1. Motivation is defined by psychologists as:
A) an impulse to accomplish something of significance.
B) rigidly patterned behavior characteristic of all people.
C) a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal.
D) the cause of behavior.
2. Psychologists have used four perspectives in their efforts to explain motivation. These
include an emphasis on instincts, optimum arousal, a hierarchy of motives, and:
A) drive reduction.
B) erotic plasticity.
C) refractory periods.
D) basal metabolic rate.
3. A complex, unlearned, and fixed pattern of behavior common to all members of a
species is called a(n):
A) set point.
4. An instinctive behavior is one that is:
A) designed to reduce drives.
B) triggered by a sexual incentive.
C) similar in all living organisms.
5. It is characteristic of bears to hibernate. This behavior is an example of:
A) an instinct.
C) an incentive.
D) a drive.
6. Mr. Porter believes that aggression is an unlearned behavior characteristic of all
children. He obviously believes that aggression is a(n):
B) homeostatic mechanism.
7. Which theory of motivation most clearly emphasizes the importance of genetic
A) drive-reduction theory
B) instinct theory
C) hierarchy of needs theory
D) arousal theory
8. Which theory has been accused of simply naming rather than explaining behaviors?
B) set point
9. A need refers to:
A) a physiological state that usually triggers motivational arousal.
B) anything that is perceived as having positive or negative value in motivating
C) a desire to perform a behavior in order to avoid punishment.
D) a rigidly patterned behavioral urge characteristic of all people.
10. An aroused or activated state that is often triggered by a physiological need is called
D) set point.
11. For a thirsty person, drinking water serves to reduce:
A) a drive.
B) an instinct.
C) the set point.
D) basal metabolic rate.
12. Food deprivation is to ________ as hunger is to ________.
A) homeostasis; thirst
B) incentive; instinct
C) need; drive
D) pornography; lust
13. Victims of a famine will often eat unappetizing and nutritionally poor foods simply to
relieve their constant hunger. Their behavior is best explained in terms of:
A) arousal theory.
B) instinct theory.
C) drive-reduction theory.
D) incentive theory.
14. Homeostasis, which is the goal of drive reduction, is defined as:
A) a rigidly patterned behavior characteristic of an entire species.
B) an aroused or activated state that is often triggered by a physiological need.
C) the body's tendency to maintain a constant internal state.
D) a physical need that usually triggers motivational arousal.
15. For a hungry person, the consumption of food serves to:
A) lower the set point.
B) shorten the refractory period.
C) maintain homeostasis.
D) reduce blood glucose levels.
16. Positive and negative environmental stimuli that motivate behavior are called:
C) set points.
17. Which of the following is clearly not an example of an incentive?
B) threat of punishment
C) smell of popcorn
18. On some college football teams, players are rewarded for outstanding performance with
a gold star on their helmets. This practice best illustrates the use of:
A) set points.
D) refractory periods.
19. The role of learning in motivation is most obvious from the influence of:
20. Lack of body fluids is to cold water as ________ is to ________.
A) need; incentive
B) need; drive
C) instinct; set point
D) homeostasis; refractory period
21. Which theory would be most helpful for explaining why people are motivated to watch
A) instinct theory
B) drive-reduction theory
C) hierarchy of needs theory
D) arousal theory
22. Which theory would be most likely to predict that rats are motivated to explore precisely
those areas of an experimental maze where they receive mild electric shocks?
A) arousal theory
B) hierarchy of needs theory
C) instinct theory
D) drive-reduction theory
23. The arousal theory of motivation would be most useful for understanding the aversive
A) refractory periods.
B) sexual disorders.
24. The most basic or lowest-level need in Maslow's hierarchy of human motives includes
the need for:
B) love and friendship.
C) religious fulfillment.
D) food and water.
25. According to Maslow, our need for ________ must be met before we are preoccupied
with satisfying our need for ________.
A) love; food
B) adequate clothing; self-esteem
C) self-actualization; friendship
D) political freedom; economic security
26. On the basis of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, one would be least likely to predict that a:
A) starving person might sell his child to obtain food.
B) teacher with high self-esteem might seek a career change to use his abilities more
C) successful business executive might show greater concern for his family
relationships than for becoming president of his corporation.
D) prisoner might choose to die rather than betray his country.
27. Financial satisfaction is more strongly predictive of subjective well-being in poor
nations than in wealthy ones. This fact would most clearly be anticipated by:
A) instinct theory.
B) arousal theory.
C) evolutionary theory.
D) hierarchy of needs theory.
28. Ancel Keys and his colleagues observed that men on a semistarvation diet:
A) became apathetic and lost interest in food.
B) remained interested in food but avoided talking or thinking about it.
C) lost interest in sex and social activities.
D) became increasingly preoccupied with political and religious issues.
29. Research on the physiological basis of hunger has indicated that:
A) there is no relationship between stomach contractions and the experience of hunger.
B) hunger continues in humans whose cancerous stomachs have been removed.
C) rats whose stomachs have been removed must be force-fed to prevent starvation.
D) the secretion of ghrelin is reduced when the stomach is empty.
30. Increases in the hormone insulin lead to:
A) increasing estrogen levels.
B) decreasing blood glucose levels.
C) increasing PYY levels.
D) decreasing orexin levels.
31. Dr. Milosz electrically stimulates the lateral hypothalamus of a well-fed laboratory rat.
This procedure is likely to:
A) cause the rat to begin eating.
B) decrease the rat's basal metabolic rate.
C) facilitate conversion of the rat's blood glucose to fat.
D) permanently lower the rat's set point.
32. Hunger is increased by ________ but it is decreased by ________.
A) a high ghrelin level; a low orexin level
B) stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus; stimulation of the ventromedial
C) a low orexin level; a high ghrelin level
D) stimulation of the ventromedial hypothalamus; stimulation of the lateral
33. An animal's stomach and intestines will process food more rapidly and the animal will
become extremely fat if its:
A) lateral hypothalamus is destroyed.
B) ventromedial hypothalamus is destroyed.
C) ghrelin levels are reduced.
D) orexin levels are reduced.
34. Destruction of the ventromedial hypothalamus of a rat is most likely to:
A) lower its set point for body weight.
B) cause it to stop eating.
C) lower its blood insulin level.
D) cause the rat to become extremely fat.
35. The secretion of ghrelin ________ appetite, and the secretion of orexin ________
A) stimulates; stimulates
B) suppresses; suppresses
C) stimulates; suppresses
D) suppresses; stimulates
36. Leptin, a hunger-dampening protein, is secreted by:
A) endocrine glands.
B) the stomach.
C) fat cells.
D) the lateral hypothalamus.
37. The set point is:
A) the stage of the sexual response cycle that occurs just before orgasm.
B) the body temperature of a healthy organism, for example, 98.6 degrees F in humans.
C) the point at which energy expenditures from exercise and from metabolism are
D) the specific body weight maintained automatically by most adults over long periods
38. An explanation of motivation in terms of homeostasis is best illustrated by the concept
B) set point.
C) refractory period.
39. Basal metabolic rate is the body's resting rate of:
A) drive reduction.
B) insulin secretion.
C) energy expenditure.
40. When an organism's weight rises above its set point, the organism is likely to experience
A) decrease in both hunger and basal metabolic rate.
B) increase in hunger and a decrease in basal metabolic rate.
C) decrease in hunger and an increase in basal metabolic rate.
D) increase in both hunger and basal metabolic rate.
41. Our weight thermostats are somewhat flexible and are influenced by environmental as
well as biological factors. Some researchers have therefore adopted the term:
C) refractory period.
D) settling point.
42. Anorexia nervosa is typically characterized by:
A) an unusually high rate of metabolism.
B) cyclical fluctuations between extreme thinness and obesity.
C) frequent migraine headaches.
D) an obsessive fear of becoming obese.
43. About eight months ago, 14-year-old Shelley went on a drastic weight-loss diet that
caused her to drop from 110 to 80 pounds. Although she is now dangerously
underweight and under-nourished, she continues to think she looks fat. Her frustrated
father recently forced her to eat a peanut butter sandwich, but Shelley immediately went
to the bathroom and threw it all up. Shelley most clearly suffers from:
A) a sexual disorder.
B) an abnormally low set point.
C) a high basal metabolic rate.
D) anorexia nervosa.
44. The onset of ________ nearly always begins after a dieter has broken diet restrictions
A) anorexia nervosa
C) bulimia nervosa
D) erotic plasticity
45. Twenty-two-year-old Tawana is slightly overweight and loves to eat, particularly snack
foods and rich desserts. Fearful of becoming overweight, she frequently takes a laxative
following episodes of binge eating. Tawana most clearly suffers from:
A) bulimia nervosa.
B) anorexia nervosa.
C) excess PYY.
46. Anorexia patients are most likely to have parents who:
A) have physically or sexually abused their children.
B) are high-achieving and protective.
C) experience some form of sexual disorder.
D) are unconcerned about physical appearance and body weight.
47. Over the past 50 years, American women have expressed ________ satisfaction with
their physical appearance and have experienced a(n) ________ incidence of serious
A) increasing; decreasing
B) increasing; increasing
C) decreasing; decreasing
D) decreasing; increasing
48. Those most vulnerable to anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are those who
________ value thinness and have the ________ body dissatisfaction.
A) least; least
B) most; greatest
C) least; greatest
D) most; least
49. In a British survey of bank and university staff, men were ________ likely to be
overweight than were women, and men were ________ likely to perceive themselves as
overweight than were women.
A) more; more
B) less; less
C) more; less
D) less; more
50. The level of serotonin in the brain is:
A) decreased by a diet high in sugar.
B) decreased by a diet high in salt.
C) increased by a diet high in protein.
D) increased by a diet high in carbohydrates.
51. People's preferences for sweet tastes are ________, and their preferences for excessively
salty tastes are ________.
A) needs; incentives
B) incentives; needs
C) universal; learned
D) learned; universal
52. People are most likely to dislike the taste of ________ foods.
53. The recipes commonly used in countries with hot climates are more likely to include
________ than those in countries with colder climates.
54. A body that can store fat has the advantage of possessing:
A) low blood pressure.
B) stored energy.
C) a low set point.
D) reduced levels of serotonin.
55. The health risks associated with obesity are generally the greatest for those who carry
their excess weight around their:
56. New research has linked women's obesity to their risk of late-life:
A) muscular dystrophy.
B) Parkinson's disease.
C) multiple sclerosis.
D) Alzheimer's disease.
57. The relative risk of death among healthy nonsmokers is highest for:
A) overweight men.
B) overweight women.
C) underweight men.
D) underweight women.
58. When people's images on a video monitor are widened to make them look fatter,
observers perceive them as:
A) more sincere and more friendly.
B) more sincere and less friendly.
C) less sincere and less friendly.
D) less sincere and more friendly.
59. In one experiment, professional actors played the role of either normal-weight or
overweight job applicants. Research participants' willingness to hire the applicants
A) no discrimination against either overweight men or overweight women.
B) equal levels of discrimination against both overweight men and overweight women.
C) greater discrimination against overweight men than against overweight women.
D) greater discrimination against overweight women than against overweight men.
60. Research on obesity and weight control indicates that:
A) when an obese person has lost weight, a diet and exercise program are no longer
necessary for maintaining the lower weight.
B) lean tissue is maintained by fewer calories than is fat tissue.
C) overweight people typically suffer from a lack of willpower and self-discipline.
D) no matter how carefully people diet, they can never lose fat cells.
61. When an organism's weight falls below its set point, the organism is likely to experience
A) increase in hunger and an increase in its metabolic rate.
B) increase in hunger and a decrease in its metabolic rate.
C) decrease in hunger and a decrease in its metabolic rate.
D) decrease in hunger and an increase in its metabolic rate.
62. Although John has been obese for as long as he can remember, he is determined to lose
excess weight with a special low-calorie diet. John is likely to have difficulty losing
weight while dieting because:
A) fat cells can be lost only with vigorous exercise.
B) his resting metabolic rate will increase and prompt him to overeat.
C) he has an unusually low set point for body weight.
D) fat tissue can be maintained by fewer calories than can other body tissues.
63. By dramatically reducing her daily caloric intake, Marilyn plans to reduce her normal
body weight by 10 to 15 percent. Research suggests that after three or four weeks of
sustained dieting, Marilyn will:
A) have a lower fat cell count.
B) experience a decrease in her feelings of hunger.
C) have a lower resting metabolic rate.
D) have a lower set point for body weight.
64. Given an obese parent, boys are at an ________ risk for obesity and girls are at a
________ risk for obesity.
A) increased; decreased
B) decreased; increased
C) increased; increased
D) decreased; decreased
65. Evidence that obesity is influenced by factors in addition to genetics includes the fact
A) mice injected with daily doses of leptin become less active and gain weight.
B) people lose a pound of weight for every reduction of 3500 calories in their diet.
C) weights of adopted people are highly correlated with weights of their adoptive
D) obesity is more common today than it was 40 years ago.
66. Researchers use biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis to
understand hunger motivation. The social-cultural level of analysis is especially likely to
emphasize that eating disorders are influenced by:
A) a natural wariness of unfamiliar foods.
B) mass media standards of appearance.
C) bouts of depression and anxiety.
D) the universal idealization of thinness.
67. Researchers have observed that the incidence of obesity and diabetes among 50,000
nurses was predicted by their:
A) lymphocyte levels.
B) explanatory styles.
C) TV viewing habits.
D) childhood taste preferences.
68. Having lost weight, formerly obese individuals have ________ fat cells and ________
A) fewer; faster
B) smaller; faster
C) fewer; slower
D) smaller; slower
69. Which of the following suggestions would be the worst advice for a dieter?
A) “Minimize your exposure to tempting foods.”
B) “Accompany your diet with a sustained exercise program.”
C) “Avoid eating during the day so you can enjoy a big meal in the evening.”
D) “Reduce your weight gradually over a period of many months.”
70. Research on the sexual response cycle indicates that:
A) males and females experience an equally long refractory period following orgasm.
B) women undergo a decrease in physiological arousal more slowly if they have
experienced orgasm than if they have not.
C) enough sperm may be released prior to male orgasm to enable conception.
D) during the resolution phase, sexual excitement increases in females but decreases in
71. The descriptions of orgasm written by men and women are ________, and the
subcortical brain regions active in men and women during orgasm are ________:
A) different; similar
B) similar; different
C) different; different
D) similar; similar
72. During the resolution phase of the sexual response cycle, people are most likely to
experience a rapid decrease in physiological arousal if:
A) they have just experienced orgasm.
B) they have not used contraceptives.
C) their refractory period is unusually short.
D) their sexual interaction has not resulted in conception.
73. The refractory period is the:
A) moment before orgasm during which sexual arousal is maintained at a fairly high
B) stage of the sexual response cycle during which sexual excitation reaches its climax.
C) span of the monthly female reproductive cycle during which ovulation occurs.
D) time span after orgasm during which a male cannot be aroused to another orgasm.
74. A problem that consistently interferes with one's ability to complete the sexual response
cycle is called:
A) an STI.
B) erotic plasticity.
C) a sexual disorder.
D) a refractory period.
75. Kamil, a 33-year-old lawyer, experiences premature ejaculation. Through behaviorally
oriented therapy, he would most likely learn to minimize his problem by:
A) engaging in sexual activity less frequently.
B) eliminating his high level of sexual guilt.
C) uncovering the unconscious fears that underlie his problem.
D) learning ways to control his urge to ejaculate.
76. In most nonhuman mammals, female sexual receptivity is greatest when:
A) testosterone levels are lowest.
B) testosterone levels are highest.
C) estrogen levels are lowest.
D) estrogen levels are highest.
77. Research on sex hormones and human sexual behavior indicates that:
A) women's sexual interests are only loosely linked to the phases of their menstrual
B) adult men who have been castrated show virtually no reduction in sex drive.
C) sexual interests are aroused by decreased testosterone levels in women and
increased testosterone levels in men.
D) imprisoned male sex offenders typically experience lower-than-normal testosterone
78. Women's sexual receptivity differs from that of nonhuman female mammals in being
more responsive to ________ levels than to estrogen levels.
79. James Dabbs and his colleagues observed that the ________ levels of heterosexual male
collegians were especially likely to increase while they were conversing with a
________ college student.
A) testosterone; female
B) insulin; male
C) glucose; female
D) PYY; male
80. Brain scans of people viewing erotic material reveal a more active ________ in men
than in women.
81. Ivan just spent an evening watching pornographic movies of attractive women who
actually seemed to enjoy being sexually molested. This experience is most likely to lead
A) perceive himself as sexually impotent.
B) be more willing to hurt women.
C) feel unsure about his gender identity.
D) view sexual promiscuity as morally wrong.
82. Women fantasize about sex ________ men. Fantasizing about sex ________ indicate a
sexual problem or sexual dissatisfaction.
A) less frequently than; does
B) as frequently as; does not
C) less frequently than; does not
D) as frequently as; does
83. Compared to European teens, American teens have ________ rates of sexual intercourse
and ________ rates of abortion.
A) lower; lower
B) higher; higher
C) lower; higher
D) higher; lower
84. Many sexually active American adolescents fail to avoid pregnancy because:
A) low sex guilt inhibits the careful planning of contraceptive use.
B) they have mistaken ideas about effective birth control methods.
C) sex education courses have actually discouraged contraceptive use.
D) of all of the above reasons.
85. Teens who use alcohol prior to sexual intercourse experience:
A) enhanced self-awareness and are less likely to use condoms.
B) reduced self-awareness and are more likely to use condoms.
C) enhanced self-awareness and are more likely to use condoms.
D) reduced self-awareness and are less likely to use condoms.
86. Lower rates of pregnancy have been observed among teens who have:
A) sexually vivid dreams that lead to orgasm.
B) imagined being taken sexually by someone overwhelmed with passion.
C) watched a higher-than-average amount of prime-time television.
D) participated in a service learning program as tutors or teachers' aides.
87. Isaac, a 25-year-old law student, is heterosexual; his brother Chaim, a 21-year-old
college senior, is homosexual. The brothers obviously differ in their:
A) erotic plasticity.
B) sexual response cycle.
C) sexual orientation.
D) refractory period.
88. More than a dozen national surveys in the early 1990s indicated that in both Europe and
the United States, about ________ percent of men are gay and about ________ percent
of women are lesbian.
A) 3 or 4; 1 or 2
B) 3 or 4; 3 or 4
C) 10 or 11; 5 or 6
D) 10 or 11; 10 or 11
89. A homosexual orientation is:
A) equally likely among members of both sexes.
B) associated with a lack of clear gender identity.
C) very persistent and difficult to change.
D) characteristic of over 10 percent of American males.
90. Gender differences in erotic plasticity are best illustrated by the fact that:
A) women experience lengthier refractory periods than do men.
B) women's sexual orientation tends to be more changeable than men's.
C) women are less likely than men to be equally aroused by male and female erotic
D) women become aware of their sexual orientation much earlier in life than do men.
91. Compared to gay men, lesbian women are ________ likely to engage in promiscuous
sex and ________ likely to enter into a committed long-term love relationship.
A) more; less
B) less; more
C) less; equally
D) equally; equally
92. Research on the environmental conditions that influence sexual orientation indicates
A) homosexuals are more likely than heterosexuals to have been sexually abused
B) homosexuals are more likely than heterosexuals to have been overprotected by their
C) homosexuals are more likely than heterosexuals to have been raised in a
D) the reported backgrounds of homosexuals and heterosexuals are similar.
93. It has been suggested that the fraternal birth order effect is a result of:
A) erotic plasticity.
B) refractory periods.
C) maternal immune responses.
D) mass-media norms.
94. A biological component of homosexuality is most clearly indicated by evidence of:
A) sexual interactions between same-sex organisms in several hundred different animal
B) an increased incidence of same-sex attraction among women who were
womb-mates of twin brothers.
C) the overrepresentation of homosexual and bisexual people among poets and fiction
D) the linkage between sexual orientation and the levels of sex hormones currently in
95. Evidence that brain differences between homosexuals and heterosexuals influence
sexual orientation is provided by the fact that these differences:
A) fully account for gender differences in erotic plasticity.
B) are triggered by the segregation of genders at the time one's sex drive matures.
C) explain the elevated rates of depression experienced by gays and lesbians.
D) originate at about the time of birth.
96. When exposed to a scent derived from men's sweat, gay and straight men responded
differently in the area of the ________ that governs sexual arousal.
C) motor cortex
D) reticular formation
97. By manipulating a single gene, scientists have been able to control sexual orientation in:
C) fruit flies.
D) all of the above.
98. The maternal relatives of homosexual men produce ________ offspring than the
maternal relatives of heterosexual men, and male homosexuality is more likely to be
transmitted by genes from the ________ side of the family.
A) more; mother's
B) fewer; father's
C) fewer; mother's
D) more; father's
99. Research has found that an animal's sexual orientation can be altered by:
A) manipulations of prenatal hormone conditions.
B) exposure only to animals of the same sex.
C) injections of sex hormones in early adulthood.
D) destruction of the hippocampus.
100. If pregnant sheep are injected with ________ during a critical gestation period, their
female offspring will show homosexual behavior.
101. With respect to sex research and human values, the text suggests that:
A) sexual activity is largely a medical and biological issue, not a moral issue.
B) scientific methods prevent sex researchers from being influenced by their own
C) researchers should not reveal their sexual values because sexual standards are a
matter of personal taste.
D) sex research and education should be accompanied by open consideration of sexual
102. Evolutionary psychologists are most likely to suggest that almost all humans are
genetically predisposed to:
A) engage in both homosexual and heterosexual behaviors.
B) form close enduring relationships with fellow humans.
C) avoid eating carbohydrate-laden foods when feeling depressed.
D) satisfy their need for political freedom before seeking emotional security.
103. Foolish conformity to peer pressure is most likely to be motivated by ________ needs.
104. American and South Korean collegians indicated that the satisfaction of ________ were
the top two contributors to their peak moment in the past week.
A) hunger and thirst
B) academic and work responsibilities
C) self-esteem and belongingness needs
D) sexual and recreational desires
105. In a series of studies, research participants were informed that personality test results
indicated they were the type likely to end up alone later in life. As a result, they became
________ likely to underperform on aptitude tests and ________ likely to become
aggressive toward someone who had insulted them.
A) more; less
B) less; more
C) more; more
D) less; less
106. Jeff, who is 14, engages in rigorous tennis drills or competitive play at least four hours
every day because he wants to master the sport and play on one of the best college
teams in the country. His goal and behavior best illustrate the concept of:
A) set point.
C) refractory period.
D) achievement motivation.
107. In their efforts to measure people's achievement motivation, McClelland and Atkinson
presumed that the strength of this motive would be reflected in people's:
A) set point.
B) annual income.
C) blood glucose levels.
108. People who are high in achievement motivation prefer ________ tasks; people who are
low in achievement motivation prefer ________ tasks.
A) very difficult; very easy
B) moderately difficult; very easy or very difficult
C) very easy or moderately difficult; very difficult
D) very difficult or very easy; moderately difficult
109. Ted is an amateur golfer who has a high need for achievement. Research suggests that
Ted most likely prefers playing golf on courses that for him are:
A) very easy.
B) moderately difficult.
C) extremely difficult.
D) very easy or very difficult.
110. Parents who wish to strengthen their children's achievement motivation should be
A) encourage children at an early age to handle responsibility without parental help.
B) tell their children that failure in life brings suffering.
C) warmly accept and praise their children regardless of whether they succeed or fail.
D) recognize that young children can't be expected to do things successfully without