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					                                             Chapter 5
                                        CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
                                           Test Item Table

                                                                Level of Learning
  Major Section of the
       Chapter              Level 1: Definition           Level 2: Conceptual               Level 3: Application
                           (Knows Basic Terms         (Understands Concepts &               (Applies Principles)
                                 & Facts)                     Principles)
 Savvy Automakers                                     1, 2                              3
 Know Thy
 Custom(h)er
 (pp. 99-100)
 Consumer Purchase         4, 5, 7, 16, 20, 22, 23,   8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 18,     6, 14, 17, 26, 32, 39, 40, 44, 45,
 Decision Process          24, 27, 28, 30, 36, 37,    19, 21, 25, 29, 31, 33, 34, 35,   47, 177, 180
 (pp. 100-104)             38, 41, 43, 46, 49, 51,    42, 48, 50, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57,
                           52, 179                    178
 Psychological             58, 59, 60, 64, 65, 66,    62, 63, 67, 78, 83, 86, 90, 93,   61, 70, 71, 72, 77, 79, 82, 85,
 Influences on             68, 69, 73, 74, 75, 76,    96, 105, 106, 109, 110, 116,      88, 92, 97, 99, 102, 111, 113,
 Consumer Behavior         80, 81, 84, 87, 89, 91,    117, 118, 121, 127, 129,          114, 122, 123, 124, 128, 136,
 (pp. 104-111)             94, 95, 98, 100, 101,      130, 181, 182, 184                181, 183
                           103, 104, 107, 108,
                           112, 115, 119, 120,
                           125, 126, 131, 132,
                           133, 134, 135, 183
 Sociocultural             139, 141, 143, 144,        137, 138, 142, 145, 153,          140, 146, 150, 151, 152, 159,
 Influences on             147, 148, 149, 154,        156, 158, 160, 161, 162,          164, 165, 166, 172, 185, 188,
 Consumer Behavior         155, 157, 167, 173,        163, 168, 169, 170, 171,          189
 (pp. 112-117)             174, 186                   186, 187, 188
 Video Case:                                          175, 176
 Ken Davis Products.
 Inc.: Barbecue Sauces
 for Nonimprovisers
 (pp. 118-119)

Note: Bold numbers indicate short essay questions.




                                                         252
                                         CHAPTER 5
                                     CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

                                MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

5-1 CHAPTER OPENING EXAMPLE: THE AUTO CUSTOM(H)ER                                     CONCEPTUAL

   Which of the following statements about how women buy cars today is true?

   a.        Women have no particular likes or dislikes which makes it very difficult to view them as a
             viable target market.
   b.        Most women actually enjoy the price negotiation process.
   c.        To accommodate women customers, automobile dealers have not changed the way they sell
             cars in the last three decades.
   d.        Women are most likely to make their car purchase selection as a result of information provided
             by a friend or a relative.
   e.        Women rely more heavily on promotional information to make their final car purchase
             decision than men do.

   Answer: d            Page: 99
   Rationale: Choice d is a correct statement. Regarding the incorrect choices, recognition of
   women as purchasers and influencers in car and truck buying has altered the behavior of dealers,
   including doing away with negotiation. Women look at promotional material, but do not rely on it
   to make their final decision.

5-2 CHAPTER OPENING EXAMPLE: THE AUTO CUSTOM(H)ER                                     CONCEPTUAL

   Who buys 60 percent of all new cars and light trucks?

        a.    Men
        b.    Women
        c.    Teens
        d.    People representing ethnic minority groups
        e.    None of the above.

        Answer: b         Page: 99
        Rationale: Women buy about 60 percent of new cars and light trucks. As a group, they spend over
        $81 billion on new cars and trucks for their personal use, and influence 80 percent of all new car
        sales.




                                                   253
5-3 CHAPTER OPENING EXAMPLE: THE AUTO CUSTOM(H)ER                               APPLICATION

   When General Motors started selling its Saturn cars, it announced that the cars would have a
   non-negotiable price. A customer who wanted to buy a Saturn would pay the posted price. General
   Motors probably adopted this pricing policy because:

   a.   the industry was discussing the abandonment of self-regulation practices.
   b.   women have an intense dislike of the car-buying process, yet still want to buy a car.
   c.   many recent immigrants into the United States were not accustomed to negotiation.
   d.   research showed that price negotiation was socially irresponsible.
   e.   a sluggish economy guaranteed that negotiations would produce a less than adequate return on
        investment.

   Answer: b            Page: 100
   Rationale: General Motors, like the other car manufacturers, was aware that women buy 60
   percent of all new cars and light trucks. Additional research had shown them that 78 percent of
   women disliked the car-buying process and often refuse to negotiate the price. (Many of the recent
   immigrants to the U.S. come from countries where negotiations are expected for each purchase.)

5-4 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR                                                             DEFINITION

   __________ describes the actions a person takes in purchasing and using products and services.

   a.   Marketing
   b.   Market research
   c.   Consumer behavior
   d.   Consumer management
   e.   Purchase development

   Answer: c         Page: 100        Other Location: web
   Rationale: Key term definition—consumer behavior

5-5 PURCHASE DECISION PROCESS                                                     DEFINITION

   The stages a buyer passes through in making choices about which products and services to buy is
   called the:

   a.   situational analysis sequence.
   b.   VALS inventory.
   c.   purchase decision process.
   d.   hierarchy of learning.
   e.   routine response sequence.

   Answer: c         Page: 100
   Rationale: Key term definition—purchase decision process




                                              254
5-6 PROBLEM RECOGNITION                                                         APPLICATION

   Nike has developed a new cushioning substance for use in the soles of athletic shoes. The new
   substance not only absorbs shock better, it rebounds more completely, thereby improving the
   wearer's speed and jumping ability. Nike believes this new characteristic—promoted as reflex
   response—will make the new shoe a superior product. Due to increased costs of materials and
   production, the price will be about $150. Based on responses of people who have tried the new
   product, Nike is confident consumers will have a relatively favorable evaluation of the shoe. To
   have a favorable evaluation, consumers must first:

   a.   experience problem recognition.
   b.   consult a public source of information.
   c.   consult a personal source of information.
   d.   make a purchase decision.
   e.   experience cognitive dissonance.

   Answer: a           Page: 100; Figure 5-1
   Rationale: As Figure 5-1 illustrates, a buyer passes through five stages of the purchase decision
   process when making choices about which products and services to buy. The initial step in the
   process is problem recognition.

5-7 PROBLEM RECOGNITION                                                           DEFINITION

   During the purchase decision process, a person at the __________ stage will realize that the
   difference between what he or she has and what he or she would like to have is big enough to
   actually do something about it

   a.   problem recognition
   b.   alternative evaluation
   c.   cognitive dissonance
   d.   routine response behavior
   e.   post purchase behavior

   Answer: a          Page: 100; Figure 5-1
   Rationale: Text term definition—problem recognition




                                              255
5-8 PROBLEM RECOGNITION                                                              CONCEPTUAL

    When the marketing student said, “It's really hard for me to get to class on time without a car,” she
    was entering which stage of the consumer decision process?

    a.   Purchase decision
    b.   Alternative evaluation
    c.   Information search
    d.   Problem recognition
    e.   Postpurchase behavior

    Answer: d            Page: 100
    Rationale: During the purchase decision process, an individual at the problem recognition stage
    will perceive differences between his or her ideal and actual situations as big enough to trigger a
    decision. The student perceives she would be unable to get to class on time without a car.

5-9 PROBLEM RECOGNITION                                                              CONCEPTUAL

    When Marty attended his first statistics class, he realized that he ought to buy a calculator or else he
    would be unable to do his assignments. In which stage of the consumer purchase decision process
    was Marty when he made this realization?

    a.   Information search
    b.   Problem recognition
    c.   Purchase behavior
    d.   Alternative evaluation
    e.   Pre-purchase cognition

    Answer: b           Page: 100          Other Location: web
    Rationale: During the purchase decision process, an individual at the problem recognition will
    perceive differences between his or her ideal and actual situations as big enough to trigger a
    decision. Marty realized that he was unable to do his assignments without a calculator.

5-10 INFORMATION SEARCH                                                              CONCEPTUAL

    Which stage in the consumer purchase decision process suggests criteria to use for the purchase,
    yields brand names that might meet the criteria, and develops consumer value perceptions?

    a.   Problem recognition
    b.   Information search
    c.   Alternative evaluation
    d.   Purchase decision
    e.   Post purchase evaluation

    Answer: b           Page: 100
    Rationale: After recognizing a problem, a consumer begins to search for information about what
    product or service might satisfy the newly discovered need.




                                                 256
5-11 INFORMATION SEARCH                                                           CONCEPTUAL

    The question “How long is the warranty for this CD player?” would be asked during the
    __________ stage in the consumer purchase decision process.

    a.   problem recognition
    b.   information search
    c.   alternative evaluation
    d.   purchase decision
    e.   All of the above.

    Answer: b           Page: 100
    Rationale: After recognizing a problem, a consumer begins to search for information about what
    product or service might satisfy the newly discovered need.

5-12 INFORMATION SEARCH                                                           CONCEPTUAL

    In which stage in the consumer purchase decision process would a consumer ask, "Is installation
    included in the price of this air conditioner?"

    a.   Problem recognition
    b.   Information search
    c.   Alternative evaluation
    d.   Purchase decision
    e.   Evaluation

    Answer: b           Page: 100
    Rationale: After recognizing a problem, a consumer begins to search for information about what
    product or service might satisfy the newly discovered need.

5-13 INFORMATION SEARCH                                                           CONCEPTUAL

    Eddie, an avid football fan, is glued to the television every Sunday afternoon as he watches his
    favorite teams. He thinks games would be more enjoyable on a big screen television. Eddie started
    talking with his friends to learn more about the various brands of big screen televisions. In which
    step of the purchase decision making process is Eddie engaged?

    a.   Problem recognition
    b.   Evaluation of alternatives
    c.   Purchase decision
    d.   Information search
    e.   Post purchase evaluation

    Answer: d             Page: 100
    Rationale: After a consumer has recognized a problem, the next step in the decision making
    process is to search for information. When past experience or personal knowledge does not provide
    adequate information upon which a consumer can make a decision, the risk of making a bad
    decision is high, and the cost of gathering information is low, the consumer may seek information
    from external sources. Primary external sources of information for many consumers are family and
    friends.


                                               257
5-14 INFORMATION SEARCH                                                          APPLICATION

    When an elementary school teacher needed to buy poster board for her class, she remembered that
    she had found some poster board at three stores: her local 99 Cents Only store, Walgreen’s, and at
    her Family Dollar Store. What term best describes the information search method used by the
    teacher?

    a.   Personal external source
    b.   Public external source
    c.   Market-dominated external source
    d.   Internal search
    e.   Market-dominated internal source

    Answer: d             Page: 100
    Rationale: When a person scans his or her memory for previous experiences with products or
    brands, he or she is engaged in an internal search.

5-15 INFORMATION SEARCH                                                          CONCEPTUAL

    Thao's friend Mike turns 21 next week and will have a party. Thao decided to purchase a CD as a
    present. Because they like the same music, Thao scanned her memory for various CD options.
    This is an example of what action in the consumer purchase decision process?

    a.   Memorization
    b.   External search
    c.   Evaluative criteria
    d.   Antecedent states
    e.   Internal search

    Answer: e             Page: 100
    Rationale: When a person scans his or her memory for previous experiences with products or
    brands, he or she is engaged in an internal search such as Thao recalling various CD options.

5-16 INTERNAL SEARCH                                                               DEFINITION

    A(n) __________ in the consumer purchase decision process occurs when consumers scan their
    memory for previous experiences with products or brands.

    a.   problem recognition
    b.   internal search
    c.   external search
    d.   purchase task
    e.   antecedent state

    Answer: b          Page: 100
    Rationale: Text term definition—internal search




                                               258
5-17 INTERNAL SEARCH                                                               APPLICATION

    A mother of two toddlers would most likely use an internal search process exclusively when
    purchasing:

    a.   a gift for a best friend.
    b.   a DVD player.
    c.   disposable diapers.
    d.   perfume.
    e.   a weekend getaway.

    Answer: c             Page: 100
    Rationale: When a person scans his or her memory for previous experiences with products or
    brands, he or she is engaged in an internal search. Because diapers are frequently purchased items,
    the mother would likely recall from memory which brand she prefers.

5-18 INTERNAL SEARCH                                                               CONCEPTUAL

    Amy is an avid mystery reader and has decided to purchase a mystery book for her best friend.
    Since the two friends enjoy the same types of mysteries, Amy will know exactly which book her
    friend would like. When Amy was scanning her memory for various mystery book options, she
    was engaged in:

    a.   problem recognition.
    b.   an internal search.
    c.   an external search.
    d.   a purchase task.
    e.   the creation of an antecedent state.

    Answer: b             Page: 100
    Rationale: When a person scans his or her memory for previous experiences with products or
    brands, he or she is engaged in an internal search.

5-19 EXTERNAL SEARCH                                                               CONCEPTUAL

    An external search for product information is especially important when:

    a.   the cost of gathering information is low.
    b.   review of past experience provides adequate information.
    c.   the risk of making a wrong purchase decision is low.
    d.   the item is frequently purchased.
    e.   any of the above conditions exist.

    Answer: a              Page: 100
    Rationale: An external search for information is especially needed when past experience is
    insufficient, the risk of making a wrong decision is high, and the cost of gathering information is
    low.




                                                259
5-20 EXTERNAL SEARCH                                                                 DEFINITION

    In the consumer purchase decision process an external search for product information occurs when:

    a.   the consumer gathers information from outside sources.
    b.   the consumer gathers information from friends.
    c.   the consumer gathers information from product-rating organizations.
    d.   the consumer gathers information from advertising.
    e.   any of the above conditions exist.

    Answer: e          Page: 100
    Rationale: Text-term definition—external search

5-21 EXTERNAL SEARCH                                                              CONCEPTUAL

    Christina wants to purchase a new computer. She is unsure about what hardware and software she
    will need. As a result, she has begun asking for advice from friends and relatives. In addition, she
    has talked to several computer salespeople and has looked at some websites. Christina is engaging
    in:

    a.   problem recognition.
    b.   an internal search.
    c.   an external search.
    d.   a purchase task.
    e.   the creation of an antecedent state.

    Answer: c            Page: 100
    Rationale: Christina is externally searching for information about computers. An external search
    is especially important when the cost of gathering information is low, when past experience is
    insufficient and when the risk of making a wrong decision is high.

5-22 PERSONAL SOURCES                                                                DEFINITION

    Examples of personal sources of information for an external information search include:

    a.   advertising.
    b.   Consumer Reports magazine.
    c.   sales personnel.
    d.   friends and relatives.
    e.   point of purchase displays.

    Answer: d          Page: 101
    Rationale: Text term definition—personal sources




                                                260
5-23 PUBLIC SOURCES                                                                DEFINITION

    An example of a public source of information for an external information search is:

    a.   advertising.
    b.   Consumer Reports magazine.
    c.   sales personnel.
    d.   friends and relatives.
    e.   point of purchase displays.

    Answer: b          Page: 101       Other Location: web
    Rationale: Text term definition—public sources

5-24 MARKETER-DOMINATED SOURCES                                                    DEFINITION

    An example of a marketer-dominated source of information for an external information search is:

    a.   personal experience.
    b.   Consumer Reports magazine.
    c.   consumer programs on talk radio stations.
    d.   friends and relatives.
    e.   point of purchase displays.

    Answer: e          Page: 101
    Rationale: Text term definition—marketer-dominated sources

5-25 MARKETER-DOMINATED SOURCES                                                  CONCEPTUAL

    Marlon was hungry, but he couldn't decide what he wanted to eat. When Marlon saw the television
    ad for chocolate-stuffed Oreo cookies, he knew exactly what he wanted. Marlon's information
    search was shorted by the appearance of a __________ source.

    a.   private information
    b.   consumer-controlled
    c.   public information
    d.   family
    e.   marketer-dominated

    Answer: e            Page: 101
    Rationale: Marketer-dominated sources of information originate with the sellers of products and
    services, and include advertising, salespeople, and point-of-purchase displays in stores.




                                               261
5-26 ALTERNATIVE EVALUATION                                                         APPLICATION

    Keisha is in the process of buying a new car appropriate to her role as the newest vice president at
    her company. She was overheard telling a co-worker, "The Volvo has reclining bucket seats, but
    the Cadillac has front and back stereo speakers." In which stage of the purchase decision process is
    Keisha?

    a.   Problem recognition
    b.   Information search
    c.   Alternative evaluation
    d.   Purchase decision
    e.   Post purchase evaluation

    Answer: c             Page: 101
    Rationale: The problem recognition stage was prompted by the need for appropriate
    transportation; the information search stage helped the consumer to collect needed information to
    use to seek value; the alternative evaluation stage provides evaluative criteria by which to make a
    decision. In this case the purchase will be a car, the bucket seats or an exceptional stereo represent
    the alternatives that need to be evaluated.

5-27 EVALUATIVE CRITERIA                                                              DEFINITION

    The objective and subjective attributes of a brand consumers use to compare different products are
    called:

    a.   temporal states.
    b.   antecedent states.
    c.   information sources.
    d.   evaluative criteria.
    e.   the evoked set.

    Answer: d          Page: 101
    Rationale: Text term definition—evaluative criteria

5-28 EVALUATIVE CRITERIA                                                              DEFINITION

    When you set out to buy a DVD player for yourself, factors you might consider before purchase are
    called __________, which represent both the objective attributes of a brand and the subjective ones
    you use to compare different products and brands.

    a.   hot buttons
    b.   informational alternatives
    c.   evaluative criteria
    d.   buying decision-makers
    e.   consumer attributes

    Answer: c          Page: 101        Other Location: web
    Rationale: Text term definition—evaluative criteria




                                                262
5-29 EVALUATIVE CRITERIA                                                          CONCEPTUAL

    When Judy decided to buy an electric can opener as a wedding present, she wanted to buy a brand
    name opener that attached under a cabinet and that had sleek styling. These are __________ Judy
    used during the alternative evaluation stage of the purchase decision process.

    a.   hot buttons
    b.   informational alternatives
    c.   evaluative criteria
    d.   buying decision-makers
    e.   consumer attributes

    Answer: c           Page: 101
    Rationale: Evaluative criteria represent both the objective attributes of a brand (the ability to
    attach under a cabinet) and the subjective ones (sleek styling) a person uses to compare different
    products and brands.

5-30 EVOKED SET                                                                      DEFINITION

    The group of brands a consumer would consider acceptable from among all the brands in the
    product class of which he or she is aware is the:

    a.   evaluative set.
    b.   evolved set.
    c.   evoked set.
    d.   alternative selection group.
    e.   aspiration group.

    Answer: c          Page: 101
    Rationale: Text term definition—evoked set

5-31 EVOKED SET                                                                   CONCEPTUAL

    You want to buy some dry breakfast cereal and you are in the mood for unsweetened flakes. You
    can think of three brands that you consider acceptable from among all the brands of which you are
    aware: Post Toasties, Kellogg's Corn Flakes, and Wheaties. Collectively, what is this group of
    cereal brands called?

    a.   A value group
    b.   An evoked set
    c.   An evaluative criterion
    d.   An impulse set
    e.   A discriminative group

    Answer: b           Page: 101
    Rationale: The evoked set is the group of brands a consumer would consider acceptable from
    among all the brands in a product class, such as the different unsweetened flake cereals.




                                                263
5-32 EVOKED SET                                                                  APPLICATION

    BMW StreetCarver is a skateboard that features BMW's technology in its wheel suspension, which
    stabilizes the board's sleek design and allows for greater control around sharp curves. BMW is
    concerned with making sure its skateboard is in the evoked sets of potential skateboard buyers. In
    this case, it most likely should focus on:

    a.   reducing the post-purchase dissatisfaction that may result from purchasing its product.
    b.   making sure its advertisements get on the air during sporting events, such as exhibition
         skateboarding.
    c.   making appeals directed towards motivational ego needs.
    d.   trying to determine the most important evaluative criteria skateboarders use when judging the
         product.
    e.   creating personality profiles for skateboarders.

    Answer: d            Page: 102
    Rationale: The key influence in determining the products in the evoked set is to have a set of
    important attributes, which matches the evaluative criteria employed by consumers. The most
    important evaluative criteria establish the brands in consumers' evoked set. Therefore, by
    identifying the most important attributes a firm can design a product, which matches consumers'
    interests.

5-33 PURCHASE DECISION                                                           CONCEPTUAL

    Raul overheard one of his co-workers in a phone conversation say, “Thank you for taking my call
    so quickly. I'd like to order number 1284H, the 12 inch covered omelet pan and use the easy pay
    plan.” The co-worker was in which stage in the consumer purchase decision process?

    a.   Problem recognition
    b.   Alternative evaluation
    c.   Information search
    d.   Purchase decision
    e.   Post purchase evaluation

    Answer: d             Page: 102
    Rationale: Having examined the alternatives of the evoked set, the consumer makes a purchase
    decision, as illustrated in Figure 5-1.




                                               264
5-34 PURCHASE DECISION                                                               CONCEPTUAL

    Which of the following statements about the purchase stage of the consumer purchase decision
    process is true?

    a.   The purchase stage requires choosing from whom to buy.
    b.   The purchase stage includes deciding when to buy.
    c.   The purchase stage follows the alternative evaluation stage in the consumer purchase decision
         process.
    d.   The act of picking a brand is the result of the purchase decision.
    e.   All of the above statements about the purchase stage of the consumer purchase decision
         process are true.

    Answer: e           Page: 102; Figure 5-1
    Rationale: Having examined the alternatives in the evoked set, consumers are almost ready to
    make a purchase decision. Two choices remain in this step: 1) from whom to buy and 2) when to
    buy. Figure 5-1 illustrates the consumer purchase decision process.

5-35 POSTPURCHASE BEHAVIOR                                                           CONCEPTUAL

    Maria has just told her supervisor, “I'm so glad I bought the Motorola P280 phone rather than those
    other models I was looking at. I have really enjoyed the fact that its stream service gives me an
    always-on connection to the Internet. I haven't seen another phone with that feature.” Which stage
    of the consumer purchase decision process is demonstrated by Maria's conversation?

    a.   Problem recognition
    b.   Information search
    c.   Alternative evaluation
    d.   Purchase decision
    e.   Postpurchase behavior

    Answer: e           Page: 102
    Rationale: During the postpurchase stage, a consumer compares the purchased product with his or
    her expectations and is either satisfied or dissatisfied. Satisfied buyers tell three other people about
    their experience and dissatisfied buyers tell nine people about their experience.

5-36 INVOLVEMENT                                                                        DEFINITION

    A consumer's __________ refers to the personal, social, and economic significance of a purchase to
    the consumer.

    a.   involvement
    b.   aspiration
    c.   acculturative response
    d.   motivation
    e.   selective perception

    Answer: a         Page: 102
    Rationale: Key term definition—involvement



                                                 265
5-37 INVOLVEMENT                                                                    DEFINITION

    The personal, social, and economic significance of a purchase to the consumer is called:

         a.    involvement.
         b.    aspiration.
         c.    culture.
         d.    motivation.
         e.    selective perception.

    Answer: a         Page: 102
    Rationale: Key term definition—involvement

5-38 INVOLVEMENT                                                                    DEFINITION

    High-involvement purchases tend to:

         a.    be expensive.
         b.    have serious personal consequences.
         c.    reflect one’s social image.
         d.    be characterized by all of the above.
         e.    be characterized by none of the above.

    Answer: d         Page: 102
    Rationale: Key term definition—involvement

5-39 INVOLVEMENT                                                                  APPLICATION

    The purchase of a bottle of water is a low-involvement purchase. How can a marketer convince
    people to buy Dasani instead of one of the numerous other brands displayed on retailers' shelves?

    a.        Make good use of Dasani stock-outs.
    b.        Make the purchase decision high involvement.
    c.        Offer coupons for Dasani bottled water.
    d.        Convince retailers to only offer Dasani water.
    e.        Do any or all of the above

    Answer: c          Page: 102
    Rationale: Regarding the incorrect options, avoiding stock-out decisions would benefit Dasani;
    making good use of Dasahi stock-outs does not make sense. The decision is and will remain a
    low-involvement one. Persuading retailers to stock only one brand is unlikely unless they are paid.




                                                    266
5-40 ROUTINE PROBLEM SOLVING                                                      APPLICATION

    Which problem solving variation would normally be used to purchase such items as toothpaste,
    soda, or chewing gum?

    a.   Routine problem solving
    b.   Limited problem solving
    c.   Extended problem solving
    d.   Simulated selection
    e.   Integrated problem solving

    Answer: a             Page: 103          Other Location: web
    Rationale: For these types of products, consumers recognize a problem, make a decision, and
    spend little effort seeking external information and evaluating alternatives. These behaviors are
    characteristics of routine problem solving.

5-41 ROUTINE PROBLEM SOLVING                                                         DEFINITION

    Consumers spend little effort seeking external information and evaluating alternatives in the
    purchase of soap and milk. The purchase process for such items, called __________, is virtually a
    habit, and typifies low-involvement decision-making.

    a.   routine problem solving
    b.   limited problem solving
    c.   extended problem solving
    d.   situational problem solving
    e.   rational problem solving

    Answer: a         Page: 103
    Rationale: Routine problem solving is typically the case for low-priced, frequently purchased
    products.

5-42 ROUTINE PROBLEM SOLVING                                                      CONCEPTUAL

    Between classes, many college students stop at conveniently located vending machines for their
    favorite candy bar and soft drink. Their choices are generally made quickly and with little or no
    effort to consider alternative product offerings. The college students are involved in:

    a.   limited problem solving situations.
    b.   routine problem solving situations.
    c.   extensive problem solving situations.
    d.   intensive problem solving situations.
    e.   unlimited problem solving situations.

    Answer: b           Page: 103; Figure 5-3
    Rationale: As illustrated by Figure 5-3, routine problem solving uses minimal time spent
    searching. Consumers typically spend very little effort or time seeking or evaluating alternatives.




                                                 267
5-43 ROUTINE PROBLEM SOLVING                                                        DEFINITION

    The purchase process used when consumers spend little effort seeking external information and
    evaluating alternatives is called __________, is virtually a habit, and typifies low-involvement
    decision-making.

    a.   routine problem solving
    b.   limited problem solving
    c.   extended problem solving
    d.   situational problem solving
    e.   rational problem solving

    Answer: a         Page: 103
    Rationale: Routine problem solving is typically the case for low-priced, frequently purchased
    products.

5-44 LIMITED PROBLEM SOLVING                                                     APPLICATION

    A typical consumer would most likely use __________ in choosing a blender, a restaurant for
    dinner, or a pair of sandals.

    a.   routine response behavior
    b.   limited problem solving
    c.   extended problem solving
    d.   simulated selection
    e.   classical conditioning

    Answer: b            Page: 103; Figure 5-3
    Rationale: As illustrated by Figure 5-3, in limited problem solving, consumers typically seek
    some information, from a few number of external information sources to help them evaluate
    alternatives. There is little time or effort used in researching options in these situations.

5-45 LIMITED PROBLEM SOLVING                                                     APPLICATION

    Which problem solving variation would likely be used for clothing, sheets and towels, or electric
    can openers?

    a.   Routine response behavior
    b.   Limited problem solving
    c.   Extended problem solving
    d.   Simulated selection
    e.   Integrated problem solving

    Answer: b            Page: 103; Figure 5-3
    Rationale: As illustrated by Figure 5-3, in limited problem solving, consumers typically seek
    some information, from a few number of external information sources to help them evaluate
    alternatives. There is little time or effort used in researching options in these situations.




                                               268
5-46 LIMITED PROBLEM SOLVING                                                          DEFINITION

    Consumers seek some information or rely on a friend to help them evaluate alternatives when they
    are engaged in a __________ process.

    a.   routine problem solving
    b.   limited problem solving
    c.   extended problem solving
    d.   situational problem solving
    e.   rational problem solving

    Answer: b            Page: 103
    Rationale: In limited problem solving, consumers typically seek some information or rely on a
    friend to help them evaluate alternatives.

5-47 LIMITED PROBLEM SOLVING                                                       APPLICATION

    Elizabeth has decided to purchase a radar detector and plans to call several friends for information
    about alternative brands. She is NOT concerned about where she buys it, as long as she receives a
    very liberal return policy should anything go wrong. In making her decision Elizabeth will engage
    in which of the following problem solving methods?

    a.   Limited
    b.   Extended
    c.   Habitual
    d.   Classical
    e.   Routine

    Answer: a            Page: 103: Figure 5-3
    Rationale: In this case the person seeks some information but has little interest in spending time or
    effort in searching out the right place to purchase the item. These are characteristics of limited
    problem solving, which are illustrated in Figure 5-3.

5-48 EXTENDED PROBLEM SOLVING                                                      CONCEPTUAL

    Which problem solving variation would likely be used for real estate, automobiles, or personal
    computers?

    a.   Routine response behavior
    b.   Limited problem solving
    c.   Extended problem solving
    d.   Simulated selection
    e.   Integrated problem solving

    Answer: c            Page: 103; Figure 5-3
    Rationale: As illustrated by Figure 5-3, extended problem solving makes use of each stage of the
    consumer purchase decision process including considerable time and effort on external information
    search and in identifying and evaluating alternatives.




                                                269
5-49 EXTENDED PROBLEM SOLVING                                                       DEFINITION

    When consumers use each of the five stages of the consumer purchase decision process in the
    purchase of a product, and considerable time and effort is spent on external information search and
    in identifying and evaluating alternatives, they are using which of the following?

    a.   routine problem solving
    b.   limited problem solving
    c.   extended problem solving
    d.   situational problem solving
    e.   rational problem solving

    Answer: c         Page: 103
    Rationale: Extended problem solving uses each of the five stages of the consumer purchase
    decision process.

5-50 EXTENDED PROBLEM SOLVING                                                     CONCEPTUAL

    Robin wants to find the perfect gift for her grandparents' 50th wedding anniversary. She started
    looking for the gift last month and expects to spend another couple of months, if needed, to find a
    gift they both will like. Robin is engaging in:

    a.   routine response behavior.
    b.   limited problem solving.
    c.   extended problem solving.
    d.   simulated selection.
    e.   integrated problem solving.

    Answer: c            Page: 103; Figure 5-3
    Rationale: As illustrated by Figure 5-3, extended problem solving makes use of each stage of the
    consumer purchase decision process including considerable time and effort on external information
    search and in identifying and evaluating alternatives.

5-51 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES                                                         DEFINITION

    The purchase task, social surroundings, physical surroundings, temporal effects, and antecedent
    states are all examples of __________, which affect the purchase decision process.

    a.   marketing mix influences
    b.   psychological influences
    c.   situational influences
    d.   sociocultural influences
    e.   evaluative criteria

    Answer: c          Page: 103
    Rationale: Text term definition—situational influences




                                               270
5-52 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES                                                           DEFINITION

    The five situational influences that have an impact on a consumer's purchase decision process are
    the purchase task, social surroundings, physical surroundings, temporal effects, and:

    a.   frame of mind.
    b.   antecedent states.
    c.   dependent variables.
    d.   independent variables.
    e.   spatial surroundings.

    Answer: b          Page: 103
    Rationale: Text term definition—situational influences

5-53 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES: PURCHASE TASK                                         CONCEPTUAL

    When a man picks up a teddy bear in a toy store and tells the clerk, "This is for my son's first
    birthday," which situational influence has he demonstrated?

    a.   Purchase task
    b.   Social surroundings
    c.   Physical surroundings
    d.   Temporal effects
    e.   Antecedent states

    Answer: a          Page: 103
    Rationale: The reason for engaging in the decision process (the son’s first birthday) is called the
    purchase task.

5-54 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES: SOCIAL SURROUNDINGS                                   CONCEPTUAL

    Three teenaged girls spent hours at the store trying on various outfits, looking at possible
    combinations, and asking each other, “How do you think this outfit looks?" This situation is most
    closely related to which of the following situational influences?

    a.   Purchase task
    b.   Social surroundings
    c.   Physical surroundings
    d.   Temporal effects
    e.   Antecedent states

    Answer: b           Page: 103
    Rationale: Social surroundings, including other people present when a purchase decision is made,
    may affect what is purchased.




                                                271
5-55 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES: PHYSICAL SURROUNDINGS                                 CONCEPTUAL

    As he hunted for tomato juice, Carlos thought, "Nothing in this store is logically arranged.” Then he
    banged his cart into the side of a display because the aisle was so crowded. As a result of
    __________, he has vowed never to shop at that store again.

    a.   purchase task
    b.   social surroundings
    c.   physical surroundings
    d.   temporal effects
    e.   spatial surroundings

    Answer: c           Page: 103
    Rationale: Physical surroundings such as decor, music in retail stores, and crowded aisles may
    alter how purchase decisions are made.

5-56 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES: ANTECEDENT STATES                                     CONCEPTUAL

    The ads for Visa debit cards show people who need to make a purchase quickly, but are unable to
    do so because the retailer won't accept a check without several forms of identification. Which
    situational influence is Visa using to show the benefits offered by its debit cards?

    a.   Purchase task
    b.   Social surroundings
    c.   Physical surroundings
    d.   Temporal effects
    e.   Antecedent states

    Answer: e           Page: 103        Other Location: web
    Rationale: Antecedent states, which include the consumer's mood or amount of cash on hand, can
    influence purchase behavior and choice.

5-57 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES: TEMPORAL EFFECTS                                      CONCEPTUAL

    Two colleagues discuss where to go for lunch. One says to the other, “Its noon, so most of the
    restaurants will be crowded. But the boss is out of town, so we could take an extra hour and relax a
    bit.” Their conversation illustrates which situational influence?

    a.   Purchase task
    b.   Social surroundings
    c.   Physical surroundings
    d.   Temporal effects
    e.   Antecedent states

    Answer: d         Page: 103
    Rationale: Temporal effects, such as time of day or the amount of time available, will influence
    where consumers have breakfast and lunch and what is ordered




                                                272
5-58 PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCES                                                           DEFINITION

    Which of the following is NOT considered a psychological influence?

    a.   motivation
    b.   personality
    c.   perception
    d.   antecedent state
    e.   lifestyle

    Answer: d            Page: 104; Figure 5-4
    Rationale: The five psychological influences are: motivation and personality; perception;
    learning; values, beliefs, and attitudes; and lifestyle. Antecedent states are a situational influence.

5-59 PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCES                                                           DEFINITION

    The concepts useful for interpreting buying processes and directing marketing efforts such as
    motivation and personality; perception; learning; values, beliefs, attitudes; and lifestyle are called:

    a.   routine problem solving influences.
    b.   psychological influences.
    c.   social influences.
    d.   situational influences.
    e.   rational influences.

    Answer: b              Page: 104
    Rationale: Psychological concepts such as motivation and personality, perception, learning,
    values, beliefs, attitudes, and lifestyle are useful for interpreting buying processes.

5-60 MOTIVATION                                                                         DEFINITION

    __________ is the energizing force that stimulates behavior to satisfy a need.

    a.   Selective perception
    b.   Antecedent state
    c.   Motivation
    d.   Cognitive dissonance
    e.   Perception

    Answer: c         Page: 105
    Rationale: Key term definition—motivation




                                                 273
5-61 MOTIVATION                                                                    APPLICATION

    The U.S. Army former advertising theme, "Be all that you can be" relied on which of the
    psychological influences on behavior?

    a.   Motivation
    b.   Learning
    c.   Perception
    d.   Antecedent states
    e.   Lifestyle

    Answer: a           Page: 105
    Rationale: The slogan suggested that the Army could satisfy an individual's need for
    self-actualization.

5-62 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS                                               CONCEPTUAL

    Which of the following lists the hierarchy of needs in its correct order, beginning with the most
    basic?

    a.   Personal, social, physiological, psychological, and safety
    b.   Physiological, safety, social, personal, and self-actualization
    c.   Safety, physiological, social, and self-actualization, and personal
    d.   Self-actualization, social, personal, safety, and physiological
    e.   Safety, personal, self-actualization, physiological, and social

    Answer: b           Page: 105; Figure 5-5            Other Location: web
    Rationale: People have both physiological needs and learned needs. Once the physiological needs
    are met, people seek to satisfy their learned needs. The hierarchy of needs pyramid is illustrated in
    Figure 5-5.

5-63 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS                                               CONCEPTUAL

    The most basic of our needs are physiological, followed by safety, social, and personal type needs.
    According to the hierarchy of needs, what category of needs is of the highest order?

    a.   Intellectual needs
    b.   Emotional needs
    c.   Self-actualization needs
    d.   Domination needs
    e.   Psychological needs

    Answer: c          Page: 105; Figure 5-5
    Rationale: Figure 5-5 illustrates the hierarchy of needs, with self-actualization needs at the top.




                                                 274
5-64 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS                                                 DEFINITION

    Those needs which are basic to survival and which must be satisfied first are:

    a.   physiological needs.
    b.   safety needs.
    c.   social needs.
    d.   personal needs.
    e.   self actualization needs.

    Answer: a          Page: 105; Figure 5-5
    Rationale: Text term definition—physiological needs

5-65 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS                                                 DEFINITION

    In the hierarchy of needs water, food, and shelter would be considered __________ needs.

    a.   physiological
    b.   safety
    c.   social
    d.   personal
    e.   psychological

    Answer: a          Page: 105; Figure 5-5
    Rationale: Text term definition—physiological needs

5-66 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS                                                 DEFINITION

    In the hierarchy of needs, self-preservation and physical well-being would be examples of
    __________ needs.

    a.   physiological
    b.   safety
    c.   social
    d.   personal
    e.   self actualization

    Answer: b          Page: 105; Figure 5-5
    Rationale: Text term definition—safety needs.




                                               275
5-67 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS                                              CONCEPTUAL

    A magazine ad shows a cherubic baby sitting inside an automobile tire. The ad copy touts the
    dramatically improved traction of Michelin radial tires in rain and snow and informs parents of the
    ways in which the tires will help them protect and ensure the well-being of their children. The
    marketers of Michelin tires are attempting to appeal to consumers' __________ needs.

    a.   physiological
    b.   safety
    c.   social
    d.   personal
    e.   self-actualization

    Answer: b         Page: 105
    Rationale: The Michelin tire ad seeks to appeal to parents' needs to ensure the safety of their
    children.

5-68 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS                                                 DEFINITION

    Those needs that are concerned with love and friendship are __________ needs.

    a.   physiological
    b.   safety
    c.   social
    d.   personal
    e.   self actualization

    Answer: c          Page: 105; Figure 5-5
    Rationale: Text term definition—social needs

5-69 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS                                                 DEFINITION

    Those needs that are represented by the need for achievement, status, prestige, and self-respect are
    __________ needs.

    a.   physiological
    b.   safety
    c.   social
    d.   personal
    e.   self actualization

    Answer: d          Page: 105
    Rationale: Text term definition—personal needs




                                                276
5-70 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS                                             APPLICATION

    An ad for Acura is headlined by a quote from Henry David Thoreau, “Go in the Direction of Your
    Dreams.” This ad is most likely to appeal to people's __________ need.

    a.   physiological
    b.   safety
    c.   social
    d.   personal
    e.   psychological

    Answer: d             Page: 105
    Rationale: Personal needs are needs that are represented by the need for achievement, status,
    prestige, and self-respect.

5-71 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS                                             APPLICATION

    An ad for Conesco's life insurance asks the question, “How do you plan on supporting your family
    after you pass away?” The ad shows a tombstone with a sign that offers the face of the stone as ad
    space. The ad is intended to appeal to which of the needs in the hierarchy of needs?

    a.   Physiological needs
    b.   Safety needs
    c.   Social needs
    d.   Personal needs
    e.   Self actualization needs

    Answer: b           Page: 105
    Rationale: Safety needs involve self-preservation and physical well being. Providing security for
    one's family would help to satisfy that need.

5-72 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS                                             APPLICATION

    An ad for The King's Daughters' School, a private academy for children, has the headline, “Living
    Up to Their Potential.” This ad is appealing to the parents' desire to satisfy their children's:

    a.   physiological needs.
    b.   safety needs.
    c.   social needs.
    d.   personal needs.
    e.   self actualization needs.

    Answer: e          Page: 105
    Rationale: The school wants the parents to know that the school will make sure that each student
    achieves as much as possible. Self-actualization needs involve personal fulfillment.




                                               277
5-73 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS                                                 DEFINITION

    Which of the following needs involves personal fulfillment?

    a.   physiological needs
    b.   safety needs
    c.   social needs
    d.   personal needs
    e.   self actualization needs

    Answer: e          Page: 105
    Rationale: Text term definition—self-actualization needs

5-74 PERSONALITY                                                                     DEFINITION

    Someone’s consistent behaviors or responses to recurring situations refer to his or her:

    a.   motivation.
    b.   purchase process.
    c.   culture.
    d.   perception.
    e.   personality.

    Answer: e         Page: 105
    Rationale: Key term definition—personality

5-75 PERSONALITY                                                                     DEFINITION

    Personality is:

    a.   someone’s consistent behaviors or responses to recurring situations.
    b.   not important to consumer behavior.
    c.   essential to developing culture.
    d.   based on perception.
    e.   needed to achieve prestige.

    Answer: a         Page: 105
    Rationale: Key term definition—personality




                                                278
5-76 PERSONALITY: SELF-CONCEPT                                                    DEFINITION

    __________ is the way people see themselves and the way they believe others see them.

    a.   Self-evaluation
    b.   Self-concept
    c.   Aspirational concept
    d.   Individualized perception
    e.   Personal perception

    Answer: b          Page: 106
    Rationale: Text term definition—self-concept

5-77 SELF-CONCEPT                                                               APPLICATION

    The ad for Dove body wash asks the question, “How old will you be when you stop feeling 29?”
    The ad is using __________ to appeal to its target market.

    a.   self-concept
    b.   greed
    c.   lust
    d.   avarice
    e.   hedonism

    Answer: a          Page: 106
    Rationale: Self-concept is the way people see themselves and the way they believe others see
    them. Feeling young may be an important element of a person’s self-concept.

5-78 ETHICS AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ALERT                                     CONCEPTUAL

    Which of the following statements about subliminal perception is true?

    a.   The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) supports the usage of subliminal perception.
    b.   Subliminal messages are illegal in the United States.
    c.   No organizations have used subliminal messages since the time people used to regularly go to
         drive-ins to watch movies.
    d.   There is no substantive scientific support for the concept of subliminal perception.
    e.   The use of subliminal messaging is monitored by the Better Business Bureau.

    Answer: d           Page: 106         Other Location: web
    Rationale: Regarding the incorrect options, the FCC has denounced subliminal messaging as
    deceitful. Subliminal messages are legal in the United States. The text gives an example of a
    current Times Warner CD game that uses subliminal messaging.




                                               279
5-79 ETHICS AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ALERT                                       APPLICATION

    Suppose a soft drink company sponsored a made-for-television movie with the understanding that
    subliminal images of its product logo would be interspersed throughout the program. Which of the
    following is the strongest argument that such a marketing strategy would be unethical?

    a.   Soft drinks can cause tooth decay.
    b.   The images of the product logo might interfere with the plot and impact of the movie.
    c.   The soft drink company would be attempting to influence the behavior of the consumers in a
         manner the consumers might object to if they were aware of what was occurring.
    d.   The soft drink company may not have paid a fair price to have the images of its logo placed in
         the movie.
    e.   Children might be watching the program.

    Answer: c           Page: 106         Other Location: web
    Rationale: The strongest ethical argument against subliminal advertising is that it exploits a
    psychological vulnerability in human perception to persuade consumers to act in a manner they
    might not if they were consciously making the choice. In other words, if it did have any effect on
    behavior, subliminal advertising might rob the consumer of the freedom to make a choice.

5-80 PERCEPTION                                                                     DEFINITION

    __________ is the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets information to
    create a meaningful picture of the world.

    a.   Motivation
    b.   Attitude formation
    c.   Conformance
    d.   Perception
    e.   Illumination

    Answer: d         Page: 106
    Rationale: Key term definition—perception

5-81 SELECTIVE PERCEPTION                                                           DEFINITION

    Because the average consumer operates in a complex information-rich environment, the human
    brain attempts to organize and interpret information with a process called:

    a.   selective retention.
    b.   selective attention.
    c.   selective exposure.
    d.   selective perception.
    e.   stimulus discrimination.

    Answer: d          Page: 106
    Rationale: Text term definition—selective perception




                                               280
5-82 SELECTIVE PERCEPTION                                                         APPLICATION

    Many have described 2002 as the year of the palindrome—a word or phrase that reads the same
    whether read from right or left. While Marshall was unaware of the term, once he read an article
    about palindromes for his English class, he saw the term three more times that week. This is
    probably the result of:

    a.   selective retention.
    b.   selective attention.
    c.   selective intuition.
    d.   selective perception.
    e.   stimulus discrimination.

    Answer: d              Page: 107
    Rationale: Selective perception occurs because consumers operate in a complex environment, and
    they are unable to respond to all stimuli to which they are exposed. The selective perception
    process filters the information so that only some of it is understood, remembered, or made available
    to the conscious mind.

5-83 SELECTIVE PERCEPTION                                                         CONCEPTUAL

    You watch a television commercial for a new automobile and you do not notice it has dual airbags,
    side impact bars, and antilock brakes. But you do notice that it has a high-performance engine that
    can take it to high speeds, as indicated in the film footage. This is an example of __________
    perception.

    a.   retentive
    b.   interpretive
    c.   reclusive
    d.   selective
    e.   subliminal

    Answer: d              Page: 107
    Rationale: Selective perception occurs because consumers operate in a complex environment, and
    they are unable to respond to all stimuli to which they are exposed. The selective perception
    process filters the information so that only some of it is understood, remembered, or made available
    to the conscious mind.




                                                281
5-84 SELECTIVE EXPOSURE                                                               DEFINITION

    The tendency to pay attention to messages consistent with one's attitudes and beliefs and to ignore
    messages that are inconsistent is called:

    a.   selective retention.
    b.   selective comprehension.
    c.   selective exposure.
    d.   selective perception.
    e.   stimulus discrimination.

    Answer: c          Page: 107
    Rationale: Text term definition—selective exposure

5-85 SELECTIVE EXPOSURE                                                            APPLICATION

    Because Marla is so strongly committed to a fat-free diet, she did not see a recent report by the New
    England Journal of Medicine that suggested that some fat in our diet is healthy. The report was
    contained in the newspaper that Marla reads daily, but the reason Marla did not see it is probably
    the result of:

    a.   selective retention.
    b.   selective comprehension.
    c.   selective exposure.
    d.   selective perception.
    e.   stimulus discrimination.

    Answer: c             Page: 107
    Rationale: Selective exposure is the tendency to pay attention to messages consistent with one's
    attitudes and beliefs and to ignore messages that are inconsistent, such as information that some fat
    is healthy when Marla is so committed to a fat-free diet.

5-86 SELECTIVE EXPOSURE                                                            CONCEPTUAL

    Charlie needs to purchase an automobile to drive to his new job in the city center. He begins to
    notice ads for many cars he wasn't aware of previously. This is an example of:

    a.   subliminal perception.
    b.   selective exposure.
    c.   retention.
    d.   tuning out.
    e.   behavioral learning.

    Answer: b             Page: 107
    Rationale: Selective exposure is the tendency to pay attention to messages consistent with one's
    attitudes and beliefs, such as the need for a new car, and to ignore messages that are inconsistent
    with one’s attitudes and beliefs.




                                                282
5-87 SELECTIVE COMPREHENSION                                                            DEFINITION

    Interpreting information so that it is consistent with your attitudes and beliefs is called:

    a.   selective retention.
    b.   selective comprehension.
    c.   selective exposure.
    d.   selective analysis.
    e.   stimulus discrimination.

    Answer: b          Page: 107
    Rationale: Text term definition—selective comprehension

5-88 SELECTIVE COMPREHENSION                                                          APPLICATION

    Tyler was offended by the brand name of a new product for women. She believes that the name is
    demeaning to women and that its use means the manufacturer is unsympathetic to women. Due to
    __________, Tyler will not purchase this product.

    a.   selective retention
    b.   selective comprehension
    c.   selective exposure
    d.   selective analysis
    e.   stimulus discrimination

    Answer: b            Page: 107
    Rationale: A consumer using selective comprehension is interpreting information so that it is
    consistent with his or her attitudes and beliefs.

5-89 SELECTIVE RETENTION                                                                DEFINITION

    As a result of __________, consumers do not remember all the information they see, read, or hear
    even minutes after exposure to it.

    a.   selective retention
    b.   selective comprehension
    c.   selective exposure
    d.   selective perception
    e.   subliminal discrimination

    Answer: a          Page: 107
    Rationale: Text term definition—selective retention




                                                 283
5-90 SELECTIVE RETENTION                                                          CONCEPTUAL

    Retailers can reduce problems associated with selective retention by:

    a.   hiring well known celebrities to sponsor their products.
    b.   using a more convoluted store layout.
    c.   providing brochures for consumers to take home.
    d.   adopting advertising campaigns that use bright colors and/or snappy background music.
    e.   offering extended service warranties.

    Answer: c           Page: 107           Other Location: web
    Rationale: Selective retention means consumers do not remember all they see, hear, or read, even
    minutes after exposure to it. Furniture and automobile retailers often give consumers product
    brochures to take home after they leave the showroom to help them remember.

5-91 PERCEIVED RISK                                                                  DEFINITION

    The anxiety felt because the consumer cannot anticipate the outcomes of a purchase, but believes
    there may be a negative consequence is called:

    a.   a negative antecedent.
    b.   perceived risk.
    c.   temporal uncertainty.
    d.   spatial uncertainty.
    e.   buyers' remorse.

    Answer: b         Page: 107
    Rationale: Key term definition—perceived risk

5-92 PERCEIVED RISK                                                               APPLICATION

    For which of the following products is perceived risk likely to be the greatest for a female who has
    just taken her first job after college graduation?

    a.   A magazine subscription to Glamour
    b.   A cell phone
    c.   Flowers to decorate her new apartment
    d.   A new outfit for her first day at work
    e.   A pair of jeans to wear on weekends

    Answer: d            Page: 107         Other Location: web
    Rationale: Perceived risk is the anxiety felt because the consumer cannot anticipate the outcomes
    of a purchase, but believes there may be a negative consequence associated with making the wrong
    purchase decision. Wearing the new outfit represents a perceived risk as she does not know how
    she may be thought of at her new job based on how she looks in her new outfit.




                                                284
5-93 PERCEIVED RISK                                                              CONCEPTUAL

    Which of the following is a method marketers can use to reduce perceived risk for consumers?

    a.   Obtain seals of approval for products
    b.   Secure endorsements from influential people
    c.   Provide trial usage of the product
    d.   Provide warranties and guarantees
    e.   All of the above

    Answer: e          Page: 108
    Rationale: Recognizing the importance of perceived risk, companies develop strategies to make
    consumers feel more at ease about their purchases.

5-94 LEARNING                                                                      DEFINITION

    __________ refers to those behaviors that result from repeated experience and reasoning.

    a.   Psychosocial perception
    b.   Acculturation
    c.   Attitudinal identification
    d.   Dynamic growth
    e.   Learning

    Answer: e         Page: 108
    Rationale: Key term definition—learning

5-95 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING                                                           DEFINITION

    __________ learning is the process of developing automatic responses to a type of situation built
    up through repeated exposure to it.

    a.   Perceptual
    b.   Retentive
    c.   Functional
    d.   Motivated
    e.   Behavioral

    Answer: e          Page: 108
    Rationale: Text term definition—behavioral learning




                                               285
5-96 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING                                                          CONCEPTUAL

    The famous experiment wherein Dr. Pavlov presented dogs with food at the same time he rang a
    bell resulted in dogs that salivated when the bell was rung, even when food was not presented. This
    experiment is an example of:

    a.   Changing antecedent states
    b.   The scientific method
    c.   Tone as a motivator
    d.   Cognitive dissonance
    e.   Behavioral learning

    Answer: e           Page: 108
    Rationale: Behavioral learning is the process of developing automatic responses to a situation
    built up through repeated exposure to it. This is what the classic Pavlov experiment proved.

5-97 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING                                                          APPLICATION

    There are many perfumes on the market, but only one that breaks down fragrances into elements so
    people can wear the particular scents with which they have emotional ties. The perfume's
    manufacturer is Demeter and it makes over 150 different fragrances with names like Dirt, Lobster,
    Dandelion, Sugar Cookie, Brownie, Woodsmoke, Leather, and Turpentine. Because repeated
    exposure to these scents have made people connect them with some important event or memory,
    the appeal of the scent is due to:

    a.   cognitive learning.
    b.   cognitive dissonance.
    c.   behavioral learning.
    d.   functional adaptation.
    e.   selective learning.

    Answer: c           Page: 108
    Rationale: Behavioral learning is the process of developing automatic responses to a situation
    built up through repeated exposure to it.

5-98 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: DRIVE                                                     DEFINITION

    A need that moves an individual to action is a(n):

    a.   drive.
    b.   cue.
    c.   attitude.
    d.   response.
    e.   reinforcement.

    Answer: a          Page: 108
    Rationale: Text term definition—drive




                                               286
5-99 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: CUE                                                     APPLICATION

     There are many perfumes on the market, but only one that breaks down fragrances into elements so
     people can wear the particular scents with which they have emotional ties. The perfume's
     manufacturer is Demeter, and it makes over 150 different fragrances with names like Dirt, Lobster,
     Dandelion, Sugar Cookie, Brownie, Woodsmoke, Leather, and Turpentine. The maker of Demeter
     perfumes treats smells as if they were:

     a.   drives.
     b.   cues.
     c.   attitudes.
     d.   responses.
     e.   reinforcements.

     Answer: b          Page: 108
     Rationale: A cue is a stimulus (in this case a smell) perceived by consumers.

5-100 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: CUE                                                       DEFINITION

     A(n) __________ is a stimulus or symbol that one perceives.

     a.   drive
     b.   cue
     c.   attitude
     d.   response
     e.   reinforcement

     Answer: b          Page: 108
     Rationale: Text term definition—cue

5-101 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: RESPONSE                                                  DEFINITION

     A(n) __________ is the action taken to satisfy a drive.

     a.   cue
     b.   demotivator
     c.   motivation
     d.   response
     e.   stimulus

     Answer: d          Page: 108
     Rationale: Text term definition—response




                                                287
5-102 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: REINFORCEMENT                                          APPLICATION

    Joan is hungry (drive); she sees an advertisement (cue), goes to the store and buys the product
    (response). In terms of behavioral learning, the great taste of the food is a(n):

    a.   achievement
    b.   drive.
    c.   reinforcement.
    d.   prestige.
    e.   preference.

    Answer: c          Page: 108
    Rationale: The reinforcement is the reward.

5-103 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: REINFORCEMENT                                            DEFINITION

    A(n) __________ is the reward for satisfying a drive.

    a.   cue
    b.   reinforcement
    c.   motivation
    d.   response
    e.   stimulus

    Answer: b          Page: 108
    Rationale: Text term definition—reinforcement

5-104 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT                                   DEFINITION

    ___________ has occurred if what the consumer experiences upon responding to a stimulus is not
    pleasant.

    a.   A negative cue
    b.   A demotivator
    c.   Negative reinforcement
    d.   Negative response
    e.   Negative stimulus

    Answer: c          Page: 108
    Rationale: Text term definition—negative reinforcement




                                               288
5-105 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS GENERALIZATION                                CONCEPTUAL

     Using the same brand name for different products is an application of which concept from
     behavioral learning theory?

     a.   Selective comprehension
     b.   Selective retention
     c.   Stimulus generalization
     d.   Stimulus discrimination
     e.   Cognitive learning

     Answer: c           Page: 108
     Rationale: Stimulus generalization occurs when a response brought about by one stimulus is
     generalized to another stimulus. Using the same brand name to launch new products is one
     common application of this concept.

5-106 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS GENERALIZATION                                CONCEPTUAL

     When the television production company that produces the Law & Order series uses the Law &
     Order name on two other series (Law & Order: Special Victim’s Unit, and Law & Order:
     Criminal Intent), it relies on __________ to convince fans of the original show that the new shows
     will be equally well crafted.

     a.   selective comprehension
     b.   selective retention
     c.   stimulus generalization
     d.   stimulus discrimination
     e.   routine response behavior

     Answer: c            Page: 108         Other Location: web
     Rationale: Stimulus generalization occurs when a response brought about by one stimulus (cue) is
     generalized to another stimulus. The consumer would have the same feelings toward one Law &
     Order series as for another, even before the new show was seen.

5-107 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS GENERALIZATION                                  DEFINITION

     __________ occurs when a response brought about by one stimulus is generalized to another
     stimulus.

     a.   Stimulus discrimination
     b.   Stimulus generalization
     c.   Reinforcement
     d.   Behavioral learning
     e.   Selective retention

     Answer: b          Page: 108
     Rationale: Text term definition—stimulus generalization




                                                289
5-108 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION                                    DEFINITION

     __________ refers to a person’s ability to perceive differences among similar products.

     a.   Stimulus discrimination
     b.   Stimulus generalization
     c.   Reinforcement
     d.   Behavioral learning
     e.   Selective retention

     Answer: a          Page: 108
     Rationale: Text term definition—stimulus discrimination

5-109 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION                                 CONCEPTUAL

     Consumers' ability to perceive taste differences in chocolate bars is an example of:

     a.   cognitive dissonance.
     b.   selective retention.
     c.   selective comprehension.
     d.   stimulus generalization.
     e.   stimulus discrimination.

     Answer: e           Page: 108
     Rationale: Stimulus discrimination refers to one’s ability to perceive differences among similar
     products, such as chocolate bar tastes.

5-110 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION                                 CONCEPTUAL

     Betty contends that she can taste the difference between fat-free cheese and cheese with regular fat
     content. Tom says that he cannot tell a difference between the two products. If they are to be
     believed, Betty exhibits __________, while Tom does not.

     a.   cognitive dissonance
     b.   selective retention
     c.   selective comprehension
     d.   stimulus generalization
     e.   stimulus discrimination

     Answer: e            Page: 108
     Rationale: Stimulus discrimination refers to one’s ability to perceive differences among similar
     products, such as fat-free and regular cheese.




                                                 290
5-111 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION                                  APPLICATION

     Comparative advertising in which one brand is compared to another is intended to cause consumers
     to perceive differences between the products featured in the advertising. Marketers who use
     comparative advertising are trying to use __________ to make consumers believe that its product is
     better than the other one.

     a.   cognitive dissonance
     b.   selective retention
     c.   selective comprehension
     d.   stimulus generalization
     e.   stimulus discrimination

     Answer: e         Page: 111
     Rationale: Stimulus discrimination refers to a person's ability to perceive differences among
     similar products.

5-112 COGNITIVE LEARNING                                                               DEFINITION

     Making connections between two or more ideas or simply observing the outcomes of others'
     behaviors and adjusting one's own behavior accordingly is what type of learning?

     a.   Stimulus discrimination
     b.   Cognitive learning
     c.   Brand loyalty
     d.   Stimulus generalization
     e.   Behavioral learning

     Answer: b          Page: 108       Other Location: web
     Rationale: Text term definition—cognitive learning

5-113 COGNITIVE LEARNING                                                            APPLICATION

     In the first chapter of this text, the authors describe how marketing is not something alien to you
     like Shakespeare or physics—it is something you are already very familiar with because you
     observe marketing throughout many different facets of life. The authors hoped you would use
     __________ to conclude marketing is an interesting subject and worthy of your time and effort.

     a.   cognitive learning
     b.   cognitive dissonance
     c.   behavioral learning
     d.   functional adaptation
     e.   selective learning

     Answer: a           Page: 108
     Rationale: Cognitive learning involves making the connections between two or more ideas or
     simply observing the outcomes of others’ behavior and adjusting your own accordingly.




                                                 291
5-114 COGNITIVE LEARNING                                                           APPLICATION

     When Betty Crocker advertises that baking a cake from one of its mixes tastes just like homemade,
     it is influencing which type of learning?

     a.   Stimulus discrimination
     b.   Cognitive learning
     c.   Brand loyalty
     d.   Stimulus generalization
     e.   Behavioral learning

     Answer: b            Page: 108
     Rationale: Marketers attempt to influence cognitive learning by linking a brand with an idea. In
     this case, Betty Crocker is linking a box mix to home cooking.

5-115 BRAND LOYALTY                                                                  DEFINITION

     __________ is a favorable attitude toward and consistent purchase of a single brand over time.

     a.   Brand bias
     b.   Brand discrimination
     c.   Brand loyalty
     d.   Behavioral learning
     e.   Selective perception

     Answer: c         Page: 109
     Rationale: Key term definition—brand loyalty

5-116 BRAND LOYALTY                                                                CONCEPTUAL

     Which of the following statements about brand loyalty is true?

     a.   Learning is closely connected to brand loyalty because habits are learned.
     b.   Brand loyalty can reduce the perceived risk associated with the buying of certain products.
     c.   The incidence of brand loyalty is declining in North America.
     d.   Brand loyalty results from the positive reinforcement of previous actions.
     e.   Brand loyalty is accurately described by all of the above.

     Answer: e          Page: 109
     Rationale: Brand loyalty is a favorable attitude toward and consistent purchase of a single brand
     over time.




                                                 292
5-117 BRAND LOYALTY                                                                 CONCEPTUAL

     Considerable research has documented that in many product categories, consumers are unable to
     distinguish among brands when given blind tests (i.e. taste or use of the products without labels).
     Such products include cigarettes, beer, liquors, and cosmetics. Nonetheless, even when prices are
     similar, consumers have strong preferences for specific brands of these products. This strong brand
     preference is the result of:

     a.   extended problem solving.
     b.   limited problem solving.
     c.   routine problem solving.
     d.   high-involvement problem solving.
     e.   personal problem solving.

     Answer: c           Page: 109
     Rationale: Habit formation is the basis of routine problem solving, and there is a close link
     between habits and brand loyalty.

5-118 ATTITUDE                                                                      CONCEPTUAL

     A learned predisposition to be thrifty or patriotic reflects a(n):

     a.   belief.
     b.   value.
     c.   attitude.
     d.   motivation.
     e.   perception.

     Answer: c           Page: 109
     Rationale: An attitude is a learned predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a
     consistently favorable or unfavorable way.

5-119 ATTITUDE                                                                        DEFINITION

     A(n) __________ is a learned predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a
     consistently favorable or unfavorable way.

     a.   belief
     b.   value
     c.   attitude
     d.   motivation
     e.   perception

     Answer: c         Page: 109
     Rationale: Key term definition—attitude




                                                   293
5-120 BELIEFS                                                                           DEFINITION

     __________ are one’s perception of how a product or brand performs on different attributes.

     a.   Beliefs
     b.   Values
     c.   Attitudes
     d.   Predispositions
     e.   Opinions

     Answer: a         Page: 109
     Rationale: Key term definition—beliefs

5-121 ATTITUDE CHANGE                                                                 CONCEPTUAL

     Which of the following statements about changing consumer attitudes is true?

     a.   Marketers attempt to change attitudes by changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand
          has certain attributes.
     b.   Marketers attempt to change attitudes by changing the perceived importance of attributes.
     c.   Marketers attempt to change attitudes by adding new attributes to a product.
     d.   Marketers spend lots of money on activities to change attitudes, because it is so difficult to do.
     e.   All of the above statements about changing consumer attitudes are true.

     Answer: e          Page: 110
     Rationale: Marketers use all of the first three approaches in attempts to change consumer
     attitudes. Companies have spent millions of dollars in their attempts to change consumer attitudes.

5-122 ATTITUDE CHANGES                                                                APPLICATION

     Cell phones have been available for quite awhile and Motorola is a recognized brand name of cell
     phones. Cell phones that can be connected to computer modems and used to upload or download
     information are commonplace, but slow. Motorola joined with VoiceStream to create a phone that
     has an always-on Internet connection. Promoting a new benefit of continuous Internet connection
     should lead to a favorable attitude toward the cell phone by:

     a.   changing beliefs about a specific attribute.
     b.   changing the importance of a specific attribute.
     c.   adding a new important attribute.
     d.   reducing perceived risk.
     e.   stimulus generalization.

     Answer: c           Page: 110
     Rationale: Adding a new attribute--always-on feature—is one of three methods of attitude change
     available to marketers.




                                                  294
5-123 ATTITUDE CHANGE                                                                  APPLICATION

     Tums antacid stresses the fact that it is a calcium supplement in its advertisements. It also stresses
     the health benefits of calcium. Most people already know Tums contains calcium. The new
     promotion is trying to change the attitude toward Tums by:

     a.   changing the perceived importance of the attribute.
     b.   adding a new attribute to the product.
     c.   changing the basic product.
     d.   adding a new attribute and re-positioning the product.
     e.   lowering the price.

     Answer: a               Page: 110
     Rationale: Tums is trying to change the perceived importance of consuming calcium. By focusing
     on this attribute, it is hoped consumers will have a more favorable attitude towards Tums. Since
     consumers know Tums already contains calcium, a new attribute had not been added.

5-124 ATTITUDE CHANGE                                                                  APPLICATION

     Febreeze is an odor-controlling spray manufactured by Procter & Gamble. When Febreeze was
     introduced, it was tagged as a pet killer. P&G had to spend lots of money debunking the false claim
     and request help from the ASPCA before consumers would purchase the product in the numbers
     expected. This promotion to debunk a false claim changed consumers' attitudes by:

     a.   changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attributes.
     b.   adding a new attribute to the product.
     c.   changing the basic product.
     d.   adding a new attribute and re-positioning the product.
     e.   lowering the price.

     Answer: a          Page: 110           Other Location: web
     Rationale: P&G had to change consumers' beliefs that the spray was deadly to their pets before
     consumers could see the value of its odor controlling capabilities.

5-125 LIFESTYLE                                                                         DEFINITION

     A __________ is a way of living that is identified by how people spend their time and resources,
     what they consider important in their environment, and what they think of themselves and the
     world around them.

     a.   culture
     b.   subculture
     c.   social class
     d.   lifestyle
     e.   reference group

     Answer: d          Page: 110
     Rationale: Text term definition—lifestyle




                                                 295
5-126 PSYCHOGRAPHICS                                                                  DEFINITION

     Another name for the analysis of consumer lifestyle is:

     a.   demographics.
     b.   psychographics.
     c.   social statistics.
     d.   physiological needs.
     e.   sociographics.

     Answer: b          Page: 110
     Rationale: Text term definition—psychographics

5-127 LIFESTYLE                                                                    CONCEPTUAL

     Which of the following is NOT a good measure of consumer lifestyle, or psychographics?

     a.   Interests
     b.   Activities
     c.   Opinions
     d.   Norms
     e.   Hobbies

     Answer: d             Page: 110
     Rationale: Lifestyle is a way of living that is identified by how people spend their time and
     resources (activities, including hobbies), what they consider important (interests), and what they
     think of themselves and the world (opinions).

5-128 LIFESTYLE                                                                    APPLICATION

     Ads depicting happy families in Red Lobster restaurants are segmenting the market based on:

     a.   family life cycle.
     b.   stage of the decision process.
     c.   cognitive learning level.
     d.   lifestyles.
     e.   consumer socialization.

     Answer: d            Page: 110
     Rationale: One aspect of lifestyle is way of living, which is identified by how people spend their
     time, including eating out.




                                                 296
5-129 LIFESTYLE: VALS PROGRAM                                                  CONCEPTUAL

     The SRI's VALS Program is one of the most prominent examples of:

     a.   purchasing behavior studies.
     b.   learning theories studies.
     c.   studies on the hierarchy of effects.
     d.   lifestyle analysis programs.
     e.   language study programs.

     Answer: d          Page: 110
     Rationale: The most prominent example of lifestyle (or psychographic) analysis is the VALS
     program, developed by SRI International and currently run by SRI Consulting Business
     Intelligence.

5-130 LIFESTYLE: VALS PROGRAM                                                  CONCEPTUAL

     Which of the following statements about the VALS program is true?

     a.   The acronym VALS stands for Value, Attitudes, and Learned Suppositions.
     b.   The VALS program seeks to explain why and how consumers make purchase decisions.
     c.   Principle-oriented consumers are members of Generation X.
     d.   Experiencers and Makers are both classified as status-oriented consumers.
     e.   Believers and Fulfilleds are both classified as action-oriented consumers.

     Answer: b            Page: 110           Other Location: web
     Rationale: VALS stands for Values and Lifestyles. Principle-oriented consumers are older
     consumers. Experiencers and Makers are both classified as action-oriented consumers. Believers
     and Fulfilleds are both classified as principle-oriented consumers.

5-131 LIFESTYLE: PRINCIPLE-ORIENTED CONSUMERS                                    DEFINITION

     According to the VALS program, which consumer group tries to match their behavior with their
     views of how the world is or should be?

     a.   Principle-oriented
     b.   Status-oriented
     c.   Action-oriented
     d.   Reward-oriented
     e.   Achievement-oriented

     Answer: a          Page: 110; Figure 5-6
     Rationale: Text term definition—principle-oriented consumers




                                                 297
5-132 LIFESTYLE: STATUS-ORIENTED CONSUMERS                                          DEFINITION

     Consumers who are motivated by the actions and opinions of others are:

     a.   principle-oriented.
     b.   status-oriented.
     c.   action-oriented.
     d.   reward-oriented.
     e.   achievement-oriented.

     Answer: b          Page: 110; Figure 5-6
     Rationale: Text term definition—status-oriented consumers

5-133 LIFESTYLE: ACTION-ORIENTED CONSUMERS                                          DEFINITION

     Consumers who are intensely involved in social and physical activity, enjoy variety, and are
     risk-takers are:

     a.   principle-oriented.
     b.   status-oriented.
     c.   action-oriented.
     d.   reward-oriented.
     e.   achievement-oriented.

     Answer: c          Page: 110; Figure 5-6
     Rationale: Text term definition—action-oriented consumers

5-134 LIFESTYLE: ACTUALIZERS                                                        DEFINITION

     According to the VALS profile, consumers who account for eight percent of the population and are
     successful, sophisticated, active, take-charge people with high self-esteem and abundant resources
     are called:

     a.   actualizers.
     b.   fulfillers.
     c.   achievers.
     d.   believers.
     e.   strugglers.

     Answer: a         Page: 111; Figure 5-6
     Rationale: These are all characteristics of actualizers. Figure 5-6 illustrates the complete VALS
     psychographic segmentation.




                                                298
5-135 LIFESTYLE: STRUGGLERS                                                           DEFINITION

     According to the VALS profile, consumers who are poor, often uneducated and frequently
     concerned about their well-being are called:

     a.   actualizers.
     b.   fulfillers.
     c.   achievers.
     d.   believers.
     e.   strugglers.

     Answer: e           Page: 111; Figure 5-6
     Rationale: Members of the strugglers segment have the least resources and are poor, often
     uneducated, and frequently concerned about their well-being.

5-136 LIFESTYLE: ACTUALIZERS                                                        APPLICATION

     Dutch tulip growers have developed pre-sprouted bulbs, which will bloom in consumers' gardens
     just a few weeks after spring planting so people who didn't or couldn't plant bulbs in the fall will
     have spring flowers. Nurseries plan to promote the pre-sprouted tulips to people who appreciate
     “finer things” and will pay the premium. Which of the following VALS segments would be most
     suitable for their product?

     a.   Strugglers
     b.   Believers
     c.   Makers
     d.   Actualizers
     e.   Experiencers

     Answer: d           Page: 111; Figure 5-6
     Rationale: Actualizers enjoy the finer things in life and are receptive to new products. They also
     have the most resources to spend on things they value. Figure 5-6 illustrates the complete VALS
     psyhchographic segmentation.

5-137 PERSONAL INFLUENCE                                                            CONCEPTUAL

     A consumer's purchases are often influenced by the views, opinions, or behavior of others. Two
     important aspects of personal influence are:

     a.   lifestyle and motivation.
     b.   personality and lifestyle.
     c.   opinion leadership and word-of-mouth activity.
     d.   word-of-mouth activity and psychographics.
     e.   psychographics and demographics.

     Answer: c            Page: 112
     Rationale: Opinion leaders exert direct or indirect influence over others and word-of-mouth
     activity influences others through conversation.




                                                 299
5-138 PERSONAL INFLUENCE                                                          CONCEPTUAL

     A consumer's purchases are often influenced by the views, opinions, or behaviors of others. Two
     aspects of personal influence that are important to marketing are __________ and word of mouth
     activity.

     a.   parental guidance
     b.   peer pressure
     c.   opinion leadership
     d.   government regulation
     e.   pricing levels

     Answer: c            Page: 112
     Rationale: Opinion leaders exert direct or indirect influence over others and word-of-mouth
     activity influences others through conversation.

5-139 OPINION LEADERS                                                                DEFINITION

     Individuals who have social influence over others are called:

     a.   decision makers.
     b.   achievers.
     c.   brand loyal consumers.
     d.   a reference group.
     e.   opinion leaders.

     Answer: e         Page: 112
     Rationale: Key term definition—opinion leaders

5-140 OPINION LEADERS                                                             APPLICATION

     Your company is introducing a new line of activewear for teenagers and invites the members of the
     cheerleading squad to a private display of the line. This group consists of __________ for
     activewear clothing.

     a.   syncratic decision makers
     b.   aspirational
     c.   opinion leaders
     d.   autonomous leaders
     e.   joint decision makers

     Answer: c          Page: 112
     Rationale: Opinion leaders are individuals who exert direct or indirect social influence over
     others. They are more likely to be important for products that provide a form of self-expression.




                                                300
5-141 WORD OF MOUTH                                                                 DEFINITION

     People influencing each other during conversations is called:

     a.   opinion making.
     b.   publicity.
     c.   personal selling.
     d.   word of mouth.
     e.   action-oriented communication.

     Answer: d         Page: 112
     Rationale: Key term definition—word of mouth

5-142 WORD OF MOUTH                                                               CONCEPTUAL

     Febreeze is an odor-controlling spray that is manufactured by Procter & Gamble. When Febreeze
     was introduced, it was tagged as a pet killer by people in a chat room and the rumor spread. If
     Procter & Gamble had not been so convinced it was a potentially very successful product, Febreeze
     could have been deleted from the P&G product line as a result of:

     a.   negative word of mouth.
     b.   a lack of back translation.
     c.   cultural insensitivity.
     d.   consumer ethnocentrism.
     e.   misinformed business strategy.

     Answer: a            Page: 112
     Rationale: The rumor is an example of negative word of mouth, which is people influencing each
     other in personal conversations.

5-143 REFERENCE GROUPS                                                              DEFINITION

     __________ are people to whom an individual looks as a basis for self-appraisal or as a source of
     personal standards.

     a.   Action-oriented consumers
     b.   Principle-oriented consumers
     c.   Suncultures
     d.   Social classes
     e.   Reference groups

     Answer: e         Page: 113
     Rationale: Key term definition—reference groups




                                                301
5-144 REFERENCE GROUPS: MEMBERSHIP GROUP                                              DEFINITION

     A reference group to which a person actually belongs is called a(n) __________ group.

     a.   primary reference
     b.   membership
     c.   aspiration
     d.   disassociative
     e.   integrated

     Answer: b          Page: 113
     Rationale: Text term definition—membership group

5-145 REFERENCE GROUPS: MEMBERSHIP GROUP                                            CONCEPTUAL

     Students who wear sweatshirts displaying the Greek letters for fraternities or sororities to which
     they belong are demonstrating pride in a(n) __________ group

     a.   dissociative
     b.   aspiration
     c.   membership
     d.   identification
     e.   political

     Answer: c            Page: 113         Other Location: web
     Rationale: Consumers have many reference groups, but three groups have clear marketing
     implications. A membership group is one to which a person actually belongs. An aspiration group
     is one to which a person wishes to belong or wishes to be identified with. A dissociative group is
     one that a person wishes to maintain a distance from because of differences in values or behaviors.

5-146 REFERENCE GROUPS: ASPIRATION GROUP                                            APPLICATION

     To attract new members, a golf club would focus its marketing efforts on people who view the
     current members as a (n) __________ group.

     a.   achieving
     b.   aspiration
     c.   dissociative
     d.   pressure
     e.   involvement

     Answer: b           Page: 113
     Rationale: An aspiration group is one to which a person wishes to belong or wishes to be
     identified with. Besides wanting the chance to play, new members should view the golf club
     members as an aspiration group.




                                                 302
5-147 REFERENCE GROUPS: ASPIRATION GROUP                                              DEFINITION

     A reference group to which a person wishes to belong or wishes to be associated with is called a(n):
     __________ group.

     a.   preference
     b.   membership
     c.   aspiration
     d.   disassociative
     e.   integrated

     Answer: c          Page: 113
     Rationale: Text term definition—aspiration group

5-148 REFERENCE GROUPS: ASPIRATION GROUP                                              DEFINITION

     An aspiration group is a group:

     a.   to which a person belongs, including fraternities and social clubs.
     b.   that a person wishes to be a member of or wishes to be identified with.
     c.   that a person wishes to maintain a distance from because of differences in values or behaviors.
     d.   that a person knows he or she can never really fit into because of basic cultural differences.
     e.   that a person feels is excessively high above him or her socioeconomically.

     Answer: b          Page: 113        Other Location: web
     Rationale: Text term definition—aspiration group

5-149 REFERENCE GROUPS: DISASSOCIATIVE GROUP                                          DEFINITION

     A reference group that a person wishes to maintain distance from because of differences in values
     or behaviors is called a(n) __________ group.

     a.   primary reference
     b.   membership
     c.   aspiration
     d.   disassociative
     e.   integrated

     Answer: d          Page: 113
     Rationale: Text term definition—disassociative group




                                                 303
5-150 REFERENCE GROUPS: ASPIRATION GROUP                                         APPLICATION

     The American Express advertising claim that "membership has its privileges" creates which type of
     reference group?

     a.   Aspiration group
     b.   Dissociative group
     c.   Secondary reference group
     d.   Integrated group
     e.   Membership group

     Answer: a         Page: 113
     Rationale: An aspiration group is one that a person wishes to be a member of or wishes to be
     identified with.

5-151 REFERENCE GROUPS                                                           APPLICATION

     Frank Wright is a stereo buff who will go to great lengths when making stereo equipment
     purchases. He believes having the right equipment is important because many people will see the
     stereo when they visit his home. If you were the marketing VP for Quality Electronics, Inc., and
     your market was primarily made up of people just like Wright, which influence source would you
     most likely build into your promotional messages?

     a.   Situational influences
     b.   Perceptual risk influences
     c.   Self-concept influences
     d.   Reference group influences
     e.   Cognitive dissonance influences

     Answer: d           Page: 113
     Rationale: Reference groups have an important influence on the purchase of luxury products but
     not of necessities—groups exert a strong influence on the brand chosen when its use and
     consumption is highly visible to others.

5-152 REFERENCE GROUPS: ASPIRATION GROUP                                         APPLICATION

     If a fraternity wanted to attract new members, it should focus on people who viewed the current
     members as a(n) __________ group.

     a.   membership
     b.   aspiration
     c.   dissociative
     d.   reference
     e.   involvement

     Answer: b             Page: 113
     Rationale: Since a fraternity is a membership group, potential new members should view the
     fraternity as an aspiration group.




                                               304
5-153 FAMILY INFLUENCE                                                              CONCEPTUAL

     __________ influences on consumer behavior result from consumer socialization, passage through
     the family life cycle, and decision-making within the family or household.

     a.   Functional
     b.   Demographic
     c.   Family
     d.   Social
     e.   Personal

     Answer: c            Page: 113
     Rationale: Family influence on consumer behavior results from three sources: consumer
     socialization, passage through the family life cycle, and decision-making within the family.

5-154 CONSUMER SOCIALIZATION                                                          DEFINITION

     __________ is the process by which people acquire the skills, knowledge, and attitudes necessary
     to function as consumers.

     a.   Consumer acclamation
     b.   Consumer socialization
     c.   Consumer enculturation
     d.   Purchasing socialization
     e.   Purchasing enculturation

     Answer: b          Page: 113       Other Location: web
     Rationale: Text term definition—consumer socialization

5-155 CONSUMER SOCIALIZATION                                                          DEFINITION

     Consumer socialization is the process by which people acquire the skills, knowledge, and attitudes:

     a.   required to get along with other consumers at the supermarket and in other retail outlets.
     b.   important to being able to know the manager at the point of sale when they go shopping.
     c.   necessary to earn the approval of their family.
     d.   necessary to spot special sales and report them to other retailers.
     e.   necessary to function as consumers.

     Answer: e          Page: 113
     Rationale: Text term definition—consumer socialization




                                                 305
5-156 CONSUMER SOCIALIZATION                                                      CONCEPTUAL

     Beth gives Megan $2 allowance a week. Then she takes Megan shopping and allows her to select
     what she wants to buy. If the item desired costs more than $2, Megan's mother suggests she save
     her money until she has enough saved to pay for the desired item. When Megan purchases the item,
     she is allowed to make her own selection, pay for it herself, and engage in interaction necessary
     with the sales clerk. In this way, Megan's mother encourages the development of:

     a.   consumer acclamation.
     b.   consumer socialization.
     c.   consumer enculturation.
     d.   purchasing socialization.
     e.   purchasing enculturation.

     Answer: b            Page: 113
     Rationale: Consumer socialization is the process by which people acquire the skills, knowledge,
     and attitudes necessary to function as consumers.

5-157 FAMILY LIFE CYCLE                                                              DEFINITION

     The family life cycle concept describes the distinct phases a family progresses through, from
     __________, each bringing with it identifiable purchasing behaviors.

     a.   birth to death
     b.   formation to retirement
     c.   the birth of children to retirement
     d.   the birth of children until children leave home
     e.   marriage to retirement unless a divorce occurs

     Answer: b         Page: 113
     Rationale: Key term definition—family life cycle

5-158 FAMILY LIFE CYCLE                                                           CONCEPTUAL

     Which of the following statements about the family life cycle is true?

     a.   The family life cycle concept describes a continuum along which developing families can be
          arbitrarily placed.
     b.   Young singles represent a target market for recreational travel, automobiles, and consumer
          electronics.
     c.   The majority of households today are composed of traditional families.
     d.   Young singles are more likely to buy life insurance than any other group.
     e.   The most financially secure of any of the family groups is singles with children.

     Answer: b            Page: 113
     Rationale: Regarding the incorrect options, the family life cycle concept describes the distinct
     phases a family progresses through from formation to retirement. Only 23.5 percent of all
     households today are composed of traditional families. Young marrieds with children are the most
     likely group to buy life insurance. Singles with children are the least financially secure of
     households with children.


                                                 306
5-159 FAMILY LIFE CYCLE                                                                 APPLICATION

          Cathy is the director of marketing for a manufacturer of laundry detergent. She has just received a
          research report using family life cycle related data. Which of the following is most likely to be
          present in this report?

          a.    The firm’s customers have very active life-styles.
          b.    Only introverts use competitors’ products.
          c.    Middle class customers will be very receptive to the firm’s promotional campaigns.
          d.    Her company sells products that are likely to produce cognitive dissonance.
          e.    Young married couples with children are heavy users of her company’s products.

     Answer: e           Page: 114
     Rationale: Since family life cycle concept describes the stages a family progresses through from
     formation to retirement, each phase bringing with it identifiable purchasing behaviors, the
     information in answer e is most likely to be in the report.

5-160 FAMILY DECISION MAKING                                                            CONCEPTUAL

     The two major styles of family decision making are:

     a.        joint and judgmental.
     b.        spouse-dominant and spouse-submissive.
     c.        joint and spouse-dominant.
     d.        democratic and autocratic.
     e.        joint and family-integrated.

     Answer: c           Page: 114
     Rationale: Two decision-making styles exist: spouse dominant and joint decision-making.
     Spouse dominant decisions are those for which either the husband or wife is responsible. With a
     joint decision-making style, both the husband and the wife make most decisions.

5-161 FAMILY DECISION MAKING                                                            CONCEPTUAL

     Which of the following statements about family decision making is true?

     a.        The use of joint decision making is related to the educational levels achieved by the spouses.
     b.        Husbands tend to make all decisions about cars, vacation, and homes.
     c.        The two types of family decision making are joint and autonomous.
     d.        With autonomous decision making, the husband would make all the decisions about groceries,
               medicine, and car maintenance.
     e.        With autonomous decision making, most decisions are made by the male.

     Answer: a            Page: 114
     Rationale: As a rule, joint decision making increases with the education of the spouses. Decisions
     about cars, vacation, and homes are typically made jointly. The two types of family decision
     making are joint and spouse-dominant. Wives typically make decisions about food and medicine.




                                                     307
5-162 FAMILY DECISION MAKING                                                       CONCEPTUAL

     The five roles of individual family members in family decision making are:

     a.   membership group, aspiration group, opinion leader, decision-maker, and user.
     b.   sustainer, experiential, belonger, emulator, achiever.
     c.   opinion leader, influencer, decision-maker, purchaser, and user.
     d.   information gatherer, influencer, decision-maker, purchaser, and user.
     e.   need driven, inner directed, outer directed, opinion leader, and decision-maker.

     Answer: d          Page: 114
     Rationale: The five roles are information gatherer, influencer, decision-maker, purchaser, and
     user. Family members assume different roles for different products and services and this
     knowledge is important to marketers.

5-163 FAMILY DECISION MAKING                                                       CONCEPTUAL

     Which type of purchase is most likely to be the result of joint family decision making?

     a.   Car tires
     b.   Children's toys
     c.   Family vacations
     d.   Medicine
     e.   All of the above

     Answer: c         Page: 114
     Rationale: Family vacations are typically selected jointly.

5-164 FAMILY DECISION MAKING                                                       APPLICATION

     When Keith Monroe told his father the family needed a new computer, the father told Keith to
     determine what features were needed and some costs. Mrs. Monroe suggested the new computer
     needed an ergonomic keyboard, because she was having some problems with her wrists. Wendy
     Monroe asked that the new computer have a faster modem for her chat room visits. Mr. Monroe
     said what they bought would depend on what Keith learned. Which of the following sentences
     BEST describes the roles the individual family members played in making this decision?

     a.   Mrs. Monroe and Wendy acted as information gatherers, users, and decision makers.
     b.   Keith took on all the roles except that of purchaser.
     c.   Mr. Monroe took on all of the roles.
     d.   Wendy acted as a user and an influencer.
     e.   Mrs. Monroe acted as an information gatherer, a user, an influencer, and a gatekeeper.

     Answer: d           Page: 114          Other Location: web
     Rationale: Mrs. Monroe and Wendy acted as users and influencers. Keith did not take on the role
     of decision maker, that role was taken by his father. Mr. Monroe did not engage in information
     gathering; he told Keith to do that. Gatekeeper is not one of the five roles listed in the text.




                                                 308
5-165 FAMILY DECISION MAKING                                                         APPLICATION

     It is time for the Ramirez family to plan its annual vacation. The father wants to stay home this year
     and use the vacation money to work on the house. The paternal grandmother, who lives with them,
     wants to visit relatives in New York. The father asks his mother to determine how much a trip to
     New York would cost the family and if they could stay with relatives while they were there. The
     mother and the daughter, Mary, want to go to the beach. Which of the following sentences BEST
     describes the roles the individual family members played in making this decision?

     a.   There is no family member serving as information gatherer.
     b.   The only role played by the mother and the grandmother is influencer.
     c.   The females in the family only play two roles—users and influencers.
     d.   Since the father will make the final vacation decision, he has taken on all of the roles.
     e.   The grandmother plays the roles of user, influencer, and information gatherer.

     Answer: e             Page: 114
     Rationale: The grandmother is an influencer, given her choice to go to New York. Because the
     father asks her to find out the cost and accommodations for a trip to New York, she is also an
     information gatherer.

5-166 FAMILY DECISION MAKING                                                         APPLICATION

     The Lee family is composed of five children, a mother, a father, and one set of grandparents. The
     family has to decide to move the grandparents to an assisted living facility. In terms of the roles
     played by individual family members, the grandparents are the only family members who will have
     the role of:

     a.   user.
     b.   influencer.
     c.   gatekeeper.
     d.   decision maker.
     e.   information gatherer.

     Answer: a            Page: 114
     Rationale: The grandparents are the only people who will be living in the assisted living facility.
     Therefore, they are the only ones to have the role of user.




                                                  309
5-167 SUBCULTURE                                                                      DEFINITION

     Subgroups within the larger, or national, culture with unique values, ideas, and attitudes are
     referred to as:

     a.   reference groups.
     b.   family life-cycle stages.
     c.   disassociative groups.
     d.   subcultures.
     e.   normative groups.

     Answer: d         Page: 115        Other Location: web
     Rationale: Key term definition—subculture

5-168 AFRICAN-AMERICAN BUYING PATTERNS                                              CONCEPTUAL

     Which of the following statements about African-American buying patterns is true?

     a.   African-Americans spend more than whites on children’s apparel, footwear, and telephone
          services.
     b.   African American women spend three times more on health and beauty products than while
          women.
     c.   While African-Americans are price conscious, they are strongly motivated by quality and
          choice.
     d.   African-Americans respond more to products that appeal to their heritage.
     e.   All of the above statements about African-American buying patterns are true.

     Answer: e          Page: 115
     Rationale: Although similarities outweigh differences, all of the alternatives describe
     consumption patterns that differ between African-Americans and whites.

5-169 AFRICAN-AMERICAN BUYING PATTERNS                                              CONCEPTUAL

     Which of the following statements about African-American buying patterns is true?

     a.   There are no differences between African-Americans buying patterns and white buying
          patterns.
     b.   African-American men spend more on health and beauty products than white men.
     c.   The typical African-American family is five years older than the typical white family.
     d.   While price-conscious, African-Americans are strongly motivated by quality and choice.
     e.   All of the above statements about African-American buying patterns are true.

     Answer: d            Page: 115
     Rationale: There are differing consumption patterns between African-Americans and whites. For
     example, African-American women spend more on health and beauty products than white women.
     The typical African-American family is five years younger than the typical white family. Recent
     research indicates that while African-Americans are price conscious, they are strongly motivated
     by quality and choice.




                                                 310
5-170 HISPANIC BUYING PATTERNS                                                    CONCEPTUAL

     Which of the following statements about Hispanic buying patterns is true?

     a.   Hispanics are willing to pay a premium price for premium quality and are brand loyal.
     b.   Hispanic buying preferences are strongly influenced by family and peers.
     c.   Hispanics consider advertising a credible product information source.
     d.   Convenience of use is not an important product attribute to Hispanic homemakers, with respect
          to food preparation or consumption.
     e.   All of the above statements about Hispanic buying patterns are true.

     Answer: e             Page: 116
     Rationale: Research on Hispanic buying practices has uncovered each of the buying patterns
     described in a, b, c, and d.

5-171 ASIAN BUYING PATTERNS                                                       CONCEPTUAL

     Which of the following statements about Asian buying patterns is true?

     a.   Generalizations about buying patterns of Asian-Americans are difficult to make because there
          is great diversity among its members.
     b.   Assimilated Asian-Americans exhibit buying patterns very different from the typical
          American consumer.
     c.   Asian-Americans are the slowest growing racial/ethnic subculture.
     d.   Consumer research on Asian-Americans suggests individuals and families divide into three
          groups—assimilated, non-assimilated, and recent immigrants.
     e.   All of the above statements about Asian-American buying patterns are true.

     Answer: a            Page: 116
     Rationale: The diversity of the Asian subculture is so great that generalizations about buying
     patterns of this group are difficult to make. Assimilated Asian-Americans exhibit buying patterns
     very much like the typical American consumer. Asian-Americans are the fastest growing
     racial/ethnic subculture. Consumer research on Asian-Americans suggests that individuals and
     families divide into assimilated and non assimilated.




                                                311
5-172 ASIAN BUYING PATTERNS                                                         APPLICATION

     An Asian family living in San Francisco for four generations has three children. The oldest son,
     George, is in medical school. Susan is a concert pianist at the age of 21. Fred is a second-year
     business student. The family is likely to exhibit which of the following Asian buying patterns?

     a.   Non-assimilated, clinging to their ancestral language and customs
     b.   Assimilated, exhibiting buying patterns very much like other typical American consumers
     c.   Recent immigrants, requiring eight different varieties of California-grown rice, each with a
          different Asian label
     d.   The diversity of the Asian subculture is so great the generalizations about the buying patterns
          are difficult to make
     e.   All of the above

     Answer: b           Page: 116
     Rationale: Assimilated Asian-Americans are conversant in English, highly educated, and exhibit
     buying patterns very like other typical American consumers.

5-173 ASIAN BUYING PATTERNS: ASSIMILATED ASIAN                                        DEFINITION

     __________ Asian Americans are conversant in English, highly educated, hold professional and
     managerial positions, and exhibit buying patterns very much like the typical American consumer.

     a.   Non-assimilated
     b.   Assimilated
     c.   Recent
     d.   Typical
     e.   Atypical

     Answer: b          Page: 116
     Rationale: Text term definition--assimilated

5-174 ASIAN BUYING PATTERNS: NONASSIMILATED ASIAN                                     DEFINITION

     __________ Asian Americans are recent immigrants who still cling to their native languages and
     customs.

     a.   Non-assimilated
     b.   Assimilated
     c.   Recent
     d.   Typical
     e.   Atypical

     Answer: a          Page: 116
     Rationale: Text term definition—nonassimilated




                                                 312
5-175 VIDEO CASE: KEN DAVIS PRODUCTS, INC.                                        CONCEPTUAL

     Barbara Davis attributes the success of Ken Davis Products, Inc., to:

     a.   its being a local company.
     b.   the efficiency of its national distribution.
     c.   the variety of its products.
     d.   its entrance into electronic technologies.
     e.   none of the above.

     Answer: a         Page: 118
     Rationale: Barbara Davis attributes the success of Ken Davis Products, Inc., to its being a local
     company.

5-176 VIDEO CASE: KEN DAVIS PRODUCTS, INC.                                        CONCEPTUAL

     What is the primary form of market research conducted by Ken Davis Products, Inc.?

     a.   Mail surveys
     b.   Telephone surveys
     c.   In-depth personal interviews
     d.   Focus group studies
     e.   The firm does not do market research

     Answer: d             Page: 119
     Rationale: Although Barbara Davis solicits informal feedback from current and potential
     customers, the case indicates that the primary form of market research conducted by Ken Davis
     Products, Inc., is focus group studies.




                                                   313
                                      CHAPTER 5
                                  CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

                                SHORT ESSAY QUESTIONS

5-177 PURCHASE DECISION PROCESS                                                   APPLICATION

     You will be graduating soon and have been offered your dream job. The new position requires
     some traveling, so you will need a car. You currently do not have one. Using the five steps in the
     purchase decision process, describe the process you will go through to make this purchase.

     Answer:
     This purchase would require five purchase decision stages:
     (1) Problem recognition: the car is needed for the new job.
     (2) Information search: check internal and external sources for information about different car
           makes, models, and features.
     (3) Alternative evaluation: consider objective and subjective attributes from evoked set.
     (4) Purchase decision: decision made after judging the alternatives.
     (5) Post-purchase evaluation: evaluate car in terms of expectations.

     Page: 100-102

5-178 PROBLEM-SOLVING VARIATIONS                                                  CONCEPTUAL

     Compare and contrast routine problem solving, limited problem solving, and extended problem
     solving. Give an example of when each might be used.

     Answer:
     Routine, limited, and extended problem solving are three general variations in the consumer
     purchase decision process. Routine problem solving is used for low-priced, frequently purchased
     products such as toothpaste or milk. Little effort is made to seek information or evaluate
     alternatives. In limited problem solving, consumers typically seek some information or rely on a
     friend to help evaluate alternatives. This process may apply to the purchase of a toaster or a
     decision on a restaurant, or situations where little time or effort is possible. Extended problem
     solving uses each of the five stages of the consumer purchase decision process because the item to
     be purchased is expensive, has social consequences, or could reflect on the consumer's image.
     Products such as stereo equipment, automobiles, and investments typically require extended
     problem solving. (Student examples will vary.)

     Page: 103




                                                314
5-179 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES                                                          DEFINITION

     Name and briefly describe the five situational influences that affect the purchase decision
     processes.

     Answer:
     Situational influences are:
     (1) the purchase task, the reason for engaging in the decision in the first place;
     (2) social surroundings, include the other people present when a purchase decision is made and
           may also affect what is purchased;
     (3) physical surroundings, include surroundings such as décor, music, and crowding in retail
           stores that may alter how purchase decisions are made;
     (4) temporal effects, such as time of day or the amount of time available that may influence
           consumer purchase decisions;
     (5) antecedent states, include the consumer’s mood or the amount of cash on hand which
           influence purchase behavior and choice.

     Page: 103

5-180 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES                                                       APPLICATION

     Ruth, who has no children, wants to buy a special baby gift for her best friend's baby shower, which
     is this evening. Since she won't have any time between work and the shower, she must shop today
     during her lunch break. She is planning on taking her sister with her to help make the selection.
     Ruth knows she will be ready to buy every baby thing she sees because she wishes so much that she
     were pregnant, too. Identify each of the situational influences that are described in this question.
     Which situational influence was not described?

     Answer:
     The purchase of a special baby gift for a best friend is the purchase task. The fact that she has
     limited shopping time is the temporal effect. Having her sister with her while she is shopping
     relates to the social surroundings. Her desire to have a baby of her own is an antecedent state. The
     only situational influence not mentioned is physical surroundings.

     Page: 103




                                                 315
5-181 SELECTIVE PERCEPTION                                       CONCEPTUAL/APPLICATION

     How do selective perception, selective exposure, selective comprehension, and selective retention
     differ? Provide an example to illustrate each.

     Answer:
     The human brain employs a process called selective perception to organize and interpret
     information. Selective exposure occurs when people pay attention to messages that are consistent
     with their attitudes and beliefs and ignore messages that are inconsistent. This might occur when a
     radio talk show had a caller whose political views were contrary to those of the listener; when the
     caller finished the listener might say that the caller made no sense at all, however logical the
     message had actually been. Selective comprehension involves interpreting information so it is
     consistent with one's attitudes and beliefs. For example, a person who was trying to lose weight
     might interpret a "low fat" mayonnaise as "no fat," and therefore as having no effect on gaining
     weight. Selective retention means consumers do not remember all the information they see, read,
     or hear, even minutes after exposure to it. For example, a loud and intrusive television commercial
     for a used car lot might attract the attention of a viewer, but shortly after it was over, the viewer
     might be unable to name the advertiser. (Student examples will vary.)

     Page: 106-107

5-182 LEARNING                                                                      CONCEPTUAL

     Why is learning important to marketing?

     Answer:
     Learning is important to marketing because much consumer behavior is learned. Consumers learn
     which information sources to use, which evaluative criteria to use when assessing alternatives, and,
     in general, how to make purchase decisions. Learning is also important because it relates to habit
     formation which is the basis of routine problem solving and brand loyalty.

     Page: 108

5-183 ATTITUDE CHANGE                                               DEFINITION/APPLICATION

     What are the three approaches marketers use to change consumers attitudes? How might Ford
     Motor Company apply these three methods in its marketing activities?

     Answer:
     (1) Changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attitudes—Ford may
         emphasize quality control in its ads to reduce consumers concerns about reliability.
     (2) Changing the perceived importance of attributes—Ford might try to increase the perceived
         importance of pollution control in automobiles and then create awareness of Ford's pollution
         control characteristics.
     (3) Adding new attributes to the product—Ford might add a new attribute, such as a video tape
         player for people in back seat, and hope consumers will perceive this new attribute favorably.

     Page: 110




                                                 316
5-184 LIFESTYLE                                                                       CONCEPTUAL

     What does lifestyle mean and why is it important to marketers?

     Answer:
     Lifestyle is a way of living that is identifiable by how people spend their time (activities); what they
     consider important in their environment (interests); and what they think of themselves and the
     world around them (opinions). The analysis of consumer life-styles (also called psychographics)
     has produced many insights into consumer's behavior. For example, lifestyle analysis has proven
     useful in segmenting and targeting consumers for new and existing products.

     Page: 110

5-185 OPINION LEADERS                                                                 APPLICATION

     Why would Dr Pepper select country music performer Garth Brooks to appear in an ad campaign?
     How would he be a sociocultural influence on consumer behavior?

     Answer:
     Garth Brooks is a famous country music performer and he would have a personal influence on
     consumers. In other words, the makers of Dr. Pepper hope that consumers are influenced to buy
     Dr. Pepper because of Brooks’ endorsement of the product. Because he is famous and many people
     regard him favorably, he was selected for the Dr Pepper ads with the hope he would act as an
     opinion leader—an individual with a social influence over other people.

     Page: 112

5-186 CONSUMER SOCIALIZATION                                          DEFINITION/CONCEPTUAL

     What is consumer socialization? How do children learn how to purchase?

     Answer:
     Consumer socialization is a process by which people acquire the skills, knowledge, and attitudes
     necessary to function as consumers. Children learn how to purchase by:
     (1) interacting with adults in purchase situations;
     (2) their own purchasing and product usage experiences.
     As early as age two, children may develop brand preferences which may last a lifetime.

     Page: 113




                                                  317
5-187 FAMILY LIFE CYCLE                                                            CONCEPTUAL

     How is the family life cycle related to marketing?

     Answer:
     Consumers act and purchase differently as they go through life. From this observation comes the
     family life cycle concept, which holds that each family progresses through a number of distinct
     phases from point of formation to retirement, each phase bringing with it identifiable purchasing
     behaviors. For example, young singles' buying preferences are for nondurable items, while young
     married couples without children typically purchase home furnishings and gifts for each other.

     Page: 113

5-188 SUBCULTURE                                                CONCEPTUAL/APPLICATION

     What is a subculture? What are some examples of products targeted at American subcultures?

     Answer:
     Subculture refers to a subgroup with unique values, ideas, and attitudes within the larger, or
     national, culture. When one recognizes that one in four Americans today is African American,
     Hispanic, or Asian American, the importance of subcultural differences becomes apparent.
     Companies recognize that the norms and values of subculture also affect purchasing behavior.
     Therefore, subculture is frequently used to target markets. Examples of some marketing efforts
     directed at American subcultures include McDonald's promotions in Spanish, ProLine beauty
     products for Blacks, and special Campbell's soups for the Southwest. (Student examples will vary.)

     Page: 115-117

5-189 SUBCULTURE                                                                   APPLICATION

     From your own experience, or from what you have heard from a friend or relative, describe how the
     values, ideas, and attitudes of a particular American subculture can affect the marketing of a
     product.

     Answer:
     Student example will vary, but may include the observation that a subculture made up of people of
     English ancestry may like creamed fish and minced beef in a cup of Yorkshire pudding, whereas
     people of Hungarian ancestry may prefer carp soup and lots of paprika in their stews. A
     Pennsylvania-Ohio subculture can favor scrapple for breakfast, whereas Texans may prefer
     chicken fried steak. These differences can be observed on the menus of restaurants and in the
     product inventories of grocery stores where such subcultures represent a significant portion of the
     local population. Variations in American subcultures also involve styles of dress, types of music
     enjoyed, and home decor, among many other factors, all of which affect consumer marketing
     significantly.

     Page: 115-117




                                                318

				
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