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									ARL
Penn State
                 NDIA Tri-Service Expo on Power
               Management 15 July, 2003 Norfolk, Va.

         Battery Prognostics for Enhanced
             Combat Vehicle Readiness and
                                           The Next Step
       Reduction of Total Ownership Costs


                                     Dr. James Kozlowski
                                     Complex Systems Monitoring
                                     The Pennsylvania State University
                                     Applied Research Laboratory
                                     (814) 863-3849
                                     jdk173@psu.edu
 USMC Light Armored Vehicle LAV-25
ARL
Penn State
                       Presentation Outline



        • Needs for Battery Monitoring
        • Available Technology Comparison
        • Model-Based Battery Prognostics
        • Operational Implementation
        • Operational Risk Management
        • Impact to Life Cycle Costs
ARL                New Capability Available
                         to the Warfighter
Penn State


 • Will the battery crank the engine? How
    Many more times?
 • Before I shutdown, is the battery ok?       Prognostics
 • I’m on silent watch, how much longer      Information to:
    can I go and be sure I can restart?      •Operator
 • This battery has been in storage, is it   •Maintainer
    still good and charged?
                                             •Log/supply
 • What’s the electrical problem- the
                                             •PM
    alternator or battery? Which battery?
                                             •Command/Ctrl
ARL
Penn State
                                     Battery Health Monitoring

Failure Modes as a Percentage of                             Present Solutions:
Total Automotive Battery Failures                            • Carry backup or reserve
                                  Serviceability               batteries
                                      11%
       Wear Out
                                        Damaged
                                                             • Over-design batteries to
        16%
                                          2%                   reduce use and time
                                          Open Circuit         between failures
                                             12%
                                                             • Heavy, costly

Corrosion
                                                             New Alternative
  32%                                                         Use an online battery
                                      Short Circuit
                                         27%                  monitoring system to detect
                                                              and predict impending faults
                                                              and assess available power
“Batteries for Automotive Use”, P. Reasbeck and J.G. Smith    and usage time
ARL          Why not just use off-the-shelf
Penn State
             battery monitoring products?


  • Open-Circuit Voltage : accuracy

  • Discharge Test : time and equipment

  • Coulomb Counting: need full discharge

  • Temperature: harsh environment

  • Specific Gravity: SOC only, sealed?
ARL
Penn State
                                    Technology Comparison

Standard Technologies:                             Impedance Interrogation Technology:
Commercial State of Charge (SOC) technologies      Uses patented complex impedance measurement
    use a very simple measurements of voltage,        to estimate SOC, SOH and SOL on-line.
    current, temperature and internal impedance.
• Voltage Monitoring: Compares voltage to          •   Impedance measurement covers broad range
    SOC table.                                         of frequencies.
     – Measurements must be made off-line               – High resolution impedance image creates
         and drop off voltages are difficult to              accurate model for analysis.
         measure accurately.                            – SOC prediction: 1% to 2% error
• Coulomb Counter: Measures total amount of        •   Fuzzy Logic, Neural Network and ARMA
    current in/out of battery.                         models with decision fusion algorithm.
     – Low accuracy due to battery self-                – Multiple predictions provides a higher
         discharge and temperature variations.               level of performance and increased
• Internal Impedance: Measurements are based                 confidence.
    on impedance values at a few frequencies.      •   SOH provides classification of the failure
                                                       mode.
     – Models are highly frequency dependant            –   Improves prognostic capability
         so SOC estimates have 10% – 20%
         error.                                    •   SOL - remaining useful cycles prediction is
                                                       dependant upon accurate failure mode
• Limited State of Health (SOH) and State of           identification.
    Life (SOL) information available with these
    methods.
ARL
Penn State
                     Impedance Interrogation




  Excitation IN                     Response OUT




              Characteristics of Internal
               Condition and Activity
ARL
Penn State
                  Isn’t impedance-based technology
                  available in off-the-shelf products?

 Yes, but…
      There is a lack in performance for both
             measurement techniques and
             processing of the information

  And therefore…
       There is a perception that impedance-
       based technology cannot effectively
       assess the condition and health of a
       battery
ARL
Penn State
                                           Battery Prognostic Processing
                                                            Architecture
                                                                          SOC, SOH, and SOL Estimators
                             LAV                       Feature Vector
                                                            Files
                                                                                       ARMA

                          Installation


                                                                                    Fuzzy Logic
             Impedance
             Processing        Electrochemical Model
                                     Identification
  Ex,                                                                        Neural Network

  Sn

                                                                             SOC, SOH, SOL
                                                                             Estimation FIles
        User Interface             User Info
                                     File                   DataDecision Fusion
                                                                 Fusion Workbench
                                                         History      if,...then
                                                       Knowledge


                                                                    S
                                                                            History
                                                                          Knowledge
ARL
Penn State      Example from SOC Testing Results
                                          20% Train / 80% Test



      Training and Testing Results from SLI Lead-Acid
              Battery Set (-10 to 50 degrees C)

         Test        ARMA         N.N.          Fuzzy
                     error        error         error
    No Load          7.08%        3.41%         7.90%
    ISOC             3.07%        3.15%         3.52%
    CSOC             1.52%        2.96%           2%
    ARL                                       Tactical Use of Battery
                                                         Prognostics
    Penn State

     •Gives broadest range of tactical
     information before, during and after
     mission:
     -State of charge: ready to start
     -State of life: condition during use
     -State of Health: readiness for future mission(s)
     •Applies to huge range of battery
     types, sizes and uses
     •Example of True Prognostics
     Capability
•     Fast, reliable predictions of
      State-of-Charge, State-of-
      Health and State-of-Life
      with performance errors
      <5%
•     A low power system (<1/2
      watt) that is co-located
      with battery
ARL
Penn State




MANAGING OPERATIONAL RISK WITH
BATTERY PROGNOSTICS
User interface describing state of battery
health, life and charge to the operator.
Information presented before operation
(availability) and during operation
(maintaining op tempo and managing
operational risk)
Fault failure information provided to
maintainer
ARL                              Tactical Combat Vehicle
Penn State                                 System Layout
Condition/Health                                   Vehicle Data
• Battery Health and
  State of Charge                                 Bus/Networking
• Engine Health
  Information
• Power Train Health
  Information                                       Wired, wireless or
                           Condition Monitoring        SneakerNet
                            Intelligent Nodes

Performance/Status
• Warnings
• Advisories
• Status, levels


                              Readiness
                           Intelligent Node            Diagnostic
                                                       Monitoring
Location                                                Unit /Info
• Vehicle identification                                 Server
                                                                         Smart Maintainter
• Location (GPS)
• Time-of-day


                            Asset Visibility
                           Intelligent Node
  ARL                                   Platform Status Information
  Penn State                                     Exchange
                              Do I have assets for
                                                              ………                                         When do I need to buy
                            the upcoming mission?                                                          material for systems
                                                                                                           that are predicted to
                                                                                      Logistician                   fail?
    What is the status of                             OPS              Supply
    all my platform Cs?                   Planner                                                                Give battery health
                                                                                                                    data for all of
                            PM                                                                                   platform type As?

                                    LCMS
                                                                                                      SME
CMMS = Computerized Maintenance Management System
GCSS = Global Combat Support System                                                  CMMS
                                                                                                 MC
ISEA = In-Service Engineering Agent                                                                              What is going to
LCMS = Life-Cycle Management System
                                                                                                                 break on any of
MC = Maintenance Controller                        Condition Interface Engine:                                    platform Bs?
OPS = Operations
PM = Program Manager                        We need to define the requirements for
SME = Subject Matter Expert                    the interface between vehicles and
                                              corporate systems and select
                                                                                                      What is broken or about
                                          information standards to implement.                             to break on this
                                                                                                              vehicle?
                                                                                                         I want to report a
                                                                                                       problem in to CMMS.
    Vehicle                   Vehicle                    Vehicle
     Vehicle
      Vehicle
    Type AA
                               Vehicle
                                Vehicle
                              Type AA
                                 Vehicle
                                                          Vehicle
                                                           Vehicle
                                                         Type AA
                                                            Vehicle                                                    Smart
     Type A                    Type A                     Type A
      Type
    Block 1
     Block 11
                                Type
                              Block 1 B
                                 Type
                               Block 11
                                                           Type
                                                         Block 1 C
                                                            Type
                                                          Block 11                                                    Maintainer
      Block                     Block 1
                                 Block                     Block 1
                                                            Block

      Vehicle                     Vehicle                   Vehicle
       Vehicle                     Vehicle                   Vehicle
        Vehicle
      Type AA                     Type AB                     Vehicle
                                                            Type AA                   Transfer
         Vehicle
       Type A                      Type                        Vehicle
                                                             Type A
          Vehicle
        Type
      Block 11 A                  Block 12                      Vehicle
                                                              Type
                                                            Block 11 A                 Device
         Type
       Block 2 A                   Block                       Type
                                                             Block 2 C
          Type
        Block                                                   Type
                                                              Block
         Block 22
          Block                               Operator         Block 22
                                                                Block
ARL                                                        Benefits of Battery
Penn State                                                        Prognostics
  Benefit Category                         Impact of Battery Prognostics                   Benefits to All
                                                                                           Vehicles Using 6TL
                                                                                           Battery Types (P/A)
  Operational Availability                 -confirms state-of-charge and state-of-health   513,488 lost hours (out-
  -Eliminates unanticipated failures-      prior to attempted start                        of- service time)
  to-start                                 -provides state-of-charge and remaining
  -Enables management of battery           useful life during silent watch
  power during silent watch
  Maintenance                              -Stops unintended replacement of good           $2.698M per year
  - Isolates fault to a specific battery   batteries
  -Confirms good condition of battery      -Stops the practice of replacing battery farm
  (visa electrical system problem)         when only one is bad
                                           -Prevents unnecessary battery removal as
                                           part of electrical system diagnosis
                                           -Identifies battery mode of failure and
                                           indicates cause
  Log/Supply                               -Extended life of batteries                     $5.565M
  -Reduces number of batteries in          -A priori determination of need for battery
  inventory                                replacement
  -Provides anticipatory needs for
  battery replacement
ARL                                               Cost/Benefits Top Level-
Penn State                                        AAV RAM/RS Studies
                                                    Prognostics/CBM Effect on LCC                           Benefits
                         $1,400,000,000                                                                    increase as
                         $1,300,000,000
                                                                                                          service life is
                                                                                 LCC Without                extended
                         $1,200,000,000
                                                                                 Prognostics
       Total Life Cycle Cost




                         $1,100,000,000



                         $1,000,000,000



                               $900,000,000        3-4 yr.
                               $800,000,000
                                                  payback
                                                                                              LCC With
                               $700,000,000                                                  Prognostics

                               $600,000,000
                                                                                              “s” shape effect due to
                               $500,000,000                                                  deferred depot overhauls
                               $400,000,000
                                              5      7.5     10      12.5      15             17.5   20      22.5

                                                              Length of Estimate (Years)
                                                                    Adjusted   Prognostics
ARL             Top Level- EFV (AAAV) Increased
Penn State          Operational Availability
      AAV RAM/RS Data (Hours)             W/O Prog                  W/Prog
      Mean Time Between Failures                           64                    73.6
                                               Increase in
      Mean Time To Repair                               0.87
                                              Operational                        0.87
                                         Availability As a result
      Mean Logistics Delay Time                 of CBM+
                                                          5.4                  2.7675

      AAV RAM/RS Calculations         W/O Prog                      W/Prog
      Forecasted Op Availability            91.08%                             95.29%
      Increase in Op Avail w/Prog                                               4.21%
      Increased AAVs Mission Capable w/Prog                                        29
      Total LCC Costs per AAV w/Prog                                         $973,504
      Operational Availability
      Opportunity Benefit of Prognostics                               $27,890,754

       Benefits can either be: increased Ao; decreased life cycle cost or
       reduced number of assets for same total operational availability
ARL
 SUMMARY                                                   Applied Research
Penn State                                                    Laboratory
 • Battery Prognostics is Real                            PennState University
 • High accuracy over present techniques
 • High value added to the warfighter
 • Enabling capability to manage operational risk, increase
 operational readiness and reduce life cycle costs



              ARL Penn State
                 P.O. Box 30
     State College, Pennsylvania 16804
              www.arl.psu.edu
               (814) 865-6343


This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research
and Dr. Philip Abraham, Code 331, under ONR Grant
N00014-98-1-0795.

								
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