Life 20Cycle 20Analysis by U2ViLR


									  Life Cycle Analysis
8803 Business and the Environment

            Beril Toktay
     College of Management
  Georgia Institute of Technology
       What is a Product Life Cycle?
                               Product Life Cycle

  Raw        Primary       Component        Product        Product       Product
materials    materials                    assembly &        use &
 mining     production     manufacture    distribution   maintenance     disposal

                   Supply Chain

The boxes are process groups called life cycle stages (system components).
The arrows are economic material flows (relationships between system components)
            Products interact with their
            environment in many ways
                                                              Use and maintenance
                                                              waste and emissions

Materials     Materials         Materials        Materials         Materials        Materials
 Energy        Energy            Energy           Energy            Energy           Energy
             Transport and distribution waste and emissions

  Raw         Primary          Component           Final           Product           Product
materials     materials                           product         use and
 mining      production       manufacture        assembly        maintenance         disposal


             Production waste and emissions                                         waste and
  trees                     Example: Paper Cup vs. Polystyrene Cup
             logs              wood chips             pulp           paper cup
                        Wood             Digester,                                 Cup       Landfill,
Harvesting              yard             washing,              Forming             use      recycling

                          steam,              adhesive,
                        chlorine (?)            heat                              Service

 oil   gas

             oil, gas         ethyl benzene          styrene             PS cup
                                         Catalytic             Poly-               Cup       Landfill,
  Drilling              Refinery         dehydro-            merization,           use      recycling
                                         genation             blowing

       catalyst               catalyst         solvent,
                                               Initiator,                    Service
                                               blowing agent
                                               (pentane or CO2, used to be CFC)
      History and definition of LCA
      Definition of LCA according to ISO 14040:

      LCA is a technique […]
      compiling an inventory of relevant inputs and outputs of a product system;
      evaluating the potential environmental impacts associated with those inputs
      and outputs;
      and interpreting the results of the inventory and
      impact phases in relation to the objectives of the study.

• Late 1960s, first Resource and Environmental Profile Analyses (REPAs)
  (e.g. in 1969 Coca Cola funds study on beverage containers)
• Early 1970s, first LCAs (Sundström,1973,Sweden, Boustead,1972, UK, Basler &
  Hofmann,1974,Switzerland, Hunt et al.,1974 USA)
• 1980s, numerous studies without common methodology with contradicting results
• 1993, SETAC publishes Guidelines for Life-Cycle Assessment: A ‘Code of Practice’,
  (Consoli et al.)
• 1997-2000, ISO publishes Standards 14040-43, defining the different LCA stages
• 1998-2001, ISO publishes Standards and Technical Reports 14047-49
• 2000, UNEP and SETAC create Life Cycle Initiative
Life Cycle Assessment Framework
  Goal and scope
   (ISO 14040)
                                    Direct application:
                                    • product development
     Inventory                        and improvement
                   Interpretation   • Strategic planning
                    (ISO 14043)     • Public policy making
   (ISO 14041)
                                    • Marketing
                                    • Other

   (ISO 14042)
Step 1 - Goal and Scope Definition
     It is important to establish beforehand what purpose the model
      is to serve, what one wishes to study, what depth and degree of
      accuracy are required, and what will ultimately become the
      decision criteria.

     In addition, the system boundaries - for both time and place -
      should be determined.

             Thus, pay special attention to:
              Basis for evaluation (what and why)
              Temporal boundaries (time scale)
              Spatial boundaries (geographic)
           Goal and Scope Definition
Example for Goal Definition:

The goal of the LCA is to identify options for improving the environmental performance
of the material polyethylene in disposable bread bags. The results of this LCA will be
used for product and process development. The plastic bag manufacturer wants to be
able to analyze the effects of changes in its processes, in terms of technology, inputs,
and products composition, on the total environmental impact. This information, in turn,
can be used to prioritize measures that can be taken to improve the environmental
performance. This LCA does not aim at a public comparative assertion.

The study is conducted by Pro-Duct Consultancy Ltd, a medium-sized private
engineering bureau. The commissioner is Bag-Away, a large producer of plastic
disposable bags. Interested parties are mainly the plastics industry, bakeries and
shops. A steering committee with representatives of the producer, the ministry of
the environment and academia will be formed. Finally, an expert review will be carried
out at NILCAR, the National Institute for LCA Research.
           Goal and Scope Definition
Example for Scope Definition:

A simplified LCA is carried out to compare three different end-of-life management
options, namely landfill, recycling and reuse, for structural steel sections in the UK
construction sector. The study and its data therefore intends to be representative of
the current practices and technologies in the UK construction sector.

Initially, the only environmental intervention covered will be the energy requirements
of all processes, since this has shown to be an important environmental indicator for the
construction industry, and the environmental impact of main interest is climate change.

The total size of the study is 8 person-months. A large portion of this time will be
devoted to the studying and modeling of the product system, and the collection of
representative data for the most important processes in production, use and end-of-life
     Goal and Scope Definition
Be specific about the unit of analysis!

What are functional units for the comparison of
Various paints?

20m2 of wall covering with a colored surface of 98% opacity and a lifetime of 5 yrs

Paper versus plastic bags in supermarkets?

Comfortable carrying of X kg and Y m3 of groceries
     Step 2 - Inventory Analysis
   This means that the inputs and outputs of all life-cycle
    processes have to be determined in terms of material and

   Start with making a process tree or a flow-chart classifying the
    events in a product‟s life-cycle which are to be considered in the
    LCA, plus their interrelations.

   Next, start collecting the relevant data for each event: the
    emissions from each process and the resources (back to raw
    materials) used.

   Establish (correct) material and energy balance(s) for each
    process stage and event.
    Single Stage Flow Diagram
   The following diagram contains inputs and outputs to
    be quantified in a single stage or unit operation
       see EPA Life-Cycle Design Guidance Manual, EPA Report
        no. EPA/600/R-92/226, page 104
                                 Process Materials, Reagents,
                                 Solvents & Catalysts (including
                                 reuse & recycle from another stage)

     Product Material
     Inputs (including
     reuse & recycle from                                 Reuse/Recycle
     another stage)            Single Stage or Unit
                                                          Primary Product

                                                          Useful Co-product
                                    Fugitive &
                                    Waste             Waste
Example: Simplified Process Tree for
   a Coffee Machine‟s Life-Cycle
  coffee     paper             poly-           aluminium     sheet s teel   glas
  bean                         styrene

  roasting   filter pro-       injection       extrusion     stamping       forming
             duction           moulding                      forming

                                               as sembly
                                               + transport


                                                 us e
                                                                             w ater

                           disposal of         disposal in
                           filters + c offee   municipal
                           in org. w as te     w aste
Example: Simplified Process Tree for
   a Coffee Machine‟s Life-Cycle
               7.3 kg            1 kg           0.1 kg         0.3 kg        0.4 kg
   coffee                      poly-
              paper                            aluminium     sheet s teel   glas
   bean                        styrene

   roasting   filter pro-      injection       extrusion     stamping       forming
              duction          moulding                      forming

                                               as sembly
                                               + transport
                                                                             375 kWh

                                                 us e
                                                                             w ater

                            disposal of        disposal in
                            filters + coffee   municipal                White boxes are not
                            in org. w as te    w aste                   included in
Problems with Inventory Analysis
    The inventory phase usually takes a great deal of
     time and effort and mistakes are easily made.

    Allocation is an issue.

    There exists published data on impacts of different
     materials (,,,
         However, the data is often inconsistent and not directly
          applicable due to different goals and scope.
         It is expected that both the quantity and quality of data will
          improve in the future.

    Results are generalized improperly.
Step 3 - Impact Assessment
   The impact assessment focuses on
    characterizing the type and severity of
    environmental impact more specifically.
         Life Cycle Inventory results
                                        Classification     ISO 14042
             Impact categories                             mandatory
         Category indicator results
            Environmental profile                          ISO 14042
    One-dimensional environmental score
                           Impact categories
     SO2                Acid            Acidified           Dead             Loss of
   emissions            rain              lake              fish           biodiversity

    Source                              Midpoint                            Endpoint

      CFC           Tropospheric       Stratospheric        UVB               Human
    emissions           OD                  OD            exposure            health

A category indicator, representing the amount of impact potential, can be located at any
place between the LCI results and the category endpoints. There are currently two main
Impact Assessment methods:
• Problem oriented IA methods stop quantitative modeling before the end of the impact
  pathway and link LCI results to so-defined midpoint categories (or environmental
  problems), like acidification and ozone depletion.
• Damage oriented IA methods, which model the cause-effect chain up to the endpoints
 or environmental damages, link LCI results to endpoint categories.
 Impact categories proposed by UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative in 2003

                      Midpoint categories                Endpoint categories
                   (environmental problems)           (environmental damages)

                Photochemical oxidant formation
                        Human toxicity
                                                          Human Health
                       Ozone depletion
                        Climate change                    Biotic & abiotic
                         Acidification                    natural environment
results                                                   Biotic & abiotic
                          Ecotoxicity                     natural resources
                       Land use impacts
                 Species & organism dispersal             Biotic & abiotic
                                                          manmade resources
                  Abiotic resources depletion
                   Biotic resources depletion
                                                  Source: Int J of LCA 9(6) 2004
             Classification and characterization - Example

        In general:                                  Example:

                                              Cd, CO2, NOX, SO2, etc.
       LCI results
                                                (kg/functional unit)

                         Impact category            Acidification

                                                Acidifying emissions
 LCI results assigned to
                                                   NOX, SO2, etc.
    Impact category
                                                 (kg/functional unit)
                     Characterization model
                                                  Proton release
Category indicator results
                                                      (H+ aq)

                                                    - Forests
   Category endpoint                                - Fish populations
                                                    - etc.
                                                             Source: ISO14042
                   Classification and characterization – Example
Impact category             Acidification
LCI results                 Emissions of acidifying substances to the air (in kg)
Characterization model      RAINS10 model, developed by IIASA, describing the fate
                            and deposition of acidifying substances, adapted to LCA
Category indicator          Deposition/acidification critical load
Characterization factor     Acidification potential (AP) for each acidifying emission to
                            the air (in kg SO2 equivalents/kg emission)
Unit of indicator result    kg SO2 eq

        Substance                   AP (in kg SO2 equivalents/kg emission)
        ammonia                     1.88
        hydrogen chloride           0.88
        hydrogen fluoride           1.60
        hydrogen sulfide            1.88
        nitric acid                 0.51
        Nitrogen dioxide            0.70
        Nitrogen monoxide           1.07
        Sulfur dioxide              1.00                 Source: (Guinée et al., 2002)
        Sulphuric acid              0.65
Plastic versus Paper Bag Classification
                                                         Classificat ion / Charact erisat ion

    10 0%
     90 %
     80 %
     70 %
     60 %                                                                                                                       Paper bag
     50 %                                                                                                                       LDPE bag
     40 %
     30 %
     20 %
     10 %

            greenho use     deplet ion                                                                                      pest icides
                          ozone layer    acidification                  heavy metals carcinogens wint er smog summer smog
                                                         eutrop hicat ion

   The paper bag causes more winter smog and acidification, but
    scores better on the other environmental effects.
   The classification does not reveal which is the better bag. What
    is missing is the mutual weighting of the effects.
         A Single Impact Figure
 Goal: Develop a single figure for comparison
 Several methods exist, but it is still a
  controversial issue and no singular widely
  accepted method exists.
 Three well-documented and used methods
       The Eco-Points method
       The Environmental Priority System
       The Eco-Indicator
              Eco-Points Method
   The eco-points method was developed in Switzerland
    and is based on the use of national government policy
   The evaluation principle is the distance to target
    principle, or the difference between the total impact in a
    specific area and the target value.
       The target values in the original Ecopunkten method were
        derived from target values of the Swiss government.
       There is a Dutch variant.
   The use of policy objectives is controversial given that a
    policy does not express the true seriousness of a
       Various political, economic, and social considerations also play a
        role when formulating these objectives.
The Environmental Priority System
    The EPS system was used first for Volvo in Sweden.
    It is not based on governmental policy, but on
     estimated financial consequences of environmental
    It attempts to translate environmental impact into a
     sort of social expenditure.
        The first step is to establish the damage caused to a number
         of “safeguard objects” - objects that a community considers
        The next step is to identify how much the community is
         prepared to pay for these things, i.e., the social costs of the
         safeguard objects are established.
        The resulting costs are added up to a single figure.
The Eco-Indicator (95 and 99)
   The Eco-Indicator 95 was developed in a joint project carried out by
    companies, research institutes and the Dutch government.
   Aim: develop an easy-to-use tool for product designers
   Outcome: A list of 100 indicators for the most significant materials
    and processes.
        By using these indicators a designer can easily make combinations and
         carry out his/her own LCA. No outside expert or software are needed.
   Indicators have been drawn up for all life-cycle phases
        the production of materials such as steel, aluminum, thermo-plastics,
         paper, glass
        production processes, such as injection molding, rolling, turning, welding
        transport by road, rail, and sea
        energy generating processes
        waste processing processes, such as incineration, dumping, recycling.
   The most recent revised version is called Eco-Indicator 99.
Life Cycle Assessment Framework
  Goal and scope
   (ISO 14040)
                                    Direct application:
                                    • product development
     Inventory                        and improvement
                   Interpretation   • Strategic planning
                    (ISO 14043)     • Public policy making
   (ISO 14041)
                                    • Marketing
                                    • Other

   (ISO 14042)
     Case: Disposable versus reusable diapers
• P&G launched Pampers disposable diapers in the 1960s.
• By the early 1990s, Pampers contributed over 18% to annual revenues.
• Became symbol of the „throw-away‟ society and was targeted by NGOs.
• P&G commissioned Arthur D. Little in 1990 to conduct an LCA

The Life Cycle Analysis:
Arthur D. Little made the following simplifying assumptions among others:
• The number of daily diaper changes is the same for both types of diapers.
• 90% of all reusable diapers are laundered at home.

• As a response to the results, Greenpeace commissioned its own LCA.
        Case: Disposable versus reusable diapers
Results from Study A






           Raw         Energy    Water (gal)   Emissions     Waste      Process        Post-
         materials   (1000Btu)                    to Air     water     waste (lbs)   consumer
           (lbs)                               (lbs/100)   effluents                 waste (lbs)

                             Functional unit: Weekly diaper needs
       Case: Disposable versus reusable diapers
Results from Study B







         Raw         Energy       Water    Emissions   Waste water Process         Post-
       materials   (10,000Btu)   (10gal)      to Air    effluents  waste (lbs)   consumer
         (lbs)                              (lbs/10)    (lbs/100)                waste (lbs)

                             Functional unit: Weekly diaper needs
    Case: Disposable versus reusable diapers

Which study do you attribute to each
 What do you think now about disposable vs.
 reusable diapers?
 The Arthur D. Little study was only one of
  many LCAs that were performed to compare
  disposable and reusable diapers.
 Their conflicting results due to different
  inventory data, model assumptions,
  boundary choices and calculation methods
  have prevented a generally accepted
        Case: Disposable versus reusable diapers
This graph compares from two different sources, Allen et al. (1992) which report data
from a Franklin Associates Study (1992) and the World Resources Institute (WRI, 1994)
which reports data from the Arthur D. Little study (1990):

                                                                                  ALLEN DATA Disposable
                                                                                  WRI DATA Disposable
                                                                                  ALLEN DATA Reusable (10/90)
                                                                                  WRI DATA Reusable (10/90)
          Energy          Water      Enissions to   Emission to    Solid waste
        (million Btu)   (1000 gal)     air (lbs)     water (lbs)   (cubic feet/
 Case: Disposable versus reusable diapers

 The data from Allen et al. is almost consistently
  higher than the data from the WRI, up to a factor of 6.
 The ratios between disposable and reusable diaper
  data is consistently smaller in the Allen et al. data
  compared to the WRI data.
 However, the general directions of the results are
 Reusable diapers
    consume more energy and more water
    Consume less raw materials
    Generate more emissions to air and water
    Generate less waste
        The Use of LCA

• Goal & Scope           Who are the users?
• Life Cycle Inventory
• Impact Assessment      What are the uses?
• Interpretation
                           Users of LCA
• Companies:
  Especially in Scandinavian countries, Japan, Holland, Germany, Switzerland
  (e.g. Volvo, Electrolux, Honda, Toyota, Proctor & Gamble, Unilever, Corus,
   Arcelor, Alcan, etc.)
  Through in-house experts, LCA consultancies or universities.

• Trade associations:
  Especially for material commodities
  (e.g. plastics, steel, aluminum, concrete, etc.)
  Through the experts of their member companies, LCA consultancies or universities.

• NGOs:
  Mostly commissioned to external LCA consultancies or universities.

• Government agencies:
  Especially in Scandinavian countries, Japan, Holland, Germany, Switzerland, EU
  Through in-house experts, LCA consultancies or universities.

• Business analysts:
  Typically analyze externally created LCA information on business and sectors.
                             Uses of LCA
• Companies:
  Originally intended for external use, e.g. marketing. However, currently mainly for
  internal use due to bad initial experiences of external uses.
  Currently mainly retrospective and for learning proposes, instead of prospective use
  for decision making purposes.
  Currently, decisions based on LCA results are more operational than strategic.

• Trade associations:
  Trade associations of material commodities producers more frequently use LCA
  for external purposes (e.g. marketing, policy process).

• NGOs:
  To create scientific foundations of campaigns or investigate claims by industry

• Government agencies:
  To analyze and design environmental policies and regulations (especially by the
  EPAs of European countries). EUs Integrated Product Policy recommends LCA.

• Business analysts:
  To analyze and forecast trends of individual companies and industry sectors.
            Internal vs. External Use
Most companies currently use LCA for internal purposes.
Internal uses are:
• Hotspot analysis of existing or planed products
• Compare existing products with products under development
• Product/process design (short-term, operational)
• Product/process development (long-term, strategic)
As LCA methodology matures, so do the number & scope of external uses.
External uses are:
• Marketing, especially final product comparisons (credibility)
• Lobbying, especially commodity comparisons
• Providing information and education to customers and other stakeholders
• Eco-labeling (also called environmental product declarations – EPDs)
             Issues with LCA
Complex and a lot of effort is required
 Life Cycle Analyses have problems and are
  difficult to use:
     What is the functional unit?
     What if your process does not match the unit
      process in the LCA database?
     Impact categorization is difficult
     No national/worldwide standardized system
Without common methodology LCA results
 are very difficult to reproduce
Need to do LCA for every product in company
                 Issues with LCA
   Designers and manufacturing engineers find it almost
    impossible to practically work with LCAs because of
       the consistent lack of solid data about all aspects of a
        products life cycle,
       the nearly infinite amount of decisions to make and data to
        deal with,
       the lack of standardization resulting in numerous
        conversions and interpretations,
       the lack of a standard evaluation scheme caused by and
        resulting in different views on what is environmentally
       the approach is currently only suitable for design analysis /
        evaluation rather than design synthesis. LCAs are "static"
        and only deal with a snapshot of material and energy inputs
        and outputs in a dynamic system.
                Value of LCA
 Many environmental choices are about trade-offs
  between different types of burdens
 Without impact assessment these burdens are very
  difficult to compare
 LCA methodology has come a long way since the
  early 1990s

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