fungi by u70FJz

VIEWS: 88 PAGES: 39

									Fungal Characteristics
1)Cell wall made of Chitin
2)Heterotrophs and major Decomposers
3)Body is made of Long filaments of hyphae
  which form a mycelium
 4)Reproduce sexually and asexually
    Asexually by spores
    Sexually by mating of hyphae filaments
An example of Fungi You know
Mushrooms – “Club Like” Fungi or Basidiomycete Fungi
Bracket Fungi – Basidiomycete Fungi
 Bread Mold – a
Zygomycete Fungi
Cup Fungi – Ascomycete Fungi




   Note the cup shapes and
     orange peel colour
      Kingdom Fungi – you must know 5 Major Phyla
1. Phylum Zygomycota = the Bread Molds
      Rhizopus – black bread mold


2. Oomycota = the Water Molds
      Water mold, potato blight, mildew


3. Phylum Ascomycota = the Sac Fungi
      Yeast, morels, truffles


4. Phylum Basidiomycota = the Club Fungi
      Mushrooms, puffballs, bracket fungi, rusts, smuts,
        toadstools
5. Phylum Deuteromycota = the Fungi Imperfecti
Zygomycota (Rhizopus) the
    Common Molds
-are primarily decomposers
-asexual spores may be produced in sporangia

-sexual reproduction occurs between + and – strains forming
a 2n zygote; a zygospore develops and may lie dormant for a
long period of time; meiosis occurs just before germination
-only the zygote is diploid; all hyphae and asexual
spores are haploid
                    Zygomycota – common molds




The fungal mass of
hyphae, known as the
MYCELIUM
penetrates the bread
and produces the
fruiting bodies on top
of the stalks

              Mycelia = a mass of hyphae or
              filaments
Rhizoids = root-like hyphae
The zhizoids meet underground and mating occurs between
hyphae of different molds (SEXUAL REPRODUCTION)
Zygomycota (Rhizopus)
Lifecycle of a Zygomycete Fungi – Asexual then Sexual
Ascomycota – Cup Fungi Life Cycle
Yeast is an Ascomycete Fungus
                                Truffles are round, warty, fungi that
                                are irregular in shape. They vary
                                from the size of a walnut to that of a
                                man's fist. Since the times of the
                                Greeks and Romans these fungi
                                have been used in Europe as
                                delicacies, as aphrodisiacs, and as
                                medicines. They are among the
                                most expensive of the world's
                                natural foods, often commanding as
                                much as $250 to $450 per pound.

Truffles are harvested in Europe with the aid of female pigs or truffle
dogs, which are able to detect the strong smell of mature truffles
underneath the surface of the ground. The female pig becomes excited
when she sniffs a chemical that is similar to the male swine sex
attractant. The use of dogs to find truffles is also and option.
Morels are Ascomycete Fungi
Basidiomycete or Club Fungi
Life Cycle of Basidiomycete Fungi
     Bracket Fungi




                       Puff Balls

Basidiomycete Fungi that all
   produce Basiospores
                          Jelly Fungi
 Mushrooms
        Other Basidiomycetes Rusts and
                    Smuts
   Rust
 infecting
                Rust infecting     Whitrot Smut
wheat leaves
                   a Leaf        digesting old wood
   Deuteromycota (Imperfect Fungi)
-Regarded as imperfect because they exhibit no sexual stage has
been observed in their life cycle

-Members are not closely related and are not necessarily similar
in structure or appearance; do not share a common ancestry,
polyphyletic = coming from many ancestors – hmm weird 
           Deuteromycota – the Fungi
                  Imperfecti
• Resemble Ascomycetes,
  but their reproductive
                                Penicillium fungi
  cycle has never been
  observed

• Different from
  Ascomycetes because
  there is a definite lack of     Up Close
  sexual reproduction,
  which is why they are
  called Imperfect Fungi
Water Molds -- Oomycota
       The water molds are better known as the
       MILDEWS. Fish tank fuzz is an example.
       Protist-like mold because share common
       characteristics with plant-like protists, such
       as the cell wall
LifeCycle of Oomycota
     Things to Know about Oomycete
                 Fungi
1. Water molds or mildews
2. Cause diseases such as potato blight
3. Cell walls made of cellulose (like plant)
4. Hyphae have multiple nuclei! Because
   the cell walls do not fully close off.
5. Spore swims away like a flagellate, which
   is why it is protist like (think of Euglena)
Irish Potato Famine of 19th Century




                Devastated potato crops, causing
                devastating starvation in Ireland 
 Phylum         Ex’s    Characterist     Asexual        Sexual
                            ics
Oomycota     Mildew     Cellulose cell Flagellated   Gametes fuse
             Spud       walls, 2N      oospores      in
             blight     hyphae         from          gametangia
                                       sporangia     creating
                                                     oospores
Zygomycota   Rhizopus   Chitin cell    Unflagel.     Gametangia
             a dung     walls          spores drop   fuse to create
             fungus     Coenocytic =   from          zygospore
                        hyphae lack    sporangia
                        crosswalls
Ascomycota   Yeast,                    Conidia on   Hyphae + & -
             morels,                   conidophores fuse to create
             truffles                               ascospores in
                                                    ascus
Basidiomycota   Mushroo       Cross Asexual by way      Sexual when
                   ms        walls in of Conidophores    hyphae fuse
                Puffballs,   hyphae which produce        in BASIDIA
                 rusts,                conidiospores      to produce
                 smuts                                  basidiospores
Fungi           Penicilliu Similar      Asexual by      Sexual repro
Imperfecti         m,         To       conidia which     Not known
                Athlete’s Basidio        produce
Deuteromycota     Foot       and       conidophores
                 fungus, Zygomy
                 Tomato
                  Blight
Cross Walls of Hyphae
               Coenocytic hyphae where the
               nucleis of each cell is
               embedded in the cytoplasm
               without a cell wall
               Eg. Zygomycota, Oomycota

     c
         o
         e
             Hyphae with cross walls
         n
         o
         c
         y
             Eg. Basidiomycota,
         t
         i
             Ascomycota
         c




         h
         a
         v
Lichens
Lichens are mutualistic symbiotic
organisms. They have an
____________ fungus and a
_________ or cyanobacterial
portion. There are three lichen
growth forms which are predominant
in nature: _____________________
_____________________________
                     Fruticose




Crustose




           Foliose
 Mycorrhizae

 Mycorrhizae means “fungus-root”;
 mutualistic relationship between
 plant and fungi

 The plant photosynthesizes while
 the fungus more efficiently takes
 up nutrients and water from the
 rhizosphere than the roots would
 alone.
Plant benefits include:
    •Improved nutrient/water
    uptake
    •Improved root growth
    •Improved plant growth and
    yield
    •Improved disease resistance
    •Reduced transplant shock
    •Reduced drought stress
Soredia are the asexual reproductive part of lichens,
containing both symbionts. Rhizines may be present to
anchor the lichen. Notice the distinctive algal layer
and the fungal layer present in the above illustration.
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