positive; the technique is
described. Disease incidence was higher in the rainy season because of the
high incidence of insect vectors.

Extension
Specialization: Extension
Subject: Explaining success in South Asian rural development: the
importance of routine.
Year of publication:
Journal: Public Administration and Development. 1993; 13(5): 475-487
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Mascarenhas, R C
Content:
The article compares the Training and Visit System of Agricultural
Extension in India with the Anand-type dairy cooperatives (India) and the
Grameen Bank (Bangladesh) to explain the reasons for their success. In
attempting an explanation of such micro-success in an environment of
macro-failure, the article lays emphasis on tailoring the programmes to the
needs and social capabilities of the rural people. The services offered are
perfected to a routine, thus encouraging the recipients of the services to
respond on a regular and systematic basis. The recipients of these
programmes see success in terms of increased benefits, greater participation
and ultimately increased incomes. Their success had led to their widespread

                               1448
adoption elsewhere in the Third World.

Specialization: Extension
Subject: Involvement of rural women in dairy cooperative societies in
Haryana.
Year of publication: 1993
Journal: Indian Cooperative Review. 1993; 30(4): 367-376 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Kaushik, S; Singal, S
Content:
In Haryana, India, the percentage of women involved in dairy cooperatives is
only 2. This paper studies the benefits and problems perceived by rural
women members of dairy cooperatives. A sample of 100 women members of
dairy cooperatives was selected from villages of Karnal district, where there
is progressive dairy farming. Approximately 60% of the respondents had a
traditional involvement in dairy farming and 40% of the husbands made the
decision about their wives' membership of the cooperative. The majority of
respondents had no training in dairy farming. Economic and personal
benefits were considered most important. Educational and communication
problems such as lack of knowledge about the government's help in the form
of subsidies for purchasing animals, feed and lack of knowledge about
advantages of dairy cooperatives were the worst. The women reported that a
suitable price was paid for the milk.

Specialization: Extension
Subject: Artificial insemination centre and its impact on the livestock
owners of Birbhum district of West Bengal.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Research. 1995; 29(1): 63-64 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Dana, S S
Content:
Data were collected from 125 farmers from 5 villages with artificial
insemination centres (AIC) and compared with 125 farmers from 5 villages
without AIC in the Birbhum District of West Bengal, India, (date not given).
The AIC have resulted in increasing the numbers of crossbred cows, milk
yields/cow, and milk consumption and sales. They have also contributed
towards the improvement of the economic and nutritional status of rural
areas.

Specialization: Extension
Subject: Characteristics discriminating adopters from non-adopters of
dairy farming practices.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Journal of Dairy Science. 1995; 48(10): 587-590 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Singh, S P; Sharma, R K
Content:
During 1988, a survey was conducted on 160 dairy farmers randomly
selected from 4 villages of the Bijnor district of Uttar Pradesh. The dairy
farmers were classed as 'adopters' or 'non-adopters', adopters being

                               1449
individuals having <more or =>3 milking animals, earning 40% of their
income from dairy enterprise and adopting all the recommended practices for
dairy farming. The factors which discriminated adopters from non-adopters
were knowledge of dairy farming and business, the number of milking
animals, land holding, education, attitude towards the dairy industry, mass
media exposure and extension contact.

Specialization: Extension
Subject: Knowledge level of farm women about dairy farm technologies.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Journal of Dairy Science. 1995; 48(5): 346-352 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Tripathi, H; Kunzru, O N; Bisht, G S
Content:
A study was conducted in the Bareilly District of Uttar Pradesh to determine
the level of knowledge of farm women concerning dairy farm technology in
member (MC) and non-member dairy cooperative (NMC) systems. 192 farm
women belonging to MC (96) and NMC (96) systems from 12 villages were
interviewed. The majority of respondents in both systems had a medium
level of knowledge about AI, contagious diseases and vaccination, green
fodder cultivation, green fodder feeding and concentrate feeding. About 29%
of respondents from MC had a high level of knowledge compared with about
11% from NMC. Technology-wise, the direction of professional knowledge
held by respondents in MC was from medium to high in all the studied
technologies, except green fodder cultivation, where the direction was from
medium to low level. A high correlation was found between the knowledge
level concerning dairy farm technologies and their adoption by the
respondents. Knowledge of all 5 technologies studied was highly correlated
with the attitude of the respondents towards dairy farming. A significant
correlation between knowledge concerning all 5 dairy farm technologies
studied, except green fodder cultivation, was also found with respondent's
attitude towards dairy cooperatives and towards productivity of their dairy
animals.

Specialization: Extension
Subject: Opinion of rural farmers towards crossbred cattle.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Livestock Adviser. 1995; 20(7): 10-12 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Thombre, B M; Pawar, B R
Content:
60 farmers in 6 villages in Latur district, Maharashtra were questioned. 62%
had a favourable opinion of crossbred cattle, 28% had an unfavourable
opinion, and 10% were undecided. A favourable opinion tended to be
associated with the farmer having visited cattle shows, "mass media use",
and the holding of land.

Specialization: Extension
Subject: Profile of respondents rearing crossbred cows.
Year of publication: 1996
Journal: Indian Journal of Dairy Science. 1996; 49(4): 230-233 AB:

                              1450
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Raju, D T; Pochaiah, M; Reddy, G V K
Content:
A study of the personal, socioeconomic and psychological characteristics of
farmers rearing crossbred cows in the Krishna District of Andhra Pradesh,
India, involved 120 respondents, grouped according to experience with
crossbred cows of (i) recently adopted, (ii) 1-5 years and (iii) 5-10 years.
Results showed that, of (i), (ii), (iii) and total respondents respectively, 62.5,
57.5, 75.0 and 66.0% were middle-aged, 55.0, 88.0, 55.0 and 63.33% were of
medium socioeconomic status, 62.5, 57.5, 67.5 and 62.5% had a medium
level of mass media exposure, 62.5, 47.5, 60.0 and 56.67% showed a
medium level of information seeking, and 50.0, 57.5, 67.5 and 58.33%
showed a medium level of innovativeness.

Specialization: Extension
Subject: Constraints perceived by veterinarians in implementing cattle
development programmes.
Year of publication: 1996
Journal: Indian Journal of Dairy Science. 1996; 49(4): 234-243 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Venkatasubramanian, V; Fulzele, R M
Content:
Information obtained from 80 respondents representing coastal, plain and
hilly areas of North, Central and South regions of Tamil Nadu, India, was
used to study the constraints perceived by veterinarians in implementing
cattle development programmes. Responses were grouped into breeding,
feeding, disease and organizational constraints. Overall, the main perceived
breeding constraints were failure of farmers to bring animals for
insemination at the right time of heat (71.25%), repeat breeding in crossbreds
(68.75%) and high incidence of reproductive disorders (66.25%). Main
perceived feeding constraints were the farmers' preference for local
substitutes for good quality concentrates (42.50%) and ignorance about
balanced feeding (41.25%). Main perceived constraints related to disease
prevention were inadequate supply of medicines (61.25%), problems of local
quacks (53.75%) and farmers' preference for quacks (46.25%). Main
organizational constraints were inadequate recognition of good work by
superiors (72.5%), inadequate communication facilities for extension contact
(70%) and lack of participation in setting goals (63.75%).

Specialization: Extension
Subject: Development of cognitive learning scale to test the knowledge of
livestock owners about feeding of green fodder.
Year of publication: 1996
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Health. 1996; 35(1): 17-21 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Goswami, A; Sagar, R L
Content:
Sixty livestock owners were randomly selected and asked a series of 22
questions regarding the importance of feeding green fodder to cattle,
buffaloes and calves. 1 point was given for a correct answer and zero for an
incorrect one. Formulae for calculating the item difficulty index and the item

                                 1451
discrimination index are given. 12 items with a difficulty index between 30
and 80 and a discrimination index between 0.30 and 0.55 were chosen for the
final knowledge test. These items, and the correct answers, are given. The
reliability of the final test was evaluated by randomly splitting the items in
half and administering them separately (as 2 groups of 6 items) to 50
respondents. The correlation coefficient between the 2 sets of scores was
0.798 and was significant at the 1% level, indicating that internal consistency
was quite high. The 12-item test was administered to 30 livestock owners
twice, with an interval of 15 days. A correlation coefficient of 0.818 was
significant at the 1% level, indicating that the knowledge test was highly
stable and dependable for measurement.

Specialization: Extension
Subject: Knowledge assessment and participation of rural youth in dairy
management practices.
Year of publication: 1996
Journal: Indian Journal of Dairy Science. 1996; 49(4): 244-251 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Shivalingaiah, Y N; Veerabhadraiah, V
Content:
A study carried out in the Bangalore rural and Kolar districts of Karnataka,
India, during 1994/96 involved 200 rural youth, 50 each in 4 groups based on
male (M) and female (F) from large (L) and small (S) dairy farms. The
percentage of youths with low, medium and high knowledge of dairy farm
practices respectively was as follows: MS, 36, 38 and 26; ML, 30, 22 and 48;
FS, 22, 58 and 20; and FL, 20, 44 and 36. All youths knew the most suitable
breed for their region and most knew about the protective character of
colostrum against disease; all M and most F knew about spraying chemicals
to control ticks and cleaning of calf sheds to reduce disease. The percentage
of rural youth who participated to a low, medium and high extent
respectively in dairy management practices was as follows: MS, 18, 32 and
50; ML, 38, 36 and 26; FS, 20, 26 and 54; and FL, 23, 24 and 53. The MS,
FS and FL youth tended to participate in all dairy-related activities, whereas
engagement of hired labour on large farms meant that ML youth participated
mainly in management practices.

Genetics
Specialization: Genetics
Subject: Detection of genome specific monomorphic loci in Bos taurus
and Bubalus bubalis with oligodeoxyribonucleotide probe.
Year of publication: 1993
Journal: Animal Genetics. 1993; 24(3): 199-202 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Ali, S; Bala, G; Bala, S
Content:
The probe (OAT36), comprising 9 repeats of 5' GACA 3' and several
enzymes, was used to analyse cattle and buffalo genomes; several
monomorphic loci were detected in both species. Animals of the same
species showed an almost similar monomorphic pattern, but the pattern in the
2 species was different. The overall hybridization for any restriction enzyme

                                1452
and probe combination was unique for each species. It is suggested that it is
the hybridization pattern, and not the probe, that is genome-specific.

Specialization: Genetics
Subject: Frequency of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid
exchanges in brucella positive crossbred milch cows.
Year of publication: 1993
Journal: Indian Journal of Dairy Science. 1993; 46(2): 82-84 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Sikka, A K; Khanna, A S; Vinayak, A K; Rathi, S S
Content:
The incidence of chromosomal abnormalities was higher in animals
serologically positive for brucellosis than in normal animals (6.4 vs. 4.1%).
The number of sister chromatid exchanges per cell was similar in the 2
groups (5.8 and 5.3).

Specialization: Genetics
Subject: Comparison of chromosomal aberrations in Hariana, pure
exotic and crossbred dairy cattle.
Year of publication: 1994
Journal: Annals of Biology Ludhiana. 1994; 10(2): 250-252 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Karwasra, S; Sikka, A K; Singh, B
Content:
Chromosomal aberrations (chromatid and isochromatid gaps and breaks,
centromeric gaps and polyploidy) were studied in 36 Hariana, 12 Holstein
and 29 crossbred (Holstein x (Jersey x Hariana)) cattle. 1800 metaphase
spreads of whole blood cultures were analysed. Only 162 chromosome
aberrations were noted. The majority of aberrations were chromatid gaps; the
incidence of each type of abnormality tended to be higher in Harianas than in
the other 2 breed types.

Specialization: Genetics
Subject: Identification and comparison of AG-NOR sites in purebreds
and crossbreds.
Year of publication: 1994
Journal: Annals of Biology Ludhiana. 1994; 10: 165-168 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Karwasra, S; Sikka, A K; Balbir Singh
Content:
Cultured blood cells from 36 Hariana, 12 Holstein and 29 Friesian x Jersey x
Hariana cows were stained by silver nitrate to identify the sites of nucleolus
organizer regions. These were located on chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 11 and 28 in
all 3 groups of cattle.

Specialization: Genetics
Subject: A modified technique of GTG banding in cattle and buffaloes.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Nucleus Calcutta. 1995; 38(1-2): 37-39 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Patel, R K; Radhakrishna, U; Khoda, V K

                               1453
Content:
A version of G-banding using a modified method of trypsinization is
described for cattle and buffaloes.

Specialization: Genetics
Subject: A new era of gene mapping in farm animals: Methodology and
strategies - an overview.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: International Journal of Animal Sciences. 1995; 10(2): 349-357
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Shanker, V; Bhatia, S
Content:
Methods used in gene mapping are reviewed and the current status of gene
maps for livestock, mainly cattle and sheep, are discussed.

Specialization: Genetics
Subject: Chromosomal screening of cattle and buffaloes.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Pashudhan. 1995; 10(2): 5 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Patel, R K; Uppala Radhakrishna; Khoda, V K
Content:
Data on the incidence of chromosome aberrations among the 446 buffaloes
and cattle that have been screened by the cytogenetics laboratory of the
National Dairy Development Board, India, are tabulated (according to breed
and sex) and discussed. The laboratory provides a routine cytogenetic
investigation service to "Bull Mother Farms", embryo transfer centres and
semen production stations. 3.5% of the animals screened had an abnormal
karyotype.

Specialization: Genetics
Subject: Chromosomal studies in Hariana cattle.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Production and Management. 1995;
11(3): 151-155 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Kumar, P; Prakash, B; Joshi, B K; Tantia, M S
Content:
Chromosomes of 12 Hariana cattle were prepared from samples of whole
blood. Analysis of metaphase spreads showed that the diploid chromosome
number is 60, comprising 29 pairs of acrocentric autosomes and a pair of sex
chromosomes. C-bands were present in all autosomes, but X- and Y-
chromosomes did not show C-banding. Individual chromosomes showed
specific light and dark G-banding patterns. Nucleolus organizer regions were
found on 5 pairs of autosomes.

Specialization: Genetics
Subject: An additional survey of gene flow between yaks and cattle in the
Nepalese Himalayas.
Year of publication: 1996

                              1454
Journal: Animal Science and Technology. 1996; 67(4): 374-377 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Kawamoto, Y; Hongo, A; Inamura, T; Shrestha, H R
Content:
Milk protein polymorphisms in yaks, cattle and their hybrids were studied by
isoelectric focusing. Five alleles (B, C, E, X and X') were detected at the
alpha s1-casein locus, 3 alleles (A1, A2 and B) at the beta -casein locus, 3
alleles (A, B and X) at the kappa -casein locus and 3 alleles (A, B and E) at
the beta -lactoglobulin locus. The types of milk protein variations detected
were similar to those found in the Khumbu district, except for a new variant
of alpha s1-casein denoted X'. The study showed a restriction in gene flow
between yaks and cattle which may have been caused by traditional breeding
programs.

Specialization: Genetics
Subject: Chromosome profile of Ongole cattle.
Year of publication: 1996
Journal: Indian Journal of Dairy Science. 1996; 49(4): 252-258 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Rao, D V S; Rao, C H; Venkatramaiah, A
Content:
A whole blood culture technique was used to study the chromosomes of 41
Ongole cattle. The diploid chromosome number was 60 in all 26 bulls and 15
cows studied, and comprised 58 autosomes and 2 gonosomes. All autosomes
and the Y chromosome were acrocentric and the X chromosome was
submetacentric in morphology. The relative lengths of chromosome in bulls
and cows respectively were 1.780 to 5.570 and 1.753 to 5.603 for autosomes,
5.132 and 5.327 for the X chromosome, and 1.724 (bulls only) for the Y
chromosome. C-binding showed all autosomes to be C-positive and the X
and Y chromosomes to be C-negative. The morphology and C-binding of
Ongole breed chromosomes were similar to those of other Bos indicus
breeds.

Gynecology and obstetrics
Specialization: Gynecology and obstetrics
Subject: Clinical analysis of anoestrum in rural bovines.
Year of publication: 1993
Journal: Indian Journal of Dairy Science. 1993; 46(2): 80-81
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Kumar, S; Kumar, H
Content:
310 cows and 721 buffaloes presented at veterinary clinics with complaints
of anoestrus were examined rectally. The incidence of anoestrus was higher
in buffaloes than in cows (69.9 vs. 30.1%). The percentage of buffaloes and
cows in which 1 or both ovaries showed poor activity was 67.5 and 56.8
respectively; the corresponding values for true anoestrus were 25.1 and 31.3,
and for infantile genital tract plus hypoplastic ovaries 11.9 and 7.3.

Specialization: Gynecology and obstetrics
Subject: Comparative study of inorganic phosphorus and magnesium

                               1455
levels in the serum of regular and repeat breeding cows.
Year of publication: 1993
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1993; 70(7): 675-676 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Khan, J R; Iyer, V J
Content:
Blood samples were collected on 5 consecutive days from 15 repeat breeder
cows and 15 regular breeding cows. In the regular breeders serum inorganic
phosphorus was 6.07 +or- 0.15 mg% and in the repeat breeders 4.84 +or-
0.10 mg/100 ml. The regular breeders had a serum magnesium level of 2.62
+or- 0.07 mg/100 ml compared with 3.16 +or- 0.027 in the repeat breeders.
Both differences were significant.

Specialization: Gynecology and obstetrics
Subject: Incidence of reproductive disorders in relation to exotic
inheritance in crossbred cows.
Year of publication: 1993
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1993; 70(8): 722-725 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Rao, A V N; Reddy, A C; Murthy, Y N
Content:
A comparative study was made of the incidence of reproductive disorders
among 1860 crossbred Jersey and Holstein cows and heifers that were
classified as half-breds, three quarter-breds or higher grades (seven-eights).
The overall incidence of anatomical, functional and infectious (non-specific)
forms of infertility were 3.0, 56.4 and 40.6%, respectively. The highest
incidence of specific conditions was for acyclic ovaries 49.7%, and
endometritis 32.8%. Among the different grades the estimated incidence of
sterility was 10.0, 9.9 and 15.4% for the half, three-quarter and seven-eights
bred animals, respectively.

Specialization: Gynecology and obstetrics
Subject: Comparative efficacy of some broad spectrum antibacterial
medicines in repeat breeder crossbred cows under field conditions.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction. 1995; 16(2): 103-104
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Awasthi, M K; Nema, R K
Content:
60 repeat breeder crossbred cows were treated with gentamicin sulfate,
ampicillin-cloxacillin combination and cephalexin at 2 dose levels dissolved
in 25 ml of distilled water. The antibiotics were administered in the uterus 24
h after insemination. 90% conception rate was achieved at the dose rate of
1.5 g and 750 mg of cephalexin. The conception rates with 1 g and 500 mg of
ampicillin-cloxacillin combination were 70 and 50%, respectively. The
lowest conception rate of 50% was obtained with 500 and 200 mg of
gentamicin sulfate.

Specialization: Gynecology and obstetrics
Subject: Post partum distribution of health disorders in crossbred cows.

                                1456
Year of publication:
Journal: Indian Journal of Dairy Science. 1995; 48(3): 247-248 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Jadhav, K L; Tripathi, V N; Kale, M M
Content:
Data on the incidence of health disorders during the post-partum stage in
1854 Holstein x Sahiwal cows at 3 military farms was analysed [date not
given]. Chi-square analysis showed significant effects of post-partum stage
on all disorders studied (mammary, reproductive, digestive, locomotive,
respiratory, metabolic, specific and other disorders). Overall incidence
respectively was 8.49, 6.77, 5.31, 3.24, 0.83, 0.26, 1.38 and 2.57%.

Specialization: Gynecology and obstetrics
Subject: Studies on infertility problems in non-descript buffaloes and
cows
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1995; 72(10): 1050-1052 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Ashturkar, R W; Aher, V D; Bhokre, A P
Content:
Studies on infertility problems in 166 buffaloes and 144 cows in Biloli
Tashil, Maharashtra, were carried out from August 1991 to March 1993. The
anoestrus smooth ovaries coupled with poor feeding status was the most
common cause for infertility. Blood serum study revealed significant
decreases in cholesterol levels in infertile animals. The calcium levels were
significantly decreased in anoestrus cases and increased in repeat breeder
cases. Vaginal and uterine swabs from repeat breeder cases revealed E. coli
organism and mixed infections sensitive to chloramphenicol and
nitrofurazone.

Specialization: Gynecology and obstetrics
Subject: Pattern of oestrous cycle and its abberrations in repeat breeding
crossbred cattle.
Year of publication: 1996
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction. 1996; 17(1): 27-29 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Ghosh, S K; Agarwal, S R; Shankar, U; Yadav, M C
Content:
The mean length of the oestrous cycle in repeat-breeding and normal cows
was 20.6+or-0.11 and 20.45+or-0.25 days respectively. The length of the
normal cycle was 19-23 days in 79.3 and 82.5% of repeat-breeding and
normal cows respectively. The percentages of normal, multiple long,
irregular long and short cycles were 57.58, 13.24, 16.50 and 12.66%
respectively in repeat-breeding cows and 51.61, 14.83, 19.33 and 14.19% in
normal cows. Maximum pregnancy rates were highest after normal cycles
(70.97 and 50.63% in repeat-breeding and normal cows). The incidence of
anovulation was higher in repeat-breeding than in normal cows (26.5 vs.
20.0%).

Specialization: Gynecology and obstetrics
Subject: Factors affecting reproductive disorders in crossbred and

                               1457
Sahiwal cattle.
Year of publication: 1997
Journal: Indian Journal of Dairy Science. 1997; 50(1): 69-72 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Singh, B; Singh, C V; Singh, R V; Prasad, R B; Kumar, D;
Kumar, R
Content:
1382 lactation records of Sahiwal and crossbred cows at the G. B. Pant
University Livestock Research Centre from 1989-94 were examined. The
most common reproductive disorders and their incidence were: retained
placenta, 10.9%; dystocia, 2.5%; prolapse, 0.3%. There were no significant
effects of sire, breed, year and parity on any trait, and season had no
significant effects on the incidence of dystocia and prolapse. There was a
seasonal effect on the incidence of retained placenta (P<0.05). The seasonal
averages for retained placenta were: Winter, 9.0%; Summer, 8.2%; Rains,
15.7%; Autumn, 12.2%.

Specialization: Gynecology and obstetrics
Subject: Induction of oestrus and ovulation in acyclic cows and heifers.
Year of publication: 1997
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1997; 74(10): 850-853 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Saraswat, P; Deen, A; Bansal, N; Pareek, P K; Sharma, S S;
Chowdhary, F L; Arora, A; Singh, J
Content:
A vaginal implant giving controlled internal drug release (CIDR-B) was used
in 7 anoestrous cows and 5 acyclic heifers. After withdrawal of the implant 9
days later, each animal was given 1000 IU at PMSG i.m. The animals were
bred at the appropriate time by AI, and pregnancy tests were performed.
Ovulation and a normal luteal phase after induced oestrus were established in
4 of 6 treated cows and 4 of 5 heifers. One cow, but none of the heifers
conceived at one induced oestrus, and another cow and 3 heifers at one
subsequent oestrus. Of the remaining 5 cows and 2 heifers that did not
conceive within a 75-day period, one cow and one heifer continued to cycle
while the others reverted to an acyclic state.

Specialization: Gynecology and obstetrics
Subject: Mycoplasmas in genital disorders and mastitis in bovines of
India.
Year of publication: 1997
Journal: Biotechnology in animal health and production for economic
development in Asia in respect of global scenario. 1997; 106-128 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Garg, D N
Content:
This review of Mycoplasma infections in India discusses infections of female
and male reproductive organs, current status, pathology, pathogenicity,
immune response, diagnosis and infections in cattle, and the involvement and
diagnosis of Mycoplasma in mastitis.


                               1458
Immunology
Specialization: Immunology
Subject: Detection of antibodies against rinderpest in cattle using passive
haemagglutination test.
Year of publication:
Journal: Cheiron. 1994; 23(4): 166-169 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Babu, Y H
Content:
124 serum samples collected from Jersey cattle vaccinated against rinderpest
virus at different ages were tested for rinderpest immune status using a
passive haemagglutination test. Geometric mean titre for 21 animals
vaccinated at <6 months was 7.80, in 39 vaccinated at 6-12 month was 10.26,
and in 64 vaccinated at >12 months was 10.37. Geometric mean titres of
cattle vaccinated 1 to 4 times were 10.18 (33 cattle), 9.02 (63), 12.36 (11)
and 9.41 (17), respectively. Geometric mean titres for 29 animals with less
than one year between primary and secondary vaccinations was 8.28, 8.47
for an interval of 1-2 years, and 11.43 for an interval of 2-3 years.

Specialization: Immunology
Subject: Role of cytotoxic lymphocytes in immunity against bovine
tuberculosis.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Medical Science Research. 1995; 23(8): 535-538 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Gupta, L K; Shomeer Bhatnagar; Ram, G C; Bansal, M P
Content:
Five calves were infected i.m. with 106 live bacterial cells of Mycobacterium
bovis AN5. Five weeks after the inoculation, peripheral blood mononuclear
cells were prepared for lymphoproliferative assay, autologous monocyte
cytotoxicity and T cell subset analysis. Four different M. bovis BCG antigens
were detected. Higher cytotoxic T cells were found against monocytes
primed with sonicated antigens and live antigen than against those primed
with culture filtrate antigens and heat-killed antigen. The expression of cell
surface markers of the lymphocyte population using indirect fluorescence
was relatively identical for the T lymphocytes of 2 animals. Most (67-73%)
of the cells in T cell population appeared positive for cc76 (CD45R
homologue). The percentage of cc8 (BoCD4+) cells varied from 19 to 29%
and cc63 (BoCD8+) cells was 27-31%. The tau / delta T cells (BoWc-1)
varied from 19 to 24%.

Specialization: Immunology
Subject: Studies on the immunological control of ticks. I. Detection of
humoral response in experimentally immunised calves.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Journal of Veterinary Parasitology. 1995; 9(1): 17-20 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Ghosh, S; Khan, M H
Content:
A tick extract antigen was prepared from engorged females of Boophilus

                               1459
microplus. Calves were immunized with 53 mg antigen in 3 doses on days 0,
14 and 42. The humoral immune response was detected by ELISA and
double immunodiffusion tests. The results indicated that after a gradual
increase from 28 days post-immunization the antibody level peaked at 50
days and persisted for 95 days.

Specialization: Immunology
Subject: The immunogenicity of Vero cell adapted tissue culture
rinderpest vaccine (V-TCRPV) in hill bulls.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Journal of Comparative Microbiology, Immunology and
Infectious Diseases. 1995; 16(1/2): 24-27 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Samanta, M; Pandey, K D
Content:
18 bulls were vaccinated with lactalbumin and sucrose or lactalbumin and
lactose stabilized vaccines at various dose levels (1%, 10%, 100% and 200%
of the field dose of 102.5 TCID50). There was a significant rise in
neutralizing antibodies 14 days after the vaccination, and all vaccinated
animals survive a challenge infection with a virulent strain of rinderpest virus
(103.5 cattle infective dose) 21 days after vaccination.

Specialization: Immunology
Subject: Therapeutic efficacy of freeze-dried bovine immunoglobulin
against colibacillosis in calves.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1995; 65(8): 842-844 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Chaluvaiah, R K; Panduranga, G L; Sastry, K N
Content:
Immunoglobulins were precipitated from pooled bovine serum and then
freeze-dried. Ten 1-day-old colostrum-deprived male calves were challenged
intravenously with Escherichia coli 0126. Half of the calves were treated
intravenously at intervals with 1-g doses of immunoglobulin in 25 ml saline
after clinical symptoms of infection appeared; the other calves were not
treated. All calves showed symptoms of colibacillosis. In treated calves, the
clinical symptoms were mild to moderate, and 4 of the 5 calves recovered
uneventfully by 48 after the challenge. Four of the 5 untreated calves died by
48 h after infection.

Specialization: Immunology
Subject: Common antigenic determinants of Fasciola gigantica as defined
by monoclonal antibodies to phosphocholine.
Year of publication: 1996
Journal: Journal of Applied Animal Research. 1996; 9(1): 95-104 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Rao, J R; Yadav, S C; Ram, G C; Raghav, P R S; Lal, R B
Content:
Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) raised against the circulating filarial antigens
(CA101, CA86) and the excretory-secretory (ES) antigens (ES-1, ES- 3) of
Brugia malayi and subsequently shown to be directed against the

                                1460
phosphocholine (PC) epitope and carbohydrate-like epitope, respectively,
were used to determine the cross-reactive epitopes of Fasciola gigantica.
While MAb to PC reacted strongly with F. gigantica, other ES antibodies did
not show any reactivity. Western blot analysis using CA101 and CA86
showed multiple banding pattern in high molecular weight proteins (30 000-
200 000 MW) that indicated the presence of PC determinants on many
different antigenic molecules. A two-site enzyme immunoassay using affinity
purified rabbit immunoglobulins to B. malayi antigen as capture antibodies
and CA101 and CA86 as detection antibody was developed to detect the
presence of PC containing Fasciola antigen. While serum from 80 to 90% of
Fasciola infected goats (7 of 8) or cattle (8 to 10) contained PC containing
antigens in their circulation, 1 of 6 normal goats sera also reacted in this
assay. Despite some "false positivity", detection of PC antigens may provide
a valuable immunodiagnostic tool for detection of helminth infection in
animals.

Specialization: Immunology
Subject: Delayed type hypersensitivity in calves vaccinated with BCG.
Year of publication: 1996
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1996; 73(1): 7-10 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Rao, V N A; Ramadass, P
Content:
10 cross-bred heifer and 8 bull calves below the age of 10 days were
immunized intradermally with BCG vaccine. Five cross-bred heifer and 5
bull calves received a placebo and as unvaccinated controls. In contrast to
control animals, indurations were observed at the sites of BCG vaccination.
These regressed into compact pea sized nodules that persisted for 12 months.
BCG vaccinated calves showed significantly higher delayed type
hypersensitivity to an intradermal PPD test 6 and 10 months after vaccination
than controls.

Specialization: Immunology
Subject: Enhanced immunity to Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks
in cross-bred (Bos indicusxBos taurus) calves using ascaris extract
immunomodulator with the tick salivary gland extract antigens.
Year of publication: 1996
Journal: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 1996; 51(3/4):
333 343 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Sran, H S; Grewal, A S; Kondal, J K
Content:
Development of acquired immunity in cross-bred (Bos indicusxBos taurus)
calves against Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, a tick vector of bovine
tropical theileriosis was studied using ascaris extract (AE), an
immunomodulator of IgE responses, along with the tick salivary gland
extract (SGE) antigens in Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA) emulsion.
Calves immunised with SGE+FIA showed rejection (47.4+or-2.8%) of
larvae, whereas only marginal rejection (12.47+or-1.5%) of nymphs was
observed. In contrast, calves immunised with the immunomodulator AE in
addition to SGE+FIA showed increased rejection of nymphs (50.25+or-

                               1461
5.2%), while the rejection of larvae was only slightly higher (55.8+or-
11.4%), and not statistically different. In addition, incorporation of the
immunomodulator AE also resulted in a higher percentage recovery of
abnormally fed larvae and nymphs. This abnormal feeding was characterised
by white to pale-yellow colour instead of the dark-grey colour of normally
fed ticks. It may possibly be attributed to their inability to gain access to the
blood vessels owing to the host immunological reaction at the bite sites.
Consequently, the ticks fed on extravascular fluid devoid of red blood cells
resulting in the white to pale-yellow colour. Difference in the disease
transmission potential of normally and abnormally fed ticks is of future
interest. Serum samples from all the immunised calves after 2 weeks of
immunisation were positive for anti-tick SGE antibodies in the dot enzyme
immunoassay (DOT-EIA). The immunised calves were positive for
immediate type hypersensitivity (ITH) skin reaction on intradermal
inoculation of the tick SGE antigens. There was no difference in the DOT-
EIA antibody titres between the 2 immunised groups. However, ITH skin
swelling was higher in AE+SGE+FIA immunised calves. The study indicates
that use of the AE as an immunomodulator along with the tick SGE antigens
increased anti-tick immunity.

Specialization: Immunology
Subject: Immunological cross-reactivity between salivary gland proteins
of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Boophilus microplus ticks.
Year of publication: 1996
Journal: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 1996; 51(3/4):
345-352 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Parmar, A; Grewal, A S; Dhillon, P
Content:
Immunological cross-reactivity was established between salivary gland
extract antigens of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (H.a.a) and Boophilus
microplus (B.m.), using native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (native-
PAGE), immunoblotting, DOT-enzyme immunoassay (DOT-EIA) and in
vivo intra-dermal skin test showing immediate type hypersensitivity swelling
reaction. Native-PAGE identified 6 proteins in common with molecular
weights of 60, 66, 148, 264, 300 and >300 kDa in the salivary gland extract
(SGE) of both the ticks. Four additional bands of molecular weights of 56,
64, 120 and 220 kDa were present in H.a.a. but absent in B.m. Immunoblot
assay of native-PAGE trans-blotted proteins of H.a.a., using mice anti-H.a.a.
SGE and anti-B.m. SGE immune serum detected a common protein of 66
kDa. In DOT-EIA, anti-H.a.a. or anti-B.m. SGE immune serum gave similar
antibody titres against the SGE antigens of either tick species. Intradermal
inoculation of the SGE antigens of either species on cross-bred calves (Bos
indicusxBos taurus) immunized to H.a.a. or B.m. ticks produced a strong,
immediate hypersensitivity skin swelling reaction.

Specialization: Immunology
Subject: Immunoprophylaxis against protozoan parasites.
Year of publication: 1996
Journal: Environment and Ecology. 1996; 14(1): 118-138 AB:
Country of Origin: India

                                1462
Author’s name: Ghosh, S; Haldar, D P
Content:
This review examines immunoprophylaxis against important protozoan
parasites of man and animals, mainly cattle and poultry. Special attention has
been given to the recent results of vaccination studies using recombinant and
synthetic antigens. The use of monoclonal antibodies for the selection of
target antigens is critically reviewed and the role of cell mediated immunity
in conferring resistance against infection is described. Problems associated
with strain/antigenic variations are discussed and are identified as major
problems awaiting solution. The review is presented under the following
main subject headings: malaria (identification of antigens and their use as
recombinant vaccines; identification of epitopes and their use as recombinant
vaccines; identification of epitopes and their use as synthetic peptide
vaccines); leishmaniasis (killed organisms as vaccines; molecular vaccines);
coccidiosis (live vaccines; attenuated parasites as vaccines; identification of
antigens and their use as recombinant vaccines; use of anti-idiotypic
antibodies as vaccines); babesiosis (vaccination with attenuated parasites;
identification of purified antigen and its use as a vaccine); theileriosis
(schizont vaccine; identification of antigens and their use as recombinant
vaccines);      trypanosomiases      (antigenic     variation;     non-specific
lymphoproliferation       and     immunodepression;     vaccination     against
trypanosome infection).


Meat
Specialization: Meat
Subject: Comparative performance of Madras Red sheep, Tellicherry
goats, Large White Yorkshire pigs, Jersey crossbred calves and New
Zealand white rabbits.
Year of publication: 1999
Journal: Cheiron. 1999; 28(6): 209-216 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Sivakumar, T; Thiagarajan, M
Content:
An experiment was conducted to compare the meat producing efficiency and
economics of 24 lambs, 34 kids, 34 piglets, 12 calves and 39 rabbits. Mean
live body weights obtained at the 18th fortnight of age in sheep, goat and
pigs were 17.50, 14.20 and 65.32 kg respectively, 105.30kg at the 24th
fortnight in calf and 1.60 kg at the 10th fortnight in rabbit. The total cost of
production for one cattle unit of sheep, goat, pig, calf and rabbit were
Rs.3666/-, 3719/-, 7730/-, 4387/- and 4134/- respectively at the age of 270,
270, 270, 365 and 140 days. The cost per kg live weight gain was Rs.21.07 in
sheep, Rs.26.18 in goats, Rs.23.67 in pigs, Rs.24.99 in calves and Rs.25.84 in
rabbits. The calculated net returns per cattle unit of sheep, goat, pig, calf and
rabbit were Rs.7424/-, 5453/-, 1515/-, 1454/- and 1447/- for 270, 270, 270,
365 and 140 days of maintenance respectively. With species-specific
dressing percentages, the cost per kg of meat production was maximum in
goats (Rs.52/-) and in rabbits, sheep and calves the respective figures were
Rs.43/-, 42/- and Rs.41/- and the least-cost of Rs.32/- per kg of meat
production was obtained in pigs. The cost per kg of animal protein
production also was cheaper with pigs at Rs.191/-, costlier with goat at

                                1463
Rs.291/- and intermediary with sheep, calves and rabbits as Rs.234/-, 205/-
and 205/- respectively.

Specialization: Meat
Subject: Identification of species origin of fresh, cooked and decomposed
meats using brain antigens.
Year of publication: 2000
Journal: Journal of Food Science and Technology Mysore. 2000; 37(2):
201-203 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Reddy, P M; Reddy, V S L; Rao, Z S; Murthy, G K
Content:
Antisera were raised in rabbits against fresh and heated brain antigens of
cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat and pig, and those of rabbit fresh and rabbit
thermostable brain antisera were raised in sheep and goat, respectively. These
antisera were used to identify the species origin of fresh, cooked and
decomposed meats, by conducting double immunodiffusion (DID),
immunoelectrophoresis (IE) and counter immunoelectrophoresis (CIE)
techniques. All the antisera, developed cross reactions except sheep anti-
rabbit native, and goat anti-rabbit thermostable brain antisera and, rabbit anti-
pig native as well as thermostable antisera, which proved species-specific.
All the cross-reacting antisera after successful absorption and other natural
species specific antisera were used to detect adulterated meats either fresh,
cooked, or decomposed.

Specialization: Meat
Subject: Development of antisera to testicular antigens for identification
of species origin of meats using DID, IE, CIE and RIE techniques.
Year of publication: 2001
Journal: Journal of Food Science and Technology Mysore. 2001; 38(1):
32-37 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Reddy, P M
Content:
Antisera were raised in rabbits using native and heated testicular antigens
from cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats. Double immunodiffusion test (DID),
immunoelectrophoresis (IE), counter-immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) and
rocket immunoelectrophoresis (RIE) techniques were standardized using the
above sera. Cross reactions were noticed between different species of
antigens and they were eliminated by making the sera monospecific, using
glutaraldehyde treated immunosorbent of the heterologous antigens. To
overcome the problem of absorption, to make the sera monospecific, antisera
were also raised in phylogenetically related species, viz., cattle in buffalo,
buffalo in cattle, sheep in goat and goat in sheep using native as well as
heated testicular antigens which proved monospecific directly. The sera
samples could detect adulteration in fresh meat samples even at a low level
of 1%, while in the case of cooked meat samples, the detection levels were
10 to 20%. The sera were lyophilized and could show specific reaction up to
2 years.

Specialization: Meat

                                1464
Subject: Effect of temperature on myofibril fragmentation during post-
mortem storage of muscle.
Year of publication: 2001
Journal: Journal of Food Science and Technology Mysore. 2001; 38(1):
52-53 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Nagaraj, N S; Anilakumar, K R; Santhanam, K
Content:
Myofibrillar Fragmentation Index (MFI) was estimated in chicken, sheep,
goat and cattle meat in order to determine the pattern of myofibrillar
fragmentation on storage. The pH was measured after storing the muscles at
24+or-1 degrees C for 24 h. The order of pH decline pattern was chicken >
cattle > goat > sheep. The leg muscles of chicken and longissimus dorsi
muscles of sheep, goat and cattle were stored for 24 h at 27+or-1 degrees C,
20 days at 5 degrees C and 60 days at -15 degrees C. There was a
proportionate increase in MFI as the postmortem aging of meat advanced. It
was concluded that the myofibrillar fragmentation followed a pattern of
chicken > sheep > goat > cattle muscle on postmortem storage at different
temperatures.

Specialization: Meat
Subject: A preliminary study on the assessment and evaluation of carcass
measurement of Eritrean types of cattle.
Year of publication: 2003
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 2003; 80(2): 147-149 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Badi, A M I; Rattan, P J S
Content:
The relationship between liveweight and carcass weight (deboned met) in
Eritrean cattle was studied. The investigations were undertaken on 31 male
Barka and 34 Arado cattle. Correlation and regression for liveweight
obtained from heart girth and body length was 0.79 and 0.71, respectively.
The values were statistically significant for both Barka and Arado types. The
best estimated liveweight (0.77) was observed for Barka correlated with heart
girth. Carcass dressing weight was high in the age between 6 to 7 years for
Barka and 9 to 10 years for Arado. The analysis of variance indicated highly
significant (p<0.01) differences in carcass weight and liveweight, with a
correlation of 0.944; the regression equation for the estimation of carcass
weight was 95%. The linear correlation between liveweight and deboned
meat was 0.90, and regression equation for estimated deboned meat from
liveweight was 95%.

Specialization: Meat
Subject: Identification of dog meat by serological tests.
Year of publication: 2003
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 2003; 80(1): 29-32 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Renuka Nayar; Govindarajulu, M
Content:
The identification of dog meat among buffalo, cattle, sheep, goat and pig
meat was performed using anti-dog antiserum raised in sheep against 3%

                               1465
saline extract of the fresh meat sample and dog serum and tested by the agar
gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and ELISA. It was shown that the anti-dog
antiserum was monospecific in both AGID and ELISA, with a working
dilution of 1:800. Both tests reliably and accurately revealed the presence of
dog meat and could be used for certification of fresh meat and meat products
exported for the global trade.

Specialization: Meat
Subject: Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE): prevention, detection
of ruminant protein in meat and bone meal and inactivation of the prion.
Year of publication: 2003
Journal: Journal of Immunology and Immunopathology. 2003; 5(1): 1-11
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Singh, K
Content:
Recently number of papers have been addressed to scrapie in sheep and a
related disease in cattle: bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).
Especially in Great Britain, BSE occurred in epidemic form. The agent of
BSE, a proteinaceous infectious particle (prion), was thought to originate
from scrapie. The spread of BSE to countries other than the U.K. should be
viewed with the substantiation that it is transmitted by ingestion of prions
which may have contaminated the feed. The wide distribution of scrapie
through out the world and the use of animal protein in cattle feed require in-
depth analysis of rendering procedures. The agent can gain access to new
countries through export and import of meat and bone meal (MBM) made
from the offals of BSE-infected cattle or through the transition of animals in
preclinical stage of disease. There are many techniques to control the
presence of meat and bone meal by detecting efficacy of the heat treatment of
the rendering procedures or by detecting the species-specific sequence of
nucleic acid. Since the addressing of this problem, there have been reports of
various chemicals and schedules, which considerably reduce the infectious
titre. Recent reports of export of meat and bone meal to different countries
add highly to the concern. In this review we try to explain some measures
that a country can adopt to prevent the entry of BSE in its premises.

Specialization: Meat
Subject: A preliminary study on the assessment and evaluation of carcass
measurement of Eritrean types of cattle.
Year of publication: 2003
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal (India). (Feb 2003). v. 80(2) p.147-
149.AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Badi, A.M.I.; Rattan, P.J.S.
Institution: College of Agriculture and Aquatic Sciences, Asmara (Eritrea)
Content:
A preliminary study undertaken on the assessment and evaluation of carcass
measurement on 65 male animals of Barka and Arado breeds of cattle
indicated a high correlation between live body weight, heart girth, body
length, deboned and lean meat. The best body weight can be calculated from
the heart girth. A linear correlation between live weight and carcass weight;

                               1466
live body weight and lean meat was 0.94, 0.90 and 0.89 respectively. Highly
significant (p<0.01) differences were noticed between the carcass weight of
Barka and Arado animals with higher dressing percentage between the 6 to 7
years of age

Specialization: Meat
Subject: Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in detection and
differentiation of cooked and raw pork from meats of other species.
Year of publication: 2003
Journal: Journal of Food Science and Technology Mysore. 2003; 40(3):
254-256 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Jha, V K; Ashwani Kumar; Mandokhot, U V
Content:
Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was standardized to
identify the cooked (autoclaved) and raw (native) muscle antigens of pig and
their differentiation from muscle antigens of cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat and
chicken. The unabsorbed antiserum (RAP) in rabbits against boiling resistant
ethanol precipitable (BE) adrenal antigen of pig was found species specific
and revealed promising results in indirect ELISA. It detected all the cooked
and raw pork samples from field as pig meat and on the basis of cut-off
ELISA values (0.14 for cooked, 0.10 for raw) differentiated them from the
cooked and raw muscle samples of cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat and chicken.
Indirect ELISA proved to be a sensitive test as it detected adulterant pig meat
(cooked/raw) at a minimum level of 1% adulteration in meats of
cattle/buffalo/sheep/goat/chicken.

Specialization: Meat
Subject: Quality enhancement in food processing through HACCP
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point
Year of publication: 2005
Journal: Report of the APO Study Meeting held in India, 26 February 4
March 2002 02 AG-GE-STM-01. 2005; 89-97 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Seema Shukla
Content:
A review of ISO 9000 quality management system and hazard analysis
critical control point in India is provided. Food processing industry in general
and meat processing industry in particular are discussed in detail. India has a
livestock population of 470 million which includes 205 million cattle and 90
million buffaloes. The production of meat and meat products has shown
impressive growth and enough potential is available to increase it further.
The prevalence of various livestock diseases and inadequate modern and
integrated facilities are the 2 major constraints for promoting the export of
meat. India has achieved the rinderpest-free status. India is also free from
bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie. However, certain other
livestock diseases like foot-and-mouth disease, etc. are still prevalent in the
country. As discussed, the concept of an agri-export zone and disease-free
zones are already in process to ensure safe and hygienic meat for consumers.
Also the integrated meat processing plants are now coming up which will not
only produce safe meat but will also be environmentally friendly. Such

                                1467
regulations pose challenges to Indian food industries which are being
converted into opportunities and will expand their business.

Medicine
Specialization: Medicine
Subject: A new horizon in mastitis treatment.
Year of publication: 1989
Journal: Journal of Research, Punjab Agricultural University. 1989;
26(3): 477-481 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Dhillon, K S; Jasmer Singh; Gill, B S
Content:
Mastitis in 10 zebu crossbred cows and 10 buffaloes were successfully
treated giving orally 12 gm of trisodium citrate in 250 ml water daily to each
animal till recovery. The role of citrate deficiency in mastitis is discussed.

Specialization: Medicine
Subject: Biochemical status and progesterone during lameness and
infertility in dairy cows.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1998; 68(6): 557-558 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Singh, S; Prabhakar, S; Ghuman, S P S
Content:
This study was conducted to investigate any abberation in the biochemical
profile of lame animals, which might have detrimental effect on the
reproductive performance of the animals and progesterone levels, which in
turn could determine the cyclic behaviour of the animals. 13 normally
cycling (NC), 6 lame cyclic (LC), and 26 lame non-cyclic (LNC) cows were
utilized for the study. The plasma progesterone levels were higher on the
10th day of the oestrous cycle in NC and LC animals, indicating normal
cyclicity of animals with functional corpus luteum. Progesterone level did
not vary in the LNC animals at 2 consecutive observations, indicating the
absence of regular cyclicity. The average total plasma protein levels in LNC
cows were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of NC cows. Higher levels
of proteins were found associated with increased incidence of lameness due
to laminitis. Hypercalcaemia and hypophosphataemia (P<0.05) were
observed in lame cows. Disturbances in Ca:P balance could be due to
increased mobilization of calcium from skeletal tissues, which cause
abnormal gait/lameness. Higher calcium levels caused secondary deficiency
of phosphorous, zinc, and copper. Hypophosphataemia might have induced
the release of calcium. The levels of plasma zinc and copper in LNC cows
were significantly lower (P<0.05) compared to NC cows. Decreased zinc and
copper levels may lead to suboptimal ovarian activity, anovulation, and
anoestrus due to decreased synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins.
The plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were
higher in LC and LNC cows (P<0.05) compared to NC cows. The enhanced
enzyme activities may be associated with various endocrine disturbances
leading to failure of cyclicity. It is inferred that in lame animals, the absence
of cyclicity may be due to the combined effect of higher plasma proteins,

                                1468
calcium, and lower inorganic phosphorous, zinc, and copper.

Specialization: Medicine
Subject: Clinical manifestation of experimental water intoxication in
calves.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1998; 68(6): 531-532 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Maribei, J M; Njoroge, E M; Mbugua, P N
Institution:
Content:
This study was conducted to reproduce water intoxication in calves under
experimental conditions by simulating field managemental practices. Two
trials of induction of water intoxication, at weaning and one month after
weaning, were carried out in 5 test and 5 control calves. For the whole
preweaning period, the test calves did not have any access to salts and water,
other than that contained in milk. The control calves had water ad libitum
throughout the preweaning period. To induce water intoxication in the test
calves, water was provided ad libitum at weaning, and calves were allowed
to drink voluntarily. After the initial disease episode at weaning, water was
provided to test calves at small amounts equivalent to the volume of milk
provided before weaning and a second trial of disease induction was carried
out one month later. In both trials, varying degrees of clinical signs of the
disease were observed in all the 5 calves, whereas none were observed in
control calves. The signs observed included haemoglobinuria, CNS
disturbance, colic, diarrhoea, arrhythmia, oedema of the eyelids, blindness,
excessive lacrimation, and excessive salivation.

Specialization: Medicine
Subject: Effects of season and infection on composition of mastitic milk
of the Friesian cattle in Sudan.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1998; 68(4): 382-385 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Mohamed, I E; Mohamed, G E; Elowni, O A O
Content:
Clinical mastitis, as measured by California mastitis tests (CMT), has a
significant effect on casein, lactose, total solids, chloride, Koestlerm; value
and ash. Similarly, mastitis samples that were collected during summer
showed significant effects on caseins, whey proteins and ash, total proteins
and fat (Sudan). Staphylococcus aureus, isolated from clinical mastitis, has a
significant effect on chloride and lactose. However, S. aureus, isolated during
summer, from mastitic cows, showed significant effects on caseins, chloride,
whey proteins, acidity and fat per cent.

Specialization: Medicine
Subject: Factors affecting composition of mastitic milk of Friesian cattle
in Sudan.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1998; 68(4): 379-381 AB:
Country of Origin: India

                                1469
Author’s name: Mohamed, I E; Elowni, O A O; Mohamed, G E
Content:
The composition of mastitic cows milk had a highly significant decrease in
total solids, caseins, lactose, casein number and fat%, while ash chloride,
total proteins and Koslter's value increased (Sudan). The difference between
maximum, minimum mean and standard deviation of milk constituents
between healthy and mastitic cows were determined. The types of bacteria
isolated had significant effects only on lactose and acidity.

Specialization: Medicine
Subject: Milk profiles in clinical mastitis.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1998; 68(5): 467-468 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Akhilesh Kamal; Rajora, V S; Pachauri, S P; Gupta, G C
Content:
The possible use of milk composition profiles for the prompt diagnosis of
mastitis was studied. Milk samples from 20 cows with clinical mastitis and
from 4 lactating cows (control) were obtained. pH, somatic cell count (SCC),
total solids, lactose and solids-not-fat of the milk samples, were determined.
Mean SCC in clinically affected (whiteside positive) quarters was
significantly (P<0.01) higher (13.712+or-1.144x105/ml) as compared to the
normal (whiteside negative) quarters of mastitic (4.325+or-0.192x105/ml)
and healthy cows (2.500+or-0.195x105/ml). Mean pH was significantly
increased (7.511+or-0.128) in mastitic milk, as compared to normal milk
(6.469+or-0.024). Fat contents decreased significantly in mastitic milk as
compared with normal milk (3.309+or-0.126 vs. 4.419+or-0.045 g/dl). There
was a significant reduction in the total solids in both mastitic (11.145+or-
0.162 g/dl) and normal (12.069+or-0.086 g/dl) quarters of clinically affected
cows, as compared with healthy cows (13.275+or-0.065 g/dl). Decreased
SNF values in milk samples from cows suffering from clinical mastitis was
recorded, as compared with normal cows (7.896+or-0.069 vs. 8.856+or-
0.031 g/dl). Lactose content of milk was found to be significantly decreased
in mastitic, as compared with normal quarters. The correlation between SCC
and pH was sufficiently greater, both in normal and mastitic quarters (r>0.9).
Hence, pH may be used as a reliable index of mastitis. A negative correlation
between SCC and fat contents was recorded (r>0.75). SCC was negatively
correlated with total solids, SNF and lactose.

Specialization: Medicine
Subject: Influence of Escherichia coli endotoxin induced fever on the
pharmacokinetics and dosage regimen of oxytetracycline in cross-bred
calves.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica (Hungary). (1998). v. 46(1) p. 95-
100.AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Singh, R.P.; Srivastava, A.K.; Sharma, S.K.; Nauriyal, D.C.
Institution:
Punjab Agric. Univ., Ludhiana (India). Coll. of Vet. Sci., Dep. of Vet. Med.
Punjab Agric. Univ., Ludhiana (India). Coll. of Vet. Sci., Dep. of

                               1470
Pharmacology and Toxicology. Punjab Agric. Univ., Ludhiana (India). Coll.
o f Vet. Sci., Dep. of Vet. Med.
Content:
The pharmacokinetics and dosage regimen of oxytetracycline were
determined in healthy and febrile cross-bred calves following its single
intravenous administration (10 mg kg to the -1). Fever was induced by a
single intravenous injection of E. coli endotoxin (1 microgram kg to the -1
i.v.). The elimination half life (t 1/2 beta) and the apparent volume of
distribution [vd(area)] were slightly increased in febrile calves, as compared
to healthy animals. The values of t 1/2 beta and Vd(area) were 3.22 plus or
minus 0.20 h and 0.49 plus or minus 0.02 L. kg to the -1 in healthy calves
and 4.06 plus or minus 0.32 h and 0.70 plus or minus 0.09 L kg to the -1,
respectively, in febrile calves. An intravenous dosage regimen suitable for
maintaining the minimum therapeutic plasma concentration of is more than
or equal to 2 microgram/ml in febrile animals would be 10 mg kg to the -1
repeated at 12-h intervals.

Specialization: Medicine
Subject: Treatment of bovine subclinical mastitis.
Year of publication: 1999
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1999; 76(7): 646-649 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Buragohin, J; Dutta, G N
Content:
The modified California Mastitis Test, performed on 180 cows in early or
mid-lactation, indicated that 98 had subclinical infections. Treatment was
given on the basis of drug sensitivity tests on the causal organisms (not
specified), and 100% success rate was achieved, with all animals being cured
completely by the 6th day and no reinfections being recorded in 60 days. The
animals were treated with 3 intramammary infusions of Pendistrin-SH
(procaine penicillin, streptomycin, sulfamerazine, and hydrocortisone
acetate), Tilox (ampicillin and cloxacillin) or gentamicin, or one infusion of
acetylsalicylic acid with ampicillin and cloxacillin, or acetylsalicylic acid
with gentamicin.

Specialization: Medicine
Subject: Biochemical changes in serum and urine in bovine fluorosis.
Year of publication: 1999
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1999; 69(10): 776-778 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Singh, J L; Swarup, D
Content:
Biochemical changes in serum and urine were investigated in cow and
buffaloes showing clinical signs of fluorosis due to excessive intake of
fluoride. Blood and urine samples were collected from 25 affected cows and
buffaloes and 25 healthy cows and buffaloes. As compared to healthy cows
and buffaloes, significantly higher levels of fluoride were recorded in serum
and urine of affected cows and buffaloes which confirmed the diagnosis of
fluorosis. The affected animals showed significantly elevated values of
serum urea nitrogen, creatinine inorganic phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase,
and manganese. The concentrations of calcium, magnesium, iron, and copper

                               1471
were low in fluorotic cows and buffaloes. Changes in urine included
significantly increased levels of calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline
phosphatase in cows and buffaloes suffering from fluorosis. Serum zinc
concentration was unchanged.

Specialization: Medicine
Subject: Biochemical changes relevant to cardiovascular function in lead
intoxicated calves.
Year of publication: 1999
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1999; 69(6): 374-377 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Dey, S; Swarup, D; Dwivedi, S K
Content:
Six, 2- to 3-month-old crossbred calves were given, orally, a 1.0% aqueous
solution of 5 mg lead acetate/kg body weight (equivalent to 2.73 mg
lead/kg), daily for 45 days or until clinical signs of toxicity were observed.
Six control calves received distilled water. Lead exposure increased levels of
serum cholesterol and triglycerides in calves from day 28 onwards. Serum
sodium and potassium levels did not change significantly, but concentrations
of calcium decreased after lead exposure. Changes in creatinine
phosphokinase (CPK) levels were most pronounced at the later stage of the
experiment.

Microbiology
Specialization: Microbiology
Subject: Serological and molecular analysis of serotype O foot-and-
mouth disease virus isolated from disease outbreaks in India during
1987-91.
Year of publication: 1996
Journal: Virus Research. 1996; 43(1): 45-55 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Mahender Singh; Mohan, B M; Suryanarayana, V V S
Content:
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) type O outbreaks have been reported
frequently in vaccinated cattle in India. Twenty-five field isolates, recovered
from outbreaks in vaccinated and unvaccinated cattle between 1987 and
1991, were analysed in relation to the vaccine strain (R2/75) by complement
fixation, serum neutralization and partial nucleotide sequencing of the VP1
gene. These sequences were compared with the viral sequences in GenEMBL
database. Although the Indian type O viruses were close to the European type
O1 viruses, they constituted a separate group of type O FMDVs. One of the
field viruses, isolated from an outbreak in vaccinated cattle and designated as
BAK/90, showed significant serological and nucleotide sequence variations
from the vaccine strain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the BAK/90 and
R2/75 viruses belong to separate subgroups. The other isolates were found to
be serologically related to both the BAK/90 and the vaccine strain. The
BAK/90 strain gave broader antigenic coverage, showed better
immunogenicity, and yielded larger amounts of 146S particles in suspension
cultures as compared with R2/75. Taken together, these results favour
inclusion of the BAK/90 strain in the vaccine to provide adequate protection

                                1472
against the field variants of type O FMDV currently circulating in India.

Specialization: Microbiology
Subject: Assessment of serological response to haemorrhagic septicaemia
vaccine by PMPT.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1998; 68(3): 234-235 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Reddy, G S; Srinivasan, V A
Content:
This study compares the efficiency of ELISA with passive mouse protection
test (PMPT) in evaluating the serological response of cattle vaccinated
against haemorrhagic septicaemia. It was observed that ELISA was able to
differentiate nonvaccinated from vaccinated calves unlike PMPT where
positive results were observed in some nonvaccinated cattle. Thus, ELISA
can be used routinely, as PMPT was more labour intensive, costly and
difficult to interpret. Moreover, ELISA does not involve the use of mice for
immunodiagnosis.

Specialization: Microbiology
Subject: Characterization of bovine strains of Staphylococci by
biochemical screening and phage typing.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Health. 1998; 37(2): 49-51 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Chandana Chatterjee; Nag, N C; Roy, J P
Content:
82 Staphylococcus spp. strains were isolated from cattle and buffaloes with
mastitis, superficial and deep pyogenic lesions of surgical wounds, metritis,
pyometra and other infections. Coagulase positive Staphylococcus spp.
strains were analysed using bacteriophage typing and biochemical tests. Most
strains were susceptible to 42D phage.

Specialization: Microbiology
Subject: Comparative efficacy of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
(ELISA),        dot-immunobinding         assay   (DIA)       and    indirect
haemagglutination test (IHA) for detection of bovine herpesvirus (BHV-
1) antibodies in cattle and buffaloes.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1998; 68(6): 512-514 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Reddy, K V; Babu, T S; Varalakshmi, K; Rao, M V S
Content:
The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA and dot-ELISA in detecting serum
antibodies to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) were determined by comparing
with indirect haemagglutination test (IHA). A total of 54 bovine serum
samples from cases of bovine abortions, respiratory tract infections and
apparently healthy animals were subjected to IHA, ELISA and dot-ELISA
tests. In these tests, both known positive (BHV-1) and known negative serum
samples (12 each) were also included. Out of 54 bovine serum samples
screened by IHA test, 34 were seropositive, with titres ranging from 8 to 128.

                               1473
These samples were also positive in dot-ELISA and had titres varying from
32 to 4096. Moreover, 45 samples tested positive in the ELISA, with titres
ranging from 32 to 8192. ELISA and dot-ELISA were 100% sensitive and
specific. However, dot-ELISA was simpler, economical, and did not require
sophisticated equipment or trained technical staff.

Specialization: Microbiology
Subject: Development of a new dot-ELISA kit for detection of antibodies
in bovine brucellosis.
Year of publication:
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1998; 68(5): 458-459 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Batra, H V; Agarwal, G S
Content:
A comparative evaluation of the Dot-ELISA kit, for the diagnosis of
brucellosis, in relation to routinely used serological tests, was done. A total
of 663 blood/serum samples were obtained from various cattle and buffalo
farms in India (Haryana, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh), where
brucellosis is endemic. Results show that the sensitivity of the Dot-ELISA kit
was similar to that of complement fixation test (CFT); both methods detected
53 animals that were positive. The sensitivity of the serum agglutination test
(SAT) was lower, as compared to the 2 other methods; SAT detected only 33
cases that were positive for brucellosis; 4 of these, tested negative when the
kit and CFT were used (false positive results). Furthermore, the specificity of
the Dot-ELISA kit was found to be comparable to CFT, considered to be a
confirmatory test. The Dot-ELISA kit is thus suggested for use under field
conditions, since it is also easy and convenient to use.

Specialization: Microbiology
Subject: Factors influencing clinical mastitis in bovines - a study in Tamil
Nadu.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Production and Management. 1998;
14(2): 110-114 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Thirunavukkarasu, M; Prabaharan, R
Content:
A study was designed to analyse the predisposing factors of clinical mastitis
in cattle using data collected from 5 organized government/university dairy
farms and 25 randomly selected private farms in 1993-95. The incidence of
mastitis was 13.01 and 7.37%, respectively, in cows and buffaloes, and was
significantly associated with animal factors (breed, milk yield, stage and
order of lactation and udder morphology) and also with environmental
factors (season and farm management practices such as sanitation). Effective
management of environmental factors was shown to assist in reducing
mastitis incidence.

Specialization: Microbiology
Subject: Immunogenicity of vero-cell-adapted caprinized rinderpest
virus in cattle.
Year of publication: 1998

                                1474
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1998; 68(1): 35-37 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Parida, M M; Bandyopadhyay, S K
Content:
This study was conducted to evaluate the immunogenic value of vero cell-
adapted caprinized rinderpest virus (vGTV) in hill bulls (n=3). Two hill bulls
were vaccinated with 1 ml suspension of ~150 TCID50 of vGTV while the
third animal was the control. The 2 vaccinated hill bulls developed
neutralizing antibodies which increased marginally by the third week but
they remained healthy and did not develop either fever or clinical reactions
akin to rinderpest. At day 22, all animals were challenged with 103 LD50 of
virulent rinderpest. Both vaccinated animals were totally protected from
clinical disease and did not show clinical reaction while the control died after
6 days of infection with rinderpest disease like symptoms.

Specialization: Microbiology
Subject: Polypeptide analysis of Indian isolates of bovine herpesvirus-1
(BHV-1).
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1998; 68(3): 230-233 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Sreenivasa, B P; Natarajan, C; Gajendragad, M R;
Suryanarayana, V V S; Rasool, T J
Content:
This study presents the polypeptide profile of 2 respiratory isolates and one
abortion isolate of BHV-1 from India. Band-wise comparison of the
polypeptide profiles with standard pattern showed that all the isolates belong
to BHV-1.1 (IBR-like). Fluorography of the immunoprecipitated virion
polypeptides using BHV-1 specific polyclonal antisera revealed the lack of
precipitation of polypeptide No. 27, thereby signifying variation within
BHV-1.

Specialization: Microbiology
Subject: A rapid latex agglutination test for detection of leptospiral
antibodies.
Year of publication: 1999
Journal: Veterinary Microbiology. 1999; 70(1/2): 137-140 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Ramadass, P; Samuel, B; Nachimuthu, K
Content:
A rapid semi-quantitative latex agglutination test (LAT) was standardized for
the detection of leptospiral antibodies in sera of man and animals. The
efficacy of the LAT was compared with that of the plate ELISA. Of 276
human serum samples analysed, 84.8% were positive by LAT and 85.9%
were positive by ELISA. Of 65 animal (cattle and dog) samples tested, 63.1
and 69.2% were positive in the LAT and ELISA, respectively. Even though
the ELISA test was slightly more sensitive than the LAT, the speed,
simplicity and cost of the LAT meet the requirements of a screening test for
leptospiral antibodies.

Specialization: Microbiology

                                1475
Subject: Antigenic profiles of Pasteurella multocida (bovine) vaccine
strain P52.
Year of publication: 1999
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1999; 76(9): 771-775 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Sridevi, B; Rao, A S; Dhanalakshmi, K
Content:
Following a breakdown of immunity in animals vaccinated against
haemorrhagic septicaemia, a study was made of the antigenic structure of the
vaccine strain P52 of P. multocida, so that comparisons with field isolates
could be made and a better candidate strain selected for future vaccine
production. SDS-PAGE analysis of a sonicate extract of the P52 strain
revealed 24 polypeptides and 36 carbohydrate moieties, while that of a whole
cell extract revealed 13 and 17, respectively. DEAE cellulose ion exchange
column chromatography of the P52 strain sonicate indicated 4 protein peaks,
all of which were found, by precipitation tests and a dot-ELISA, to contain
specific antigens, indicating their possible usefulness for the preparation of
subunit vaccines.

Milk and milk products
Specialization: Milk and milk products
Subject: Fat, total solids and solids-not-fat percentage of milk in Vechur
cattle.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1998; 68(6): 570-573 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Venkatachalapathy, R T; Sosamma Iype
Content:
This study was conducted to estimate the fat, total solids, and solids not fat
percentage for breed characterization in cattle. Milk samples from 15 Vechur
cows were collected at weekly intervals in the morning and evening for one
lactation and analysed for percentage of fat, total solids and solids not fat.
The average percentage of milk fat, total solids and solids not fat from 1 to
44 weeks were 5.95+or-0.12 and 6.62+or-0.13, 14.79+or-0.13 and 15.53+or-
0.12, 8.84+or-0.12 and 8.92+or-0.14 for morning and evening, respectively.
The fat and total solids percentage of the milk showed an increasing trend as
the lactation advanced. No trend was observed for the solids not fat
percentage during the stage of lactation. Least squares analysis of variance
showed highly significant effects of time of milking and stage of lactation on
fat and total solids percentage. However, differences in solids not fat
percentage was insignificant. The least squares mean for 1 to 44 weeks were
6.13+or-0.12, 15.02+or-0.14 and 8.89+or-0.13 for fat, total solids and solids
not fat percentage, respectively.

Specialization: Milk and milk products
Subject: Partitoning of progesterone and 17 beta -estradiol in milk.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1998; 68(1): 68-69 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Sandhya Chaudhari; Lakhchaura, B D; Sud, S C

                               1476
Content:
This study was conducted to determine the partition coefficient of
progesterone (P4) and 17 beta -estradiol (E2) in milk for different fat
concentrations. Composite milk samples from 5 crossbred (Jersey, Holstein,
Friesian with Sahiwal) cows were collected and milk fat was determined.
The partition coeffficients calculated for samples containing 1, 2, 3 and 4%
fat were 132, 135 and 137 for P4 and 111, 108, 109 and 112 for E2,
respectively. It was observed that the reproductive phase of the animal
influenced the partitioning of E2. During luteal phase 20% and on day of
oestrus 30% E2 was found in nonfat phase fractions. It then appeared that the
partitioning of E2 in fat and nonfat phase was also influenced by additional
factors besides fat content. Partitioning coefficient was also a useful
parameter and can be utilized to estimate the distribution of P4 or E2 in
aqueous of fat phase of the milk if the fat content of the milk and hormonal
value in one of two phases was known.

Specialization: Milk and milk products
Subject: Calcium and magnesium ions activity in milk as influenced by
processing treatments.
Year of publication: 1999
Journal: Indian Journal of Dairy Science. 1999; 52(5): 315-319 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Vandana Sharma; Sindhu, J S
Content:
Composite milk samples of buffalo, zebu and crossbred cattle were analysed
to determine the calcium and magnesium ions (free Ca++ and Mg++)
activity. The effect of heating, cooling and holding, concentration and
homogenization on the calcium and magnesium ions activity in buffalo milk
was also determined. The concentration of ionic calcium in mM/litre of milk
was 4.19, 4.69 and 4.67 in buffalo, zebu and crossbred cows respectively.
The ionic magnesium was higher in buffalo (2.16 mM/litre) than in zebu
(1.29) and crossbred (1.09) cows. Pasteurization and preheating of buffalo
milk caused a considerable decrease in the ionic calcium and magnesium,
while cooling and holding at 4-6 degrees C for 24 and 48 h, concentration
(2:1) and homogenization caused a considerable increase in the activity of
these ions.

Specialization: Milk and milk products
Subject: Compositional status of artificially induced milk in crossbred
cattle.
Year of publication: 1999
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1999; 76(8): 723-724 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Babu, D S; Reddy, Y K
Content:
During hormonally-induced lactation in 5 cows and 5 heifers, their milk had
a higher fat content than milk from normally calved cows, whereas the
lactose, protein and ash percentages were similar to those of normal milk.

Specialization: Milk and milk products
Subject: Effect of added formalin on residual thiocyanate estimation in

                               1477
LP-system activated milk.
Year of publication: 1999
Journal: Journal of Dairying, Foods and Home Sciences. 1999; 18(2):
136-137 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Vivek Sharma; Des Raj
Content:
The effect of addition of formalin on the estimation of residual thiocyanate
level was studied in lactoperoxidase (LP)-system-activated milk samples.
Mixed milk (1:1 cow:buffalo) activated with three levels of LP-system viz.
LP 25:15, LP 70:30 and LP 105:70, were preserved with 0.4% formalin and
analysed for residual thiocyanate levels using a slightly modified IDF
method. Formalin treatment and storage resulted in a decrease in residual
thiocyanate levels.

Specialization: Milk and milk products
Subject: Milk composition of Jersey and Holstein x Assam local
crossbred.
Year of publication: 1999
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1999; 76(12): 1085-1087 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Goswami, R; Choudhury, R K; Baruah, K K; Saikia, B N
Content:
Jersey x Assam crossbred cow milk had significantly higher percentages of
fat, TS, protein and lactose than Holstein x Assam, but there was no
significant difference in SNF between these 2 crossbreds.

Specialization: Milk and milk products
Subject: Calcium and magnesium ions activity in milk as influenced by
processing treatments.
Year of publication: 1999
Journal: Indian Journal of Dairy Science (India). (Sep 1999). v. LII(5) p.
315-319. AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Sharma, V.; Sindhu, J.S
Institution: National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal (India). Dairy
Chemistry Div.
Content:
Composite milk samples of buffalo, Zebu and crossbred cattle were analysed
to determine the magnesium ions activity (Free Ca++ and Mg++ ions). The
influence     of    different    processing   treatments   (heating,    cool-
ageing,concentration and homogenization) on the calcium and magnesium
ions activity in buffalo milk was also determined. The concentration of ionic
calcium in mM/litre was 4.19, 4.69 and 4.67 in buffalo, Zebu and crossbred
cattle milk, respectively. The ionic magnesium was higher in buffalo milk
(2.16 mM/litre) compared in Zebu (1.29) and crossbred cows (1.09). The
pasteurization and forewarming of buffalo milk caused a considerable
decrease in the ionic calcium and magnesium, while cool-ageing at 4-6 C for
24 and 48 h, concentration (2:1) and homogenization caused a considerable
increase in the activity of these ions.


                               1478
Specialization: Milk and milk products
Subject: A study on some macro and micro- elements in milk of
crossbred cows maintained in private dairy farms.
Year of publication: 2000
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 2000; 77(1): 40-41 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Goswami, R; Choudhury, R K; Baruah, K K; Sharma, B C
Content:
The status of some macro- and micro- elements in milk were studied during
the early lactation period in crossbred cows maintained on a private dairy
farm. The concentration of magnesium, iron, copper and zinc in milk of
Jersey x Assam local and Holstein x Assam local cows were analysed during
first, third and sixth fortnights. The average concentration of all elements
were higher in Holstein x Assam local than Jersey x Assam local crossbred
cows although no significant difference was observed between the breeds.

Specialization: Milk and milk products
Subject: A study on the transfer of organochlorine pesticide residues
from the feed of the cattle into their milk.
Year of publication: 2000
Journal: Pesticide Research Journal. 2000; 12(1): 68-73 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Nath, B S; Unnikrishnan, V; Preeja, C N; Murthy, M K R
Content:
Endosulfan was not detected in the milk of cattle when thwy were fed with it
for four weeks at 50 mg/day. However, the level of BHC [HCH] residues in
the milk of the animals increased soon after dosing began with HCH and it
dropped sharply on discontinuation of the dosing. Similarly, feeding with
technical grade DDT increased the level of p,p'-DDT in the milk. The low
levels of p,p'-DDT in Bangalore market milk samples indicated that the
animals of this region were not being subjected to fresh ingestion of DDT to
any great extent.

Specialization: Milk and milk products
Subject: Casein polymorphism in the milk of mithun.
Year of publication: 2000
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 2000; 70(6): 603 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Nath, N C
Content:
Morning milk samples from 10 mithun cattle in early and mid-lactation in
Nagaland were examined for casein polymorphism. PAGE showed that
mithun milk contained all casein variants reported in zebu milk, i.e. alpha 1,
alpha 2 and beta -casein, with similar electrophoretic mobilities.

Nutrition
Specialization: Nutrition
Subject: Ruminal dry matter, organic matter and nitrogen degradability
of common tree leaves of Bundelkhand region.
Year of publication: 1998

                               1479
Journal: Range Management and Agroforestry. 1998; 19(2): 203-205 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Singh, A K; Upadhyay, V S; Misra, A K; Singh, K K
Content:
Rumen degradability of the DM, organic matter (OM) and N of leaves of 5
fodder tree species, anjan (Hardwickia binata), babul (Acacia nilotica),
kardhaie (Anogeissus latifolia), mahaneem (Melia azedarach) and siris
(Albizia lebbeck), was examined. In sacco studies were conducted using 45
nylon bags in 3 fistulated cattle maintained on mixed grass hay and green
berseem. CP content differed between the species ranging from 10.34% (A.
nilotica) to 16.52% (A. lebbeck). Higher (P<0.05) DM, OM and N
disappearance was observed in M. azedarach leaves; A. lebbeck leaves had
the lowest values. The results suggest that the tree leaves studied are a good
source of nutrients for ruminants and suitable for use as supplements.

Specialization: Nutrition
Subject: A preliminary trial on silage making in plastic bag silo.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: PKV Research Journal. 1998; 22(2): 197-198 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Raut, V V; Varade, P K
Content:
Maize cv. African Tall harvested at the milk stage was chopped into 1-2 cm
segments and ensiled in 10-kg plastic bags. Silage quality was assessed after
1-3 months. The silage showed good palatability and physical and chemical
characteristics, while weight loss was only 2-3%. It is concluded that the
ensiled green forage was successfully preserved in plastic bags.

Specialization: Nutrition
Subject: Comparative evaluation of gas production and dry matter
digestibility of straw substrates in vitro.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1998; 68(5): 484-486 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Bandla Srinivas; Singh, K K
Content:
This study was conducted to determine the relation between in vitro gas
production (IVGP) and in vivo dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of
untreated and treated wheat paddy straw. 12 rumen fistulated cattle were
allocated into 3 groups and offered with wheat straw alone (D1),
supplemented with concentrate mixture (D2), and urea-molasses-mineral
block or UMMB lick (D3). Strained rumen liquor of the animals was used as
inoculum, and untreated or 4% urea-treated wheat or paddy straw as
substrates. IVGP was measured at 2-h intervals for the first 12 h (phase 1)
and at 4-h intervals thereafter until 48 h (phase 2). Cell content fractions in
UMMB and in concentrate supplements were greater compared to straw
alone. The cumulative gas production curve was sigmoidal in shape. Total
gas production (TGP) increased linearly with time after 3-5 h in D1 and 0.5-3
h in D2 and D3. It was significantly high on diets D2 and D3 compared to
D1. TGP was greater on treated straw substrates than on untreated ones. The
TGP showed that CO2 proportion was reduced by 3 to 4% in treated

                                1480
substrates. Methane proportion was higher on D1 compared to other diets.
CO2 production was positively (R=0.82) and methane production was
negatively (R=-0.83) correlated with the digestibility of straw substrate. The
gas production pattern showed that specific environmental conditions had an
effect on the fermentability of straw. Fermentation pattern of substrates
observed through IVGP was confirmative with IVDMD, which was also
indicated by a positive correlation of 0.74. Regression equations were
developed for IVGP and IVDMD. The distinct improvement in fermentation
on paddy straw than wheat straw indicated flexibly simple microfibril
network. IVDMD and IVDMD varied significantly (P<0.01) between diets.
The value of r for IVDMD and IVGP ranged between 0.76 to 0.86 for
different types of straw with a mean value of 0.82, and validated significant
(P<0.01) compatibility between the 2 methods.

Specialization: Nutrition
Subject: Effect of different dietary nitrogen sources on growth
performance of crossbred cattle.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1998; 68(1): 76-78 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Lailer, P C; Singh, G P
Content:
Male crossbred calves (20) were randomly divided into 4 groups of 5 each
and fed groundnut-cake (T1), cottonseed-cake (T2), mustard-cake (T3), urea-
based concentrate rations (T4) and wheat straw. Growth rate was
significantly (P<0.01) lower on urea-based ration. Average dry matter intake
was 3.85, 3.76, 4.04 and 4.05 kg/day in the respective groups. Dry matter
intake per kg body weight gain was 1.49; 1.41; 1.57; and 1.59 kg in groups
T-1, T-2, T-3 and T-4, respectively. Daily N intake during the metabolism
trial was 90.76, 95.46, 90.36 and 99.69 g/day (P>0.05) and N balances were
19.00, 23.43, 16.67 and 18.58 g/day in the respective groups. From the
growth performance and N balance data it could be concluded that different
dietary N sources can be replaced by each other without adverse effect.
However, the cost of feeding as well as cost per kg gain was lower on urea-
based ration.

Specialization: Nutrition
Subject: Effect of feeding aflatoxin B1 on feed consumption through
naturally contaminated feeds.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1998; 68(4): 400-401 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Choudhary, P L; Sharma, R S; Borkhataria, V N; Desai, M
C
Content:
The objective of the study is to evaluate the effect of aflatoxin B1 on feed
consumption in cattle. Aflatoxin B1 ingested through feed significantly
(P<0.05) reduced feed consumption.

Specialization: Nutrition
Subject: Effect of feeding corn heart and corn cob husk on the rate of

                               1481
passage of digesta through gastro-intestinal tract of crossbred male
calves.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Production and Management. 1998;
14(3): 158-160 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Chawla, G L; Tiwari, S P; Taparia, A L; Rajagopal, S
Content:
Eight crossbred (Gir x Red Dane) male calves of about 6 months of age were
divided at random into two equal groups of four animals each. The calves
were fed ad libitum with corn [maize] cob heart or corn cob husk along with
supplemental mineral mixture 20 g/day. The feeding trial lasted for 40 days.
The rate of passage of digesta due to the feeding of corn cob heart and corn
cob husk was determined using the stained particles of the same feeding
stuffs. The 5% excretion time, rumen retention time 'S' and mean retention
time 'R' were calculated from an excretion curve drawn, using cumulative
stained particles recovered at different time intervals. The rumen retention
time 'S' was significantly higher (P<0.01) in calves (101.75 h) fed corn cob
heart than in calves fed corn cob husk (89.00 h). However, 5% excretion time
and mean retention time 'R' were non significant, indicating better DM
digestibility of corn cob heart as compared to corn cob husk.

Specialization: Nutrition
Subject: Effect of feeding dried subabul (Leucaena leucocephala) leaf-
meal in the complete diets of crossbred calves.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1998; 68(4): 397-399 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Srinivasulu, C; Reddy, K V S; Parthasarathy, M
Content:
The study was conducted to compare the effect of incorporating 50 and 75%
of dried subabul leaf meal in the rations of crossbred calves on nutrient
utilization, nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus balances. It was suggested that
subabul can replace up to 90% of crude protein of rations in crossbred bull
calves without affecting the nutrient digestibility, nitrogen, calcium and
phosphorus balances.

Specialization: Nutrition
Subject: Effect of feeding seaweed extract on production and composition
of milk in (Jersey x Gir and Holstein-Friesian x Gir) crossbred cows.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Production and Management. 1998;
14(3): 189-190 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name:Bobade, M D; Ambatkar, S V; Khanvilkar, A V; Pendse, M
D
Content:
Eighteen lactating crossbred cows were divided into three homogenous
groups. All the cows of these groups were fed with concentract mixture 1.5
kg as maintenance ration with 40% production ration (1 kg for every 2.5 kg
milk). Animals were also fed 10 kg paragrass and ad libitum dry grass per

                               1482
cow daily. In addition to this, some cows were fed with 10 and 20 g of
seaweed [Graciliaria lichenoides] extract per cow daily. The experiment was
conducted for 56 days. The results showed no significant effects of the
seaweed extract on feed intake, milk yield or milk composition.

Specialization: Nutrition
Subject: Performance of restricted milk-fed crossbred calves.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Production and Management. 1998;
14(2): 87-90 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Raut, P K; Pandey, H N; Baij Nath; Srivastava, B B
Content:
Four milk feeding schedules were assigned to 4 groups of newly born calves
(8 calves per group). In addition to regular feeding of calf starter and green
fodder, the control group (group 1) received whole milk upto 13 weeks,
while groups 2, 3 and 4 received whole milk upto 8, 7 and 6 weeks,
respectively. No significant difference was observed in green fodder intake,
total DMI, DMI/100 kg body weight, total weight gain, average daily gain
and feed conversion efficiency (body weight gain per kg DMI) among the
groups. The quantity of milk and calf starter consumed varied among the
groups (P<0.05). Milk intake was maximum in group 1 and minimum in
group 4; the reverse was observed for calf starter intake.

Specialization: Nutrition
Subject: Effect of restricted and Ad libitum feeding of urea molasses
liquid diet(UMLD) on the performance of adult crossbred cattle.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. (Feb 1998). v.
11(1) p. 30-34. AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Mehra, U.R.; Verma, A.K.; Dass, R.S.
Institution: Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar (India). Nuclear
Research Laboratory.
Content:
To compare response of feeding concentrate mixture and wheat straw (Group
I) with either urea molasses liquid diet (UMLD) as sole ration (group II) or
UMLD (similar to protein equivalent of concentrate mixture) plus wheat
straw (group III) on intake and utilisation of nutrients and overall
performance, twelve crossbred adult male cattel(Holstein Friesian * Hariana)
aged about 2.5 years and weighing 342 kg were randomly allotted into three
equal groups following completely randomised design and fed respective
diets for a period of 60 days. Thereafter, a metabolism trial of seven days
duration was conducted to assess nutrient utilisation and nitrogen balance.
Animals fed UMLD as sole ration consumed significantly (p<0.01) less
amount of most of the nutrients as compared to other two groups, except
crude protein, intake of which was higher in this group but it was comparable
between II and III and III and I. On the other hand, digestibilities of nutrients
were higher(p<0.01) in group II, thoug it was comparable between other two
groups, except ADF, the digestibility of which was lower in group II. In spite
of positive nitrogen balance in all the three groups, being significantly

                                1483
(p<0.01) higher in group I, animals of group II and III lost their body weight
especially to the utmost extent in group II, although the amount of energy
(TDN) intake were similar statistically. Results indicate that during a scarcity
period and economic compulsions, feeding of UMLD can be practised to
replace only concentrate mixture from the maintenance ration of adult
crossbred cattle for shorter duration as roughage part seems to be essential
for the normal functioning of the rumen microbes and overall performance of
the animals.

Nutrition Rumen
Specialization: Nutrition Rumen
Subject: Influence of varying levels of dietary protein and proportions of
rumen degradable protein on nutrient utilization in pregnant crossbred
goats.
Year of publication: 1994
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition. 1994; 11(3): 139-142 A AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Patil, N V; Harjit Kaur
Content:
From 1 month before breeding and throughout pregnancy, 15 crossbred goats
(Alpine x Beetal) were given isoenergetic diets containing 100% of CP
requirements with rumen-degradable:rumen undegradable protein ratio
(RDP:UDP) of 70:30 or 60:40, 76% of recommended dietary CP with
RDP:UDP 60:40. A 5-day metabolism trial was conducted on all goats
during month 5 of pregnancy. DM intake averaged 3.04, 2.78 and 2.60
kg/100 kg body weight in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Digestibility of
DM and organic matter was lowest in group 1 while digestibility of ether
extract, ADF and nitrogen-free extract was highest in group 2. Digestibility
of CP was not different. Net nitrogen balance 5.69, 7.24 and 3.28,
respectively, indicating a significant relationship between dietary CP and
RDP:UDP with N utilization in pregnant goats.

Specialization: Nutrition Rumen
Subject: Rumen degradable protein content and gas production on
rumen fermentation of some concentrate ingredients and their
relationship.
Year of publication: 1994
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition. 1994; 11(3): 171-175 A AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Bandla Srinivas; Gupta, B N
Content:
Four oilmeals (mustard, groundnut, cottonseed and soyabean), 2 grains
(maize and barley) and 2 brans (wheat and rice) were used for studying
relationships between in sacco rumen degradability and in vitro total gas
production as well as carbon dioxide:methane ratio. Total gas production was
higher for ingredients containing more rumen degradable protein (RDP). The
regression coefficient for hourly gas production for different concentrate
ingredients ranged from 3.49 to 5.83 ml/g substance. For ingredients with
less RDP, such as cottonseed oilmeal and rice bran, CO2:CH4 ratio was
61:39 and 64:36, respectively, but for ingredients possessing more RDP,

                                1484
CO2:CH4 ratio was >70:30. CO2 production was positively related to rapid
degradability of ingredients whereas CH4 production was negatively related.
Prediction equations were developed for total gas production, CO2:CH4 ratio
and RDP content.

Specialization: Nutrition Rumen
Subject: Rumen fermentation pattern and protein disappearance from
oil cakes fed as a supplement to urea treated straw diet.
Year of publication: 1994
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition. 1994; 11(3): 165-170 A AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Narayan Dutta; Mahendra Singh
Content:
Rumen-fistulated male cattle and buffaloes were given a weighed quantity of
4%-urea treated wheat bhusa (UTWB) supplemented with defined,
isonitrogenous amounts of groundnut cake (GNC, T1), mustard cake (MC,
T2), cottonseed cake (CSC, T3) or linseed cake (LSC, T4) sequentially, to
meet maintenance requirements. After 21 days, rumen fluid was sampled 0,
2, 4 and 8 h post-feeding and CP disappearance was estimated at 0, 6, 9, 12
and 24 h. T1 maintained significantly higher rumen pH (6.58) than T2 (6.22),
T3 (6.37) and T4 (6.35). Rumen ammonia-nitrogen concentration peaked 2 h
after feeding and differed significantly between T1 and T3. Total-N and total
volatile fatty acids were different among treatments. Differences in TCA-
precipitable N were not significant among treatments. Protozoal and bacterial
counts differed significantly among treatments. In decreasing order, CP
disappearance from oilmeals was T2, T4, T3 and T1. CP disappearance in
MC and GNC was faster than in other oilmeals. It was concluded that
supplementation of urea-treated wheat bhusa diet with GNC or CSC
improved rumen fermentation and utilization of protein.

Specialization: Nutrition Rumen
Subject: The effect of trans-inoculation of rumen contents on micro flora
concentration in the rumen of cattle and buffalo.
Year of publication: 1994
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition. 1994; 11(3): 133-138 A AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Sultan Singh; Pradhan, K; Bhatia, S K
Content:
Adult male fistulated cattle and buffaloes, maintained on a wheat straw-
groundnut cake diet (10-12% CP), had 10% of their rumen contents
exchanged between pairs. Digestion trials were carried out in phases before
(T1) and after the exchange (T2) and after the re-exchange of rumen contents
(T3) between cattle and buffalo. Total protozoa were counted in rumen fluid
sampled 0, 3 and 6 h post-feeding while total viable and cellulolytic bacteria
were counted in samples collected 0 and 6 h post-feeding. Presence and
establishment of 3 protozoal species (Ophryoscolex purkynei, Epidinium
ecaudatum and Diplodinium cristagalli) were recorded at an interval of 8 h
from 0 to 48 h sampling during T2 and T3. The process of transinoculation of
rumen contents significantly increased average protozoal count in both
ruminants, though buffalo exhibited more (P<0.05) microorganisms than
cattle, while protozoal population remained unaltered between T2 and T3.

                               1485
However, these 2 stages of transinoculation (17.63 x 108 and 17.63 x 108)
helped in multiplying (P<0.05) total viable bacteria compared with T1 (11.25
x 108/ml). Transinoculation of rumen contents in T3 (4.15 x 108) also
improved (P<0.05) the cellulolytic bacterial profile compared with T1 (2.54
x 108) and T2 (3.12 x 108/ml) stages in both ruminant species. 3 protozoa
species O. purkynei, E. ecaudatum and D. cristagalli which were host-
specific were established in cattle and buffalo after transinoculation.

Specialization: Nutrition Rumen
Subject: An analysis of some factors affecting particulate matter
distribution in rumen and flow to duodenum in lactating dairy cows.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Turk Veterinerlik-ve-Hayvanclk Dergisi. 1995; 19(1): 13-18 A
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Srivastava, A; Satter, L D
Content:
3 Holstein Friesian lactating cows fitted with rumen and duodenal cannulae
were distributed among 3 treatment groups in a 3x3 Latin square switch-over
design experiment, each with a period of 10 days preliminary feeding. The
cows received a ration providing 60% of DM from brome grass and 40%
from concentrate mixture to meet nutrient requirements. Hay was fed in long
form to cows in group A and in ground and pelleted form in groups B and C.
The feed was offered in 4 equal lots and refusals weighed once every day. In
group C, modified McDougall's artificial saliva (66 litre/day) was infused
continuously into the rumen by using a peristaltic pump. At the end of
preliminary feeding in each period, samples of contents from 4 different sites
in the rumen and from the duodenum, were drawn at different intervals and
rumen volume estimated by completely emptying the rumen and weighing
the contents. There was a decrease in DM intake from 17.85 to 15.91 kg/day
due to infusion of artificial saliva, while pelleting alone did not affect intake.
Movement of particulate matter in the rumen was significantly affected by
the size of particle and amount of saliva. However, in the duodenum,
movement was at a consistent rate within an individual cow under normal
conditions. It was concluded that in each cow, a certain amount of DM was
essentially maintained in the rumen.

Specialization: Nutrition Rumen
Subject: Studies on role of rumen bacterial protozoa and fungi in
IVDMD and nitrogen metabolism.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Journal of Dairy Science. 1995; 48(3): 242-244 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Kurar, C K; Sharma, D D; Kishan Singh
Institution:
Content:
The role of rumen microorganisms in in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD),
and metabolism of feed N in cattle and buffaloes was examined using a
concentrate mixture and maize fodder as substrates. The results indicated that
IVDMD was almost equal in cattle and buffalo inoculum. There was a
decline in DM digestibility with defaunation and only fungal inoculum.

                                 1486
Rumen ammonia content as a percentage of total rumen N content was
slightly higher in buffaloes than in cattle. Defaunation resulted in a decrease
in ammonia in cattle and buffalo inoculum studies. Microbial protein
synthesis was significantly higher with cattle inoculum and also with
defaunation in comparison with buffalo inoculum and defaunation.

Specialization: Nutrition Rumen
Subject: Effect of fiber and protein sources on in vitro rumen metabolites
and dry matter digestibility in cattle and buffalo.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Journal of Dairy Science. 1995; 48(10): 577-580 A AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Paliwal, V K; Sagar, V
Content:
Cattle and buffalo rumen fluid was incubated in vitro with fibre (wheat straw,
rice straw, gram straw or pearl millet) and protein sources (groundnut cake,
mustard cake, sesame cake or sunflower cake) in the ratio 100:0, 85:15,
70:30, 55:45, 40:60 or 25:75. The average rumen ammonia-nitrogen
concentration was 10.3 mg/100 ml in cattle and 11.9 mg/100 ml in buffalo.
The rumen ammonia content as a percentage of the total rumen N was 38.7
and 43.8 for cattle and buffalo, respectively. Rumen fluid incubated with
gram straw had lower ammonia-N concentrations than that incubated with
other fibre sources. When the fibre:protein ratio was 100:0 the ammonia-N
concentration was 1.4 and 2 mg/100 ml in cattle and buffalo, respectively,
which increased to 19.9 and 21.7 mg/100 ml when the ratio was 25:75. The
average rumen total-N content increased as the percentage of protein in the
substrate increased (ranged from 13.5 to 40 mg/100 ml in cattle and from
13.3 to 40.8 mg/100 ml in buffalo). The total-N content in cattle and buffalo
rumen fluid incubated with wheat straw was higher than that incubated with
other fibre sources. Irrespective of the protein source, the average in vitro
DM digestibility of wheat straw, rice straw, gram straw and pearl millet was,
respectively, 54.5, 60.6, 59.8 and 58.2% in cattle and 55, 61.5, 59.9 and
59.1% in buffaloes. Wheat straw-based substrates had the lowest in vitro DM
digestibility (54.5 and 55% for cattle and buffalo, respectively) and rice
straw-based substrates the highest (60.6 and 61.5%, respectively).

Specialization: Nutrition Rumen
Subject: Influence of feeding cereal grains on rumen fermentation and in
sacco degradability of wheat straw and cotton fibre.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Journal of Dairy Science. 1995; 48(3): 185-188 A AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Dutta, T K; Thakur, S S
Content:
Nine rumen-fistulated crossbred male cattle, 280 kg liveweight, were
assigned to 3 groups and fed on concentrate 1.5 kg/head daily consisting of
40% barley, 40% maize or 40% oat grains along with wheat straw ad libitum.
DM and water intake in the 3 groups were 4.74, 4.36 and 4.40 kg, and 37.86,
40.60 and 36.11 litres, respectively. No differences were observed with
respect to rumen total N, TCA-precipitable N, NH3-N, total volatile fatty
acid concentration and acetate to propionate ratio between treatments. Flow

                                1487
rate of liquid digesta was significantly greater in maize and oat groups than
in barley groups. In sacco nylon bag effective DM degradability of absorbent
cotton ranged from 13.93 (barley group) to 15.23 (oat group) and that of
wheat straw from 28.87 (barley group) to 31.71 (maize group), with no
significant differences. It appears that at 40% level in concentrate or 13.33%
of wheat straw-based diets, the nature of starch present in barley, maize or
oats does not influence rumen fermentation pattern and rumen degradability
of cellulosic materials.

Specialization: Nutrition Rumen
Subject: Ruminal dry matter and protein degradability of some
concentrate ingredients using nylon bag technique.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition. 1995; 12(3): 133-139 A
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Chaturvedi, O H; Walli, T K
Content:
Rumen disappearance of DM and CP and effective DM and CP degradability
of groundnut cake, heat-treated groundnut cake at 115 (G1), 120 (G2), and
125 degrees C (G3) for 30 min, cottonseed cake, solvent-extracted
cottonseed cake, barley, wheat bran, maize and maize gluten meal were
studied by nylon bag technique at incubation times of 36 to 48 h using 3
adult crossbred rumen-cannulated cattle. Cattle were fed on a maintenance
diet of wheat straw and concentrate in the ratio 65:35. Heat treatment of
GNC increased the rate of degradation as well as effective degradability for
DM. Effective DM degradability (EDMD) at the k value of 0.05/h, was
highest (74.5%) for wheat bran and lowest (34.0%) for maize gluten meal.
CP degradation rate at similar k value was highest (0.062) for G2 and lowest
(0.016) for maize gluten meal. The effective CP degradability (ECPD)
followed a similar pattern as that of EDMD i.e. the highest value (80.6%) for
wheat bran and lowest value (22.4%) for maize gluten meal. Thus, a positive
correlation (r = 0.90) existed between EDMD and ECPD. Heat treatment of
groundnut cake increased ECPD. Heat-treated groundnut cake (G3) had the
highest and solvent-extracted cottonseed cake the lowest RDP content on a
DM basis. The percent rumen-undegradable protein (UDP) followed a
reverse trend. However, among the cereal grains and grain byproducts, maize
gluten meal had the highest and wheat bran the lowest UDP content,
whereas, maize gluten meal had the highest and the maize grain the lowest
rumen degradable protein content.

Specialization: Nutrition Rumen
Subject: Scanning electron microscopic examination of anaerobic fungi
and its enumeration vis-a-vis bacteria in the rumen of cow and buffalo in
straw based diets.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Production and Management. 1995;
11(4): 229-236 A AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Dhruba Malakar; Walli, T K
Content:

                               1488
Rumen digesta obtained from a fistulated cow and a buffalo fed on a straw-
based diet was subjected to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of rumen
fungi. In vitro studies were also carried out to observe the proliferation of
bacteria and fungi under 3 different ratios of roughage and concentrate
(60:40, 50:50 and 40:60). The anaerobic bacterial count was lower (P<0.01)
in the cow (191.46 x 108) than the buffalo (217.23 x 108/ml) in rumen
liquor. Rumen liquor from the cow had a higher fungal count (35.0 x
10superscript 2/ml) than the buffalo (22.4 x 10superscript 2/ml). Bacterial
count was higher (P<0.05) on low roughage:high concentrate (40:60) than
the other diets. Fungal counts increased linearly as concentrate increased in
the diet. SEM of rumen digesta of the cow and buffalo demonstrated
colonization of plant fibre by large numbers of anaerobic fungi. Results
indicated that rumen fungi colonize straw fibres and may play an important
role in digestion of cellulosic fibre in cattle and buffalo rumen.

Parasitology
Specialization: Parasitology
Subject: A review of the genus Eurytrema Looss, 1907 (Trematoda,
Dicrocoeliidae) with a description of Eurytrema bhaleraoi sp. n.
Year of publication: 1992
Journal: Acta Parasitologica. 1992; 37(2): 53-56 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Mukherjee, M; Srivastava, C B
Content:
Eurytrema bhaleraoi sp. nov., collected from the pancreatic duct of a cow at
Kalimpong, West Bengal, India, is described and figured. It can be
distinguished from all other species in the genus Eurytrema by the
enormous size of the testes, and from E. pancreaticum by the larger size of
acetabulum as compared to the oral sucker, the enormous size of testes in
relation to the body (1/5 to 1/3 of body length as compared to 1/11 to 1/10
in other species) and their deep lobulation in addition to the nature of
extension of the vitellaria, lobed nature of ovary, distribution of uterine
coils and size of eggs. The genus Eurytrema is reviewed and accepted as a
composite genus. E. escuderoi is considered conspecific with E.
pancreaticum.

Specialization: Parasitology
Subject: Dehydrogenases in the liver of cattle naturally infected with
Fasciola gigantica.
Year of publication: 1992
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1992; 62(1): 43-44 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Bhattacharya, M; Mukit, A; Baruah, G K
Content:
The histoenzymic distribution of malate (MDH), lactate (LDH) and Delta 53
beta hydroxysteroid ( Delta 53 beta HSD) dehydrogenases was studied in the
livers of 30 cattle, naturally infected with Fasciola gigantica, from Assam,
India. Histoenzymic reactions for the 3 enzymes were detected mostly in the
biliary epithelium. Hepatocytes within the hepatic lobule exhibited enzyme-
rich and enzyme-poor activity for MDH in periportal and pericentral areas,

                               1489
respectively. Hepatocytes showed no variation in reactivity for LDH and
Delta 53 beta HSD according to their position in the hepatic lobule.

Specialization: Parasitology
Subject: Trypanosoma infection in cattle and buffalo.
Year of publication: 1992
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1992; 62(5): 420 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Ray, D; Biswas, G; Sen, G P
Content:
Two hundred randomly selected cattle and buffaloes from a dairy farm and
villages in Calcutta, West Bengal, India, were examined for Trypanosoma
evansi infections. Giemsa stained blood films were negative for T. evansi.
Mice were injected with 0.8 ml of heparinized blood from each of the
animals and then blood was taken from the mice every 3rd day for one month
and examined. 5.7%, 4.3%, and 8.0% of crossbred cattle, zebu cattle and
buffaloes respectively, were infected. Infected buffaloes were emaciated and
had poor appetites, however, no clinical signs were observed in the cattle. An
IFAT showed positivity in 45.7% of the crossbred cattle, 22.6% of the zebu
and 24% of the buffaloes.

Specialization: Parasitology
Subject: Response of crossbred calves to immunization with Theileria
annulata schizont infected lymphoid cell cultures.
Year of publication: 1993
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1993; 70(7): 605-608 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Singh, D K; Varshney, B C; Raghav, P R S; Thakur, M
Content:
A cell line of Theileria annulata schizont-infected bovine lymphoid cells was
established and grown in vitro for 453 passages (2038 days). After 12, 27,
48, 100 and 150 passages the culture-derived cells were test-inoculated into
crossbred calves which were subsequently challenged with Ground Up Tick
Supernates (GUTS) prepared from T. annulata-infected Hyalomma
anatolicum anatolicum ticks. The virulence of the theilerial schizonts was
reduced by passage. Calves receiving 5 x 106 schizont-infected lymphoid
cells at the 150th passage (675 days) had minimum inoculation reactions and
could withstand virulent challenge of T. annulata infective GUTS given on
day 47 after inoculation. It was concluded that T. annulata schizont-infected
bovine lymphoid cell cultres of the Anand isolate at the 150th passage could
be used effectively for immunizing cattle against tropical theileriosis.

Specialization: Parasitology
Subject: Sarcoptes scabiei in animals spreading to man.
Year of publication: 1993
Journal: Tropical and Geographical Medicine. 1993; 45(3): 142-143 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Mitra, M; Mahanta, S K; Sen, S; Ghosh, C; Hati, A K
Content:
An outbreak of S. scabiei in animals was observed from mid-November to
mid-December 1991 in 2 adjacent villages, Fewgram and Nurpur, in

                               1490
Birbhum District, West Bengal, India, starting from goats to cattle, then to
sheep and even dogs. 19 goats and 1 cow died of mange. The infection
spread to man in the last week of December 1991, and affected 42 people
tending and rearing animals. The animals treated with the acaricides
deltamethrin and amitraz were completely cured. In man, the disease seemed
to be self-limited in some cases and 2% hexachlorobenzene was successfully
used for treatment of the others. The outbreak was effectively controlled in
March 1992.

Specialization: Parasitology
Subject: Biosynthesis of isoprenoid compounds in the cattle filarial
parasite Setaria digitata.
Year of publication: 1994
Journal: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 1994;
205(1): 24-29 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Ajitha Kumari, G; Santhamma, K R; Kaleysa Raj, R
Content:
Detailed investigations of non-saponifiable lipids from Setaria digitata using
column, thin layer, reverse phase and high performance liquid
chromatography showed the presence and formation of isoprenoid
compounds such as prenols and sterols, in addition to 2 previously reported
quinones. It is suggested that blocking the biosynthesis of these useful
compounds may prove to be an additional means of control of filarial
parasites.

Specialization: Parasitology
Subject: Bovine tropical theileriosis - a potpourri.
Year of publication: 1994
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1994; 64(12): 1319-1327 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Gill, B S
Content:
Seven natural outbreaks of theileriosis (Theileria annulata) are described with
their course, signs and results of laboratory examination.

Specialization: Parasitology
Subject: Helminths of domesticated animals in Indian subcontinent.
Year of publication: 1994
Journal: Helminthology. 1994; 73-120 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Chowdhury, N
Content:
This chapter provides an overview of the epidemiology and pathology of
helminth infections of livestock, mainly sheep, goats, cattle and buffaloes, in
the Indian sub-continent (India, Pakistan and Bangladesh) under the
headings: fascioliasis, paramphistomiasis, parasitic gastroenteritis,
haemonchosis,       ostertagiosis,    trichostrongylosis,        mecistocirrosis,
strongyloidiasis, bunostomiasis, oesophagostomiasis, paracooperiasis,
cooperiasis, ascariasis, schistosomiasis, nasal schistosomiasis, parasitic
bronchitis, echinococcosis, hydatidosis, cysticercosis, filariasis, dirofilariasis,

                                 1491
parafilariasis, elaeophoriasis, setariasis, stephanofilariasis, onchocerciasis,
thelaziasis. This chapter also includes as an appendix a comprehensive table
giving information on geographical distribution, hosts, within-host location
and pathology of helminths of livestock, and working and domestic animals
in the Indian sub-continent.

Specialization: Parasitology
Subject: Incidence of Entamoeba bovis and Balantidium coli on
organized cattle farms around Bombay.
Year of publication: 1994
Journal: Journal of Bombay Veterinary College. 1994; 5(1/2): 85-86 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Raote, Y V; Narsapur, V S; Niphadkar, S M
Content:
Cysts of E. bovis were detected in faecal samples collected from 417 (37.4%)
of 1114 cattle on 3 farms. Incidences on the 3 farms were 40.1, 14.1 and
47.2%. All the cattle were asymptomatic. Cysts of B. coli were found in 306
(27.5%) of the 1114 cattle. The incidences on the 3 farms were 29.0, 29.3
and 25.9%. Incidences in calves, heifers and adults were 20.1, 27.5 and
34.1%, respectively. All infected animals were asymptomatic.

Specialization: Parasitology
Subject: Biochemical values in cattle infected with Theileria annulata.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1995; 72(11): 1208-1209 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Chengalva Raylulu, V; Hafeez, M
Content:
The mean values of blood glucose and serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus
and bilirubin were 34.14 +or- 1.56, 7.97 +or- 0.33, 4.29 +or- 0.14 and 1.23
+or- 0.12 mg/dl, respectively, in 15 crossbred cattle infected with Theileria
annulata, and 40.40 +or- 2.54, 9.28 +or- 0.40, 4.34 +or- 0.19 and 0.34 +or-
0.13 mg/dl, respectively, in 5 healthy controls.

Pathology
Specialization: Pathology
Subject: AH-pt-95 Seminal and pathological changes in buffalo bulls
affected with lymphoproliferative polyserositis.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1995; 72(10): 1103-1105 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Kodgali, S B; Doshi, M B; Derashri, H J; Prajapati, K S
Content:
Two cases of Setaria labiatopapillosa infection in buffalo bulls are described.
Both animals showed testicular changes and semen examination showed
degenerated spermatozoa heads of different sizes and shapes. The
pathological findings are described with special reference to testicular and
epididymal changes.

Specialization: Pathology

                                1492
Subject: AH-pt-96 Passive immune cross-protection in mice produced by
rabbit antisera against different serotypes of Pasteurella multocida.
Year of publication: 1996
Journal: Journal of Comparative Pathology. 1996; 114(4): 347-360 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Rimler, R B
Content:
11 P. multocida strains were isolated from different ungulates (cattle, bison,
deer, antelope) and poultry from different countries (USA, 7, and one each
from UK, India, Canada and Africa). Some were suspected to cause
haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS), others fowl cholera (FC) and one, bovine
pneumonia. Antisera were tested in CF-1 mice in groups of 5 which were
challenged 18 h after vaccination with intraperitoneal injection of different P.
multocida serotypes and observed for 9 days. Any serogroup B strain antisera
protected against any other serogroup B strain whereas serogroup A strain
antisera did not necessarily protect against other strains of the same
serogroup. B:3,4, an HS strain, and A:5, an FC strain, antisera produced
cross protection against other strains regardless of whether they caused the
same disease as the vaccine serotype. Cross-protection was attributed to
cross-reactive antigenic bands of 20-120 kDa detected by SDS-PAGE
immunoblots of whole cell lysates of different HS and FC strains.

Specialization: Pathology
Subject: AH-pt-96 Pathogenicity studies of certain fungal isolates from
milk inoculated intravenously in mice.
Year of publication: 1996
Journal: Haryana Veterinarian. 1996; 35: 1-6 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Verma, P C; Gupta, R K P; Lodha, B C; Jagjit Singh
Content:
25 fungal strains (16 yeasts and 9 moulds) isolated from 8 healthy and 17
mastitic quarters of cows and buffaloes were tested for their pathogenicity in
Swiss albino mice (5 mice inoculated/strain). After 12 h, 8 yeasts caused
100% mortality, 3 yeasts and 4 moulds caused >50% mortality, 4 yeasts and
2 moulds caused <50% mortality and 1 yeast and 3 moulds did not result in
any deaths. 13 yeasts were reisolated from heart blood and internal organs of
the mice after death.

Specialization: Pathology
Subject: AH-pt-96 Studies on the serum mineral profile in chronic
bovine haematuria.
Year of publication: 1996
Journal: Tropical Agriculture. 1996; 73(4): 305-308 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Balakrishan, V; Manohar, B M
Content:
Serum samples from 31 cases of chronic bovine haematuria and that of 23
clinically healthy cattle of similar age-group, physiological status, and
feeding system and managed by the same farmers were analysed for Ca, P,
Mg, Na, K, Cu, Zn, and Fe. Serum Ca (9.5 mg/dL), P (3.3 mg/dL), and Cu
(0.6 micro g/ml) were lower in chronic bovine haematuria cases than in

                                1493
healthy cattle, in addition to imbalances in minerals status (Ca and Mg and
Ca and Na). The dietary availability of these minerals in the dominant dietary
forages was determined as adequate to meet the requirement of the
experimental animals. The results suggested some interference in the
absorption of minerals by the haematuria cases. Urinanalysis revealed a
higher elimination of Ca and Fe in cattle with haematuria which could also
account for their lower serum mineral status.

Specialization: Pathology
Subject: AH-pt-97 Pathological observations on abortions in cattle with
particular reference to chlamydial agent.
Year of publication: 1997
Journal: Indian Journal of Veterinary Pathology. 1997; 21(2): 87-94 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Charan, K; Pawaiya, R V S
Content:
106 cows (55 pregnant, 23 recently calved and 28 cows that aborted) and 23
aborted fetuses from 6 farms in India were examined [date not given].
Chlamydia was identified in 9 cases of abortion using histopathology and
direct fluorescent antibody examination of tissue sections and vaginal
cytological smears. Chlamydia was isolated from 2 fetuses and vaginal
swabs. Other isolates were Corynebacteria spp, E. coli, Proteus spp,
Staphylococcus spp, Brucella spp and Anthracoides. Encapsulated
granulomatous lesions with schistosoma eggs in the centre were observed in
the liver of one fetus.

Specialization: Pathology
Subject: AH-pt-98        Biochemical and histological changes in blood,
erythrocytes and tissue of rats on feeding Dryopteris juxtaposita fern.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 1998; 36(5): 510-513
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Kataria, M; Somvanshi, R; Dash, S
Content:
Rats fed D. juxtaposita showed mild vascular changes in lungs, degenerative
changes in testes, focal liver necrosis and villous atrophy or hyperplasia or
epithelia cells in intestinal glands. The fern is known to be poisonous to
cattle.

Specialization: Pathology
Subject: AH-pt-98 Histological responses of skin of calves for tuberculin
reaction.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1998; 75(4): 356-358 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Lourdusamy, M; Rao, V N A
Content:
In 30 calves, immunized with BCG vaccine at one day of age, the
histological changes in skin biopsy specimens at the site of injections of 0.1
ml of tuberculin were studied after 6, 24, 48 and 72 h. Early changes

                               1494
included polymorphonuclear infiltration with necrosis (sometimes
haemorrhagic) in the dermis. Pyknotic nuclei and vacuolated cytoplasm in
the basal layer, as well as neutrophilic infiltration, predominantly around
blood vessels and forming clumps with lymphocytes, were visible at 24 h. At
48 h, mononuclear cells dominated in the inflammatory infiltrate, while at 72
h macrophages predominated, and the vascular changes were less
conspicuous.

Specialization: Pathology
Subject: AH-pt-98 Histopathological studies on spontaneous chronic
enzootic bovine hematuria in Himachal Pradesh.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1998; 75(11): 982-984 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Singh, S P; Asrani, R K; Gupta, V K; Wadhwa, D R;
Prasad, B
Content:
Postmortem examination of 8 adult cattle that had been producing red urine
and that died after showing signs of generalized ill health, revealed chronic
cystitis with haemorrhages and neoplastic nodules on the mucosa of the
urinary bladder, the wall of which was thickened in some cases.
Haemorrhages were also present in the kidneys, where there were necrotic
changes and small calculi in the renal tubules. Bile duct hyperplasia and
fibrous tissue proliferation in the liver were also associated with the
condition, which was thought to be enzootic haematuria resulting from eating
bracken that was common in the area.

Specialization: Pathology
Subject: AH-pt-98 Telomerase activity as an aid in early detection of
animal cancers.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Journal of Veterinary Pathology. 1998; 22(1): 1-5 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Singh, R K; Mishra, S N; Singh, K P; Pawde, A M;
Somvanshi, R; Butchaiah, G
Content:
A modified telomerase repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) was described
and tested in selected neoplastic tissues (canine venereal tumour, equine
wart, canine mammary tumour, perianal tumour in dogs, urinary bladder
cancer in cattle). HeLa cell line was used as the control. Telomerase activity
was higher in all neoplastic tissues compared with the control. It is suggested
that this assay has a potential to be used for screening antineoplastic agents
acting via telomerase pathway.

Specialization: Pathology
Subject: AH-pt-99 Levels of alkaline phosphatase in plasma from tumor
bearing buffaloes and cattle.
Year of publication: 1999
Journal: International Journal of Animal Sciences. 1999; 14(1):95-96AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Raman Chopra; Saxena, H M

                                1495
Content:
Alkaline phosphatase (AP) was measured in plasma samples from 6
buffaloes and 3 cattle with various tumours. AP activity was lower in tumour
bearing animals than in healthy animals. The mean AP activity in buffaloes
with tumours was 114.18+or-23.61 IU/litre compared with 125.21+or-17.20
IU/litre in healthy buffaloes. In cattle with tumours, the mean AP activity
was 115.49+or-13.70 IU/litre compared with 119.45+or-8.11 IU/litre in
healthy cattle.

Pharmacology
Specialization: Pharmacology
Subject: Efficacy of albendazole against gastro-intestinal nematodes in
naturally infected calves.
Year of publication: 1992
Journal: Indian Veterinary Medical Journal. 1992; 16(4): 292-295 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Mukherjee, B N
Content:
Faecal samples from 36 calves, aged 6 months to 1.5 years, contained
Strongylus 52%, Neoascaris [Toxocara] 43%, Trichuris 4%, and
Bunostomum 2%; most of the animals had mixed infections of 2-3 of these
helminths. The animals were given albendazole orally at 4.5 mg/kg body
weight (group I), 5 mg (group II) or 6 mg (group III). The epg counts of
faecal samples, made daily until 6 days after treatment, declined steadily,
with no eggs being found on days 4, 5 and 6 in groups III, II and I,
respectively. A steady increase in egg counts occurred in untreated controls.
Haemoglobin concentrations increased with the decline in epg counts.

Specialization: Pharmacology
Subject: Comparative efficacy of ivermectin and levamisole
hydrochloride against nematodiasis in calves.
Year of publication: 1993
Journal: Journal of Research, Birsa Agricultural University. 1993; 5(2):
187-189 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Pradhan, K; Thakur, D K; Sudhan, N A
Content:
The efficacies of ivermectin and levamisole hydrochloride were compared in
natural nematode infections (Neoascaris vitulorum [Toxocara vitulorum] and
non-Neoascaris infection) in calves. 3 groups each of 12 infected calves (all
below the age of 5 months) were used in the study. Calves in group 1 were
treated with a single sc dose of ivermectin at 200 micro g/kg body weight.
Calves in group 2 were treated with a single sc dose of levamisole
hydrochloride at 6.5 mg/kg body weight. Group 3 were untreated controls.
The results showed that the average efficacies of ivermectin were 99.8 and
42.2% for the elimination of Neoascaris and non-Neoascaris infections,
respectively. The average efficacies of levamisole hydrochloride were 96.7
and 79% respectively. Ivermectin was judged to be superior to levamisole
hydrochloride in curing cases of non-Neoascaris, and levamisole was more
efficient in curing Neoascaris.

                               1496
Specialization: Pharmacology
Subject: Disposition kinetics, urinary excretion and dosage regimen of
kanamycin in buffalo calves following single intravenous administration.
Year of publication: 1993
Journal: Veterinary Research Communications. 1993; 17(3): 219-225
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Rampal, S; Srivastava, A K; Chaudhary, R K
Content:
The disposition kinetics and appropriate dosage regimen for kanamycin were
investigated in buffalo calves following a single i.v. dose of 10 mg/kg body
weight. The distribution and elimination half-lives were 0.12 +or- 0.01 h and
1.94 +or- 0.11 h, respectively. The apparent volume of distribution and total
body clearance were 0.2 +or- 0.01 litres/kg and 92.9 +or- 3.69 ml/kg/-1,
respectively. About 74% of the administered dose was excreted in urine in 24
h. A suitable dosage regimen for the i.v. administration of kanamycin was
also calculated.

Specialization: Pharmacology
Subject: Effect of levamisole on delayed type hypersensitivity in
crossbred calves.
Year of publication: 1993
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1993; 70(8): 699-701 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Sharma, L K; Jagadish, S; Mulbagal, A N
Content:
The effect of route of administration of levamisole on the cellular response in
crossbred calves vaccinated with haemorrhagic septicaemia vaccine was
assessed in 24 calves in 4 groups given the drug orally, s.c. or by intradermal
injection; the fourth (control) group was kept untreated. The anamnestic
cellular response was assessed by delayed skin hypersensitivity; the
maximum skin reaction occurred 24 h after intradermal injection of the
antigen. S.c. administration of levamisole gave better responses than the
other routes.

Specialization: Pharmacology
Subject: In-vitro trials of amitraz against Boophilus microplus.
Year of publication: 1994
Journal: Journal of Bombay Veterinary College. 1994; 5(1/2): 55-58 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Maske, D K; Bhilegaonkar, N G; Sardey, M R
Content:
In vitro studies on efficacy of amitraz against B. microplus ticks of cattle
showed 100% mortality of adult males in 30 h after exposure to amitraz at
dilution of 0.05%, and 75 and 55% mortality at 0.03 and 0.01%
concentrations, respectively. Engorged females treated with 0.05%, 0.03%
and 0.01% dilutions of amitraz were immobile at 36, 48 and 60 h,
respectively. Treated females did not lay eggs. The efficacy of amitraz on
Boophilus larvae was 100% at 12 h after exposure to 0.05% dilution, while
0.03 and 0.01% concentration of amitraz caused 100% and 75% mortality of

                                1497
tick larvae, respectively, at 24 h after treatment.

Specialization: Pharmacology
Subject: Diminazene: bioavailability and disposition in bovine calves.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1995; 65(8): 857-859 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Sardar, K K; Parija, S C; Misra, S N
Content:
The pharmacokinetic behaviour of diminazene diaceturate in plasma was
studied in 6 healthy crossbred female Jersey calves. Following the i.m.
injection of 16 mg/kg body weight of the drug, the volume of distribution
was 1.254+or-0.0076 litres/kg; total body clearance averaged 0.564+or-0.090
ml/kg/min and elimination half-life was 31.064+or-2.296 h. The plasma
diminazene concentration was 20.91+or-1.16 micro g/ml 0.5 h after injection,
gradually declining to 6.75+or-0.80 micro g/ml at 24 h. It was concluded that
doses of diminazene diaceturate of 8-16 mg/kg, as used in the treatment of
babesiosis, should be safe.

Specialization: Pharmacology
Subject: Efficacy of Butalex (buparvaquone) in the treatment of clinical
cases of bovine tropical theileriosis.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Research. 1995; 29(1): 59-61 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Patil, N A; Lakshmaiah, K R; Harapanahalli, M D
Content:
A clinical trial was conducted to test Butalex in the treatment of Theileria
annulata infection in 10 Holstein x Friesian cows. eight cows required a
single injection of Butalex at the rate of 1 ml/20 kg body weight
(Buparvaquone 2.5 mg/kg) and 2 cows required 2 injections of the drug 4
days apart. The clinical symptoms in all the cows disappeared and they
regained their milk yield within 10-15 days of treatment.

Specialization: Pharmacology
Subject: Efficacy of herbal formulation for dermatological conditions in
dairy cattle - a review.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Proceedings of the Third Scientific Congress Egyptian Society
for Cattle Diseases, Volume-1-3-5 December 1995 Assiut-Egypt. 1995; 44-
46 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Misra, S K
Content:
The use of Himax, Teeburb and Pestoban in treating skin disease of cattle is
reviewed. All three preparations are products of Indian Herbs, Saharanpur, U.
P., India.

Specialization: Pharmacology
Subject: Field trial of Pestoban against ectoparasites of hill cattle and
buffaloes of Himalayan region.

                                 1498
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Pashudhan. 1995; 10(2): 4 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Mukherjee, R; Chander, M
Content:
In trials, Pestoban (7 and 10% dilutions) was used to treat 42 cattle and
buffaloes in the central Himalayan area of Mukteswar, Tamil Nadu, India,
infested with ticks, lice and mites. Pestoban was applied by spray and cotton
swab once or twice at 20-day intervals depending on parasitological
recovery. Pestoban was 100% effective against ticks and mange mites at the
10% dilution and in lice at the 7% dilution. No recurrence was noted and
there were no apparent side effects.

Specialization: Pharmacology
Subject: Influence of diet type on the kinetic disposition of fenbendazole
in cattle and buffalo.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: International Journal for Parasitology. 1995; 25(10): 1201-1205
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Sanyal, P K; Knox, M R; Singh, D K; Hennessy, D R;
Steel, J W
Content:
Plasma concentrations of fenbendazole (FBZ), FBZ-sulphoxide and FBZ-
sulphone anthelmintics were measured after intraruminal administration of
FBZ 7.5 mg/kg body weight in crossbred cattle and buffaloes given 100%
dry mature sorghum hay, 100% green Pennisetum spp. and a 1:1 mixture of
these diets. Changing the diet from dry to green fodder resulted in
significantly lower systemic availability of FBZ and its metabolites in both
species. Buffalo had a lower systemic availability of the drug than cattle on
the dry diet and the difference between species increased when the diet
included green fodder. It is suggested that decreased intestinal transit time of
green fodder digesta decreased systemic concentrations by reducing the time
available for gastrointestinal absorption of the drug.

Physiology
Specialization: Physiology
Subject: Blood and seminal plasma trace mineral concentrations during
different seasons in crossbred bulls.
Year of publication: 1993
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1993; 63(4): 430-433 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Goswami, S C; Mehta, S N; Georgie, G C; Tuli, R K; Dixit,
V P; Bhela, S L
Content:
Concentrations of zinc, copper, manganese and iron were determined in
plasma and semen of 7 Jersey x Hariana and 3 Holstein x Hariana bulls.
Significant differences in mineral concentrations were observed among
seasons and breed types. In general, concentrations of all minerals in semen
and plasma were lower in the hot season than at other times, and correlations

                                1499
of mineral concentrations in semen and plasma with ambient temperature
were negative.

Specialization: Physiology
Subject: Certain metabolite concentrations in lactating crossbred cows
and Murrah buffaloes as affected by stage of lactation and diurnal
variations.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Buffalo Journal. 1995; 11(3): 305-312 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Jindal, S K; Ludri, R S
Content:
This study was conducted in order to investigate the levels of important
blood metabolites in lactating crossbred cows and Murrah buffaloes, as
affected by stage of lactation and time of day and their possible relationship
with milk yield.

Specialization: Physiology
Subject: Effect of protection from direct solar radiation on growth
performance of crossbred female calves in different seasons.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Production and Management. 1995;
11(4): 237-238 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Pandy, A K; Yadav, R S; Singh, V P; Nema, R K
Content:
48 crossbred [female] 1/2 Holstein x 1/4 Gir and 1/2 Jersey x 1/4 Holstein x
1/4 Gir calves were divided into age groups of 0-3, 4-9 and 10-15 months,
with 8 calves in each group. In each age group 4 calves were kept in a shed
throughout the day and the rest were exposed to sunshine from 08.00 to
16.00 h. The body weights were recorded at fortnightly intervals for 7
months, which included spring, summer and the monsoon season. The
growth rate was minimum in animals of 0-3 months of age, maximum in
animals of 4-9 months and moderate among animals 10-15 months of age,
irrespective of the management.

Specialization: Physiology
Subject: Effects of climatic stress on the physiological reactions of
crossbred and purebred animals.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1995; 72(9): 929-934 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Mishra, L; Mohanty, A; Nayak, N R; Prusty, B M; Misra,
MS
Content:
The effects of temperature and humidity on the cardio-respiratory activity,
water intake and body temperature were studied in 5 purebred Jersey cows, 5
crossbred cows and 7 crossbred heifers in Orissa, India. Ambient temperature
and relative humidity were measured in the farm shed at 7 and 15 h. Purebred
Jersey cows had severe polypnoea. The respiratory distress in crossbred cows
and in crossbred heifers was less severe. Temperature above 77 degrees F

                               1500
caused significant increase in respiratory rate of purebred Jersey cows,
whereas critical temperature for crossbred heifers was 83 degrees F. The
coefficient of heat tolerance determined by Rhode's Iberia heat tolerance test
was 85 for purebred cows and 87 for crossbred heifers. Pulse rate in purebred
Jersey cows was lower in summer than in spring. Water consumption
increase with rise in ambient temperature was higher in Jersey cows. Milk
yield in Jersey cows was negatively correlated with ambient temperature. It
is concluded that crossbred heifers and cows have higher heat tolerance than
purebred Jersey cows.

Specialization: Physiology
Subject: Effect of bovine somatotropin in blood lipid profile in lactating
crossbred cows.
Year of publication: 1997
Journal: Biotehnologija-u-Stocarstvu. 1997; 13(5/6): 371-378 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Sonawane, N S; Talvelkar, B A; Deshmukh, B T; Mantri, A
M
Content:
Twenty four multiparous lactating crossbred cows were divided into 4
groups, and given injections of sterile normal saline, or a somatotropin
analogue (Sometribove) 250, 350 and 500 mg, respectively, every 14 days
between 09.00 and 10.00 h, for 10 cycles. Cows were maintained under
standard nutritional and management conditions. Blood was collected
between 09.00 and 10.00 h on the second day of somatotropin injection
during each injection cycle. Data on total lipid, total cholesterol, esterified
cholesterol, free cholesterol, triglyceride and fatty acid content are presented
and discussed.

Specialization: Physiology
Subject: Milk constituents, oestradiol and progesterone levels in milk of
buffalo heifers induced in lactation.
Year of publication: 1997
Journal: International Journal of Animal Sciences. 1997; 12(2): 205-208
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Hooda, O K; Kaker, M L; Dhanda, O P; Galhotra, M M;
Razdan, M N
Content:
10 infertile buffalo heifers were administered subcutaneously estradiol-17
beta and progesterone at the rate of 0.1 and 0.25 mg/kg body weight per day
respectively for 7 consecutive days [date not given]. Milk constituents,
estradiol and progesterone were determined. The concentrations of fat, TS
and SNF increased while that of total protein decreased from the first to the
fifth week of lactation. The variation in fat percentage among individual
buffaloes during early lactation was larger and became narrower with the
advancement of lactation. The concentration of milk progesterone ranged
from 2.7 to 5.42 ng/ml and of milk estradiol from 12.47 to 56.74 pg/ml. The
levels of estradiol and progesterone in 'induced milk' were comparable with
those of normal milk. It is concluded that induced milk is safe for
consumption.

                                1501
Specialization: Physiology
Subject: Physico-chemical responses of she buffaloes during cart loads
under hot-humid season.
Year of publication: 1997
Journal: Indian Journal of Dairy Science. 1997; 50(5): 341-346 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Singh, S V; Upadhyay, R C
Content:
During the hot humid season [date not given], 4 dry non-pregnant Murrah
buffaloes, which had been individually trained for carting and loading, were
subjected to a load of (i) 5 or (ii) 10 quintals for 2 periods of 2 h (or onset of
fatigue if earlier) separated by a rest period (2-3 h) to allow the physiological
parameters, namely respiration rate (RR), heart rate (HR) and rectal
temperature (RT), to return to 75% of pre-work levels. The buffaloes worked
for an average of 2.01+or-0.1 and 1.43+or-0.74 h at an average speed of
3.08+or-0.22 and 2.87+or-0.17 km/h with load (i) and (ii) respectively.
During each work period, RR, HR and RT increased, haemoglobin,
haematocrit and blood glucose levels decreased, and lactic acid levels
increased; non-esterified fatty acid levels fluctuated throughout the study.
Haematological and biochemical parameters showed little or no recovery
during the rest period, and took up to 24 h to return to pre-work levels after
the 2nd work period compared with 9-12 h for physiological parameters.

Specialization: Physiology
Subject: Pulmonary and cutaneous evaporative water losses in Sahiwal
and Sahiwal x Holstein cattle during solar exposure.
Year of publication: 1997
Journal: Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1997; 10(3):
318-323 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Anjuli Aggarwal; Upadhyay, R C
Content:
Six Sahiwal and 6 Sahiwal x Holstein cattle, aged 18-24 months, were
exposed to direct sun for 4 h during the summer in India (ambient
temperature 39.4+or-0.68 degrees C, solar radiation, 1.35 cal cm-2 min-1,
relative humidity about 50%). There was a greater increase in sweating rate
in crossbreds (222%) than in purebreds (125%). In Sahiwal cattle, 90% of
total evaporative losses were from the skin during pre-exposure (ambient
temperature, 32.6+or-0.85 degrees C, solar radiation, 0.9 cal cm-2 min-1)
which increased to 92% during exposure, the remaining losses were
contributed by the pulmonary surfaces. In crossbreds, 80% of the evaporative
losses were through skin before exposure which increased to 87% after
exposure to solar radiation. There was a greater increase in rectal temperature
in crossbreds (+1.5 degrees C) than in Sahiwal (+0.8 degrees C). Respiratory
frequency doubled and pulmonary ventilation increased 1.6 times the resting
value in Sahiwal during solar exposure. In crossbreds the respiratory
frequency increased 3.5 times but pulmonary ventilation only increased by
1.8 times due to a decrease in tidal volume. There was about a 2-fold increase
in alveolar ventilation in both the breeds, the increase in dead space
ventilation was greater in crossbreds than in Sahiwal. Animals exhibited

                                 1502
profuse salivation, open mouth panting, tongue protrusion and general
restlessness after exposure.

Specialization: Physiology
Subject: Pulmonary and skin evaporative heat loss during exercise in hot
dry conditions in crossbreds.
Year of publication: 1997
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1997; 67(1): 51-53 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Upadhyay, R C; Anjuli Aggarwal
Content:
Six healthy male calves (Tharparkar x Holstein) were subjected to treadmill
exercise for 1 h in hot, dry conditions. Sweating and respiration increased
with exercise. Before exercise heat loss through the skin was 87% and
through the pulmonary system was 12%. After exercise 88% of the heat was
lost by sweating and 11% through the pulmonary system. A high level of
evaporation from the skin reduced the demand for evaporative heat loss from
the respiratory tract particularly during exercise under heat stress. Increase in
alveolar ventilation and increase in oxygen consumption were related.

Specialization: Physiology
Subject: Bromocryptine(2-BR-alpha-ergocryptine) as antiprolactin in
buffaloes.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1998; 75(7): 604-607 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Arya, J S; Madan, M L
Content:
The effects of bromocriptine on prolactin release were investigated in 2
buffaloes given 100, 150, 200 and 250 micro g/kg body weight s.c. during
November (winter), and 20, 40 and 80 micro g during August (monsoon). All
dosages decreased plasma prolactin levels significantly within 24 h after
administration. Prolactin releasesed more rapidly after the 20 and 40 micro g
doses, but the 80 microh g dose was as effective at the 4 higher doses in
blocking prolactin release, with the effects lasting for over 7 days.

Reproduction- Embryo
Specialization: Reproduction- Embryo
Subject: Synchronization of oestrus in cattle using carboprost
tromethamine.
Year of publication: 1991
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1991; 68(5): 432-434 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Mahmood, S; Sharma, B; Biswas, J C; Koul, G L
Content:
20 cows with a palpable corpus luteum were injected with 50 mu g
carboprost tromethamine and tested for oestrus with a bull at 6-h intervals. 14
cows showed oestrus within 72 h of treatment. The interval to oestrus
averaged 75.8+or-7.4 and 78.0+or-6.2 h in cows aged 3-6 and >6 yr
respectively. Changes in blood leucocyte count and cholesterol and alkaline

                                1503
phosphatase levels are presented.

Specialization: Reproduction- Embryo
Subject: Comparative efficacy of different gonadotropin preparations on
superovulation and embryo recovery in Jersey x Kankrej (J x K)
crossbred cows.
Year of publication: 1992
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction. 1992; 13(2): 120-123
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Sarvaiya, N P; Chauhan, F S; Mehta, V M
Content:
Six cows were each superovulated on 17 occasions using Folltropin, FSH or
Folligon (PMSG). For the 3 treatments, the number of palpable corpora lutea
averaged 8.8+or-2.8, 6.5+or-0.53 and 6.6+or-1.6 respectively, and the
number of embryos recovered 3.3+or-3.3, 3.2+or-0.6 and 1.2+or-0.4.

Specialization: Reproduction- Embryo
Subject: Effect of repeated superovulation and flushing on embryo
recovery in crossbred cows.
Year of publication: 1992
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction. 1992; 13(2): 117-120
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Totey, S M; Singh, G; Taneja, M; Singh, G; Chillar, R S
Content:
For 7 donor cows superovulated 5 times at intervals of 90-120 days, the
number of ovulations per recovery attempt averaged 2.75-7.28, the number
of embryos recovered 2.5-5.8 and the number of transferable embryos 2.0-
4.2.

Specialization: Reproduction- Embryo
Subject: Efficacy of prostaglandin F2 alpha analogue (Dinofertin) for
synchronization of estrus in subestrous cows.
Year of publication: 1992
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction. 1992; 13(2): 187-188
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Mane, K S; Pargaonkar, S A; Bakshi, S A; Markandeya, N
M; Tandle, M K; Deshpande, W S
Content:
12 Red Kandhari cows having a palpable corpus luteum but not showing
oestrus were treated with 25 mg Dinofertin, and 12 controls were not treated.
Six treated cows showed oestrus, on average 3.5 days after treatment; no
controls showed oestrus.

Specialization: Reproduction- Embryo
Subject: Superovulation of Hariana cows with follicle stimulating
hormone.
Year of publication: 1992
Journal: Indian Journal of Dairy Science. 1992; 45(1): 51-52 AB:

                               1504
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Agarwal, S K; Shankar, U; Yadev, M C; Taneja, V K; Bhat,
PN
Content:
Seven Hariana cows in the mid-luteal phase of the oestrous cycle were given
4 mg FSH-P twice daily for 4 days and 25 mg PGF2 alpha 48 h after the 1st
dose of FSH-P. The animals were inseminated 12 and 24 h after the onset of
oestrus and ova were collected non-surgically from 5 cows. The percentage
of animals responding to the superovulation treatment was 42.8. Ovulation
rate averaged 2.86. The total number of embryos recovered was 20 and the
number of transferable embryos was 4.

Specialization: Reproduction- Embryo
Subject: Superovulatory response with FSH-P and ovogen in bovines.
Year of publication: 1992
Journal:Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction. 1992; 13(2): 123-126
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Pandit, R K
Content:
For 9 cows treated with 32 mg pig FSH, 7 cows treated with 1.3 units of
Ovogen, 7 cows treated with 1.5 units of Ovogen, and 2 buffaloes treated
with 40 mg pig FSH, the number of corpora lutea in animals that produced
embryos averaged 10.8, 3.0, 14.0 and 1.0 respectively, and the number of
embryos recovered 7.4, 1.5, 1.0 and 0.0.

Specialization: Reproduction- Embryo
Subject: Techno-economic analysis of embryo transfer technology in
tropical ecology.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Production and Management. 1995;
11(4): 203-211 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Mehla, R K; Chakravarty, A K; Datta, T K
Content:
A simulation study for the comparison of genetic gain and economic
performance under a conventional progeny testing (PT) programme and a
proposed integrated model (PT + multiple ovulation and embryo transfer
(MOET)) was made in a population of 300 adult crossbred cows of which 50
animals were taken as donors depending on their performance. A breeding
strategy under the integrated model is proposed. The parameters for the
application of MOET were considered as 70% superovulation response, 3
transferable embryos per flushing and 4 superovulations per year. The
expected genetic gain of milk production under PT and PT + MOET was
0.96% and was 1.25% of the herd average. The cost of a pregnancy was
12.19 times higher by MOET than by AI. A strategy is proposed for the use
of the integrated model in organized herds, including measures to reduce the
cost of the scheme.

Specialization: Reproduction- Embryo
Subject: Studies on superovulatory response in cows treated with PMSG

                              1505
or FSH during luteal stage of the oestrus cycle.
Year of publication: 1996
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction. 1996; 17(1): 9-11 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Arora, V K; Devanathan, T G; Pattabiraman, S R; Edwin,
MJ
Content:
12 lactating Jersey x Red Sindhi cows were superovulated with PMSG (2000
IU) or FSH (18 mg) beginning on day 11 of the oestrous cycle. PGF2 alpha
(25 mg) was administered on day 14 in 2 doses at an interval of 12 h. The
embryos were recovered on day 7 after oestrus. After PMSG, the mean
number of corpora lutea, total number of embryos recovered, and numbers of
freezable, transferable, degenerated and unfertilized ova were 6.6+or-1.2,
4.84+or-1.60, 1.66+or-1.08, 2.00+or-0.85, 0.50+or-0.22 and 0.66+or-0.42.
Corresponding numbers after FSH were 7.6+or-1.1, 5.3+or-0.55, 1.83+or-
0.91, 1.83+or-0.87, 1.16+or-0.47 and 0.50+or-0.34. Differences between
treatments were not significant for these traits, but PMSG treatment resulted
in a significantly higher number of unovulated follicles.

Specialization: Reproduction- Embryo
Subject: Superovulatory response and embryo recovery in anoestrous
Hariana cows and heifers.
Year of publication: 1996
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction. 1996; 17(1): 6-8 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Raju, M S; Gupta, R C; Khurana, N K; Khar, S K
Content:
12 anoestrous Hariana cattle (6 cows and 6 heifers) were given
superovulatory treatment using SyncroMate B (norgestomet), horse FSH and
Fertagyl (a GnRH analogue). Four cows and all the heifers ovulated after
treatment and were mated. Embryos were recovered by flushing 7 days after
oestrus. The mean number of corpora lutea for cows at flushing was 9.75+or-
0.48, and numbers of unovulated follicles 1.00+or-0.41, total embryos
recovered 4.00+or-0.71, degenerated embryos 1.25+or-0.25 and transferable
embryos 2.75+or-0.85; corresponding numbers for the heifers were 8.83+or-
0.83, 0.67+or-0.33, 2.60+or-0.68, 1.40+or-0.25 and 1.20+or-0.49.

Specialization: Reproduction- Embryo
Subject: Application and commercial aspects of embryo cloning in cattle
and buffaloes - a review.
Year of publication: 1997
Journal: Indian Journal of Dairy Science. 1997; 50(2): 75-82 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Singla, S K; Manik, R S; Madan, M L
Content:
The applications of cloning both unlimited and limited numbers of embryos
are discussed. These include testing on the clonal line itself, a less time-
consuming process than progeny testing. The possible commercial
advantages of embryo cloning are also discussed, although the present
inefficiencies of the technique do not allow for mass production of embryos
at a cost suitable for the production of commercial animals. Multiple

                               1506
generation embryo cloning (recloning) is described as another potentially
valuable technique with a number of experimental difficulties to overcome.
Embryo export and its advantages over AI is also described; difficulties here
include the possibility of pathogen transmission leading to quarantine
restrictions. Finally, embryo cloning is compared to individual (adult)
cloning, and some ethical issues are addressed.

Reproduction - Female
Specialization: Reproduction - Female
Subject: A study on conception rate in purebred Sahiwal and Jersey x
Sahiwal crossbred cattle.
Year of publication: 1992
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction. 1992; 13(2): 173-175
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Belsare, R M; Deshmukh, S N
Content:
For 46 Sahiwal and 101 Jersey x Sahiwal cows, the number of inseminations
per conception averaged 2.32+or-0.25 and 2.32+or-0.19 respectively. The
trait was significantly affected by season.

Specialization: Reproduction - Female
Subject: Age at puberty, incidence of delayed puberty and effect of birth
weight, exotic inheritance and season of birth on puberty in cross bred
heifers.
Year of publication: 1992
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction. 1992; 13(2): 147-149
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Shrivastava, O P; Kadu, M S
Content:
Based on records collected during a 10-year period, age at puberty averaged
867.4+or-41.1 days and the incidence of delayed puberty was 61.1%. Birth
weight and season of birth significantly affected age at puberty. Age at
puberty increased with increasing exotic inheritance; it was lowest for F1
crosses.

Specialization: Reproduction - Female
Subject: Factors affecting number of inseminations per conception in Gir
cows.
Year of publication: 1992
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction. 1992; 13(2): 175-176
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Ulmek, B R; Patel, M M
Content:
For 381 inseminations, the number of inseminations per conception averaged
1.96+or-0.12. The trait was significantly affected by parity and season.

Specialization: Reproduction - Female

                               1507
Subject: Oestrus induction using PGF2 alpha in crossbred cows with post
partum clinical endometritis.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction. 1995; 16(2): 99-100
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Jacob, T C; Madhavan, E; Iyer, C P N
Content:
42 crossbred cows with clinical endometritis were selected for the trial.
Group I consisted of 21 animals which were kept as untreated controls. 20
animals in group II were subjected to induction of oestrus by i.m.
administration of 25 mg of PGF2- alpha (Lutalyse). Average time taken for
induction of oestrus in Group II was 58.95 h. Duration of oestrus varied from
12-24 h (mean 22.48 h) and 24-48 h (mean 29.98 h) in groups I and II,
respectively. Physical changes of the reproductive tract did not show any
marked variations between animals of induced and natural oestrus. The
percentage of weak oestrus (14.28%) in the induced group was higher than
that in the natural oestrus group (9.52%).

Specialization: Reproduction - Female
Subject: "Terramycin/LA" (oxytetracycline) therapy of peri-parturient
cows.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction. 1995; 16(2): 105-106
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Kodagali, S B
Content:
12 crossbred cows were administered i.m. oxytetracycline (Terramycin LA)
at 20 mg/kg between 6 to 24 h after calving while other 12 animals were left
as untreated controls. Regular vaginal inspection and rectal palpations were
made at 2-week intervals from up to the confirmation of pregnancy. The
interval from calving to first observed oestrus, interval from calving to
conception, number of services per pregnancy and predicted calving interval
were 58.51 +or- 4.73 and 54.0 +or- 2.38 days; 105.75 +or- 16.26 and 62.91
+or- 3.61 days; 1.75 +or- 0.35 and 1.0 +or- 0.0 times and 385.75 +or- 16.26
and 342.91 +or- 3.60 days for the treated and the control group, respectively.

Specialization: Reproduction - Female
Subject: Blood biochemical profiles in normal cycling and delayed
pubertal crossbred heifers.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction. 1995; 16(2): 91-92
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Shrivastava, O P; Kadu, M S
Content:
In crossbred heifers, the mean serum levels of total protein (7.54+or-0.11 vs.
6.64+or-0.26 g per 100 mm), cholesterol (109.29+or-1.85 vs. 97.37 +or- 2.15
mg per 100 ml), calcium (9.46+or-0.26 vs. 8.95+or-0.29 mg per 100 ml) and
inorganic phosphorus (6.17+or-0.07 vs. 5.57+or-0.14 mg per 100 ml) were

                               1508
higher normally cycling than in those showing delayed puberty.

Specialization: Reproduction - Female
Subject: Evaluation of fertility traits in Jersey cows.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1995; 72(9): 939-942 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Rao, A V N; Babu, M S; Rao, H R M
Content:
For cows imported to India from Australia in 1975 as heifers, the intervals
from calving to 1st observed oestrus, 1st service and 1st fertile oestrus
averaged 62.6, 74.9 and 113.5 days respectively. The CR to 1st service was
45.2%, and the number of services per conception 1.94. The CR tended to be
lower in younger than in older animals, in summer calvers than in cows
calving at other times, and during the earlier than the later postpartum period.

Specialization: Reproduction - Female
Subject: Evidence of polygenic nature of fertility and calving traits in
crossbred cattle.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Journal of Dairy Science. 1995; 48(6): 408-410 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Arun Kumar; Chaudhary, S R; Tomar, S S; Sachdeva, G K
Content:
Fertility and calving records of 514 primiparous crossbred cows, which were
the progeny of 17 Sahiwal and 23 Holstein sires, were analysed. Conception
rate to 1st service, overall CR and repeat breeding averaged 72.2, 67.4 and
5.0% respectively. The percentage abnormal calvings averaged 5.7, and the
percentage of male calves was 50.3. Conception rate to 1st service was
significantly higher among the cows with Sahiwal sires than with Holstein
sires.

Specialization: Reproduction - Female
Subject: Management of oestrous cycle in crossbred cows using
prostaglandin.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. 1995; 26(2): 117-120
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Ajitkumar, G; Madhavan, E; Iyer, C P N
Content:
16 cows were given 25 mg PGF2 alpha when they had a functional corpus
luteum, and were inseminated 72 or 96 h after the PGF2 alpha treatment. The
CRs to inseminations at the 2 times were 24.0 and 37.5% respectively. 16
cycling cows were given 2 injections of PGF2 alpha at an interval of 13 days,
and were inseminated at the 2 above times. The CRs for the 2 insemination
times were 25.0 and 37.5%. 16 cows were not given PGF2 alpha , and were
inseminated at oestrus. Their CR was 18.75%.

Specialization: Reproduction - Female
Subject: Serum concentration of protein-bound iodine in anoestrous

                                1509
cross-bred heifers.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction. 1995; 16(2): 93-95
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Sahu, T; Mohanty, B N; Ray, D K H; Mohanty, D N; Barik,
AK
Content:
Serum samples of 66 true anoestrus heifers and of normally cycling heifers
[number not given] were estimated for the Protein-Bound Iodine (PBI)
levels. The serum PBI levels were 3.75+or-0.11 and 5.57+or-0.15 micro
g/100 ml in delayed matured and normal cycling heifers, respectively. 61 of
the anoestrous heifers were treated with 1 g of potassium iodide orally daily
for 15 days, which resulted in manifestation of oestrus in 24 (39.34%)
animals. The serum PBI level of these animals was 5.68+or-0.10 micro g/100
ml which differed significantly from the animals that did not respond to
treatment.

Reproduction - Male
Specialization: Reproduction - Male
Subject: Comparative biochemical and enzymatic study of Jersey,
crossbred and Surti buffalo semen with reference to freezability and
fertility.
Year of publication: 1991
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Research. 1991; 24(1): 1-8 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Dhami, A J; Panchal, M T; Kodagai, S B
Content:
Eight ejaculates were collected from each of 4 Surti buffalo bulls, and 3
Jersey and 2 Kankrej X Jersey bulls. Compared with Jersey and crossbred
semen, buffalo semen had significantly lower fructose, total protein and
sodium levels, sodium:potassium ratio, and glutamic oxaloacetic
transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and lactate
dehydrogenase activities, and freezing ability and fertility. Potassium and
alkaline phosphate levels and the GOT:GPT ratio were lower in cattle than in
buffaloes: acid phosphatase activity and the acid phosphatase:alkaline
phosphatase ratio did not differ significantly between the species.

Specialization: Reproduction - Male
Subject: Studies on the fertility of glycerolated liquid cattle semen.
Year of publication: 1991
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1991; 68(5): 481-482 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Tomar, N S; Sharma, K C; Sharma, K B
Content:
351 cows were inseminated with fresh semen from 4 bulls diluted in milk-
glucose-egg yolk with and without 1% glycerol. Glycerol increased CR from
38.99 to 50.0% (P<0.05).

Specialization: Reproduction - Male

                               1510
Subject: A study on the effect of holding straws at various temperatures
on freezing of bull semen.
Year of publication:
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction. 1992; 13(2): 127-131
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Mathur, A C; Mohan, G; Sahni, K L
Content:
Cattle semen was diluted in Tris-egg yolk-glycerol diluent, packed in 0.5 ml
straws, held at 5 degrees -30 degrees C for 15 min, and were then frozen.
Post-thawing sperm motility was highest after holding at 5 degrees.

Specialization: Reproduction - Male
Subject: 'Dag' defect in two Jersey bulls (half-sibs).
Year of publication: 1992
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction. 1992; 13(2): 143-144
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Veerapandian, C; Edwin, J; Quayam, S A; Rajasekaran, J;
Austin, A J S
Content:
Three ejaculates from each of the 2 bulls, both of which had normal breeding
soundness evaluations, were studied. One had 77.5% live spermatozoa and
97.7% abnormal spermatozoa, and the other had 72.6% live and 94.0%
abnormal spermatozoa. The abnormal spermatozoa from both bulls showed
characteristics of the dag defect (strongly coiled, folded and/or broken
midpiece and tail).

Specialization: Reproduction - Male
Subject: Semen freezability in relation to single or multiple exotic genetic
component in crossbred bulls.
Year of publication: 1992
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction. 1992; 13(2): 131-133
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Sagdeo, L R; Chitnis, A B; Kaikini, A S
Content:
Post-thawing sperm motility was higher for crossbred bulls that had genes
from 1 exotic breed (Jersey, Holstein or Brown Swiss) than for bulls having
genes from 2 exotic breeds.

Specialization: Reproduction - Male
Subject: Studies on andrological investigation and seminal attributes of
Red Kandhari bulls.
Year of publication: 1992
Journal: Indian Journal of Dairy Science. 1992; 45(2): 108-109 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Deshmukh, S R; Pargaonkar, D R; Bakshi, S A;
Markandeya, N M
Content:
For 3 bulls, the length, breadth and width of the right testis averaged

                              1511
14.0+or-0.5, 7.1+or-0.49 and 6.7+or-0.55 cm respectively; values for the left
testis were 16.0+or-0.76, 7.6+or-0.5 and 7.16+or-0.55 cm. For 12 ejaculates
of the 3 bulls, semen volume averaged 4.77 ml, motility 76.7%, sperm
concentration 1376.7+or-117.5 x 106/ml, and percentages of live and
abnormal spermatozoa 76.7 and 12.0 respectively.

Specialization: Reproduction - Male
Subject: Testicular biometry and seminal characteristics of Kangayam
bulls.
Year of publication: 1992
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction. 1992; 13(2): 138-140
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Veerapandian, C; Cecilia, C; Rajasekaran, J; Quayam, S A
Content:
For 16 bulls, testis circumference was 27.6-32.1 cm, ejaculate volume 3.55-
5.28 ml, and percentage of live spermatozoa 80.1-85.3%.

Specialization: Reproduction - Male
Subject: The use of liquid nitrogen vapours for cooling of semen straws
to 5 degrees C.
Year of publication: 1992
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction. 1992; 13(2): 134-138
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Mathur, A C; Mohan, G; Sahni, K L
Content:
Post-thawing sperm motility did not differ significantly between semen
cooled in a water bath at 10 degrees C and semen cooled in liquid nitrogen
vapour.

Specialization: Reproduction - Male
Subject: Effect of seasons and extenders on freezability, GOT release and
fertility of crossbred bull semen.
Year of publication: 1993
Journal: Indian Journal of Dairy Science. 1993; 46(5): 198-202 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Belorkar, P M; Dhami, A J; Kodagali, S B
Content:
Split samples of semen from 8 bulls were diluted in Tris-fructose-egg yolk-
glycerol (TFYG), lactose-yolk-glycerol (LYG) or yolk-citrate-glycerol
(YCG) extenders and frozen. Motility of spermatozoa and glutamic
oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) release were assessed on thawed semen.
The LYG extender was superior to the other 2 diluents for GOT release and
percentages of motile, abnormal and dead spermatozoa, but CR was highest
for YCG (50.0 vs 36-37%).

Specialization: Reproduction - Male
Subject: Evaluation of different cooling rates, equilibration periods and
diluents for effects on deep-freezing, enzyme leakage and fertility of
taurine bull spermatozoa.

                               1512
Year of publication: 1993
Journal: Theriogenology. 1993; 40(6): 1269-1280 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Dhami, A J; Sahni, K L
Content:
This study examined the effects of 2 diluents (Tris and milk), 4 cooling rates
(10 degrees or 30 degrees C to 5 degrees over 1 or 2 h), and 2 equilibration
periods (0 or 2 h) on the freezing ability, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase
(GOT) leakage and fertility of thawed semen, using 18 ejaculates from 3
Friesian bulls. Prefreezing and post-thawing motility, GOT leakage and
fertility (52.81% in 267 inseminated cows) were signficantly influenced by
bull, cooling rate and equilibration period, but not by diluent or interactions
among these effects. The mean prefreezing motility of spermatozoa after 1 h
of cooling from 10 degrees to 5 degrees was significantly lower (60.38%)
and that after 2 h of cooling from 30 degrees to 5 degrees was higher
(72.38%) than after 2 h of cooling from 10 degrees to 5 degrees (66.57%) or
1 h of cooling from 30 degrees to 5 degrees (67.96%). The mean post-
thawing motility after 2 h of prefreezing cooling was, however, significantly
greater (45%) than after 1 h of cooling (35%) from both initial temperatures.
Leakage of GOT at the prefreezing and post-thawing stages was significantly
less after 2 h of cooling from 30 degrees to 5 degrees than after 1 h of
cooling from 10 degrees or 30 degrees and 2 h of cooling from 10 degrees to
5 degrees . The CR for semen frozen at the above cooling rates (66.13, 48.65,
56.67 and 42.25% respectively) was inversely related to GOT leakage.
Compared with no equilibration, equilibration for 2 h at 5 degrees adversely
affected prefreezing motility and GOT leakage, but significantly improved
post-thawing motility (44.03 vs. 35.49%) and fertility (57.86 vs. 47.24%).
The results showed that the 2 diluents were equally efficient for freezing
cattle semen.


Reproductive physiology
Specialization: Reproductive physiology
Subject: Influence of gestation on oestrone sulphate concentration in
milk of zebu and crossbred cows and Murrah buffaloes.
Year of publication: 1993
Journal: Tropical Animal Health and Production. 1993; 25(2): 94-100
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Prakash, B S; Madan, M L
Content:
Single milk samples collected during pregnancy from 128 Sahiwal, 295
Karan Swiss (KS) and 198 Karan Fries (KF) cows and 164 Murrah buffaloes
were analysed for oestrone sulphate by a sensitive, direct radioimmunoassay
procedure. Mean oestrone sulphate levels were below detection limit (<50
pg/ml) during the first 2 months of pregnancy in all animals. There was an
exponential increase in the hormone concentration beginning at the 4th
month of pregnancy in cows, although the rate of increase was greatest
among Sahiwals, followed by KS and KF cows in that order (P<0.01). An
exponential increase in oestrone sulphate level was also recorded in buffaloes
beginning at the 4th month of gestation; the mean hormone level in

                                1513
buffaloes, after initially being lower than Sahiwal and KS cows up to 6
months of pregnancy, increased to higher levels thereafter. The study
provides a basis for pregnancy confirmation by milk oestrone sulphate
determination after 110 days of gestation in cattle and buffaloes.

Specialization: Reproductive physiology
Subject: Relationship of progesterone in plasma and whole milk of
buffaloes during cyclicity and early pregnancy.
Year of publication: 1993
Journal: Tropical Animal Health and Production. 1993; 25(3): 185-192
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Kamboj, M; Prakash, B S
Content:
Blood and milk samples were collected on alternate days from 5 cycling
buffaloes on 16 occasions and from 2 pregnant buffaloes on 13 and 8
occasions, and analysed for progesterone. Over all cycling buffaloes, the
correlations of plasma progesterone with milk progesterone were 0.81 during
the follicular phase (days 0-4 of oestrus; day 0 = day of oestrus), 0.54 during
the luteal phase (days 6-14) and 0.81 during the late luteal phase (2-6 days
before the next oestrus). Within buffaloes, the correlations ranged from 0.82
to 0.89. The correlation between milk and plasma progesterone levels during
early pregnancy was very low (0.15). The linear regression of milk (Y,
ng/ml) on plasma (X, ng/ml) progesterone concentrations was Y = 1.8 +
3.61X, which indicated that milk progesterone levels were about 4 times
higher than those in plasma.

Specialization: Reproductive physiology
Subject: RIA of prolactin as related to circadian changes in buffaloes.
Year of publication: 1993
Journal: Buffalo Journal. 1993; 9(2): 159-164 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Singh, J; Madan, M L
Content:
This investigation reports on changes in plasma prolactin levels and effects
of prolactin antiserum on these variations in buffaloes. Higher levels of
prolactin were found at 12.00 h and/or p.m., coinciding with higher
temperature and brighter light at these times because temperature and
photoperiods are the 2 main climatic variables influencing the prolactin
levels. The circadian variations in prolactin were said to be due to the
animal's biological clock response to changes in the ambient temperature and
photoperiods during the day and night.

Specialization: Reproductive physiology
Subject: Biochemical blood profile of normally cycling and PGF2 alpha
treated subestrous crossbred cows.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction. 1995; 16(2): 88-90
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Jain, A; Pandita, N N

                                1514
Content:
Cows with normal oestrous cycle and cows with suboestrous condition in a
dairy herd were studied [number of animals not given]. The cows with
suboestrous condition were treated with i.m. injection of 25 mg of
prostaglandin F2- alpha (PGF2- alpha), and all animals were sampled for
blood before and after the treatment. The samples were analysed for protein,
cholesterol, glucose, calcium and inorganic phosphorus. The PGF2- alpha
treatment had no significant effect on the protein, calcium and inorganic
phosphorus levels of blood. Before the treatment, the suboestrous animals
had a significantly lower concentration of inorganic phosphorus compared
with values of the normally cycling animals. Blood glucose and cholesterol
levels were significantly increased during oestrus in both treated and
normally cycling cows.

Specialization: Reproductive physiology
Subject: Blood biochemical profiles during various reproductive states of
Sahiwal and Jersey x Sahiwal cattle.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Livestock Adviser. 1995; 20(7): 13-20 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Burle, P M; Mangle, N S; Kothekhar, M D; Kalorey, D R
Content:
Two blood samples were obtained at an interval of 7 days from each of 36
Sahiwal and Sahiwal x Jersey anoestrous, cycling and repeat-breeding cows.
The blood concentrations of total protein, cholesterol, calcium, phosphorus,
sodium and potassium were lowest in anoestrous cows (P<0.01), and the
concentrations of protein, cholesterol and phosphorus were significantly
higher in cycling cows than in repeat breeders. There were no significant
differences between breed types for any of the serum constituents, but there
were significant differences between 1st and 2nd blood samples. Data are
presented in 4 tables.

Specialization: Reproductive physiology
Subject: Phosphorus and trace element status of anoestrous and repeat
breeder cross bred cows.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. 1995; 26(2): 91-94
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: George, J; Nair, K P
Content:
Inorganic phosphate, copper, zinc, manganese and cobalt were measured in
serum samples from fertile, anoestrous and repeat breeder cows (17 cows per
group). The mean concentration of inorganic phosphorus was significantly
lower in anoestrous cows compared with fertile and repeat breeder cows,
while the mean copper concentration was significantly higher in fertile cows
than in anoestrous and repeat breeder cows. The serum zinc, manganese and
cobalt were not significantly different between groups.

Specialization: Reproductive physiology
Subject: Studies on blood serum levels of certain biochemical

                              1515
constituents in normal cycling and anestrous crossbred cows.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction. 1995; 16(2): 85 87 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Vhora, S C; Dindorkar, C V; Kaikini, A S
Institution:
Content:
In 6 healthy cycling cows, cholesterol levels were higher than those in 6
anoestrous cows, but the difference was not significant. Levels of total
proteins, cobalt and copper were significantly higher in normal cycling cows
than in anoestrous cows. Higher levels or iron were recorded in normal
cycling cows, but the differences were not significant.

Specialization: Reproductive physiology
Subject: Testosterone profile during estrous cycle in cross-bred cows.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction. 1995; 16(2): 111-112
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Reddy, I J; Varshney, V P; Sanwal, P C; Pande, J K
Content:
This study examined circulating testosterone levels during the oestrous cycle
in crossbred cows. The plasma testosterone concentration was lowest
(32.19+or-1.8 pg/ml) on the day of oestrus. The levels fluctuated within a
range of 49-56 pg/ml up to day 7 of the oestrous cycle. The levels then rose
significantly on days 8th, 9th and 10th of the cycle. Thereafter, the levels
remained low and fluctuated between 53.5 and 65 pg/ml during days 10-16
of the cycle. This was followed by a rise to 60-80 pg/ml on days 19th, 20th,
and 21st of the cycle. The absolute circulating testosterone levels varied
significantly among animals.

Specialization: Reproductive physiology
Subject: Thyroid function in anoestrus and cycling cows.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1995; 72(7): 709-711 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Bugalia, N S; Garg, S L; Suresh Chander; Rao, A R;
Verma, S K
Content:
Peripheral plasma triiodothyronine (T3) and tetraiodothyronine (T4) profiles
were measured by radioimmunoassay in 20 anoestrus cows with active
ovaries and in 20 cycling cows. Thyroid hormones were significantly lower
in anoestrous cows (0.52 +or- 0.05 ng/ml; 16.86 +or- 2.18 ng/ml) than in
cycling cows during oestrus phase (0.98 +or- 0.06 ng/ml; 35.0 +or- 3.38
ng/ml) and dioestrus phase (0.71 +or- 0.07 ng/ml; 28.27 +or- 3.14 ng/ml) of
the oestrous cycle. In cycling cows, plasma T3 and T4 concentrations were
significantly elevated during oestrus phase compared to dioestrus phase of
the cycle.

Specialization: Reproductive physiology
Subject: Effect of bromocriptine on plasma FSH 17B-oestradiol and

                               1516
progesterone concentration and conception in dairy cows.
Year of publication: 1996
Journal: International Journal of Animal Sciences. 1996; 11(1): 175-178
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Ramachandra, S G; Narayana, K
Content:
Dairy cows were treated with saline or bromocriptine at 20 micro g/kg body
weight at the onset of prostaglandin-induced oestrus, and the plasma
concentrations of FSH and oestradiol-17 beta were estimated in samples
collected every 2 h for 5 days. The plasma progesterone concentration was
estimated in daily or alternate day samples. In bromocriptine-treated cows,
there was a significant reduction in plasma FSH concentration during oestrus.
The peak oestradiol concentration was unaffected by bromocriptine. There
was a significant reduction in plasma progesterone concentration in
bromocriptine-treated cows.

Statistics
Specialization: Statistics
Subject: Evaluation of newly developed standardized correction factor
for milk yield using crossbred data.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Journal of Dairy Science. 1995; 48(11): 629-632 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Parekh, H K B; Srivastava, P N; Arora, J S; Pompa Dutt
Content:
Newly developed standardized correction factors for milk yield were
compared for their accuracy with that of standardized correction factors
developed in the USA, using 798 lactation records on 177 Friesian halfbreds
spread over a period of 15 years of AICRP [All India Coordinated Research
Project?] on Cattle at Jabalpur, India. The correction factors for age at
calving, service period and lactation duration were examined. The accuracy
was tested using increase in heritability and reduction in linear correlation
among the corrected milk yield and non-genetic sources. The heritability for
corrected milk yield using both types of correction factors increased, when
corrected for all the 3 non-genetic sources indicating its effectiveness.
However, effective reduction in correlation was observed for age at calving
the lactation length. A significant difference (P<0.05) between correlation for
lactation length with corrected milk yield using 2 different correction factors
indicated superiority of newly developed correction factors for lactation
duration over USA standard correction factors.

Specialization: Statistics
Subject: Newly developed multiplicative correction factors for milk yield
using crossbred data.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Journal of Dairy Science. 1995; 48(11): 626-628 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Parekh, H K B; Dutt, P
Content:

                                1517
839 lactation records of 177 Friesian crossbred cows taken over a 15-year
period were used to develop multiplicative correction factors for milk yield.
Mathematical models were used to analyse the milk yield data taking into
account age at calving, service period, dry period and lactation length. The
effectiveness of correction factors was evaluated by measuring hsuperscript
2, repeatability and genetic correlation between milk yield and non-genetic
sources of uncorrected and corrected 300-day milk yield records. The
correction factors for age at calving and service period were effective in
correcting milk yield, as indicated by a decrease in repeatability and an
increase in hsuperscript 2 and genetic correlation. The correction factor for
dry period was not effective in correcting milk yield and showed only a small
decrease in repeatability.

Specialization: Statistics
Subject: Relationship between retention times and explanatory variables
in dairy cattle.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Journal of Dairy Science. 1995; 48(6): 438-441 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Bhatia, V K; Malhotra, P K
Content:
The relationship between retention time and productive and reproductive
traits was examined in crossbred cattle using a parametric model of location-
scale type and a culling proportional model which was non-parametric. The
first lactation length, first lactation yield and second lactation yield were
important variables related to retention times of crossbred cattle. The culling
probability estimates obtained at different retention times in respect of
several hypothetical values of first or second lactation milk yield were low
for cows with a level of exotic inheritance of about 50%, indicating that their
chances of retention in the herd were greater compared with other crossbreds.
3/8th and 7/8th breeds had respectively the lowest and the highest culling
rates among the crossbreds when the cows had completed or were
completing their first lactation.

Specialization: Statistics
Subject: Comparison of lactation curve models used on monthly records
of Jersey- Sahiwal crossbred cows.
Year of publication: 1997
Journal: Indian Journal of Dairy Science. 1997; 50(3): 199-204 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Singh, A K; Kumar, D; Singh, M; Singh, R V; Kumar, M
Content:
Monthly milk yield data were obtained for first lactations of 130 Jersey x
Sahiwal cows calved during 1971-79 (the progenies of 10 sires) at the
livestock Research Centre, Govind Ballabh Pant University, Pantnagar, Uttar
Pradesh, India. The comparative fit of inverse polynomial, gamma type,
parabolic exponential, exponential and gamma stochastic models were
ascertained. The predicted curve by gamma stochastic function was closest to
the observed curve. The exponential function did not explain the ascending
phase of the lactation curve.


                                1518
Specialization: Statistics
Subject: Prediction of milk on the basis of peak yield and initial yield in
Holstein-Friesian x Hariana cows (F1).
Year of publication: 1997
Journal: Environment and Ecology. 1997; 15(4): 860-861 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Pan, S; Koley, N; Duttagupta, R; Roy, A M
Content:
Formulation of a prediction equation for first lactation milk yield (Y) on the
basis of peak yield (X1) and initial yield (cumulative yield up to peak yield)
X2 was carried out utilizing data from 345 Holstein x Hariana cows (F1)
from the State Livestock Farm, Kalyani, West Bengal, India, during 1969-72.
The equation obtained was Y = 200.548 + 159.122(X1) + 1.447(X2) with
highly significant Rsuperscript 2 values and multiple correlation of 64%.

Specialization: Statistics
Subject: Relative accuracy of various methods of estimating milk yield
from sample day production in crossbred cows.
Year of publication: 1997
Journal: Indian Journal of Dairy Science. 1997; 50(2): 94-101 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Likhi, A K; Khanna, A S
Content:
168 crossbred (Holstein-Friesian x Hariana) cows were maintained from
1969-85 at the Department of Animal Breeding, Chaudhary Charan Singh
Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India. Cows were milked twice a day
at approximately 12 h intervals from the 5th day of calving to the end of
lactation (between 200 and 300 days), and samples were combined to give
the actual lactation yield. Three methods of estimating milk yield: centring
date (CDM), test interval (TIM) and sample day production (SPM) were
assessed for accuracy. For CDM, samples were taken at regular intervals of
30, 40, 50 and 60 days. For TIM and SPM, samples were taken irregularly -
the duration of each test interval being chosen randomly. There were 5
sampling plans: AM+PM (both morning and evening), all-AM (only
mornings), all-PM (only evenings), AM-PM (mornings and evenings
alternately) and PM-AM (evenings and mornings alternately). The average
error in estimated milk yield for each method is tabulated without
adjustment, with adjustment for the shape of the lactation curve (SA) and
with adjustment for both SA and diurnal variation (SDA). Adjustments
reduced the average error in all 3 methods, and more so when the shorter
sampling intervals (30-40 days) were used. Varying the sampling interval did
not affect the average error. The PM-AM sampling plan gave an average
error closest to that of the AM+PM plan. There were no significant
differences in relative efficiency between the 3 sampling schemes, but
relative efficiency decreased as the sampling interval increased for all 3
schemes. Adjustments could improve the efficiency by no more than 1%.

Specialization: Statistics
Subject: Statistical model for estimating losses due to foot-and-mouth
disease in India.
Year of publication: 1997

                               1519
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1997; 67(5): 441-444 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Rajendra Singh; Tiwari, C B; Dinesh Kumar
Content:
A stochastic model was developed to study the benefits of various disease
control strategies, and used data from an outbreak of the disease at the Indian
Veterinary Research Institute farm. The overall expected losses for both
sickness and death from the disease were Rs 20.02 (4.1% of average value of
animals on the farm). It is concluded that vaccination (cost Rs 4.00 per
animals) is a economically beneficial strategy in endemic areas.

Specialization: Statistics
Subject: Sampling of milk records for estimation of lactation yield of
crossbred cows.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Journal of Dairy Science. 1998; 51(5): 296-302 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Shiv Prasad; Ramkaran Singh
Content:
Two sampling methodologies ((i) systematic sampling and (ii) test interval
method) were compared for estimation of lactation yield of crossbred cows
using 35 first-lactation daily milk records of 5/8 Holstein cows maintained at
the Military Farm, Lucknow, from 1986 to 1992. The sampling was done at
regular intervals of 7, 14, 21, 28 and 56 days starting from different days. (i)
provided more reliable estimates than (ii). Sampling at weekly intervals gave
estimates approximately equal to actual lactation yield and these estimates
were the most efficient estimates. The efficiency of the estimates decreased
very rapidly with increase of sampling interval. (i) produced an estimation
error of up to 5% with a sampling interval of 1 or 2 weeks, which increased
to 7% when the sampling interval was increased to 3 or 4 weeks. It is
concluded that the sampling interval should be <4 weeks and that first
recording just after calving should be avoided.

Surgery
Specialization: Surgery
Subject: Ketamine-thiopentone anaesthesia in calves.
Year of publication: 1992
Journal: Cheiron. 1992; 21(5/6): 142-146 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: William, B J; Ragavender, K B P; Rao, G D; George, R S;
Archibald, D
Content:
The mean dose of 5% thiopentone required to induce anaesthesia for
13.90+or-1.33 min in 6 male calves aged 6-12 months was 7.20+or-0.88
mg/kg injected i.v. following sedation with ketamine at 2 mg/kg. Muscular
tremor and rigidity induced by ketamine were abolished by thiopentone, with
good muscle relaxation and smooth recovery. No significant changes in
clinical, haematological, haemodynamic and biochemical parameters were
observed when compared with 6 control calves. It is concluded that the
ketamine-thiopentone combination is safe for calves.

                                1520
Specialization: Surgery
Subject: Physiological, haematological, biochemical and clinical effects of
pudendal nerve blockade in bovine.
Year of publication: 1993
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1993; 70(7): 649-652 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Charak, R S; Amresh Kumar
Content:
Pudendal nerve blockade using 0.25 or 0.5% procaine hydrochloride at 1
ml/kg body weight had no adverse cardiopulmonary, haematological or
biochemical effects in trials with 8 healthy cow calves. Treatment of 18
clinical cases of placental retention, postparturient infection or endometritis
with intrauterine antibiotics and the nerve blockade using the 0.25 or 5.0%
procaine hydrochloride resulted in expulsion of fetal membranes in 5.5 +or-
1.00 to 6.0 +or- 1.5 days, respectively, compared with 11.00 +or- 1.00 days
in controls treated only with the antibiotics.

Specialization: Surgery
Subject: Acid-base and blood gas studies after xylazine epidural
analgesia in calves.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Journal of Veterinary Surgery. 1995; 16(2): 93-96 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Ravi Raidurg; Ranganath, B N; Srinivas, C L; Jayadevappa,
SM
Content:
Epidural analgesia was induced using xylazine hydrochloride at dose rates of
0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg body weight in 5 bull calves 5 to 6 months of age. A
significant dose dependant increase in the partial pressure of arterial CO2 and
base excess values; a significant dose dependant decrease in partial pressure
of arterial oxygen and no significant effect on the arterial pH were recorded
indicating development of respiratory acidosis and metabolic alkalosis. It is
concluded that xylazine is more suitable for epidural use at 0.05 than at 0.1
mg/kg body weight in calves.

Specialization: Surgery
Subject: Experimental studies on the effect of Charmil on wound healing
in bovine calves.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1995; 72(11): 1177-1179 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Pradhan, N R
Content:
The efficacy of a herbal skin gel, Charmil, containing oil of Cedrus deodara
and Pongamia glabra [P. pinnata], was evaluated in the treatment of
experimentally produced suppurative wounds in 10 calves. Rapid wound
healing in 16-17 days, antimicrobial effect (no bacterial isolation after 11
days), insect repellent effect and larvicidal effect on myiasis larvae were
observed in the treated calves. Only 1 animal in the untreated control group
survived with wound healing at 27 days.

                                1521
Specialization: Surgery
Subject: Histological and histochemical evaluation of bovine amnion and
porcine skin as biological dressings in bovine wounds.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1995; 65(8): 849-852 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Lingaraj, H D; Mogha, I V; Ram Kumar
Content:
Fresh bovine amnion, amnion preserved in 0.5% silver nitrate and fresh
porcine skin were used as a dressing for experimental cutaneous wounds in
bovines. The stage of wound healing was assessed by histological and
histochemical studies of biopsies collected on days 3, 7, 15 and 28 post-
treatment. Acute inflammatory changes were more marked in wounds that
had been covered with sterile gauze soaked in saline (controls) than those
covered with the biological materials. Wounds dressed with preserved and
fresh amnion showed greater proliferation of fibroblasts and angioblasts than
after porcine skin-treated and control wounds. The density of collagen and
elastin fibres was relatively small on day 15 in all wounds, but increased by
day 28. It was highest in wounds treated with preserved amnion followed by
wounds dressed with fresh amnion and porcine skin, and control wounds.

Specialization: Surgery
Subject: Physiological, haematological and biochemical effects of
thiopentone with and without diazepam in hepatotoxic bovine.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1995; 72(7): 723-727 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Amarpal; Amresh Kumar
Content:
Hepatotoxic animals required significantly smaller dose (11.24 +or- 1.17
mg/kg, i.v.) of thiopentone sodium than normal cattle (13.12 +or- 1.17
mg/kg) to produce surgical anaesthesia. This dose was further reduced in
diazepam premedicated (0.5 mg/kg, i.v.) hepatotoxic animals. Significant
increase in heart rate and fall in temperature was recorded in all groups. Fall
in respiration rate, tidal volume and minute volume was less in hepatotoxic
animals than in normal animals. Transient and non-significant changes were
observed in pH, PaCO2, standard bicarbonate, base excess, CVP and mean
arterial pressure in all groups. Glucose level significantly increased in all
groups. Decrease in albumin and increase in globulin and bilirubin was
recorded in all hepatotoxic animals throughout the period of study. No
significant change could be recorded in total proteins, serum urea nitrogen,
creatinine serum Ca+, Na+, K+, Cl- and OCT.

Specialization: Surgery
Subject: Torsion of gravid uterus and laparohysterotomy in bovine - a
report on 72 clinical cases.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1995; 72(11): 1180-1182 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Sharma, S P; Agrawal, K B P; Singh, D P

                                1522
Content:
72 clinical cases of uterine torsion in bovine (39 exotic crossbred, 1
Tharparkar and 32 buffalo cows) in which laparohysterotomy was performed
are reported from March 1979 to June 1994. Post-cervical uterine torsion was
marked in almost all animals except a crossbred cow in which pre-cervical
torsion was detected. According to the degree of torsion and fetal position,
the right flank, the right paramedian and the right lateral (mid way in
between the right flank and milk vein) were selected as surgical sites. Only 2
calves were delivered live. 17 animals died during or soon after surgery.

Specialization: Surgery
Subject: Incidence of foot disorders in an organised dairy farm.
Year of publication: 1996
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1996; 73(3): 341-343 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Maiti, S K; Parai, T P; Nautiyal, L P
Content:
The incidence of foot disorders in a 850-cow dairy herd in Izatnagar, Uttar
Pradesh, was 9.46%. The incidence was highest in 4- to 6-year-old cows
(45.96%) and lowest in cows <2 years old (1.05%). Holstein-Friesian cows
had more foot disorders (16.4%) than Jersey (13.8%) or Hariana cross (5.6%)
cows. Disorders were more frequently observed in hind feet (8.9%) than in
fore feet (4.2%) and the lateral claws were more frequently affected than the
medial claws. Over-grown hooves and infections were the commonest
disorders.

Specialization: Surgery
Subject: Prenatal appendicular skeletal development in the buffalo by
radiographic study: the thoracic limb
Year of publication: 1996
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1996; 73(3): 291-295 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Patel, K B; Desai, M C; Tadkod, D M; Panchamukhi, B G
Content:
Limb bones of 58 fetuses were radiographed. Ossification centres of various
bones of the thoracic limb were almost similar to those of cattle. The centres
for olecranon tuberosity, accessory carpal and sesamoid bones were not seen
until full term. Ossification centres for the body and neck of the scapula and
diaphyses of long bones first appeared at 97 days. The first appearance of
ossification centres was late as compared with cattle. There were only 2
ossification centres for each metacarpus, first phalanx and second phalanx.
The length of diaphyses of long bones increased at a steady rate.

Specialization: Surgery
Subject: Repair of metatarsal and tibial fractures in hill bulls using a
fabricated uniaxially dynamic full pin transfixation device: an
experimental study.
Year of publication: 1996
Journal: Indian Journal of Veterinary Surgery. 1996; 17(2): 106-110
AB:
Country of Origin: India

                               1523
Author’s name: Pattanaik, T K; Singh, G R; Mogha, I V
Content:
Repair of an experimental fracture of the metatarsus and tibia was undertaken
using a fabricated uniaxially dynamic full pin transfixation device. 12 adult
bulls were randomly divided into 3 groups, A, B and C. Bulls of group A
were subjected to metatarsal fracture repair, groups B and C to tibial fracture
repair. Device alone, device with a four-holed heavy duty bone plate and
device with a bovine horn plate was used for fracture fixation in groups A, B
and C, respectively. Gross observation, radiographic evaluation and study of
functional weight bearing status for 120 days revealed fracture repair quicker
in groups A and C than group B. The mean period of near normal functional
weight bearing was 9 and 6 weeks, respectively in groups A and C. In group
B, no animal could attain normal weight bearing, even by the end of the
sixteenth week.

Specialization: Surgery
Subject:Standing thoracotomy and diaphragmatic herniorrhaphy in a
cow.
Year of publication: 1996
Journal: Veterinary Record. 1996; 139(10): 240 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Singh, S S; Mirakhur, K K; Singh, K I; Sharma, S N
Content:
Diaphragmatic hernia was diagnosed in an 8 year old cow with a history of
recurrent tympany, weight loss, cessation of lactation and reduced appetite.
Radiography detected a foreign body in the reticular area and a barium meal
confirmed the herniation of the reticulum. Three days after a rumenotomy
had been performed to successfully remove the foreign body a diaphragmatic
herniorrhaphy was performed via a right thoracotomy incision. The
operation, which is described was performed with the animal restrained in a
standing position using local anaesthesia. The diaphragm was closed with
continuous lock stitch sutures using silk. The animal made an uneventful
recovery and no postoperative complications were reported.

Specialization: Surgery
Subject: Electrocardiographic changes in experimentally induced
myocardial ischaemia following ligation of left anterior descending
coronary artery in calves.
Year of publication: 1997
Journal: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1997; 67(3): 192-195 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Gupta, O P; Singh, G R
Content:
Ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery was performed in 6
healthy calves. Electrocardiograms were obtained before and immediately
after induction of myocardial ischaemia and 15 and 30 min, and 1, 2, 24, 48
and 72 h after ligation. Heart rate increased immediately after ligation and
remained increased for 24 h and then gradually returned to the normal values
by 72 h after ligation. The duration and amplitude of different waves, and
mean electric axis calculated in pre-ligated calves were within the normal
limits. The QS type of QRS complex was seen in healthy calves. Shift in

                                1524
QRS and T wave vectors, S - T elevation, inversion of T wave and
arrhythmias were seen at different intervals after coronary ligation.

Toxity
Specialization: Toxity
Subject: Organophosphorus (Folidol) poisoning in cattle.
Year of publication: 1992
Journal: Indian Journal of Veterinary Research. 1992; 1(1): 18-21 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Singh, K R; Rao, M R K; Singh, S S; Char, N L; Rao, M R
KM
Content:
During September-November 1989, the sudden death of 44 of 84 affected
cattle occurred in Ampapuram village of Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh,
India. The clinical history, necropsy findings, histopathological examination
and laboratory investigations revealed the toxic effects of Folidol (methyl
parathion) [parathion-methyl] used on rice fields in the village which had
contaminated the grazing land due to flooding. Of the 25 affected cattle
treated with atropine sulfate and pyridine-2-aldoxime methiodide (2 PAM),
15 recovered and the outbreak was controlled by preventing the animals from
grazing in the contaminated fields for 2 months.

Specialization: Toxity
Subject: Acute toxicity of endosulfan in calves with reference to haemato-
biochemical changes.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Journal of Toxicology. 1995; 2(1/2):13-19 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Dwivedi, P C D; Singh, S P; Sharma, L D
Content:
In an acute toxicity study following oral administration of a single dose of 8
mg/kg and 2 doses of 2 mg/kg of endosulfan at weekly intervals to 2 groups
of young male cross bred calves, hyperaesthesia, excitement, dyspnoea,
convulsions, staggering gait and muscular ataxia resulted. Respiration and
pulse rate were significantly elevated (P < 0.01). There was a rise in
neutrophils and total leucocyte count (TLC), but a decline in total erythrocyte
count (TEC), haemoglobin, packed cell volume (PCV) and lymphocytes.
Sodium levels in serum were significantly lower (P < 0.05), whereas
potassium levels were significantly higher (P < 0.01). Glucose, urea and
transaminase levels in serum increased significantly (P < 0.01). Total protein,
albumin, globulin, bilirubin, creatinine and uric acid levels were stable. All
the animals died within 3 weeks.

Specialization: Toxity
Subject: Chlorinated hydrocarbon poisoning in animals - two case
reports
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1995; 72(7): 744-746 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Rao, V N; Varshney, C

                                1525
Content:
Endosulfan poisoning in a dog and lindane poisoning in a heifer are
described. The dog died in spite of treatment with sedatives and fluid
therapy. The heifer recovered after treatment with acepromazine, chloral
hydrate, liquid paraffin and decontamination of skin with soap and water.

Specialization: Toxity
Subject: Toxicity of a winter crop weed Anagallis arvensis (blue
pimpernel) in cattle and buffaloes.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1995; 72(11): 1151-1153 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Sadekar, R D; Bhandarkar, A G; Udasi, S D; Deshmukh, P
N; Phadnaik, B S
Content:
In February 1994, 31 cattle and buffaloes out of a herd of 46, died following
the feeding of A. arvensis containing a heavy burden of fruit. Dullness,
anorexia, suspended rumination, constipation and oedematous swelling first
observed in the perineal region extending to ventral abdomen and sternum
were observed. Pathological changes in kidneys and livers are described.

Specialization: Toxity
Subject: Occurrence of cyclopiazonic acid in feeds and feedstuffs in
Tamil Nadu, India.
Year of publication: 1996
Journal: Mycopathologia. 1996; 133(3): 159-162 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Balachandran, C; Parthasarathy, K R
Content:
A total of 100 samples (67 randomly collected and 33 known to contain
aflatoxin) of feeds and feedstuffs collected in Tamil Nadu, India, were
studied for cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) content. 40 samples showed CPA
activity (maize 10 of 26, groundnut cake 10 of 20, sunflower seed cake 7 of
10, sorghum 4 of 10, wheat 1 of 1, little millet 1 of 1, rice 1 of 1, deoiled rice
bran 0 of 1, fishmeal 0 of 1, chick mash 1 of 3, grower mash 0 of 7, layer
mash 3 of 11, broiler mash 2 of 6 and cattle feed 0 of 2); concn ranges were
0.4-12, 0.5-20, 0.3-20, 0.3-20, 20, 10, 10, 1.5, 1-15, 8 and 15 ppm,
respectively. Co-occurrence of CPA was found in 14 of the 33 aflatoxin-
containing samples.

Specialization: Toxity
Subject: Borewell water nitrate toxicosis in cattle.
Year of publication: 1997
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1997; 74(9): 750-751 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Sarathchandra, G; Albert, A; Muralimanohar, B;
Venugopalan, A T
Content:
Nitrate toxicosis, from which 6 working bullocks died, was attributed to
water in newly dug, bare wells that contained nitrate levels of 1500 micro
g/ml. The main clinical signs were dehydration, salivation, respiratory

                                 1526
distress, incoordination and a pulse rate that exceeded 200 beats/min. PM
examination revealed cyanosis, and methaemoglobin was detected in the
blood (4.3-7.9 g/dl). The presence of nitrates was confirmed in the plasma
(75-100 micro g/ml) and in ruminal fluid.

Specialization: Toxity
Subject: Lead levels in the blood of cows from an industrial area.
Year of publication: 1997
Journal: Indian Journal of Toxicology. 1997; 4(1/2): 61-62 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Dey, S; Swarup, D; Dwivedi, S K
Content:
Lead levels in blood samples from 25 cattle kept for over a year within 0.1
km of an industrial site were compared with those of 25 cattle kept in a rural
area without exposure to lead processing. The mean lead level for the
industrial area was 0.144 +or- 0.001 ppm compared with 0.098 +or- 0.008
ppm in the rural area.

Specialization: Toxity
Subject: Nerium poisoning in bovines.
Year of publication: 1997
Journal: Indian Veterinary Journal. 1997; 74(11): 977-978 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Karunanidhi, P S; Sunder, N S; Reddy, J S; Choudhuri, P C
Content:
After eating leaves of Nerium oleander while grazing in a garden, 3 buffaloes
and one cow became dull and anorectic; it was stated that each animal had
eaten about 30 g of the leaves. The clinical signs included bradycardia,
congestion of mucous membranes and loose soft faeces with mucous and
blood. After treatment with liquid paraffin, atropine s.c., phenaramine
maleate i.m., calcium borogluconate s.c., and dextrose saline i.v., all the
animals, except one buffalo, recovered. PM examination of the dead animal
showed impaction of the rumen controls, which included Nerium leaves,
severe serosal inflammation in the intestines, with some thickening, oedema
and ulceration of the walls in some areas. There were petechial haemorrhages
and ecchymoses on the duodenal mucosa, and haemorrhage and tarry blood
clots in the intestines. Haemorrhages were also present in the spleen, kidneys
and myocardium.

Specialization: Toxity
Subject: Aflatoxins - a cause of concern for human and animal health.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Indian Dairyman. 1998; 50(6): 23-30 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Anuja Dudhe; Chander Datt; Aruna Chhabra
Content:
The topic is reviewed under the following headings: occurrence; adverse
biological effects due to aflatoxin toxicity; metabolic fate and transfer to
products (milk, meat and eggs); analysis of aflatoxins (sampling, sample
preparation, extraction, purification, qualitative detection and confirmation,
and quantification); regulation of aflatoxins; and control and detoxification

                               1527
(physical, chemical and biological methods).

Specialization: Toxity
Subject: Carry-over of aflatoxin B1 from feed as aflatoxin M1 in milk of
Indian cows.
Year of publication: 1998
Journal: Milchwissenschaft. 1998; 53(9): 513-515 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Choudhary, P L; Sharma, R S; Borkhateria, V N
Content:
A study was carried out using 10 lactating cows aged from 5-10 years at
different stages of lactation [date not given]. Diets with aflatoxin B1 contents
( micro g/kg) of (a) 12.50, control, (b) 25.00, (c) 52.53, (d) 77.90 and (e)
108.45 were fed for 15-day periods. Percentage conversion of aflatoxin B1 in
feed to aflatoxin M1 in milk ranged from 0.15 to 1.31.

Zoonoses
Specialization: Zoonoses
Subject: Are cattle a reservoir host of kala-azar in India?
Year of publication: 1990
Journal: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and
Hygiene. 1990; 84(5): 754 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Killick Kendrick, R
Content:
The suggestion that the ox may be a reservoir host of kala-azar in India is
discusssed with reference to a report of bovine cutaneous leishmaniasis in the
old focus of kala-azar in Assam (Pande, Indian Journal of Veterinary Science
and Animal Health (1941) 11, 98-104). Amastigotes were seen in a stained
smear and the correspondent considers it probable that the parasite was
Leishmania donovani. It is suggested that infections in the ox, and possibly
the buffalo, are normally inapparent, and that the age and poor condition of
the animal in this case may explain the overt infection.

Specialization: Zoonoses
Subject: Rotavirus an emerging enteropathogen of man and animals: an
overview.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Journal of Communicable Diseases. 1995; 27(4): 199-207 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: S V S Malik; Ashok Kumar; K N Bhilegaonkar
Content:
The paper presents an overview of the epidemiology, control, treatment,
virology, diagnosis and the zoonotic aspects of the problem. Problems for
further research are identified.

Specialization: Zoonoses
Subject: Sero-positivity of domestic           animals     against   Japanese
encephalitis in Bareilly area, U.P.
Year of publication: 1995

                                1528
Journal: Journal of Communicable Diseases. 1995; 27(4): 242-246 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Mall, M P; Ashok Kumar; Malik, S V S
Content:
A study on seroprevalence of Japanese encephalitis (JE), West Nile (WN)
and dengue-2 (DEN-2) was undertaken [at an unspecified date] in and around
Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India, to explore the role of non-human hosts in the
natural cycle of these infections. A total of 1449 animal serum samples
collected from 104 dogs, 170 pigs, 170 horses, 333 buffaloes, 252 cattle, 168
sheep and 252 goats were screened for antibodies against JE, WN and DEN-
2 by Micro-haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test employing 4 to 16 HA
units of JE, WN and DEN-2 antigens. The HI positive rates for JE was
55.77% in dogs followed by 40% in pigs, 37.65% in horses, 21.92% in
buffaloes, 17.86% in goats, 2.38% in sheep, and 1.98% in cattle. 24.04% of
dogs, 27.65% of pigs 25.88% of horses, 13.81% of buffaloes, 6.75% of
goats, 1.19% of cattle, and no sheep were positive for WN. The rates of
positive results for DEN-2 was lowest of the 3 infections, with 15.88% of
horses, in 15.38% of dogs, 11.76% of pigs, 7.81% of buffaloes and 3.97% of
goats positive. All cattle and sheep serum samples gave negative results
against DEN-2 antigen.

Specialization: Zoonoses
Subject: Transmission of Japanese encephalitis in a 3-population model.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal: Ecological Modelling. 1995; 83(3): 295-309 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Tapaswi, P K; Ghosh, A K; Mukhopadhyay, B B
Content:
The model considered for the spread of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in a
human population of varying size from a reservoir population (pigs, cattle,
equines, birds, etc.) through a vector population (particular species of
mosquitoes) was of the SIRS (susceptible-infective-recovered-susceptible)
type for the human and reservoir populations and the SIS (susceptible-
infective-susceptible) type for the vector population. The logistic differential
equation was considered with density-dependent birth rate for the vector
population whereas the reservoir population was of constant size. It was
assumed that the human population was regulated by the disease and that
there was a constant recruitment rate of susceptibles into the human
population. An equilibrium and stability analysis was performed to find a
threshold condition. If the threshold was exceeded, then there would be a
unique equilibrium with disease present which was locally stable to small
perturbations and global stability would depend on death rates and the ratio
of the equilibrium population sizes of the infected vector and total human
populations.

Specialization: Zoonoses
Subject: Transmission of Sarcoptes scabiei from animal to man and its
control.
Year of publication: 1995
Journal:Journal of the Indian Medical Association. 1995;93(4):142-143
AB:

                                1529
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Mitra, M; Mahanta, S K; Sen, S; Ghosh, C; Hatt, A K
Content:
An outbreak of sarcoptic mange in domestic animals (64 goats, 8 cattle, 5
sheep and 2 dogs) spreading to man (42 individuals) was observed in the
adjacent villages of Fewgram and Nurpur in the district of Birbhum, West
Bengal, India, from mid-November to mid-December 1991. Nineteen goats
and one calf who did not receive any treatment died of mange. All infested
animals were cured with external application of deltamethrin and
triazapentadiene. Human cases were treated successfully with 2% benzene
hexachloride [HCH].

Specialization: Zoonoses
Subject: Analysis and potential of excretory-secretory antigens of Setaria
cervi for immunodiagnosis of human filariasis.
Year of publication: 1996
Journal: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 1996; 34(6): 508-512
AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Huma Mustafa; Neelu Srivastava; Kaushal, D C; Kaushal,
NA
Content:
Excretory-secretory (E-S) products of adult Setaria cervi maintained in vitro
were prepared by centrifugation and concentration from the culture medium
and used to raise polyvalent hyperimmune serum in rabbits. The rabbit anti-
E-S serum was tested by ELISA and immunoelectrophoresis against E-S
products and showed antibody titres of 1:100 000 to 1:250 000. Cross
immunoelectrophoresis revealed 10 to 14 antigens in the S. cervi E-S
products. Using counterimmunoelectrophoresis, the anti-E-S antibodies
detected circulating antigen in pooled sera from 15 patients with filariasis but
not in sera from healthy controls. S. cervi, which is readily obtained from
slaughtered bovines in India, is recommended as a source of antigen for the
immunodiagnosis of human filarial infections.

Specialization: Zoonoses
Subject: Role of animals in the spread of human ringworm disease in
Madras.
Year of publication: 1996
Journal: Current Science. 1996; 71(9): 666 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Ranganathan, S; Thangam Menon; Balajee, S A M
Content:
One lion cub, 1 Nilgiri langur, 3 llamas and 3 camels in Arignar Anna
Zoological Gardens, and 22 dogs, 11 cattle and 1 donkey calf in and around
the city of Madras, India, were screened for dermatophytes. Three strains of
Trichophyton mentagrophytes were isolated from 1 lion cub and 2 dogs. No
symptomatic lesions were observed in these animals. All the animal isolates
of T. mentagrophytes and 6 of 70 clinical isolates of T. mentagrophytes
produced gymnothecia with Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii (-) mating type.
The 6 clinical isolates were recovered from cases of severe tinea capitis in
children who may have contracted the disease while playing with animals. It

                                1530
is concluded that animals act as carriers of human dermatomycoses,
especially in rural areas.

Specialization: Zoonoses
Subject: A report of mosquito fauna survey and vector incrimination in
Goalpara district of Assam.
Year of publication: 1997
Journal: Indian Journal of Malariology. 1997; 34(4): 204-207 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Dutta, P; Khan, S A; Sharma, C K; Mahanta, J
Content:
Mosquitoes were collected using CDC light traps in cattle sheds adjacent to
houses and using aspirators in houses, in 2 villages of Agia PHC in Goalpara
district, Assam, India, in November 1995. A total of 3424 mosquitoes of 21
different species was collected using the light traps, of which 12 species were
in the genus Anopheles. Dominant species were Culex vishnui (34.3% of the
catch), A. annularis (26.9%), C. pseudovishnui (6.5%), A. karwari (6.3%), A.
kochi (6.2%), C. fuscocephala (3.6%), A. minimus (3.4%) and A. vagus
(2.0%). In the indoor surveys, 5 species were collected: C. quinquefasciatus
(40 individuals), A. vagus (35), A. minimus (13), A. annularis (3) and C.
vishnui (30). Two females of A. minimus were infected with Plasmodium
sporozoites.

Specialization: Zoonoses
Subject: A survey of dermatophytosis in animals in Madras, India.
Year of publication: 1997
Journal: Mycopathologia. 1997; 140(3): 137-140 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Ranganathan, S; Balajee, S A M; Raja, S M
Content:
A total of 211 dogs (including strictly house and stray dogs) and 170 cattle in
and around the city of Madras, India, were screened for the presence of
dermatophytosis. 106 strains of dermatophytes (89 strains from dogs and 17
strains from bovines) were isolated, of which 57 were Trichophyton
mentagrophytes and 42 were Microsporum gypseum. Five strains of T.
rubrum and 2 strains of T. simii were also obtained in culture. A
predominance of M. gypseum isolates was recorded in stray dogs and cattle
and T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum in strictly house
dogs. The family history of the owners of the most of the dogs had clear
records of dermatophytosis. The owners of the 11 dogs that yielded T.
mentagrophytes had either tinea corporis or tinea pedis. The aetiological
agent of all 11 human cases was T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale [T.
interdigitale]. Similarly, the owners of 4 of the 5 dogs that yielded T. rubrum
were known T. rubrum patients. All patients responded to oral griseofulvin or
ketoconazole, but the recurrence of lesions was noted with the cessation of
treatment. None of the patients had onychomycosis and the family history of
all patients revealed no reports of T. rubrum infections. The pet dogs were
presumed to be the source of re-infection. Reversed transmission of
dermatophytes from humans to animals may be the reason for the selective
predominance of these organisms in strictly house dogs; they also may act as
sources of reinfection.

                                1531
Specialization: Zoonoses
Subject: Mosquito abundance in peripheral foothill areas of Kaziranga
National Park, Golaghat, Assam.
Year of publication: 1997
Journal: Journal of Communicable Diseases. 1997; 29(3): 303-306 AB:
Country of Origin: India
Author’s name: Prakash, A; Bhattacharyya, DR; Mohapatra, PK; Mahanta,J
Content:
A survey of mosquitoes was undertaken in Kaziranga National Park, Assam,
India, in June-August 1995, using CDC light traps in human dwellings, and
aspirator collections in human dwellings and cattle sheds. A total of 1943
adult mosquitoes was collected, representing 5 genera and 26 species. The
most abundant species in light trap collections were Culex pseudovishnui
(274 individuals), C. tritaeniorhynchus (252), C. vishnui (178), Anopheles
dirus (137), C. fuscocephala (124), Mansonia annulifera (119), M. uniformis
(82) and A. minimus (79). Daytime indoor resting collections yielded high
numbers of A. vagus (283) and A. minimus (108). Potential malaria vectors
collected included A. dirus, A. minimus, A. philippinensis and A. annularis.
Potential vectors of Japanese encephalitis virus collected included C. vishnui,
C. pseudovishnui, C. tritaeniorhynchus, C. fuscocephala and M. uniformis.




                                1532

								
To top