BEEF 20CATTLE 20MANAGEMENT 202002 20ANS 20110 by thMXdAqM

VIEWS: 19 PAGES: 47

									BEEF CATTLE
MANAGEMENT
           by
   David R. Hawkins
Michigan State University
 Comparison of Dairy & Beef
         Industries
                 DAIRY        BEEF

  Biology         same         same

End Products   Milk & Meat     Meat

 Industry      Single Unit   Segmented
 Structure      Full Time    Part Time
Management      Intensive    Extensive
  Comparison of Dairy & Beef
          Industries
                 DAIRY         BEEF
 Milk Level        High      Mod. to Low
   Breeds         1 to 5        70 +
Crossbreeding      Rare       Frequent
 Use of A.I.     Extensive     Limited
Genetic Traits   1 Primary    Multiple
        U.S. BEEF INDUSTRY
             STRUCTURE
•   Seedstock              • 120,000 breeders
•   Commercial Cow-Calf    • 904,000 producers
•   Dairy                  • 117,000 farms
•   Stocker/Backgrounder
•   Feedlot                •   44,000 feedlots
•   Packer                 •   1,250 packers
•   Retailer               •   250 food chains
•   Consumer               •   270+ million
    BEEF INDUSTRY TIMELINE
•   Conception to Calving   •   9 months
•   Calving to Weaning      •   6 to 8 months
•   Stocker/Backgrounder    •   Variable (2 to 8 mo.)
•   Feedlot                 •   Variable (3 to 7 mo.)
•   Packer                  •   3 to 7 days
•   Retailer                •   Variable
•   Consumer                •   Variable
•   Total                   •   About 30 to 32 mo.
            SIZE of CATTLE
             OPERATIONS
• Dairy and feedlots tend to be full time.
• Beef cow herds tend to be part time
• U.S. average herd size is 38 head
  –   1 to 49 hd = 28.9% of cows (78% of farms)
  –   50 to 99 hd = 19.1% of cows (12% of farms)
  –   100 to 499 hd = 37.1 % of cows (9% of farms)
  –   >500 head = 14.9% of cows (0.7% of farms)
     BREED REGISTRATIONS
             2001
•   Angus – 271,222       •   Brangus – 25,500
•   Hereford – 80,976     •   Shorthorn – 21,608
•   Limousin – 49,036     •   Brahman – 15,000
•   Charolais – 45,354    •   Maine Anjou – 12,267
•   Simmental – 44,159    •   S. Gertrudis – 11,500
•   Red Angus – 41,900    •   Salers – 10,286
•   Gelbvieh – 32,323     •   Chianina – 6,679
•   Beefmaster – 30,416   •   T.Longhorn – 6,200
         BREED WEBSITE
• Oklahoma State University maintains an
  excellent web page for breeds of livestock.
• www.ansi.okstate.edu/BREEDS/index.htm
  BEEF BREEDING SYSTEMS
• Straight breeding          • Two Breed Cross
• Crossbreeding              • Terminal Sire
   – Breed complementarity •   Two Breed Rotation
   – Heterosis or hybrid     • Three Breed Rotation
     vigor
      • Individual heterosis • Rotation + terminal
      • Maternal Heterosis     Sire
                             • Composite
Effects of Heterosis on Lbs. of
Calf Weaned per Cow Mated
Example of a Three Breed
   Rotational System
 BREEDING SEASON MGT. I
• Breeding Soundness Exam
• Natural Service with Bulls
  – Yearling – 10 to 20 females
  – Two Year Old – 20 to 30 females
  – Mature bull – 30 to 40 females
• Artificial Insemination
  – Less than 5% of cows in commercial herds
  – Up to 40% of cows in seedstock herds
 BREEDING SEASON MGT. II
• Limited season results in uniform calf crop
   – 60 days would be ideal
   – 100 to 120 days is more common
• Michigan Beef Cows Calving by Month
   –   Jan. & Feb. 7.3%
   –   March      24.2%
   –   April      39.7%
   –   May        17.1%
   –   Other      11.8%
BREEDING SEASON MGT. III
• At weaning (7 mo.) heifers should weigh 45% of
  mature weight.
• At breeding (15 mo.) heifers should weigh 65% of
  mature weight.
• At calving (24 mo.) heifers should weigh 85% of
  mature weight.
• Measure pelvic areas prior to breeding
• Use light birth weight and low birth weight EPD
  bulls for mating to heifers
     MICHIGAN COW CALF
         NUTRITION
• Pasture 5/15 to 10/30 – 165 days
  – 1 to 5 acres per cow calf pair
• Harvested Forage 11/01 to 5/14 – 200 days
  – Corn stalk residue – 30 to 60 days
  – Grass-legume hay or silage – 140 to 200 days
  – Free Choice Minerals
     • Salt, Ca, P, Mg + Trace Minerals
  – Clean fresh water
   COMMON NUTRTIONAL
  PROBLEMS in BEEF COWS
• Thin Cows
  – Body Condition Scores (1 to 9) 5 to 6 is ideal
  – Calving Difficulty & Delayed Rebreeding
  – Dry vs. Lactating
• Fat Cows
  – Calving Difficulty and Reduced Milk Flow
• Legume Bloat
• Grass Tetany
     SEPARATE HERD INTO
     MANAGEMENT GROUPS
•   Bred Heifers & Thin Cows
•   Dry Mature Cows
•   Lactating Cows
•   Weaned Heifer Calves
•   Mature Herd Sires
•   Young Bulls
 HERD HEALTH PROGRAM I
• Calving Season
  –   Colostrum within first hours after birth
  –   Iodine navel
  –   Selenium – Vitamin E
  –   Scour Vaccine (E.coli 7/or Viruses)
• Castrate & Dehorn
• Implant non replacement calves
• Vaccinate Cows (IBR, BVD, PI3 + Lepto)
HERD HEALTH PROGRAM II
• Pasture and Breeding Season
  –   Deworm & Control Flies
  –   Vaccinate heifer calves for Brucellosis
  –   Consider Blackleg & Malignant Edema
  –   Creep feeding is optional
  –   Keep free choice mineral available
HERD HEALTH PROGRAM III
• Preweaning
  – Vaccinate calves for IBR, BVD, PI3, Blackleg
    & Hemophilis somnus
  – Castrate and dehorn if not done earlier
  – Get calves used to eating grain & drinking
    water from troughs
• Weaning Time
  – Pregnancy check females exposed to breeding
HERD HEALTH PROGRAM IV
  – Booster vaccinations
  – Grub & lice control
• Late Gestation
  – Check mineral for P and Se
  – Treat for lice if they are a problem
  – Consider scour vaccine for cows & bred heifers
        RECORD KEEPING
• 27.6% of beef cow calf operations have no
  records at all.
• 65.2% keep records by hand



Source- National survey of 3,300 producers in
  48 states
           Types of Records
• Inventory
• Ancestral
• Performance
  – Birth, weaning and yearling data
• Health
  – Vaccinations and examinations
• Financial – IRM & SPA
      EXPECTED PROGENY
       DIFFERENCES (EPD)
• EPDs can be calculated for any trait that we
  can measure.
• EPDs are estimates of the genetic ability of
  animals to transmit to their progeny
• EPDs are expressed in the same units as the
  trait is measured
• Analyses are done by the national breed
  associations
           EPDs continued
• Breed average is not “0”.
• EPDs change over time as more information
  enters the analyses.
• Most breeds run two analyses per year.
• They are widely used and widely accepted
  in the industry
• Accuracy ranges from 0 to .99
              IRM & SPA
• Integrated Resource Management (IRM) is
  a system approach to managing a farm or
  ranch.
• Standardized Performance Analysis (SPA)
  is a way of analyzing records of both
  production and financial performance of a
  farm or ranch in order to make better
  decisions and impact profitability.
          2000 ILLINOIS SPA
             SUMMARY
•   Calf Crop Weaned         82.9%
•   Average Weaning Weight   486 lbs.
•   Lbs.weaned/Cow Exposed   420 lbs.
•   Annual Cow Cost          $ 305
    – Feed cost was $ 209
• Breakeven Calf Price       $ 73/cwt.
• Investment per cow         $ 1,858
    HOW TO IMPROVE PROFIT
•   Improve Reproductive Rate
•   Wean Heavier Calves
•   Wean Higher Value Calves
•   Develop Alliances and Retain Ownership
•   Reduce Cow Herd Costs
•   Use cattle inventory and price cycles in
    management decision making
    CATTLE INVENTORY &
       PRICE CYCLES
• High inventory = low prices
• Low inventory = high prices
• Historically cattle inventory cycles have
  averaged 9.6 years long from peak to peak.
• In 2001, we are at the low inventory part of
  this cycle.
• Cow calf producers should be profitable for
  the next 4 to 5 years.
STOCKER/BACKGROUNDER
• Purchase weaned calves in fall, sell in the
  spring
  – Goal is 1.5 to 1.75 lb. ADG
  – Moderate energy, high roughage rations
  – Growth and normal development are the goals
    Fattening is not a goal.
     • Grazing winter wheat in the southern plains states
       from November to March
     • Wintering on hay &/or silage in Michigan
STOCKER/BACKGROUNDER
       continued
• Buy yearlings in late winter and graze in
  summer.
  – Goal is 180 to 300 lb. gain in 120 to 150 days
• Some programs will combine both a winter
  stocker and summer grazing program before
  entering the feedlot.
STARTING CATTLE ON FEED
• First day begin with top quality grass hay
• Second day top dress hay with grain or silage
• Transition to high energy ration should be made
  over 10 to 14 days to avoid digestive upsets.
• Don’t use all NPN supplements until calves weigh
  at least 600 lbs.
• Keep fresh feed and water available at all times
     FEEDLOT NUTRITION
• Grains – Corn, Barley & Milo
• Roughages – Corn Silage, Alfalfa Hay or
  Haylage
• Protein Supplements
  – Soybean or Cottonseed Meals
  – Brewers Grains
  – Urea or Anhydrous Ammonia
  NUTRITIONAL PROBLEMS
• Acidosis on high energy rations
  – Ionophores (Rumensin or Bovatec) help
• Founder (laminitis) on high energy rations
• Bloat
• Urinary calculi
  – Need Ca:P ratio > 1.1
  – Often occurs on high energy diets
        FEEDLOT STEERS &
            HEIFERS
• Steers gain 8% to 15% faster than heifers of same
  body size.
• Steers consume 5% to 10% more feed than
  heifers.
• Heifers require 2% to 10% more lbs. of feed per
  lb. of gain than steers
   – Some feeders tend to over fatten heifers
• To be equal in profit, heifers must be purchased
  about 10% to 15% less per cwt. than steers.
 FEEDLOT STEERS & BULLS
• Bulls gain more rapidly and more
  efficiently than steers.
• Bulls produce leaner carcasses that are more
  variable in tenderness than steer carcasses.
• Bulls are more difficult to manage than
  steers or heifers.
• There is only a limited market for bull beef.
  AGE OF FEEDLOT CATTLE
• Yearlings gain 10% to 20% faster than calves
  depending on weight and condition.
• Yearlings consume 10% to 40% more feed than
  calves.
• Yearlings are less efficient in converting feed to
  gain than calves.
• Yearlings require fewer days in the feedlot to
  reach final weight and carcass grade.
• Western U.S. feedlots prefer to feed yearlings.
          BREED EFFECTS
• Larger continental breeds gain faster than
  British breeds, but must be carried to
  heavier weights to grade choice.
• There is little difference in feed efficiency
  when fed to the same carcass endpoint.
• Holsteins require about 10% more feed per
  lb. of gain than beef breeds but ADG is
  similar to beef breeds.
         EFFECT OF BODY
           CONDITION
• When placed on comparable diets, thin
  cattle gain faster and more efficiently than
  fatter cattle.
• This phenomenon is called “compensatory
  gain”.
• Cattle feeders try to avoid buying fat feeder
  cattle unless they are priced somewhat
  lower per cwt. than thin feeder cattle.
 FEEDLOT PROFIT OR LOSS
• Dekalb feedlots average profit per head
  over a 23 year period was $ 26.
• Profitability is influenced by changes in the
  grain and cattle markets.
• Risk can be controlled by use of contracts
  and trading for future market access.
• Marketing skills are critical for success.

								
To top