SARS 20Unit by T23pRt6

VIEWS: 17 PAGES: 29

									                      THE MYSTERY
                       UNFOLDING




Polly Peterson                  Danette Berry
Jennie F. Snapp Middle School   Binghamton University
Endicott, NY                    Binghamton, NY
ppeterso@uegw.stier.org          Danett@stny.rr.com
   5E Teaching Cycle ………………………………………..1

   Engage
    Who Done It? Clue Mystery Game ……………… 2-3

   Explore
    Who Carries the Red Disease? …………………… 4-5
    What do I know? What do I want
    to learn? …………………………………………………….. 6

   Explain
    Powerpoint on SARS & Viruses (See Additional
    Resources)

   Elaborate
    Marshmallow Mutations ………………………… 7-10

   Evaluate
    The Viral Vaccine Catalog …………………….. 11-14
    Disease and Geography ………………………… 15-18

   Additional Information
    Connections to NYSED Core Guide ……………. 19
    Resources/Powerpoint ………………………………. 20
         This unit utilizes the 5-E Teaching Cycle, an instructional model that promotes active, „minds-
on‟ student construction of knowledge. The teaching cycle consists of five phases, including an Engage
phase, an Explore phase, an Explain phase, an Elaborate phase, and an Evaluate phase. To begin the
unit, the Engage phase serves to create interest, ask questions to drive the unit and uncover students‟
prior knowledge and misconceptions, and promote curiosity and excitement. Multiple teaching
strategies can be used in this phase, such as demonstrations, discrepant events, video clips, cartoons,
simulations and models. However, the strategy chosen must allow the students to ask questions, such as
“Why are we doing this,” “How does this relate to science,” “What do I already know about this,” and
“What can I learn about this.”
         Explore, the second phase in the 5-E cycle, involves some sort of „hands-on‟ activity so that
students can puzzle through problems. Usually, this phase consists of a laboratory activity in which
students ask initial questions, form hypotheses and predictions, and test them. After collecting relevant
data, the students will be able to answer the initial questions and/or change their original hypotheses and
predictions. Although the teacher is a key player in this phase, he/she must allow the students to think
for themselves and work through problems with their peers. The teacher can guide the activity, but must
not dictate and give students direct answers.
         In the third phase of the 5-E cycle, Explain, the teacher can begin „traditional‟ instruction in
which formal definitions and labels are given. This phase serves to change misconceptions and explain
new concepts previously explored in the first two phases. It is advisable that the teacher allows students
to initially explain new concepts in their own words using evidence and previous knowledge. Some
strategies to use during this phase include visuals, cartoons, diagrams and traditional note-taking.
         In the Elaborate phase of the 5-E cycle, the students undergo a formative assessment in which
the teacher, as well as the student is able to gauge progress and understanding. This phase is similar to
the Explore phase except that the students are expected to use the formal labels and definitions presented
in the Explain phase. The knowledge gained in the previous phases can be used and applied in new, but
similar situations. Many of the strategies employed in the Engage and Explore phases may be used in
this phase as well; however, the teacher must assess the outcomes differently.
         Lastly, the Evaluate phase is used to wrap up the unit and transition into the next 5-E cycle. In
this phase, the teacher may use summative evaluation or „high-stakes‟ traditional testing. It is
recommended that the teacher evaluates the students for understanding and corrected misconceptions.
This can be done through a variety of strategies, but the student must be able to use and apply the
knowledge gained in different situations.
                                    TEACHER SECTION

       This activity would be used in the Engage phase of the 5E cycle.
       Objectives:
       1. Students are able to use logical reasoning, empirical data, and skeptical review to
          solve the clue murder mystery. These processes are essential and important in
          understanding the nature of science and becoming effective decision makers and
          problem solvers.
       2. Students will be able to model the processes involved in epidemiology.

Before Clue game activity:

Materials:

      5 or 6 Clue Mystery Board Games

Procedure:

      Have students get into groups of four or five depending on class size. Tell students that you have
       decided to let them have a fun and relaxing day and play the game of Clue.
      Ask students if they have played the game before and if they know the objectives of the game.
      Go through the directions of the game (Make sure students use their check lists so they can refer
       to them in subsequent lessons).

During Activity:

      Students use their problem solving skills (scientific method) to try to solve the case although
       they may not be aware of the skills they are using.
      Students keep track of the steps they used to figure out the mystery using check lists and note
       paper.

After Activity:

      Have students make a list of the processes and steps they used toward solving the murder
       mystery (refer to check lists and notes).
      Ask for a few volunteers to offer some of the processes and steps they used.
      Have students keep this list in their binders (it will be used to compare to the “Red Disease”
       activity in the Explore phase.
                                Name: _____________________________
                                 Date: _____________________________




     Make a list of the steps and processes you used to try and figure out the Clue
      Murder Mystery.

Steps:

1). _________________________              6). _________________________

2). _________________________              7). _________________________

3). _________________________              8). _________________________

4). _________________________              9). _________________________

5). _________________________ 10). _________________________

Processes:

1). _________________________              3). _________________________

2). _________________________              4). _________________________

Additional Comments or Questions:

_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_________________________________
Teacher Section
          This activity would be used in the Explore phase of the 5E cycle.
          Objectives:
             1. Students are able to visualize how quickly an infection/disease can spread throughout a
                 population.
             2. Students are able to model the spread of disease in a harmless manner.
             3. Students are able to realize that you can not always tell or easily determine a person that
                 has an infectious disease.

Before Lesson:

Materials:

         Tap water
         Sodium Carbonate solution
         Balance
         Graduated cylinder/beaker
         Two clear containers per student (8-oz plastic cups)
         Labels or masking tape
         Phenolphthalein indicator solution
         Eyedropper

Safety:

         Students should not taste the solutions

Preparation:

         Sodium carbonate solution – dissolve 1g of sodium carbonate per 100mL of water and give this
          solution to approximately 10% of the class

During Lesson:

         Give each student one empty container and one container filled about 2/3 full of a clear, colorless
          liquid.
         Tell the students that they will be observing liquids using their sense of sight
         Each student should pour half of their original liquid into the empty cup and label it the „control-
          setup.‟ Students should then set this container aside.
   Using the working container, students should pair up with another student and exchange half of
    their liquid with the partner. (Partner one pours half of his/her liquid into partner two‟s cup.
    Then partner two pours the same amount of liquid back into partner one‟s cup).
   Have students pair up and exchange with two more partners for a total of three exchanges each.
   Ask students to observe their working containers and try to see if there are any differences
    between the working container now and before starting the experiment.
   As students make observations, go around to each working cup and add one to two drops of
    phenolphthalein indicator solution.
   Ask students how the liquid could have changed colors. Also, ask students why some people‟s
    cups remained clear while others turned red.
   After students ponder these questions, inform them that about 10% of the class had a sodium
    carbonate solution added to their container before the start of the experiment and phenolthalein is
    an indicator for a basic solution. Ask students to determine how many people now have sodium
    carbonate in their containers (as seen by color change).
   Ask students how they could explain why more than 10% of the people now have sodium
    carbonate in their containers.
   Have students think back to who they exchange liquids with, and try to have them ascertain who
    the original carriers were (ex: people with clear liquid after experiment must not have had the
    original sodium carbonate)
   After students have exhausted their ideas or think they know who the originals carriers were,
    place one to two drops of phenolthalein indicator into each students control setup.
   Have students obtain their „steps and processes‟ list from Clue game activity and compare the
    steps and processes used in that activity to the ones used in the Red Disease activity. What were
    the similarities? What were the differences?
   Ask students what this phenomena this experiment models in our daily lives (spread of
    infection/disease)
   Ask students if they could tell who had the „infection‟ while they were exchanging liquids
   Have students think about actions they could take to prevent the spread of infection and where
    infections come from.
                                                Name: ________________________
                                                    Date:_________________________




       Read each statement and decide whether it is Likely (L) or Unlikely (U).

    L       U

____ ____1). Viruses are living things

____ ____2). Viruses can cause people to become sick

____ ____3). Viruses can “jump” from organism to organism

____ ____4). Antibiotics can help cure the common cold

____ ____5). Viruses need a host cell in order to reproduce

____ ____6). Viruses only occur in people

____ ____7). SARS is an illness caused by a virus

____ ____8). SARS can only affect people in China

____ ____9). SARS is not a serious illness

____ ____10). Viruses „go away‟ after a short time

____ ____11). It is easy to figure out where a virus came from

____ ____12). Giving a cold to someone means you won‟t have it anymore

____ ____13). When you get infected by a virus, you will get symptoms immediately
The Origin of Sudden Acute Respiratory Syndrome


Teacher Section

       This activity would be used in the Elaborate phase of the 5E cycle.
       Objectives:
       1. Students will use a model to demonstrate how a virus can mutate and jump
          species.
       2. Students will examine how a change in the genetic code can change the shape of a virus.

Before Lesson:

Materials (Per group of 4 students):

       1. 4 large marshmallows
       2. 10 small marshmallows
       3. 1 chocolate brownie square (approx 6 cm2) with one caramel crème in the middle, crème
          removed.
       4. 1 blonde brownie square (approx 6 cm2) with four Mike and Ike’s Candies set into corners
          of a square, with enough room to fit a large marshmallow in center.
       5. 4 small coffee stirrers or straws
       6. fruit roll up folded two layers thick and cut into 2 cm2. (four squares needed per group)
       7. paper plate

Preparation:

      Chocolate and blonde brownies need to be prepared in advance and cut into 6 cm squares.
      Suggestion: Modify code as needed for ability level.
Student Sheet                               Name ________________________
Marshmallow Mutations: The Origin of Sudden Acute Respiratory Syndrome

Introduction:
    New diseases appear every so often and come to our attention when we hear about the casualties
they can cause. In the case of SARS, a virus that was known to infect a small mammal, called a
masked palm civet, is believed to have mutated and is now able to infect humans. How does this
happen?
    A virus infects a cell by attaching to receptors on the cell‟s surface. Like pieces of a puzzle,
viruses have a specific shape to fit with the cell receptor. Being able to attach to a receptor allows the
virus to enter the cell. If the virus cannot attach to the receptor, it will be unable to infect the cell.
The shape of the virus is determined by its genetic code. If the genetic code is altered, then the shape
of the virus could be changed. A permanent change in the genetic code is called a mutation. It is pure
chance that one virus particle can mutate and form a whole new disease. The original disease will
remain (there were many other virus particles that did not mutate) but a mutated form could arise
and cause a formally harmless virus to become a human killer.
    In this activity, you will be using a model to demonstrate how a change in the genetic code of a
virus can cause it to “jump” from one species to another.

Materials:
 4 large marshmallows
 10 small marshmallows
                                              2
 1 chocolate brownie square (approx 6 cm ) with one caramel crème in the middle, crème
   removed. (This represents a small portion of the human cell membrane with the embedded
   receptor)
                                           2
 1 blonde brownie square (approx 6 cm ) with four Mike and Ike‟s Candies set into it like the
   corners of a square. (This represents the palm civet cell membrane with the embedded receptor)
 2 small coffee stirrers or straws
 2 fruit roll up squares
 paper plate




Procedure:

Building the original viral piece:
1. Use Code 1 and Data Table 1 on the next page to construct the viral piece from the original palm
civet virus. The code will tell which objects to place on the straw and in what order.
2. Each three symbols (a triplet) is an instruction to place an object onto the straw. For example, if
the first triplet is “           ,“ the table would show that a fruit roll-up would be placed first onto
the straw. The next triplet is the code for the next object to be placed on the straw, and so on. (see
arrows showing how to read table)
Data Table 1

                                LM                   FR

                                SM                   LM
                                 stop                SM

                                  Fr           STOP

                         LM= Large Marshmallow
                         SM= Small Marshmallow
                         FR= Fruit Roll-up



   Code 1 (original viral piece):



3. Hold the newly formed virus piece by the fruit roll-up end and try to fit it into the blonde brownie
(palm civet cell receptor) and the chocolate brownie (human cell receptor). Record a “+” if the virus
piece fits into the receptor, and a “–“ if it doesn‟t in the table below.

Data Table 2
                Palm Civet     Human cell
               cell receptor     receptor
                 (blonde)      (chocolate)
                                              + = viral piece fits in receptor
  Original                                    - = viral piece does not fit into receptor
   viral
   piece
  Mutated
   viral
   piece

4. Oh, no! A mistake was made when the code was formed for one virus particle. A mutated viral piece
will be made from this code. Repeat the process above, building a new, mutated viral piece using Code 2
below. Which receptor does it fit into now? Record results in the table above.

Code 2 (mutated viral piece):
Analysis and Conclusion:

1. Write a few sentences summarizing how both viral pieces fit (or didn‟t fit) into the different receptors.
(Use Data table 2)



2. Which organism could the original virus infect and why? (Go back to the introduction)



3. Once the virus particle mutated, which organism could it infect and why?



4. Using the model, explain how a virus can jump from one species to another.
                                    TEACHER SECTION

       This activity would be used in the Evaluate phase of the 5E cycle.
       Objectives:
       1. Students will work in groups to prepare a comprehensive assessment for the
          epidemiology/virus unit.
       2. Students will use their content, creativity, and research skills to produce an
          extensive final product.
       3. Students will learn how to assess the validity of information sources.

Before project:

Materials:

      Textbooks, tradebooks, journals, internet research sources
      Unlined paper, lined paper
      Markers and/or colored pencils

Procedure:

      Go through the directions on “The Viral Vaccine” handout so that students understand their goals
       and objectives for the projects.
      Assign groups as necessary for class size.
      Have students decide which virus they will choose.
      Explain to students how to conduct research, what sources to use, and how to judge the validity
       of internet sources (offer some valid sites such as the CDC, WHO).
      Allow students to conduct research for at least two class periods.
      Explain the basics of the Presswriter program and how to create a catalog.

After Activity:

      Projects will be graded based on neatness, accuracy, creativity, and completeness.
      Grading rubric for student and teacher use suggested based on desired outcomes.
It is the year 2050. A new breakthrough in genetic engineering has made it possible for vaccines to be produced in mass
quantities. The government has approved the sale of these vaccines to the general public. You have just graduated from
college and have landed your first job (Congratulations!). You work for a catalog company that markets viral vaccines. You
and your team are assigned to create a new catalog for the newly released vaccines.

1.   Get into groups as instructed by your teacher.
2.   Each individual in the group will choose one of the following viruses and design a page in the catalog that describes the
     virus and a supposed vaccine that would be used.

          * AIDS                    * West Nile                          *Mononucleosis
          * SARS                    * Chicken Pox                        *Influenza
          * Ebola                   * Hepatitis B

3.   Use textbooks or other references to look up information of the virus you choose to advertise a vaccine for.
4.   Design a page for your catalog for your vaccine. Your page must include the following:
      A written description of your virus and how your vaccine will work
      A sales pitch
      The price for the vaccine
      A full color diagram to illustrate the virus that the consumer would be protected against by using the company‟s
         vaccine.

5.   Your group will also need to produce a Table of Contents which will be the first page inside the cover of your catalog.
     This should be completed last and should include the following information:

Vaccine                    Author                      Page #

     West Nile Virus                Ima Kid                     1
     AIDS                           J. Sudent                   2


6.   Your final grade on this assignment will be the combination of your individual page grade ( 90 %)and a group grade
     (10%) from the entire catalog.



Vaccine Catalog Timeline

Day 1               Classroom                Introduction, form groups, choose virus
Day 2               Computer Lab             Internet research
Day 3               Computer Lab             Internet research
Day 4               Computer Lab             Basics of Presswriter program, creating catalog page
Day 5               Computer Lab             Creating Catalog
Viral Vaccine Catalog                                            Name __________________________
Student Data Sheet


Fill in the necessary data below to design your catalog page.

1.   Name of Virus ________________________________________________________

2.   Use at least three different sources to get the information below:

     Type of virus: ______________________________________________________________________




     Source 1:__________________________________________________________________________


     Symptoms: ________________________________________________________________________




     Source 2: __________________________________________________________________________


     Mode of transmission:________________________________________________________________




     Source 3: __________________________________________________________________________

     In general, how does a vaccine work? ____________________________________________________




     Source 4: __________________________________________________________________________


3.   How is this vaccine beneficial to others? List four possible ways someone could benefit from “buying” more of the
     vaccine for the virus you chose.
4.    Create a sales pitch for the vaccine. Use the virus information in your pitch. Remember: your pitch should be descriptive
      and should lead the reader to believe that this is something they can‟t live without! (Use a minimum of 50 words in your
      sales pitch)




5.    How much do you think people will pay for this vaccine? List at least three possible prices below.




     You must ask your group members their opinion of the prices by tallying their vote next to the most
     reasonable price.

     What price was chosen by your team? __________________________________

6.    Some companies offer a discount for buying in bulk (an example would be 2 for the price of 1, or a related item thrown
      infor free). What kind of discount would you offer your customers?




7.    You need a picture of the virus your vaccine is used for. Search the internet sites available. List the source of your
      picture below.

      Source: _________________________________________________________________________
Background

Cholera is a severe, infectious disease of the small intestine. It is marked by heavy
diarrhea, vomiting, muscle cramps and can even result in coma and death. For centuries,
it was confined to India, but in the early nineteenth century it began to spread to other
parts of Asia, Europe, and the Americas> In the 1070‟s and 1080‟s, cholera epidemics
occurred in the Middle East and Africa, and there was a localize outbreak of the disease
in Naples, Italy. In the 1990‟s an epidemic that began in Peru spread to many countries in
Latin America.
       The disease is contracted by swallowing food or drink- usually water- that is
contaminated with a bacterium found in feces. After cholera bacteria are swallowed, they
multiply in the small intestine, where they set off an infection that interferes with normal
intestinal functions. As a result, rapid painless diarrhea begins. This can cause a great
deal of fluid loss- water and essential salts- in a short period of time. In some cases, three
to four gallons of fluid loss has been reported in a twenty four hour period. In addition,
vomiting and other symptoms often develop. Sometimes, however, an infected cholera
victim will develop only mild diarrhea and can get rid of the disease by excretion. With
prompt treatment, recovery is almost certain. Treatment consists of replenishing the
body‟s fluids until the diarrhea stops. Sometimes antibiotics, such as tetracycline, are
administered. Unfortunately, 50% of those who contract cholera, and are not treated, die
of the disease.
       Cholera remains common in impoverished tropical and semitropical developing
nations, where poor sanitation and contaminated water are common. Prevention of
cholera outbreaks is based on clean food and drinking water. A vaccine can provide
partial protection for a limited time but the vaccine cannot stop the spread of infection on
a large scale.

The Problem

      In September 1854, during the last great cholera epidemic in Great Britain, 500
people- all from the same section of London, England- died of the disease within a ten
day period. Bacteria were still unknown. People were panicking.

       Dr. John Snow was a British doctor who had been studying cholera for many
years. In trying to determine the source of the cholera, Dr. Snow located every cholera
death in the Soho district of London by marking the home of each victim with a dot on a
map. Look at map # 1 for this distribution.
What questions can you ask looking at this map?

1.

2.

3.



Obtain Map #2. This is the map of the deaths and also the water pumps found in the area.
In those days in London, water was supplied by different water companies- each water
company had its own source of water.

Can you answer your own questions now?


Answer the following questions:


1. What relationship might water pumps have had to the spread of cholera?




2. How would you go about stopping the epidemic of cholera if you were Dr. Snow?
Dr. Snow presented the information on his maps to the city officials of London and asked
to have the handle removed from the Broad Street pump, making it impossible to get
water there. After his request was granted, the number of new cholera cases declined
dramatically- almost to zero. Dr. Snow‟s “theory” was confirmed- cholera was associated
with the drinking water supply, and the contaminated water was carrying the disease to
its victims.

Follow up Questions:

1. What if the death locations and water pump locations were different? What would have
happened to Dr. Snow‟s research and his course of action?




2. How might people use maps with relationships to auto accidents? Tornadoes?
Earthquakes? Crime?




http://www.nationalgeographic.com/resources/ngo/education/ideas912/912cholera.html
MAP # 1




MAP # 2
MST Standard 1: Scientific Inquiry
     Key Idea 1; 1.1; 1.2; 1.3; 1.4
     Key Idea 2; 2.1a,d
     Key Idea 3; 3.1a; 3.2; 3.3

Standard 2
     Key Idea 1; 1.1; 1.3
     Key Idea 3; 3.1


Standard 6

     Key Idea 1; 1.4
     Key Idea 2; 2.1; 2.2; 2.3
     Key Idea 3; 3.1; 3.2
     Key Idea 5; 5.2
     Key Idea 6; 6.2

Standard 4
     Key Idea 1; 1.1a; 1.2j
     Key Idea 2; 2.1a
     Key Idea 3; 3.1a; 3.2d
     Key Idea 5; 5.1f; 5.2f
     Key Idea 7; 7.1c
WEB SITES:

http://www-micro.msb.le.ac.uk/3035/Coronaviruses.html

http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/sars/sequence.html

http://www.who.int/csr/sars/coronavirus/ed/

http://www.microbe.org/microbes/virus1.asp

http://www.synapses.co.uk/science/fluvirus.html

http://www.who.int/csr/country/table2003_09_23/en/

http://www.accessexcellence.org/tbs/

http://www.sdnhm.org/exhibits/epidemic/naturalhistory.html

OTHER RESOURCES:

Videodiscovery: Science Sleuths: Real-Life adventure in a virtual science lab: Volume 2 The Mysteries
of the Biogene Picnic and The Traffic Accident. www.videodiscovery.com/sleuthnet

Balter, Nancy and Martinez, Arturo. “Outbreak Investigators” Science Scope . Nov/Dec 2003. Vol 27:
Number 3. pp 14-18.

Epidemics: Can We Escape Them? NYSTEP; The Research Foundation of SUNY:1993.

Weir, Kristen. “SARS Unmasked” Current Science .August 29, 2003. Vol 89: Issue 1. pp 6-7.

The 5Es teaching cycle: An INSTRUCTIONal model that promotes active, “minds-on” student
CONSTRUCTION of knowledge. In Science & Technology: Investigating Human Dimensions.


   * To obtain a copy of the viruses and SARS powerpoint
   send an email to Danette@stny.rr.com with the return
   email address that the powerpoint should be sent to. *
NOTES

                                           Name: _____________________________
                                           Date: ________________ Sheet # _______




           The parts, or structures, in a cell: ____________________

            - ex:

           A group of organelles working together: __________________

            - ex:

           A group of cells working together with similar function:
            ___________________________

            - ex:

           A group of tissues working together with similar function:
            ___________________________

            - ex:

           A group of organs working together with a common function:
            ___________________________

            - ex:

           A group of systems working together: _______________________

            - ex:
                                               Name: _________________________
                                               Date: ___________ Sheet # ________




Using specialized cells to simulate cellular levels of organization

Procedure:

1). Obtain a “cell” card (it will either have a picture of the cell with the cell
name or it will have the cell name with a written description of the cell‟s
function).

2). If you have a “picture” card, find your partner that will have the card with
your cell‟s function and vice versa for those with a “function” card. [Hint:
Your cards will fit together like pieces of a puzzle]. Guess What? Now you
and your partner are a group of cells working together. You have formed a
part of a tissue.

3). With your partner, locate and go to the system, one of the posters around
the room, that your tissue is a part of. [Hint: Use the marker colors on your
card if you need help locating your system]

4). At your system, find another set of partners that have cells that work
together with your cells. [Hint: Your card colors will match]. Guess What?
Your group of four is a group of tissues working together. You have formed
an organ. Note: These are not the only components of your organ!!

5). Each person at the system needs to obtain a worksheet to complete at
his/her own desk. When done with the worksheet, compare answers with your
original partner.

6). If time, use the information you learned in the activity to fill in the
“examples” on your “NOTES” sheet (Building a Beast).
                                         Name: ____________________________
                                         Date: _____________ Sheet # _________

                      “I am Special” Follow Questions


My cell is a(n) ________________________ cell which works together

with other _______________________ cells to form a

__________________ (group of cells). This tissue works together with

_____________________ tissue (the cells of the two other members of the

group to form an ___________________ (group of tissues). Organs

working together form a ___________________ (group of organs). My

system is the ____________________ system (your poster).




1). In our simulation, we showed that two cells came together to form a tissue.
Do you think this is a realistic and accurate model for a tissue in the human
body? [Hint: We have around 5 Trillion cells]
2). In addition, we showed that two tissues came together to form an organ.
And, we indicated that two organs made up a system. Again thinking of the
human body (an impressive machine whose parts function similarly to its
whole), do you think that our model is an accurate representation of the
human machine? Why or why not? [Use what you have learned today and
your past experiences]




3). Essentially, cellular levels of organization represent a hierarchy where the
parts come together to form something more complex. (smallest-smaller-
bigger-biggest). In your life, what have you encountered that is hierarchial
like cellular levels of organization?




4). How does an organism (a group of systems working together) function
(carry out life processes – think of the characteristics of life) like a single cell
within that organism?




5). From what we learned in today‟s simulation, do all cells in our body have
the exact same function? (that is, do all of our factories produce the same
product)
Name: ______________________
Date: ______________________


                             Building a Blood Model

In this activity, you will construct a model of human blood using the following
materials:

      Sprinkles: Platelets
      Tic Tacs: White Blood Cells
      Cinnamon Red Hots: Red Blood Cells
      Corn Syrup: Blood Plasma

      Graduated Cylinders
      Plastic Cups
      Beakers

We have figured out that the composition of the blood components in a given volume
are approximately as follows:

      Plasma: 55%
      Red Blood Cells: 44%
      White Blood Cells: 0.5%
      Platelets: 0.5%

Your task is to build a model of the blood including all four components in the
correct percentages by volume. The total volume of blood that you will have is
95mL. You will first need to figure out the volume of each blood component you will
need. Use the space below to figure that out first. (Remember your percentage
equation?)

Plasma:




Red Blood Cells:
White Blood Cells:




Platelets:




Now that you know how much of each blood component you will need, you can start
measuring out the volume of each part and add each to the plastic cups provided.

*Interesting Fact: There are 5 million red blood cells, 10 thousand white cells and
250 thousand platelets in a pin-head drop of blood?*

After you have built your blood model, answer the following questions:

1). Is this a better model than the first 2 models we saw today? If not, why? If
so, why?




2). What is wrong with this model? (think about the size of each blood component)




3). Now that you know the components of human blood, use your text book and/or
workbook to find out the function of each blood component. Construct a short
paragraph describing the function each component in the first person (Be creative:
For example, Hi! My name is Big Red and I am a red blood cell found in the human
blood. My hobbies are…. and I especially enjoy…..You get the idea!)
Source Citation for “Building a Blood Model” Activity:

Miller, Amy L. Science Connection: Learning About the Cardiovascular System. Retrieved November
18, 2003 from the World Wide Web:
http://student.biology.arizona.edu/sciconn/blood/teachernotes.html

								
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