Your Federal Quarterly Tax Payments are due April 15th Get Help Now >>

file_download by xb4Fd3

VIEWS: 7 PAGES: 267

									                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Rural Finance Database




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Is Ag finance                                                                       Innovative
                                                                                                                                          Existing report or case       Date of                                                                                                                                                                       principal focus   Breakdown of Principal                                            Technologies/Outreach/Distribution
Country            Name                                          Legal Form           Est.   Source of Information                        study                         Information   Funding Sources                                Financial Product/Service Offered                   Non Financial Products/Services Offered                      of provider?      Activities Financed             Lending Methdology                Channels                                         Back Office Operations/Strategies                   Risk Mitigation Strategies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        tripartite collateral
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        management agreement
                                                                                             2002 Paper by J. Coulter and G. Onumah                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     involving bank (recepit holder)   WR system that serces smallholders can
                                                                                             entitled "Role of Wharehouse Receipt                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       borrower (depositor) and          improve markets by reducing problems of                                                              receipts document evidence of specified commodities of stated
Africa (Malawi,                                                                              Systems in Enhanced Commodity                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              inspection                        imperfect information and high transaction                                                           quantity and quality deposited in particular location;
Ethiopia, Ghana)                                                                      80's   Marketing and Rural Livelihoods in Africa"                                 2002                                                         warehouse receipts as collateral                                                                                 yes                                               company/warehouse operator        costs                                                                                                transferrable from depositor to other party
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         assistance to network to develop appropriate rural                                                             AFRACa has 42 member
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         finance policies and to implement strategies for                                                               institution in its profolio and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         disseminating product innovation and training to member                                                        they use both individual
                   African Agricultural Credit Association                                                                                                                                                                           Credit,saviings and policy building withing the     institutions; develop and disseminate concept of linkage                                                       lending and group lending
Africa region      (AFRACA)                                      NGO                  1975   GTZ                                          GTZ (2003) paper?             2003          GTZ/BMZ/IFAD/FAO                               cooperatives                                        banking                                                  yes                                                   methodologies.
Azerbaijan         CredAgro                                      NGO                  2000   ACDI/VOCA                                    USAID ACDI/VOCA (2003)        2003          USAID, ADCI/VOCA                               loan                                                                                                                                                               individual loans, asset based                                                      Integrated MIS under implementation                 donated loan fund as subordinated liability
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        collateral
Benin                                                            NGO                  1997   www.themix.org                               USAID - PHR and ILO (2001)    2003          Institutional capital                          Credit, savings
                   Cercle Communautaire Mieux
Benin              FECECAM (Federation of Mutual Agricultural    Credit Union         1993   CIDR Renee Chao Beroff UNCDF paper           UN (1993)/ GTZ (1999)         1999          Sghareholders, grants                          Savings, credit                                                                                                                                                    CVEC-grant small loans, with      CVEC system created- when there are 500
                   Savings and Loan Funds)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              monthly repayment,                members and 50 mil CFAF in deposits, a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          CLCAM is created; CVECs may be refinanced
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          by sponsoring CLCAM if have problems;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          CVECs are pre-funds, operating under
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          protection of CLCAM
Burkino Faso       RCPB                                          Credit Union         1992   CIDR Renee Chao Beroff UNCDF paper           UN (1992)                     1999          PNUD,DANIDA, European Union                    Savings, credit                                     Educational services                                                                                           Village level instititions in Links a cluster of 45 village level institutions     Policy of refinancing credit unions once they are   Establish security fund, requires rural and urban credit unions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        RCPB network-village lending around a rural credit union to develop small          established                                         to become self-financing within 3 years are subjected to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        approach for women; loan      loans on broad scale                                                                                     oversight
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        sizes $5-$166
Burkino Faso       Pilot Project for Small Rural Loans (PPPCR)   Joint Stock Comp     1988   CIDR Renee Chao Beroff UNCDF paper           UN (1988)                     1999          CRA                                            Credit to women -solidarity groups                                                                               No                                                Solidarity lending program;                                                        Delinquency crisis in 1997 when project was try
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        loans of 35,000 CFAF, joint                                                        ot become a joint stock company
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        guarantee system
Ethiopia           Amhara Credit and Savings Institution         Bank                 1996   www. Themix.com                                                            2002          Association of Ethiopian Microfinance          Loans, voluntary savings, fund transfer services BDS                                                             No                                                individual loans, asset based
                                                                                                                                                                                      Institutions                                   and pension fund management                                                                                                                                        collateral
Ethiopia           Bank of Abyssinia                             Bank                        ACDI/VOCA                                                                  2003          Deposits, DCA                                  Line of credit to unions of grain cooperatives

Ethiopia           Cooperative Unions                            Credit Union                ACDI/VOCA                                                                  2003          Equity, commercial bank lines of credit with                                                       Grain marketing                                              No
                                                                                                                                                                                      DCA guarantee
Ghana              Brakwa Bremen, Nsoatrema, Bonzali,                                        CGAP FII research matrix                     CGAP (on going) ??            2003          n/a                                            Banking services                                                                                                                                                                                     Over 115 supervised rural/community banks
                   Bawkoase, Upper Manya Kro
Ghana              City Savings and Loan Company                 Non-bank finance            MBP USAID                                    Alternative Finance (2004),                 USAID                                          credit, passport savings                                                                                                                                           ROSCA methodology; provide Based on client survey--extended operating              demand driven through client surveys
                                                                 company                                                                  USAID MBP (2000)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              financial services to 15 susu hours, collections made on site rather than
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         internet based inventory that provides an overview                                                             clubs                         requiring collectors to come to bank, adjusted
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         about the main rural based financial intermediaries in the
global             AgriBank-Stat                                 Information bureau          GTZ                                                                        2003          GTZ/FAO                                                                                            world
Guinea             Rural Credit in Guinea (CRG)                                       1989   CIDR Renee Chao Beroff UNCDF paper           UN (1989)                     1999                                                         Savings, credit                                                                                                                                                    Solidarity lending program-       Testing two forms of contractual relationships   Pyramidal network structure made it difficult to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Grameen replication               with village: Village contracts-monitoring and   break-even
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          recovery of loans delegated to village agents;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          establishment of CIVEC-inter-village savings
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          and loan funds

Kenya              Equity Building Society (EBS)                 Credit Union         1984   www.swwb.org                                 CGAP, Microsave/DFID (2002) CGAP Case       Deposits                                       Working capital, checking accounts, education  Client workshops and training                                     No                                                Collateral-personal guarantee, Mobile banking units, handheld computers            Close up follow up loans; peg loan appraisal to     Linking lending to client savings and client's available sources
                                                                                                                                                                      Study 2004                                                     loans, credit cards, start up loans, special                                                                                                                       personal asset, co signature,                                                      ability to repay; Microscoring                      of income
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     purpose loans, consumption loan passport, time                                                                                                                     property, group, savings acct,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     deposit, scheduled savings, youth/old age                                                                                                                          employment/paycheck
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     savings account
Kenya              K-REP KDA Small Holder Farmer Savings and Bank                     1999   CGAP List                                    CGAP (on going)               2002          Ford Foundation                                Loans for input supplies, seed, and labor,          TA                                                           No                                                Group lending-disburse loans Small farmer project is being pilot tested with                                                           Insurance required for agribusiness loans, animals must be
                   Credit Program                                                                                                                                                                                                    voluntary savings,                                                                                                                                                 in staggered form, Members       intent to scale up ag lendingin next 2-3 yrs                                                          insured for dairy loans
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        eligible for loans after 8 weeks
Kenya              Research study of ILC market                                              Michagan State University; Interlinked                                     2003                                                         Study on interlinked credit and marketing                                                                        Yes                                               of savings after registration    Interlinked credit-input-commodity-marketing
                                                                                             Credit and Farm Intensification                                                                                                         relationshiop-redit for farmers purchasing and                                                                                                                                                      relationship between smallholder farmers and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     processing commercialized crops                                                                                                                                                                     marketing firms
Kenya              Rural Enterprise Agriculture Promotion        CARE project                Doug Pearce "Buyer and Supplier Credit:                                    2003          CARE                                           Credit guarantee for small farmers                  Technical and advisory services to develop farmer                                                              Guarantee scheme to attract      Input supply loan fund--private sector            Financial and non financial activities should be
                   Project (REAP)                                                            Role of Donors                                                                                                                                                                              associations, meet export standards; provide resources                                                         credit from private sector       eventually expected to lend without guarantee     operationaly separated
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         to farmers to establish irrigation infrastructure                                                              buyers and processors and        from REAP, loan fund enables farmers to get
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        provides direct loans to farmer more flexible and diverse funds in addition to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        associations                     standard seasonal input credit; Provide input
Kenya                                                            warehouse receipts          ACDI/VOCA                                    USAID (on going)                            CARE                                                                                                                                                            grain storage

Kenya              StanBic bank                                  Commercial Bank      1993   ACDI/VOCA                                    USAID (on going) ??           2003          Includes DCA                                   Loans against warehouse receipts


Madagascar         CEM                                                                1988   CI report on CEM III/ Chemonics              USAID/Chemonics??             2003                                                         Savings, money transfers                                                                                         No                Savings, plans to expand into   Minimum deposit is FMG 100        Partnership with Western Union for money
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        microcredit and strengthen                                        transfers and with cooperative microfinance




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Africa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Rural Finance Database




Madagascar   CECAM                                        Non-bank finance    1991   MBP USAID                                  USAID/BASIS (2004)             1992              Fert Association                              hire lease product for farmers for ag equipment;                                                                                                                  must be network member to      payment schedule adapated to client's
                                                          company                                                                                                                                                              livestock, equipment for rural craftspeople,                                                                                                                      get lease, pay 25% of total    production cycle,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               sewing machines, solar power lights                                                                                                                               equipment value up front, 4-36
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 months; lease secured by
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 equipment rental; after final
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 payment ownership legally
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 transferred to client

Malawi       SACCO                                        Credit Union        70's                                              WOCCU (1995)                   2003              Loans from MUSCCO                             Loans, insurance, savings to members                                                                           Yes                                                Individual loans, multiple                                                             Accounting system computerized and centralized     centralized treasury function
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 products                                                                               to MUSCCO
Malawi       MUSCCO                                       Credit Union        70's   ACDI/VOCA                                  WOCCU (1995)                   2004              Cooperative investors/savings and USAID       Savings, risk insurance, loans to member            Treasury services, Training, Financial management.         Yes                                                Individual loans, consumer                                                                                                                risk exposure limited by saving multiplier factor
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               SACCOs.                                                                                                                                                           and business loans
Malawi       NASFAM                                                                  Doug Pearce "Buyer and Supplier Credit:                                   2003              USAID                                         Pearce does not mention in his paper about          Training in negotiating terms of market involvement for    Yes                                                                                    Small farmers now have standard contracts
                                                          Farmers                    Role of Donors                                                                                                                            specific finacial products offered by NASFAM.       farmers                                                                                                                                           with buyers and transporters; representation in
                                                          associations                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               tobacco associations,
Mali         CVECA (Self managed village savings and                          1986   CIDR Renee Chao Beroff UNCDF paper ;       UN (1986)                      1999, CGAP        BNDA (National Development Bank) through demand (non interest earning) deposits, term                                                                                                                           Operations managed by fund          BNFA financing scheme has deepened              self managed, financial self sufficiency,
             loan funds)                                                             MBP case study                                                            Case Study 2004   line of credit at KfW; deposits          (fixed term and withdrawal date) deposits,                                                                                                                             of villagers; genuine financial     institutional landscape in formal financial     integration into institutional environment of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          savings accounts (interest earning); loans                                                                                                                             intermediation-can borrow           market; Service Commun team conducts            village; CVECAs must meet certain requirements
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 without depositing; collateral-     feasilibity studies for creation of new CVECA   before they can borrow funds; member not
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 jewerlry, livestock, tools                                                          required to make a deposit to receive a loan;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     open for transactions 1x/wk to reduce
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     transaction costs
Mali         Savings and Loans Village Banks              NGO                 1986   Koro Ouattara, Genevieve Thi-Dieu,         USAID - MBP (1999)             1997              own sources; (savings-first approach);        loans and savings mobilization;                                                                                                                                                                       complete local ownership, limited to members
                                                                                     Claudio Gonz.The Caisses villageoises                                                       National Ag.Dev.Bank
                                                                                     d'epargne et de credit autogerees in the
                                                                                     DogonRegion of Mali: Elements of Impact,
                                                                                     OSU ESO #2395

Mali         Piyely                                                           1996   Maria Pagura's PhD dissertation            Pagura (2000)                  2000                                                            loans for working capital and investment group                                                                 no                                                 group lending                       combination of small and large groups,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               and indiv savings                                                                                                                                                                                     sequential loan size
Mali         BNDA Banque nationale Development            Bank                       CGAP FII research matrix                   CGAP (0n going)                2003              Government of Mali                            Wholesale credit to MFIs, village associations                                                                                                                    Wholesaler to MFIs for several
             Agricole                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            year term (CIDR, Kafo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Jiginew, CVECAs), finances
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 village associations with in-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 kind credit and provides input
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 credit


             Partner's Fund                                                                                                     ??                                                                                             Not mentioned                                                                                                                     Training in agricultural                                                                                               An innovative Partners Fund provides
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 production and processing                                                                                              subcontracting opportunities to Malian
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 techniques, accountancy,                                                                                               companies while strengthening ability to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 management, finance;                                                                                                   compete and deliver services. An Agriculture
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Business support services                                                                                              Information Center disseminates real-time market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 network development;                                                                                                   and technical information, benefiting from an
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        agribusiness information exchange system with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        partners in Senegal, Côte d'Ivoire, and Burkina
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Faso. And an apprenticeship program trains
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        graduates in marketable skills Large-scale
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        demonstration testing of new products in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        processing and marketing
                                                                                                                                                                                 USAID, Oikocredit, PUFS, APDF, IFC,
Mali                                                      embedded services   1998                                                                             2004              MSED / DFA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               N/a

                                                                                     Privatization and Inerlinked Credit-
                                                                                     Output contracts in Francophone                                                                                                                                                               interlocking of input credit and output markets in an
                                                                                     Africa: An Illustration of the Cotton                                                                                                                                                         integrated production and marketing system during
Mali                                                                                 Subsector in Mali                                                         2003                                                                                                                privatization


                                                                                                                                FAO/IFAD/GTZ (2003, on
Mauritania   Agricultural Bank                                                       GTZ                                        going?)                        2003              GTZ/BMZ                                       N/a Source not found
Mozambique   CLUSA                                        Association of      1995   CGAP Case Study 2004                       CGAP (on going)                                  USAID                                         It is not clear that CLUSA prvides financial        Institution building, business management training and     Yes                                                                                    Strengthen group-based rural enterprises as        Farmer-owners encouraged to invest own
                                                          cooperatives                                                                                                                                                         services to the farners. It provides credit         advising, functional literacy and numeracy training,                                                                                              independent, viable private sector businesses      resources and resolve production and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               trainning for farmers and serves as a link          auditing, marketing information and agricultural                                                                                                  in which small scale farmers own businesses        marketing problems
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               between farmers and financial institutions.         commodity brokering, credit training and technology                                                                                               and make all decisions for producer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   information; linking producer associations to credit and                                                                                          associations. contract and develop an
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   markets                                                                                                                                           intensive marketing system;and development
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     of sustainable links between commercial,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     private sector businesses (agribusinesses,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     private traders and transporters), extension
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     service providers and network of farmer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     organizations.
                                                                                                                                                               2004
Mozambique   GAPI                                         Joint Stock Comp    1999   CGAP Short List                            CGAP (on going)                2002              USAID, KFW, AFD, DANIDA, EU                   Investment and working capital loans for a                                                                     Yes                20%-ag loans                    Each fora on-lends to member        Approx 300 farmers in each fora (30 farmers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               (federation of associations) of small farmers and                                                                                                                 associations who collect            and 10 assoc per forum), Loans on lent by
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               SMEs-maize/related group and cashew/pigeon                                                                                                                        produce from individ members        forums to member assoc, farmers sells
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               peas associations                                                                                                                                                 and other area farmers in           produce to assoc in exchange for $, assoc
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 return for loan; GAPI decides       delivers produce to forum and forum finds
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 which forums receive loans;         buyers to sell produce to; Loans 3-4 mo, no
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Loan amt is flexible,late           collateral required; solidarity group
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 payments fined, Principal           methodoloy ensures forums pay on behalf of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 payments are flexible               defaulting forums
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 according to forum, Interest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 paid monthly by associations



             Agricultural Developmet Bank of Nepal
Nepal        (ADBN)                                       Bank                1975   GTZ                                        IFAD/GTZ (2003)                2003              GTZ/BMZ/IFAD/ADB                              Loans and deposits
             National Microfinance Bank of Tanzania and                                                                                                                          Government of Tanzania, Government            ag loans to sugar farmers through linkage with                                                                 yes to finance                                                                                                                                                                               Kilombero sugar processor has agreed to forward contract on
Tanzania     Kilombero                                    Bank                2004   DAI/John Lwande                            Gov Of Tanzania/ World bank Apr-04               Treasury Bills, savings mobilization          largestsugar processor in Tanzania                                                                             inputs             all loans for seed and inputs   Individual loans                                                                                                                          all production from these farmers
Uganda       Centenary Rural Development Bank             Commercial Bank     1983   CGAP Short List; Jerry Skees "Risk Mgt"    CGAP; USAID (Paving the         2002             Treasury bills, reliance on income from       SME Individual loans, passport savings-fixed        none                                                       No                 Rural loans-82%; 85% to         Borrowers propose repayment         Weather based insurance to clients to hedge        Customer incentives: If repayment performance Bank policy limits ag lending to 25% of portfolio;
             (CERUDEB or CRDB)                                                                                                  Way Forward) "CRDB: Rural                        investment has been 100% , with bank          deposits, current/checking accounts, money                                                                                        SME sector; Indiv. ag loans-    schedule based on cash; May         against correlated risks from natural disasters-   is 100%, clients qualify for increasing loan sizes
                                                                                                                                Financial Institutions and                       incurring loss , mgt considering increasing   transfers, TTS, Drafts and Electronic (Western                                                                                    11.8%                           pay in advance during loan          eliminates moral hazard by insuring against        and automatic loans at lower interest rates Staff
                                                                                                                                Savings Mobilization"; IFAD by                   lending to SME sector                         Union and Swift); Managed funds (Loan                                                                                                                             cycle; Loan officers monitor        single verifiable weather event; requires a        incentives: Incentives amt to 45% of salary,
                                                                                                                                Hans Seibel "CRDB: A flagship                                                                  guarantee fund); Foreign Currency                                                                                                                                 clients regularly; Flexible         deductible based on expected income loss;          based on repayment not disbursement; Daily
                                                                                                                                of rural bank reform in Africa"                                                                Transactions; Loans for inputs and labor;                                                                                                                         requirements, incl land w/o a       premiums low, reduces admin costs, weather         loan tracking on MIS, next day action on
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               weather index insurance                                                                                                                                           title, personal guarantors,         events between provinces of country not            overdues; Decentralized decision making
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 household items                     correlated; IPC design of technology;              Instant Communication-direct line between
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     emphasis in close officer-client relationship,     supervision dept and branches; New MIS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     thorough evaluation of potential clients and       system will improve info mgt and customer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     tailoring terms                                    service, however slow progress in transferring
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        data; Loan officers only with ag lending exper
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        hired



Uganda       DCA to expand credit for micro,small and     USAID Program       1997   Chemonics                                  Chemonics, SPEED project       2004              USAID                                         Multibank loan portfolio guarantee for private      none                                                       Yes                                                Rigorous banks assessment           Stanbic, which is using the guarantee faclity
             medium business                                                                                                    DCA LGP report, May 2003                                                                       banks that provide access to finance to MSEs                                                                                                                      an appraisal process                for the top end of the agrubusiness chain and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               and MFIs in Uganda.                                                                                                                                                                                   is mainly financing aro industry, has disbursed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     the largets amount of DCA loans.

Uganda       DFCU                                         Limited Liability   1995   CGAP Short List                            CGAP; USAID (Paving the        2002              DFID (Small Lease Purchase Program) to        Leases from $1200-290,000; option to buy at                                                                    No                 Leasing of durable assets,      Rigorous customer                   Linkages to ag market: produce collected       Good relationship with equipment suppliers; 60% Leased equipment is given mechanical check, insured by
                                                          Company                                                               Way Forward) "DFCU Case                          promote leasing to micro/small farmers        end of lease                                                                                                                      factory, equipment,             assessment an appraisal             from collection points by trucks leased by     of leased equipment is used, currently expanding applicant and equipment performance is monitored until final
                                                                                                                                Study" - Agribusiness Vendor                                                                                                                                                                                                     machinery, commercial           process, Officer screens            DFCU to faciliating marketing of fresh produce rural leasing activities to 4 new rural leasing  installment
                                                                                                                                Financing in Input Markets                                                                                                                                                                                                       vehicle, business car,          application and submits to                                                         companies; Good MIS and accounting systems
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 computer                        committee; Lease facility
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 structured to suite lessee
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 specific cash flow and needs;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Customized lease financing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 packages, Flexible repayment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 schedule, 2-5 years, average
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 is 2.5 years

Uganda       Uganda Microfinance Union                    NGO                 1998   www.themix.org                             GTZ (2002)                     2002              ACCION,USAID,Bank of Uganda, NOVIB            Loans, insurance, savings,fund tranfers,            Trainning and consulting                                   No                                                 Group (solidariy groups) nd         Remmitance services as a means to lnk rural
                                                                                                                                                                                 (fund), Triodos Bank                          remittances                                                                                                                                                       individual loans.                   poor to financial services
Zambia       AGRIFLORA                                    Private company     1994   CGAP Short List; Doug Pearce "Buyer and    CGAP                           2002              NORAD gives funds to providing TA to          Provides input (seeds, fertilizer) credit to 8      Uses CLUSA's support to provide TA to set up farmer        Yes                Horticulture production-100%    Group guarantee methodology         300 smallholders in 8 cooperatives have
                                                                                     Supplier Credit: Role of Donors"                                                            farmers, In conjuction with USAID and         cooperatives; irrigation credit in exchange for     associations                                                                                                  used for input credit, to qualify   supply contracts with Agriflora; Collection
                                                                                                                                                                                 ZATAC, has created irrigation credit for      purchasing contracts                                                                                                                                              a farmer must own min of 1          centers with refrigerated containers and input
                                                                                                                                                                                 small farmers                                                                                                                                                                                                   hectare of land; Farmers are        stores set up near each coop
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 paid monthly in exchange for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 produce supplied; Seeds
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 provided on cost for 4 months,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Fertilizers and chemicals
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 provided at 10% interest rate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 annualy



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Agribusiess and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Trade Finance, Equipment loans, and working                                                                    agricultural
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               capital loans to SME's (including producer                                                                     production         Trade finance; Equipment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               owned and operated enterprises for eg.              Technical (production) asssitance, Marketing and           financing: one of finanicing at both SME and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               cooperatives, and associations) and small           Market assistance, BDS, market/business linkages,          the key focuses of smallholder production levels; Individual lending, group
Zambia       Zatac Investment Fund (ZIF)                  Fund                1999   DAI                                        USAID/DAI??                    2004              USAID; Japanese; GRZ (MACO);                  holders.                                            policy advocacy, information assistance                    the provider.      working capital loans          lending,
             Natural Resources Institute                                             Juan Bucheau "Innovations"                 ???                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Warehouse receipts
                                                          Not mentioned by
Zambia                                                    the source                                                                                           2003                                                            warehouse receipts as collateral
Zimbabwe     Agent                                        DFID programme      1996   Doug Pearce "Buyer and Supplier Credit:    DFID/EDIAIS(1999)              2003              CARE/CIDA/DFID                                Credit guarantee for small rural traders            Business skills to traders                                 No                                                 Guarantee scheme used to       Input distribution model by building up network
                                                                                     Role of Donors                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              attract wholesale/distributors of rural traders to gives small holder farmers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 to give credit to traders by   access to input and output markets on
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 AGENT's guarantee;             improved terms, with credit
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 guarantee eliminated after one
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ag season of trading




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Africa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Innovative
                                                                                                                                                                                Non Financial                                             Breakdown of                               Technologies/O Back Office
                                                                                        Source of         Existing report Date of                       Financial               Products/Services Is Ag finance principal                 Principal Activities Lending               utreach/Distribu Operations/Str Risk Mitigation
Country      Name                                  Legal Form                    Est.   Information       or case study   Information   Funding Sources Product/Service Offered Offered           focus of provider?                      Financed             Methdology            tion Channels    ategies          Strategies
Armenia      Sustained Guaranteed Agricultural     Branch of NGO unit            1998   CGAP Short List   CGAP (on going) 2002          Donor equity    Loans (different                          No                                      Ag loans-65% for                                            Lending activity
             Assistance for Women (AREGAK/UMCOR-A) of UMCOR                                                                             (98%) USAID,    size/target markets)                                                              ag production,                                              well
                                                                                                                                        BRPM, UNHCR                                                                                       processing, trade,                                          standardized via
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          livestock, poultry                                          strong
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          leasing for MSMEs                                                            legal changes to
                                                                                                                                                            Leasing to MSMEs for                                                          for equipment and                                                            improve
                                                                                                                                                            equipment and vehicles                                                        vehicles for ag                                                              moveable
                                                                                                                                                            for ag production and                                                         production and                                                               property
Armenia      ACBA                                      Bank                             DAI               ???              2004         USAID               processing                                           Yes                      processing                                 Leasing                           registration;
Bulgaria     6 banksincudin SG, Expressbank, Unionbank Banks                            ACDI/VOCA         ???                           EBRD credit lines   Loans against warehouse                              No                       Commercial loans Receipts-backed                                             Indemnity fund
                                                                                                                                                            receipts                                                                                           loans to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               producers and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               marketers

Bulgaria     Group of more than 40 farmers associations farmers associations            ACDI/VOCA         ???              2002                             Issuance of reciepts (1036 grain storage                                                                                                                         Indemnity fund
                                                                                                                                                            in 2002)
Bulgaria     Indemnity fund                               Fund provided by the          ACDI/VOCA         ???              2002         GoB and EBRD        Insures deposits in        insurance
                                                          government                                                                    loans, fees         licensed warehouses
             MEB Bank                                                                   Juan Bucheau      IPC/FAO (2000)                                    MEB Bank uses ATMs as
                                                                                        "Innovations"                                                       tools for farmers to                                                                                                     ATM system to
                                                                                                                                                            witdraw money that come                                                                                                  access
                                                                                                                                                            originally from remittances                                                                                              remittances from
                                                                                                                                                            sent y relatives from                                                                                                    relatives that live
Kosovo                                                    Cooperative bank       2000                                      2003                             abroad.                                                                                                                  abroad a wide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     providing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     range of financial
                                                                                                          DFID?? For                                                                                                                      Agricultural loans,                        and non-financial
                                                                                                          release 2005:                 EBRD, EUTACIS, Loans to individual                                                                Ag loans based in                          services such as
                                                                                                          USAID RAF                     USAID, UK's know- producers, rural                                                                foreign curreny,                           credit cards and
Moldova      AgroInd Bank                                 Commercial bank               DAI               case study       2004         how fund          enterprises                     No                     Yes                      consumer lending      Individual loans     foreign exhange


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Operations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           count wit TA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           provided by
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Rabobank Intl.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           and the Russian
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Agribusiness
                                                                                                                                                        Loans to individual                                                                                 individual                                     Technical
                                                                                                                                        IFC,FMO,Raboban producers, rural                                                                                    leasing;long term                              assistance
Russia       Farm Finance Center                          finance company        2002   IFC               ???              2004         k               enterprises                       No                     Yes                      Commercial leases individual loans  Leasing                      Project
Russia       RCCDF                                        NGO                    1998   ACDI/VOCA         ???              2002         GoR; USAID      Loans to farmer coops             Training, certifying   Yes                      Credit fund to    individiual loans Funds to rural               Rural credit
                                                                                                                                                                                          cooperatives                                    cooperatives      to credit coop.   coop.                        coop. have
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           access to TA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           provided by
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           RCCDF.
Serbia &     AgroInvest                                   NGO                    1999   Sent to CGAP      ???              2002         Sida, CIDA,         Loans to rural business o                            Yes                      Ag
Montenegro                                                                                                                              BPRM, World         to EUR 3,000                                                                  production/processi
                                                                                                                                        Vision                                                                                            ng 92%; Service
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3%; Manufacturing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3%, Trade 2%



                                                                                                                                                            Consumer, small business
                                                                                                                                                            and ag loans; deposits up
                                                                                                                                                            to 3 months, 6 months, 1
                                                                                        USAID Credit Union                              CIDA, USAID/        year, sight deposits,
Ukraine      Samopomitch Chortkiv (Ternopil Oblast)       Credit cooperative     1994   Assessment 2000    USAID (2000)    2000         WOCCU               children's savings                                                                                  individual lending



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          77% ag, 13%
                                                                                        USAID Credit Union                                                  Agricultural loans (77%),                            yes, 77% of loans were   consumer, 10%
Ukraine      Farmer's Credit Cooperative                  Credit cooperative     1997   Assessment 2000    USAID (2000)    2000         CIDA                consumer loans, savings                              ag related               other                 individual lending



                                                                                                                                                            Consumer, ag and SME
                                                                                        USAID Credit Union                                                  loans, sight and fixed term
Ukraine      Vidrozhennia, Capenchinsi (Ternopil Oblast) Credit cooperative      1997   Assessment 2000    USAID (2000)    2000         CIDA, USAID         deposits                                                                                            individual lending
                                                                                                                                          Consumer, ag, education,
                                                                                                                                          special purpose and SME
                                                                                  USAID Credit Union                       CIDA, USAID/   Loans, children;'s savings,   no. they offer a variety of
Ukraine   Tereboliya Credit Union (Ternopil Oblast)   Credit cooperative   1997   Assessment 2000    USAID (2000)   2000   WOCCU          fixed term deposits,          financial services            individual lending
Notes




will get
official data
next week
Referncing
WHR-
backed
loans only




data is old




data is old




data is old
data is old
                                                                            Existing
                                                       Source of            report or case
Country   Name            Legal Form      Est.         Information          study
Bolivia   ANED            NGO             1978          Mark Wenner (ed.)'s IDB (2003)
                          programme                    book "Promising
                                                       Practices in rural
                                                       Finance"




Bolivia   Agrocapital     NGO             1992         ACDI/VOCA; Javier IDB and
                                                       Alvarado and        USAID (2003)
                                                       Francisco Galarza n
                                                       Mark Wenner (ed.)'s
                                                       book "Promising
                                                       Practices in rural
                                                       Finance"

Bolivia   Caja Los Andes Private          1995         www.bellanet.org;    USAID (2004)
                         financial fund                Jorge Rodriguez
                                                       Meza and Claudio
                                                       Gonzalez Cuaderno
                                                       de SEFIR




Bolivia   Fondo                          2000 as FFP
                          Non-bank finance company     Jorge Rodriguez-   USAID (2003)
          Financiero                                   Meza and CGV
          Privado                                      Cuaderno de SEFIR;
          PRODEM                                       CGAP Short List;
                                                       "What Works" case
                                                       study by World
                                                       Resources, funded
                                                       by USAID

Bolivia   CRECER          NGO             1990         Rodolfo Quiros,      USAID (2003)
                                                       Jorge Rodriguez &
                                                       Claudio
                                                       Gonz.Cuaderno de
                                                       SEFIR
Bolivia   FADES           NGO             1986         Jorge Rodriguez-     USAID (2003)
                                                       Meza and Claudio
                                                       Gonzalez Cuaderno
                                                       de SEFIR

Brazil    Cresol          Credit Union    1988         www.cresol.org.br    ???
Costa Rica       Associacion                      1986   www.themix.org      ???
                 para el
                 Desarollo Rural
                 Integrado
                 (ADRI)


Costa Rica                                        1980   IADB                USAID RAF
(and Honduras                                                                case study
and Nicaragua)                                                               (March 2005)



                 Hortifruti
Costa Rica       FINCA             NGO            1985   Claudio Gonzalez,   World Bank
                                                         Ronulfo Jimenez and (1999), IDB
                                                         Rodolfo Quiros      (1996)
                                                         (World Bank
                                                         Sustainable Banking
                                                         for Poor)
Costa Rica       Financiera        Finance               Wenner, Mark book   IDB (2001,
                 Trisan            company,                                  2000)
                                   member of
                                   holding
                                   company
                                   Trisan Group




Ecuador          Credife/Banco     Commercial     1999   www.themix.org
                 del Pinchincha    bank




Ecuador          La Merced         Credit Union   1964   www.themix.org



Ecuador          Accion Rural      Credit Union   2000   www.themix.org
Ecuador       Banco Solidario Bank             1995   CGAP FII research     CGAP (on
                                                      matrix-               going??)




El Salvador   Financiera         Non-bank      1995   Wenner, Mark book     OSU Rural
              Calpia             finance              Sergio Navajas and    Finance
                                 company              Gonzalez Vega paper   Program
                                                      in OSU website        (2002), GTZ
                                                                            (2002)




Guatemala     Banrural      Commercial         1998   DAI                   USAID (2004)
              S.A.Developme bank
              nt Bank.
                                                      www.fonkoze.org,
                                                      CGAP Rural Pro
                                                      Poor Innovation
                                                      Award, DAI FINNET
Haiti         Fonkoze            NGO           1994   project              ???
Honduras      Fintrac            Consulting           Doug Pearce "Buyer ???
                                 Company              and Supplier Credit:
                                                      Role of Donors;
                                                      USAID case study
                                                      (forthcoming January
                                                      2005)



Honduras      Hortifruti - see
              Costa Rica for
              more detail



Honduras      FINACOOP           Non-bank      1999   ACDI/VOCA             ???
                                 cooperative
                                 finance
                                 company
Jamaica       Worker's Bank      Commercial    1973   Wenner, Mark book     ??
                                 bank
                                 Non-bank
                                 finance              Jerry Skees "Risk     World Bank
Mexico        Agroasemex         company       1998   Mgt"                  (on going) ??
Nicaragua     Hortifruti - see
              Costa Rica for
              more detail

Nicaragua     Fondo de        NGO              1989   Credito para el
              Desarollo Local                         Desarrollo Rural en
                                                      Nicaragua Johan
                                                      Bastiaensen (ed.)
Paraguay   Financiera El    Non-bank      1998           CGAP FII research   CGAP (on
           Comercio         finance       (microcredit   matrix              going)?/
                            company       program)                           USAID (2003)



Peru       Centro de                      1980           Wenner, Mark book   IDB
           Estudios
           Sociales
           Solidaridad
           (CES)/ Wiese
           Bank




Peru       CMACs (2 non-                  1980          FAO "Better Practice
           profit savings                               in Ag Lending"
           banks in rural
           area)                                                             ???
Peru                       Non-bank finance company
                                          1982
           Peruvian Municipal Banks (Cajas Municipales) Janina Leon, PhD.    World Bank
                                                        Dissertation         (1999)




Peru       Caja Rural San   Rural bank    1994           CGAP Short List     CGAP (on going)??
           Martin




Peru       Confianza        Non bank      1994           www.mixmarket.org   CGAP (on
                            financial                                        going)??
                            institution
Peru       Critecnia        Consultany    1996           Wenner, Mark book   IDB (2000)
                            firm
Peru   Instituto Rural   Non profit     1965   CGAP Short List   CGAP (on going) ???
       Valle Grande      organization
                                                                                       Non Financial
Date of                                                                                Products/Services
Information       Funding Sources         Financial Product/Service Offered            Offered
2003              IDB                     Associative, financial leasing, indivdual,
                                          village banks, solidarity , line of credit




2003              GoB, USAID, donors, Individal loans to farmers, rural enterprises, No
                  commercial banks,   microloans, investment loans; short,
                  retained earnings   medium and long term loans




2004              Asociacion Pro-         MSME loans; credits for gold pawns,          no
                  Credito 47%;            housing improvements, wage earners,
                  International Micro     savings accounts and time deposits , no
                  Investors 25%,          checking
                  Corporaciуn Andina
                  de Fomento 19%,
                  International Project
                  Consult 2%, private
                  investors 7%; profits
2002              re-invested
                  Public deposits 74%,  Loans to MSME; Savings deposits-fixed          no
                  avg interest rate on  term; National and international transfers
                  deposits-6.5%; Other: third party invoicing and payments
                  26%-NAFIBO,
                  FONDESIF, Prodem




2002              USAID                   loans from external account; loans from      education (child
                                          internal account; compulsory savings         care, household
                                                                                       mgt


2002              FONDESIF - Bolivia      individual loans, group, associative         none




CGAP Case Study   BNDES; Banco do         Loans, insurance, checking account,          Trainning/Consultin
2004              Brasil, Institutional   savings                                      g
                  capital
2002   ACCION                 Solidarity credit and indiidual loans           Trainning/Consultin
                                                                              g




2004   Corporacion de         Financing and TA to growers; links to banks Trainning/Consultin
       Supermercados          for credit                                  g
       Unidos




1993   FINCA USA              loans from internal and external account,
                              compulsory savings




2003   Interest income,       Two types of Agrimax credit cards-green
       commissions from       card for retail distributors of ag chemical
       retailers who accept   products; silver card for producers to
       credit cards           purchase inputs and suppliers from retailers;
                              Maxicuenta card for preferred customers to
                              finance short term ag and livestock
                              production and marketing;




2002   USAID, ACCION          Loans and savings                               No




2002   Members and savers     Loans and vountary savings                      Health (?)



2002                                                                          Training/Consulting




                            Loans,
       Rabo Bank, Fundacion Marco vountary Savings
2003   IDB, Accion             Loans;saving and loans to Ecuadorian
                               migrants to Spain; international
                               transfers/remittances




1998   IPC, IFC,Fundación                                                  no
       Salvadoreña de
       Desarrollo y Vivienda
       Mínima del Salvador
       (Fundasal)




                               Loans, vountary Savings
2004   IDB,USAID,WOCCU         Loans, savings, it operates as a commercial No
                               bank




       USAID, private                                                     credit with
       donors, Doen           savings, remittances/money transfers, loans education, literacy
2003   Foundation, Microstart for rural enterprises                       program
2003   USAID                  Not mentioned by source




2004   GOH, USAID,             Loans to farmers, rural enterprises, ag     No
       cooperative investors   cooperatives


2003   Deposits,            Savings products for various market
                            segments; Gold Stamp Savings-passport
                            Use of weather markets to reinsure part of TA on rural
                            savings plan with life insurance policy that
                            their multiple crop insurance program-index reinsurance and
2003   Government of Mexico based on temp and rainfall to correlate with insurance topics for




2002   PRESTAMOS               credit , savings, Fund trannfer services
2003              IADB                   Microloans, consumer credit, savings, credit
                                         cards, credit cooperatives,




2003              European Union         Village banks, FONDEMI loans, linking loan
                                         (for working capital), and solidarity




1999              GTZ; IADB; deposits,   Loans to small enterprises, personal, pawn
                  commerical loans       loans,


2001              IADB                   Short and long-term loans, savings mobilization




2002              Cofide- 58% of    Ag lending, Housing, Personal, consumer
                  lending, bonds,   loans, other enterprise loans, Free accounts
                  commercial loans, and time deposits.
                  partnerships with
                  CORDAID-FINANCE,
                  NOVIB, HIVOS
                  TRIVIODOS--13% of
                  total lending




CGAP Case Study                       group-based loans for small and rural
                  COFIDE, European Union, Peru-Canada countervalue fund
2004                                  producers. Loan size ranges from US$100
                                      to 3,000
2003              IDB /               Critecnia is a service provider for cottom        Technical
                                      farmers in Peru. Farmers sign a cntract with      assistance includes
                                      Critecnia, which buys and markets their           management,
                                      products.It also links farmers to financing       product sale and
2002   Internally generated   Supplier of credit (in kind and cash) for ag   TA, training, mgt
       income 53%; Local      financing                                      assistance,
       donors-13%;                                                           marketing of ag
       international org-33%                                                 products
       (non financial
       activities); DISAC and
       Vinasol financed by
       commercial banks,
       input providers
Is Ag finance principal Breakdown of Principal Activities
focus of provider?      Financed                               Lending Methdology
No                                                             ANED analyzes cash flow of client to
                                                               determine if generates sufficient income to
                                                               cover lease payments and cost of
                                                               operating equipment, assesses whether
                                                               client can operate machinery




Yes                    producc: 47%; service and trade 48%     Ind'l and comm'l loans; signature guarantee
                       consump and housing 5%                  on micro/ real and movable property on
                                                               larger loans, varying interest rates, monthly
                                                               and irregular payments




No                     37% trade, 19% services, 17%            individual lending
                       production, 15% gold credit, 12%
                       agriculture, 1% salaried workers




no                     Historical information; Urban: ag 2%;   Loan repayment based on individual cash
                       manu 18%; trade 39%, services 25%,      flow analysis on total household income;
                       other 16%, rural: ag 21%, manu 14%,     End of payment amt can't exceed 60% of
                       trade 34% services 17%, other 14%       total amt of loan disbursed. Real guarantee
                                                               for loan approval; client responsible for
                                                               formalizing documents




no                                                             village banking




yes                    Manuf=6%; Ag-43%; Trade 38%,            individual loan appraisal, group lending,
                       Services 14%                            joint liability along with indiv loan appraisal




Yes                    Ag - 100%                               individual loan appraisal, group lending,
                                                               joint liability along with indiv loan appraisal
Yes   6 different types of credit dependin on   Solidarity groups - ACCION technology
      the size of the enterprise




no    specific crops in which no banks will     In cases where Hortifruti lends directly,
      finance the production.                   they base decision on past relationship,
                                                and their knowledge of the producer




yes




Yes                                             Typical guarantee is co signer with assets
                                                to pledge for indiv. Accounts, real property
                                                for distributor accounts; Maxicuenta cards
                                                allows for allows for lump sum payment
                                                after harvest




No                                              Solidarity and individual loans




No                                              ??



Yes                                             ??
No                                                            Pilot testing lending in rural areas




no                                                            individual lending




Yes                                                           Group and individual lending




no                      micro loans, savings, remittances     solidarity group lending
TA in market linkages
and embedded
services, facilitate
linkage to crop
insurance and credit




Yes




No                      Savings, loans                        Savings Plan-clients could choose 16, 24,
                                                              36, or 48 week savings plans; eventually
                                                              learned that interest rates on savings plan
Yes




yes                     61.4% agriculture, 21.6% commerce,    individual lending, interesting evolution
                        7.3% services, 2.9% small industry,   from joint solidarity and village banking
                        6.8% wage workers                     concepts to more traditional finance
                                                               Individual lending,




Yes                      Linking approach program (linked ag   All products are individual loans but client
                         loans) -70%                           selection through groups; Loan size range
                                                               $1000->$12,000; loan terms range from 8-
                                                               20 months; collateral-land title or mortgage,
                                                               self screening of group




                                                               Savings mobilization, credit




No




Yes, but not in future   Ag finance-32%         Personal-25%   Clients must have land title, irrigation, 3
                         Microenterprise-15%    Housing 9%;    yrs experience, Loans for working capital,
                         Other 19%                             equipment, machinery, 4.5% interest mo,
                                                               declining balance, no commissions, flexible
                                                               repayment schedule, interest/principal paid
                                                               at end of crop cycle, 2-3 fixed
                                                               disbursements, guarantee-land title,
                                                               chattel; Loan disbursed at different times of
                                                               production cycle to smooth out income
                                                               streams




No


Yes                                                            Collateral-mortgage + ag lien; ; no
                                                               outstanding debts in formal system; groups
                                                               form a limited liability company to control at
                                                               least 100 hectares
No   Solidarity groups of 7-25 members;
     Guarantee is peer pressure and farmer
     harvest and IRVG, Loan disbursements
     are in inputs and in cash depending on
     time in production cycle; subject to prior
     visit by ag technician; Loan principal and
     interest reapid once product is sold by
     IRVD
Innovative
Technologies/Outreach/Distribution
Channels                                         Back Office Operations/Strategies        Risk Mitigation Strategies
Financial leasing-ANED established               Incentive to maintain equipment by first
relationship with product supplier and           paying at 15-25% of value, contract
purchases asset wholesale and leases to          term of 5 yr or less to prevent clients
client who makes regular payments, with          from loosing interest; low final payment
purchase option; ANED retains ownership          to encourage client to become owner




IPC design of technology, emphasis on close                                             choice of clients, with diverse
officer-client relationship, thorough                                                   sources of income




emphasis in close officer-client relationship,   smart cards, large network of branches Offices can't concentrate
thorough evaluation of clients segmentation by   and ATM; Small farmers with only one more than 30% of loan portfor
maket size;Extensive network of branches in      crop and those w/o access to markets in single economic activity;
rural areas, ITM Intelligent Teller Machines     are ineligible for loans; Clients must
enables outreach-- uses smart cards              engage in complementary activities
fingerprints technology; ITM in three
languages; spoken instructions so illiterate
can use

joint participatory enforcement, almost no
client screening




The instittiona works with an extensive        High trust between clients and staff, no Security fund (enforrced by
netwrok of banches in the rural areas of South corruption                               law - Ministry of Finance of
Brazil (71 branches)                                                                    Brazil)
Utilizes credit with trainning in order to
improve managerial skills of clients




In some cases, (specific crops), utilizes credit     Hortfruti is a
with training in order to improve skills of          purchaser/whosaler/distributor that
clients. Other cases, link producers to banks        supplies the majority of fresh fruits and
for credit, while they provide TA.                   vegetables to the main supermarkets of
                                                     Costa Rica and the rest of Central
                                                     America.
recent breakdown of individual banks into
shareholding associations of producers
separate from FINCA




Issued credit cards to purchase inputs at POS        Credit card limits based on repayment          Transfers default risk from
terminals, smart cards used o purchase               capacity, larger credit limit for retailer ,   supplier to finance company
inputs; credit card for retailer and for producer;   evaluation and approval for cards is
Substitute for 30 day line of supplier credit;       rigorous the first time and simpler for
Reduces transaction costs through electronic         subsequent purchases
POS device, increases credit sales
volume;after high delinquency and loan write
offs-shift to smart card based system with
more flexible interest rates,terms which allows
for different models of credit



Banco Pichinha uses the Service Compay               Credi Fe is a service company and              Credife is fully responsible for
model through Credife                                utilizes Banco del Pichincha’s funds as        credit evaluation and lan
                                                     the administrator of the microenterprise       approval and it receives TA
                                                     loan portfolio of Banco del Pichincha.         providede by ACCION.
                                                     Loans and savings are financing
                                                     sources that are not maintained as
                                                     liabilities on the financial statements of
                                                     Credi Fe, but rather on the Financial
                                                     Statements of Banco del Pichincha.
                                                     Currently, the principal source of
                                                     financing for Credi Fe’s loans is Banco
                                                     del Pichincha.




??                                                   ??                                             ??
My Family, My Country, My Return program
for migrants to Spain-savings and loan
products to those who have employment there
for trip, housing and business expenses;
Relatives receiving remittances use Smart
card to collect funds at bank

IPC design of technology; emphasis in close                                                 choice of clients with diverse
officer-client relationship, thorough evaluation                                            sources of income
of potential clients and tailoring terms and
conditions to the client




A state-owned ank with profitable rural
microfinance operations due to the private
sector participation in its capital structure.




remittance channel in US
                                                   Links farmers to commercial bank
                                                   financing and improved product-market
                                                   opportunities; bank lends to farmer if
                                                   farmer receives TA from FINTRAC;
                                                   FINTRAC negotiates fixed price
                                                   contracts with processors and foreign
                                                   buyers; crop insurance; link to MFIs




                                                   Integrated/ automated MIS




 Partner Savings Plan- contracted savings      Initially bank paid bonus to clients who
product patterned after practices of informal  paid on time, however, not cost
savings group system; allowed better cash      effective, client now pay taxes on
Work with Fondos, mutual insurance funds
whose members small farmers (commercially
oriented) to offer weather index insurance and
Planning to use portacredit handheld loan
processing software in rural areas




Linkage between Wiese Bank, CES NGO, and          CES regularly monitors and assists         Bank gives loan tracking
small farmers; CES-cleint sreening and TA;        with delinquent clients; If default on     reports to CES monthly;
Bank opened line of credit to screen and          loan, collateral is seized and             Credit Bureau check on
approved applicants; farmer or groups of 2-3      information sent to Credit Bureau;         potential clients; Producers
repay bank; CES regularly monitors and            CES's strong organizational structure;     may sell or store crop in
assists with delinquent clients                   CES strong technical expertise             authorized mills to control
                                                                                             warehousing and hidding
                                                                                             crops--monitoring tool to
                                                                                             ensure sale of crop used to
                                                                                             pay off loan




Loan disburses directly to ag input supplier to   Farmer must begin planting season          Ag lending accounted for 50%
lower farmers transaction costs; Marketing        before getting loan, promotes more risk    of portfolio btw 1994-2000 to
company Agronegocio created to provide            sharing btw farmer and FI, but also        small and med rice farmers;
mkting service to rice producers--problems        shuts out poor farmer who can't            After El Nino, crop plague,
due to poor mgt and strategy                      assume up front costs; Regulated by        and other factors, decline in
                                                  Peruvian Banking Supervision; Caja is      ag portfolio and diversified to
                                                  trying to partner with NGO CIPCA and       MF lending; In 2002, Caja
                                                  an input supplier to create an assoc of    discont'd lending for rice
                                                  specialized institutions that provides     production; No longer lends to
                                                  services for financial (Caja), tech and    low income small farmers-risk
                                                  logistical support (CIPCA), and inputs     adverse
                                                  (supplier) needs of farmer during entire
                                                  chain of production; New strategy
                                                  leaves gap for small farmer financing




Links producers to commercial banking sector; If client defaults, Bank seizes property       Area coordinators play role in
Critecnia identifies farmers to be farmer     of farmer without affecting Critecnia or       monitoring and recovery of
association area coordinators, who educate    company created;                               loans; design harvest plans
farmers on linkage model, management                                                         and ensure that committed
Financed by IRVG who borrows from banks          IRVG prepares client files and credit
and input suppliers, and provides TA to          application and tech follow on crops;
farmer, overall manager, offers loan guarantee   Ag specialist makes periodic visits to
to bank, DISAC and VinaSol--financial            provide TA and assist in controlling
intermediaries--manage loan portfolio,           pests
disburse funds for payment of labor and other
services to farmers o; they market goods and
pay small farmers for products sold in market;
Farmer pays fixed fee for each service
rendered (credit, TA, other services), and
benefits if get higher sale price
Country   Name    Legal Form        Est.   Source of Information
Egypt     PBDAC   Commercial bank   1962   The Rural Finance Network in
                                           Egypt. PBDAC's Future Role
                                           and Policy Actions
                                                                 Financial         Non Financial
                                   Date of       Funding         Product/Service   Products/Services
Existing report or case study      Information   Sources         Offered           Offered
                                   1994          Government of   credit, savings   n/a
                                                 Egypt

OSU Rural Finance Program (1993)
Is Ag finance                                              Innovative
principal focus of   Breakdown of Principal   Lending      Technologies/Outreach/Distribu
provider?            Activities Financed      Methdology   tion Channels
yes
Back Office
Operations/Strateg Risk Mitigation
ies                Strategies
Country               Name                             Legal Form                          Est.




                      Asian Pacific Rural and
                      Agricultural Credit Association
Asia Pacific Region   (APRACA)                        Association of Credit unions         1977
Bangladesh            BRAC                            NGO                                  1972




Bangladesh            SafeSave                         Credit cooperative                  2001




Cambodia                                               private liability company HKLTD     1996

                      Hattha Kaksekar Ltd.
Cambodia              Ennatien Moulethan               Licensed MFI                        1991
                      Tchonnebat (EMT)




India                 Mulukanoor Cooperative Rural     Cooperative (registered under the   1956
                      Bank and Marketing Society       Mutually aided cooperative
                      (MCRB)                           Societies Act since 1995




India                 The Swayamkrushi Women's         Credit Union                        1996
                      Development Mutually Aided
                      Cooperative Thrift Society
                      Limited

India                                                  NGO                                 1998

                      Spandana
India        BASIX                            Non Bank Financial Company   1996




India        ICICI Bank                       Commercial Bank              1994




             NABARD




India                                         Public commercial bank       1982
Indonesia    Bank Shinta Daya                 Bank                         1970



Indonesia    BRI Bank Rakyat Indonesia-MF Bank                             1984
             through Unit Desa System


Indonesia    Bank Shinta Daya                 Bank                         1966; 1998-MF program




Kazakhstan                                    Licensed Public Warehouses

Kazakhstan   5 including Kazkommertsbank      Banks                        2002
             and Turan Alem Bank


             Agriculture Credit Corporation
Kazakstan
             Fund for Assistinance to
             Farmers (5)
Kazakstan
Kyrgyzstan   Bai Tushum FF                    Foundation                   2000




Kyrgyzstan   Farm Development Fund
             Kyrgyz Agricultural Finance      Non Bank Financial Company
             Corporation (KAFC)

Kyrgyzstan                                                                 1996
Mongolia      XAAN/Ag Bank of Mongolia        Former state owned bank. Today - 2003 (privatized)
                                              prvate commercial bank.




Mongolia      XacBank                         Commercial Bank                   1998


Mongolia      World Bank Feasibility study,    WB Project
              Livlihood Sustainability Project




Nepal         Agricultural Bank
Philippines   Rural Bank of Panabo            Commercial Bank                   1967



Philippines   Dungganon                       Non Bank Financial Company        1989



Philippines   Rural Bank of Philippines       Bank                              1997




Philippines   PAICOR                          Credit cooperative


Sri Lanka     Sarvodaya Economic              Non Bank Financial Company        1986
              Enterprise Development
              Services

Sri Lanka     HATTON National Bank            Private bank                      1989



Thailand      Bank for Agriculture and        Bank
              Agricultural Cooperatives
              (BAAC)
           USAID microfinance
           programme in 1995




Thailand                        Programme   1995
Source of Information                          Donors papers                  Date of Information




                                               FAO (2004) Did the conference
GTZ                                            result in any papers??          2003
Credit Information for the Rural Poor Aminul   OSU Rural inance Program (1992) 1992
Alam OSU Acts file 5673 (there is a more
recent case study by the World Bank in the
program Sustainable Banking with the Poor)


Juan Bucheau "Innovations"                     CGAP (focus note 2000)/ ADB    2003
                                               (focus note 2000)




www.themix.org                                 ADB (journal, 2001)            2002


CGAP Short List                                CGAP (on going)??              2002




CGAP Short List                                CGAP (on going)??              2002




www.themix.org                                 ??                             2002




www.themix.org                                 ??                             2002
CGAP Short List; FAO: Term Financing in        CGAP/ MBB (2000)            2003
Agriculutre: A Review of Relevant Experience




CGAP FII research matrix                       CGAP (on going)??           2003




Juan Bucheau "Innovations"                     USAID (2003) "Paving"
                                               conference case



                                                                           2002
Hans Dieter & Uben Parshuip, Microfinance in   OSU Rural Finance Program   1998
Indonesia: an assessment, OSU, ESO #2365       (1998)

CGAP FII research matrix; IRDB pub-Rural       CGAP (on going)??           1997
Finance, Jacob Yaron


CGAP FII research matrix; IRDB pub-Rural     CGAP Case Study 2004 IRDB     1997
Finance, Jacob Yaron; FAO: Term Financing in 1997 (Jacob's paper)
Agriculutre: A Review of Relevant Experience


ACDI/VOCA                                      USAID?

ACDI/VOCA




Evaluation of Central Asisan MFIs for World
Bank                                           World Bank                  2003

Evaluation of Central Asisan MFIs for World
Bank                                           World Bank                  2003
ACDI/VOCA                                      USAID/ ACDI/VOCA (2003)



Evaluation of Central Asisan MFIs for World
Bank                                           World Bank                  2003

USAID "Paving the way to forward rural finance
, an international conference on best practices" USAID (2003) "Paving"
2003.                                            conference case           2003
CGAP FII research matrix                       CGAP (on going)?? / GTZ (2002)/ 2003
                                               USAID "Paving the way
                                               series"(2003)"The Agricultural
                                               Bank of Mongolia: From Insolvent
                                               State Bank to Thriving Private
                                               Bank"/USAID (2003) AG
                                               [Agricultural] Bank's turnaround :
                                               from insolvency to profits -- final
                                               report of the EPSP's technical
                                               assistance to the Ag Bank of
                                               Mongolia


Mercy Corps                                    UNDP (2004)                    2002


                                                                              2003


Jerry Skees "Risk Mgt"


GTZ. Reforming an Agricultural Development
Bank - Insights from an ex Bank CEO in Nepal
Working Paper No. 4                          GTZ (2004)                       2003
FAO: Term Financing in Agriculutre: A Review CGAP/ GTZ (1999)                 2003
of Relevant Experience


Vi\rginia Abia Financial Innovation in Rural   ??                             1993 (inlucded in WB
Credit Markets Institute of Developing                                        inventory 1996)
Economies
MABS Quarterly Report                          ??                             2004




FAO: Term Financing in Agriculutre: A Review   USAID (2003) / UNCTAD (2004)   2003
of Relevant Experience

www.themix.org                                 ADB                            2001



Cyrran and Natilson's paper                    USAID (to be released 2005)/   2004
                                               World Bank (1997)


                                               GTZ (1999)
USAID Evaluation Highlight no. 38, March
1995, Agricusiness Program in Thailand,
ACDI/VOCA website                          USAID (1995)   1995
Funding Sources                               Financial Product/Service Offered




                                              Credit and savings for farmers and other rural
GTZ/BMZ                                       businessmen
USAID, Irish Aid, DFID Pakistan and Swiss     credit , savings
Agency for Development Cooperation (SDC)




DFID                                          Credit, flexible savings. This special kind of savings
                                              relies on local colectors wo visit clients to collet savings
                                              orrepayments of credits.The flexible credit basically
                                              allows cients to pay whatever amounts they wish to
                                              collectors but the interest is charged up-front.



Rural Dev ank of Cambodia and commecial       loans and savings mobilization;
loans

USAID, AFD, Shareholders-GRET, SIDI           Solidarity credit-93% of loan portfolio; Indiv credit,
                                              Testing a community savings product




Govt refinances crop loan portfolio every year Crop loans-short, medium, long term; Consumption
at 9%, commercial rate is 11-13%, Savings      loans; Compulsory deposit and voluntary savings, time
used to finance consumption, medium and        deposits; Accidental and life insurance
long term loans; Cooperative Development
Foundation




                                              Loans, credit and insurance




SIDBI and institutional capital
                                              Loans, savings, insurance

FWWB, ICICI Bank, GTB, UTI Bank, HDFC. HDFC Bank
Lendors--Holding company Basic LTD, SIDBI,    Crop and non farm loans to joint liability groups up to 11
CORDAID, ICICI Ban. Interest rates from 10-   months, Individual loans for farm equipment for 1-3 yrs,
12%; Commercial rate is 15%; All funds are    SME loans, SHG loans, housing, indirect loans through
subsidized, concessional loans with lower     input suppliers, microinsurance
interest rate




                                              Wholesale credit to MFIs, links to SHGs; links with MFIs
                                              to provide life and credit insurance




German KfW, GTZ, IFAD, IDA, OPEC, National $600-11,000 line of credit on credit card
                                           Bank- Swiss Development
private village bank                       Loan using individual and group-lending technologies



                                              Credit and voluntary savings products, fund transfers




GTZ, IFC, savings                             medium and long term loans, savings




GTZ, IFC, savings                             Issuance of reciepts

EBRD credit lines                             Loans against warehouse receipts




                                              Source not avaiable


USAID, Winrock, regional government funds     rural and urban lending
USDA, Swiss Caritas, retained earnings        Loans to individual producers, enterprises; pilot leasing




                                              Source not avaiable

                                              Short, medium and long term loans to farmers and other
                                              entrepreneurs that operate in rural aeas. They ofer both
WB, ADB, EBRD, DFID                           individual and group loans.
owned by HS Securities, Japan. TA by       Savings, term deposits and loans
USAID/DAI,GTZ, ADB & WB




UNDP, Mercy Corps, USAID thorugh XAC-GE Rural and urban lending, deposits, savings, remittances.
Group

World Bank                                 Social livestock insurance program




GTZ/BMZ                                    N/a
Land Bank of Philippines                   Equity finance for rice mills in joint ventures
                                           w/producers., short and medium term loans


                                           loans, compulsory savings



USAID                                      Savings, credit




                                           equity finance, loan, finance


savings from members                       loans, savings



ADB and Sri Lankan Gov.                    development and rural credit
USAID   See next cell
                                                            Is Ag finance principal focus of
Non Financial Products/Services Offered                     provider?



AFRACA works as a facilitator between banks and rural
cooperatives in Asia. Banks use the village groups
recommended by AFRACA as an alternaive type of
cllateral for their credit products.assistance to network to
develop appropriate rural finance policies and to
implement strategies for disseminating product
innovation and training to member institutions; develop
and disseminate concept of linkage banking                   Yes
technical assistance




Not menioned




Not menioned                                                Yes


Not menioned                                                Yes




Not menioned                                                Yes, 40% of portfolio-short term crop
                                                            loans for 9 months




Trainning/Consulting                                        Yes




Technicl assistance                                         Yes
Not mentioned             No, crops loans are limited to 25% of
                          total portfolio




Not mentioned




Not mentioned




Not mentioned             No



Training and consulting   No




                          Yes




grain storage




No                        Yes




Training and consulting   Yes
No                                                     Yes




No                                                     No




technical assitance, education                         no



management and staff training programs, market         No
analysis, new product development, business planning
and MIS consulting for rural banks


rice processing, marketing


Trainning/Consulting                                   Yes



                                                       Yes
contract farming. Under contract farming, farmers agree
to plant specific crops and to sell all or a fixed share of
their produce at a preset price to a contracting
agribusiness. Under this system, smallholders have
been able to participate in and benefit from USAID
agribusiness programs.
                                                              No
Breakdown of Principal Activities Financed          Lending Methdology




                                                    group lending




Max loan permitted is based on savings balance      Allows flexible repayment ; repayment capacity not
and loan history; ; no fixed repayment schedule,    assessed, but collector visits client regularly; Savings-
not loan term; repay daily or lump sum; interest    local collectors visit clients everyday to collect savings ,
paid monthly                                        repay of loans, or make withdrawals-lowers transaction
                                                    costs; may withdraw full balance but those who build up
                                                    over long term are given 10% annual interest


??                                                  ??


Ag and ag related activities (livestock, fertilizers)- Village associations (w/committees) control loan approval
80%                                                    and repayment; When group is eligible for loan, members
                                                       may defer loan request; Groups of 5 self screening
                                                       selection; Borrowers propose repayment schedule based
                                                       on cash; May pay in advance during loan cycle; Loan
                                                       officers monitor clients regularly; 3/4 clients are women


Ag loans-67%; of those 40% crop loans; 13%          Coop staff responsible for loan appraisal- check on client
medium term loans; 14% long term loans;             crediblity, land holding (at least .5 acres of land), and
Consumption loans-33%                               indebtedness to other lenders, landholding documents
                                                    given to coop during membership-land guarantee
                                                    required; Crop loans- 2 installments at end of two
                                                    seasons




                                                    Linkages between self-help groups and banks. But this
                                                    process take longer that desired in terms of loan
                                                    disbursement.



                                                    ??
Ag loans-47% (24% for crop loans) Non farm Cash flow based for ag loan, non farm loans, and general
loans-44% ; General purpose loans to SHGs, purpose loans, Group members borrow different amt at
ROSCAs)-9%                                 same time, groups form before applying for loan;
                                           character based appraisal, land holding of applicant and
                                           existing crop in field, technical skill of farmer, irrigation
                                           system; Letter of credits issued and used to purchase
                                           inputs who send bill to BASIX; All loans secured by 10%
                                           of loan amt which is returned w/o interest when loan
                                           repaid; Defaulters are penalized 2% of loan principal




                                                group and lending , technology




short term 42%, medium 20%, long term 38%       joint liability and individual traditionall securitized loans




                                                individual loans, asset base collateral, monthly interest
                                                rate, grace period




                                                group lending
Loan services designed for rural agriculture
sector; such as herder, crop, vegetable growers,
traders and salary-based loans. Deposit services.




Only 6,5% of the portfolio is in rural areas.       leasing, franchising




non-ag: 54%, ag 42%                                 group lending, Grameen replication



                                                    Character-based lending, individual lending




                                                    Individual and group lending - including village banks.



ag 28%                                              Individual lending
Innovative Technologies/Outreach/Distribution
Channels                                                      Back Office Operations/Strategies




When client applies for loan, specifies desired maturity not Palm pilot results in stronger internal control,
to exceed 12 months; pay interest up front; once             reduced use of paper, but high costs
disbursed client make whatever payment they want; Pilot
testing use of palm pilots to manage savings collection
and at end of day, info from palm fed into instituition's
central info system to update accounts




                                                              High trust between clients and staff, no corruption




Approx 60% of crop loans given in cash to pay labor,          Strong leadership, multi service and multi
electricity, water, 40% for fertilizers, seeds, and in kind   commodity, extraordinary general body in coop,
through input distribution stores; Long term and med loans    sound accounting and mgt practices, rare
(except tractors and livestock) are provided in kind          example of successful and innovative model of
through coop store; farmers gives produce to coop             coop that has not been able to be duplicated b/c a
warehouse in exchange for credit to loan account, higher      multi commodity and multi purpose coop can't be
procuring price above mket value serves as incentive for      started at once and due to regulatory issues
farmers to sell to coop and obtain credit




                                                              Its in the process becoming a regulated MFI
Smart card (ID plus electronic loan book) technology       On time borrower incentive of 2%, repayment
introduced for rural borrowers in isolated areas; reduced loans collected at home
cost of monitoring and administration; Planning to scale
up Smart Card product; microinsurance relies on peer
monitoring to reduce moral hazard and adverse selection;
payments based on individual losses and premiums are
high at 20%; half premium goes to village fund, other half
to provide indemnity payments



Per regulation, only ATMs in rural areas, no branch
offices, experimenting with electronic rural kiosks and
provision of financial services through kiosks

Kisan credit card scheme-clients use cards to pay for ag
inputs, and access cash by using withdrawal slips; credit
limit based on operational land holding, cropping pattern
and scale of finance; withdrawals must be repaid within 12
months




BRI-UD is a nationwide network of small rural banks




                                                             Integrated/automated MIS




Broad coverage with service points
Broad coverage with 371 service points




The franchising produc in rural aeas is aimed at credir
unions.The bank already designed a toolkit for credit
unions and will be testing it this year.
Mortality index insurance would pay herders once the          The bank has not a large branch network. It only
mortality rate exceeded a threshold amt; payment to           has 34 compared to 372 to what the Ag Bank of
herder dependent on amt of protection purchased               Mongolia - the main competitor - has.




Modifications to Grameen scheme, intro to guarantee
support fund

Setting up Microfianance units within 40 rural banks to       TA--anti-backsliding, sustainable technical
reach poor and underserved microentrepreneur. MIS             services, outreach to Religious and ethnic
software-basic banking modules that include info on           minorities, MF policy and standards, M&E, project
deposits and loans, fully integrated general ledger system,   mgt
ATMs, General ledger interface




Usage of microfinance branches to deliver savings
accounts in rural areas.


Usage of microfinance branches to deliver rural finance
producst such as leasing and various kinds of loans.
Risk Mitigation Strategies




Small loan sizes to minimize risk
and increases in subsequent
cycles
IGS supports action research and
testing of new products; Testing a
crop insurance product




Indemnity fund
insurance offered through
insurance company




Developing Nationwide Credit
Bureau and rating system

								
To top