gatsby by 28x4n3X

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									 The Roaring Twenties


It don’t mean a
thing if it ain’t got
that swing...
          Welcome to the Roaring
           Twenties Where….
 the men are dapper;

 the women are looser;

 the hem lines are shorter;

 the alcohol runs from an underground
 river; and
 the guiding drive in life is

              PLEASURE
      The Roaring Twenties: also
              known as
The age of the “Muckrakers;”

the Jazz Age;

the age of “Flappers, Fords, and Fanatics;”
and
the time when America went “From Riches to
Rags.”
    The Roaring Twenties Were Shaped
                  by….
Postwar disillusionment—despite the fact
 that Wilson was the peacemaker hero;
social mobility of the population from West
 to East and the resulting “decay” in morals;
    mass production of many products for the first
     time, such as: cars, food, and clothing
     suddenly made everyone “equal”

prohibition which left the door open for
 opportunists of all types.
               Postwar Disillusionment

America’s involvement in the first World
War shocked many Americans. For
nearly two centuries, America had kept to
itself, staying out of the wars that
periodically rocked most of Europe, Asia,
and Africa. The last large conflict
America engaged in was the Civil War
(1861-1865) and the majority of
Americans had no concept of the realities
of war as it was now fought.
         Postwar Disillusionment (cont’d)

World War I brought about a revolution in
war. For the first time, war was being waged
with rapid-fire machine guns, tanks, heavy
artillery, and nerve gas. Unlike the Civil
War, WWI was mostly trench warfare.
Fatalities from combat were huge but many
also died from unsanitary conditions in the
trenches which bred diseases like malaria,
typhoid, and dysentery.
          Postwar Disillusionment (cont’d)

Many people, particularly those in their 30s,
were changed by the nature of war. Men
returned from war jonesing on the adrenaline
rush of combat; women, having tasted
independence, were exploring all the ways
they controlled their own lives. But mostly,
people were disillusioned with the leaders of
their day for sending so many young men to
their senseless deaths.
                     Social Mobility

 The Declaration of Independence of       Can you
                                           say, yeah
 1776 asserted that:
 all men are created equal and

 endowed with certain unalienable         right…
 rights
 among which are life, liberty, and the
 pursuit of happiness.
              Social Mobility (cont’d)

To achieve these goals, America had
engaged in ever Westward expansion,
stretching from “sea to shining sea.” This
frontier attitude was the driving shape of
the United States emphasizing:
opportunity, individualism, self-reliance,
ambition, and success. The original
American dream focused not only on
material improvement but also spiritual
improvement. Think Little House on the
Prairie.
               Social Mobility (cont’d)

The 1920s, however, reversed this trend.
Two events helped to turn the migration of
the people back to the city. The exhaustion
of farm land by poor agricultural planning
and the introduction of the assembly line.
Many people, who previously would have
been farmers, returned to the cities to work
for such leaders of industry as Ford and
Rockefeller. The American dream, as a
result, became not about a better life but
about wealth.
               Social Mobility (cont’d)

Also occurring at this time was:
a call for women’s suffrage

the Harlem Renaissance

a shift in the definition of class from
 lineage to wealth

 All in all, a large number of changes
 that threatened to challenge the status
 quo and the white male’s dominance.
                           Prohibition

Passed in 1919, the 18th amendment stated:
Section 1. After one year from the ratification
of this article the manufacture, sale, or
transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the
importation thereof into, or the exportation
thereof from the United States and all territory
subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage
purposes is hereby prohibited.
                   Prohibition (cont’d)

Rather than protecting America from the
evils of alcohol, prohibition actually
increased the popularity of alcohol. While
illegal to produce and sell, speakeasies, gin
mills, and do it yourself stills became
common. Drinking actually became an act
of rebellion against everyone and
everything that the younger generation
despised.
                   Prohibition (cont’d)

The demand for alcohol allowed the cagey
entrepreneur to make a fortune literally over
night. Obviously, a profitable market like
this was ready for a takeover. Organized
crime syndicates moved in on the small time
operator and took over his business. It is
estimated that over 500 million dollars went
from the hands of farmers, brewers, and
distributors into the hands of organized
crime during prohibition.
                  Prohibition (cont’d)

Some well known names and events
from the heyday of organized crime.   A tommy gun: the
                                      preferred weapon (or gat)
Al Capone
                                      of choice. Might
St. Valentine’s Day Massacre         Gatsby’s name somehow
                                      be connected? Hmmm…
Elliot Ness

John Dillinger
 Into this time of chaos and upheaval was
   introduced a man by the name of Jay
                  Gatsby.
Better known as The Great Gatsby




             Cover designed specifically for Fitzgerald by
             Francis Cugat.
  So what was the culture of the 1920s?


music and dance

fashion

architecture

sports

language and humor
                 Music and Dance


Jazz ruled as the music of choice with
popular artists such as Duke
Ellington, Al Joleson, and Ruth
Etting. The Swing was gaining in
popularity but the most popular
dance by far was the Charleston.
                             Fashion

Clothes were designed to mimic the
hedonistic pursuit of pleasure. For women,
the matronly hour glass figure was passe.
Instead, the ideal was the boyish slimness of
the flapper. Women cut their hair short into
bobs and appeared in dresses that often
times reached only their knees. Long
strands of pearls that moved freely as the
woman danced were also popular. The
dress of the 1920s was a direct expression
of women’s sexual identity
                        Fashion (cont’d)

Men also dramatically changed their
appearances from only a few years before.
The stylish man dressed in close-cut suits,
often brightly colored, or dressed in
traditional Oxford clothing. He parted his
hair in the middle and slicked it back with
brillantine which left it shiny and smelling like
perfume. The well-dressed man was also
rarely without some sort of affectation like a
top hat or cane.
                       Architecture

Architecture reflected your status
and the excesses of society. Old
wealth tended to downplay their
money, but new money thought the
bigger and more ornate, inside and
out, the better.
                           Sports

Athletics gained in popularity as an
activity and spectator sport. Men and
women alike enjoyed participating in
tennis, swimming, and golf. These
pastimes, of course, were largely
enjoyed by the upper classes in         Jones--one of the best of his
private clubs. The masses were more     day
into watching than participating.
                     Sports (cont’d)

One event, which stood as a symbol of the
degradation of moral values in America, was
the 1919 World Series. The Chicago
White Sox (considered the best team in the
league) lost in 8 games to the Cincinnati
Reds. Seven players, including Shoeless
Joe Jackson, were accused of fixing the
world series and were banned from baseball
for life. Ever since then, the name “Black
Sox” has stuck with the Chicago team.
                Language and Humor

Just like today, the young people of the
1920s had their own language. Many terms
actually have become common usage for
today. See if you can figure out what these
terms mean.


Dumb Dora
Cake Eater
Giggle Water
Everything’s Jake
         Language and Humor (cont’d)

                                      Ratings:
Let’s see how you did Kiddo.
                                      4 right--You’re too hep
Dumb Dora           Stupid girl       3 right--still pretty keen
Cake Eater          Ladies’ man       2 right--bluenose
Giggle Water        Alcoholic drink
                                      1 right--flat tire
Everything’s Jake   Everything’s OK
        Language and Humor (cont’d)


And let’s not forget about humor
Marriage is an institution.
Marriage is love.
Love is blind
Therefore marriage is an institution of
the blind.
          Language and Humor (cont’d)

Even back then there were dumb blond
jokes.


Did you hear the one about the dumb
blond?
How dumb was she?
She was so dumb she wondered how
electric light poles grew in a straight line.
So now you got the real McCoy, the nitty-
gritty on the 20s. I ain’t telling you no bunk;
just the bee’s-knees truth. But before you
scram, we got a little bull session to do--
some things to watch for in your reading.
So grab some of your bubble water and sit
back for the final drag.
               Things to watch for

The symbolism of colors:
Red white gold green blue
yellow

The power and allure of
money (both good and bad):
Themes:
           The myths of the American
            dream
           Reality vs. illusion
           Self-discovery
           Violence and Carelessness
Now Scram. Get Outta Here.

								
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