Life Cycle Assessment Tomato ketchup Introduction In the industrialised world there is an increasing awareness that the present food consumption patterns are far from sustaina

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Life Cycle Assessment Tomato ketchup Introduction In the industrialised world there is an increasing awareness that the present food consumption patterns are far from sustaina Powered By Docstoc
					Life Cycle Assessment
     Tomato ketchup
              Introduction
In the industrialised world, there is an increasing
awareness that the present food consumption
patterns are far from sustainable. To reduce the
negative environmental effects caused by the
production and consumption of foods, and to
avoid sub-optimizations, systems analysis
studies are needed.

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) which is a method
for analysis and assessment of the
environmental impacts caused by product
systems, is a valuable tool for such studies.
   For foods, the complete product system includes production of
    inputs to agriculture, agricultural production, industrial
    refining,storage and distribution, packaging, the household
    phase and waste management.

   The purpose of an LCA study can be to compare alternative
    products, alternative life cycles for a given product, or the
    relative importance of different life cycle steps.

   In its present state, the LCA method can offer guidance to
    industry and authorities in decision-making; it also furthers
    education.

   Examples of food products that have been studied using LCA
    are wheat, tomatoes, bread, ham, pork and lamb, apples,
    beer and tomato ketchup.
              LCA of tomato ketchup
    The objectives of the improvement assessment of
    ketchup conducted are:

   to illustrate how LCA can be used by the food industry in
    production development;

   to investigate the influence of the geographical location
    of certain processes;

   To find ways to improve the product's environmental
    perfomance.
              Scope definition
The environmental impact categories taken into
consideration are primary energy use, global warming,
acidfication, eutrophication, photooxidant formation and
The generation of radio- active waste.

The study was carried out in close co- operation with a
Swedish producer of tomato ketchup, and an Italian
producer of tomato paste, which made it possible
to obtain much useful site-specfic data.
      The existing product system

Briefly, the tomato paste (28-30 Bx = 31% dry matter) is
produced in the Mediterranean countries, in the areas
where the tomatoes are cultivated.
The tomato paste is packed in aseptic bags, placed in 200L
capacity steel barrels, and transported by ship and lorry to
Sweden where it is further processed (together with other
ingredients and water) into ketchup. The ketchup is
packed in plastic bottles made of polypropylene (PP)
with a barrier layer of ethylenevinylalcohol (EVOH);
each bottle contains 1 kg of ketchup.
The alternative product systems
Based on the experience gained while working with the
screening LCA six alternative product systems (including
processing, packaging and transportation) were
constructed.
             Processing sub-systems
              A1         A2         B       C       D1         D2        D3
 Type of      28-30      28-30      16      16       16         16        16
paste [Bx]

 Sterili-      Yes        Yes       Yes     No       Yes        Yes       Yes
 Zation
Fuel for      Heavy      Calor     Calor   Calor    Heavy      Heavy     Calor
 steam       Fuel Oil     Gas       Gas     Gas    Fuel Oil   Fuel Oil    Gas
product.
Product.      SWE        SWE        ITA     ITA     SWE        SWE       SWE
Location
Seasonal       No         No        No      Yes      No         No        No
product.
Ingred.       SWE        SWE        ITA     ITA     SWE        SWE       SWE
Location
 Type of      Sugar      Sugar     Sugar   Sugar   Sugar      Sugar      Sugar
  sugar      solution   solution
Fuel for      Coal       Coal      Coal    Coal     Coal       Coal      Gas
sugar
product.
      Transportation sub- system
             A1        A2        B       C      D1        D2        D3
Means of       Sea    Train +     -       -      Road    Train +      Sea
transport   tanker+    lorry                    tanker    lorry    tanker+
              lorry                                                  lorry
Distance    5110+     1580+       -       -     1790     1580+     5110+
  (km)       380       250                                205       380
Amount       387       387        -       -      630      630       630
 (kg/t)
Means of     Lorry     Train    Lorry   Lorry   Lorry     Lorry     Train
transport
Distance     450       450      2070    2070     450      450       450
  (km)
  The inventory analysis and impact assessment

Basically, inventory analysis means perfoming material and
energy balances for the systems studied.
• For screening, energy data were collected from specific
Producers (tomato paste, ketchup, raw sugar etc.)
• For packaging materials and transportation, literature
data was used.
An impact assessment was carried out according to the
Nordic Guidelines on LCA for the categories global
warming, acidification, eutrophication and photooxidant
formation.
The contribution to the different environmental impacts were quantified with
weighting factors; for each environmental effect, different sets were applied in
order to test the results.


              A2           B           C          D1          D2         D3
 Primary      1,02        0,95        0,91        0,91        0,90        0,88
 energy
  Global      0,93        1,12        1,07        0,94        0,88        0,82
 warming
 Acidifi-   0,26 min      0,52        0,52        0,70        0,75        0,25
 cation     0,42 max      0,79        0,78        0,82        0,72        0,33
Eutrophi-    1,00 (P)     1,00        1,00        1,00        1,00        1,00
 cation      1,00 (N)     1,02        1,01        1,00        1,00        1,00
  Radio-      1,22        0,45        0,45        0,89        1,06        1,02
  active
  waste
                   Conclusion
LCA is very valuable for incorporating environmental
aspects in the development of more sustainable food
production.
Of the systems studied, the A2 and D3 systems show the
best potential for improvement.
Experience gained from the case study shows that perhaps
even more important than the final LCA results and
conclusions are the knowledge and the understanding of
the system aquired.
Thank you!

				
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posted:11/11/2011
language:English
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