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Fungal Characteristics 1)Cell wall made of Chitin 2)Heterotrophs and major Decomposers 3)Body is made of Long filaments of hyphae which form a mycelium 4)Reproduce sexually and asexually Asexually by spores Sexually by mating of hyphae filaments An example of Fungi You know Mushrooms – “Club Like” Fungi or Basidiomycete Fungi Bracket Fungi – Basidiomycete Fungi Bread Mold – a Zygomycete Fungi Cup Fungi – Ascomycete Fungi Note the cup shapes and orange peel colour Kingdom Fungi – you must know 5 Major Phyla 1. Phylum Zygomycota = the Bread Molds Rhizopus – black bread mold 2. Oomycota = the Water Molds Water mold, potato blight, mildew 3. Phylum Ascomycota = the Sac Fungi Yeast, morels, truffles 4. Phylum Basidiomycota = the Club Fungi Mushrooms, puffballs, bracket fungi, rusts, smuts, toadstools 5. Phylum Deuteromycota = the Fungi Imperfecti Zygomycota (Rhizopus) the Common Molds -are primarily decomposers -asexual spores may be produced in sporangia -sexual reproduction occurs between + and – strains forming a 2n zygote; a zygospore develops and may lie dormant for a long period of time; meiosis occurs just before germination -only the zygote is diploid; all hyphae and asexual spores are haploid Zygomycota – common molds The fungal mass of hyphae, known as the MYCELIUM penetrates the bread and produces the fruiting bodies on top of the stalks Mycelia = a mass of hyphae or filaments Rhizoids = root-like hyphae The zhizoids meet underground and mating occurs between hyphae of different molds (SEXUAL REPRODUCTION) Zygomycota (Rhizopus) Lifecycle of a Zygomycete Fungi – Asexual then Sexual Ascomycota – Cup Fungi Life Cycle Yeast is an Ascomycete Fungus Truffles are round, warty, fungi that are irregular in shape. They vary from the size of a walnut to that of a man's fist. Since the times of the Greeks and Romans these fungi have been used in Europe as delicacies, as aphrodisiacs, and as medicines. They are among the most expensive of the world's natural foods, often commanding as much as $250 to $450 per pound. Truffles are harvested in Europe with the aid of female pigs or truffle dogs, which are able to detect the strong smell of mature truffles underneath the surface of the ground. The female pig becomes excited when she sniffs a chemical that is similar to the male swine sex attractant. The use of dogs to find truffles is also and option. Morels are Ascomycete Fungi Basidiomycete or Club Fungi Life Cycle of Basidiomycete Fungi Bracket Fungi Puff Balls Basidiomycete Fungi that all produce Basiospores Jelly Fungi Mushrooms Other Basidiomycetes Rusts and Smuts Rust infecting Rust infecting Whitrot Smut wheat leaves a Leaf digesting old wood Deuteromycota (Imperfect Fungi) -Regarded as imperfect because they exhibit no sexual stage has been observed in their life cycle -Members are not closely related and are not necessarily similar in structure or appearance; do not share a common ancestry, polyphyletic = coming from many ancestors – hmm weird Deuteromycota – the Fungi Imperfecti • Resemble Ascomycetes, but their reproductive Penicillium fungi cycle has never been observed • Different from Ascomycetes because there is a definite lack of Up Close sexual reproduction, which is why they are called Imperfect Fungi Water Molds -- Oomycota The water molds are better known as the MILDEWS. Fish tank fuzz is an example. Protist-like mold because share common characteristics with plant-like protists, such as the cell wall LifeCycle of Oomycota Things to Know about Oomycete Fungi 1. Water molds or mildews 2. Cause diseases such as potato blight 3. Cell walls made of cellulose (like plant) 4. Hyphae have multiple nuclei! Because the cell walls do not fully close off. 5. Spore swims away like a flagellate, which is why it is protist like (think of Euglena) Irish Potato Famine of 19th Century Devastated potato crops, causing devastating starvation in Ireland Phylum Ex’s Characterist Asexual Sexual ics Oomycota Mildew Cellulose cell Flagellated Gametes fuse Spud walls, 2N oospores in blight hyphae from gametangia sporangia creating oospores Zygomycota Rhizopus Chitin cell Unflagel. Gametangia a dung walls spores drop fuse to create fungus Coenocytic = from zygospore hyphae lack sporangia crosswalls Ascomycota Yeast, Conidia on Hyphae + & - morels, conidophores fuse to create truffles ascospores in ascus Basidiomycota Mushroo Cross Asexual by way Sexual when ms walls in of Conidophores hyphae fuse Puffballs, hyphae which produce in BASIDIA rusts, conidiospores to produce smuts basidiospores Fungi Penicilliu Similar Asexual by Sexual repro Imperfecti m, To conidia which Not known Athlete’s Basidio produce Deuteromycota Foot and conidophores fungus, Zygomy Tomato Blight Cross Walls of Hyphae Coenocytic hyphae where the nucleis of each cell is embedded in the cytoplasm without a cell wall Eg. Zygomycota, Oomycota c o e Hyphae with cross walls n o c y Eg. Basidiomycota, t i Ascomycota c h a v Lichens Lichens are mutualistic symbiotic organisms. They have an ____________ fungus and a _________ or cyanobacterial portion. There are three lichen growth forms which are predominant in nature: _____________________ _____________________________ Fruticose Crustose Foliose Mycorrhizae Mycorrhizae means “fungus-root”; mutualistic relationship between plant and fungi The plant photosynthesizes while the fungus more efficiently takes up nutrients and water from the rhizosphere than the roots would alone. Plant benefits include: •Improved nutrient/water uptake •Improved root growth •Improved plant growth and yield •Improved disease resistance •Reduced transplant shock •Reduced drought stress Soredia are the asexual reproductive part of lichens, containing both symbionts. Rhizines may be present to anchor the lichen. Notice the distinctive algal layer and the fungal layer present in the above illustration. This powerpoint was kindly donated to www.worldofteaching.com http://www.worldofteaching.com is home to over a thousand powerpoints submitted by teachers. 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