Kinship

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					Kinship Dynamics
           What is kinship?
• Sense of being related to another person(s)
• Set by rules (sometimes laws)
• Often taken for granted as being “natural”
  rather than cultural
• Cultures define “blood” relative differently
               Kinship
Includes relationships through blood and
  through marriage.
Functions:
• Provides continuity between
  generations.
• Defines a group on whom a person can
  rely for aid.
            Descent Groups
• Affiliations between children and parents.
Functions:
• Organize domestic life.
• Enculturate children.
• Allow transfer of property.
• Carry out religious ritual.
• Settle disputes.
     Principles of Classifying Kin
•   Generation
•   Relative age
•   Lineality vs. Collaterality
•   Gender
•   Consanguineal vs. Affinal kin
•   Sex of linking relative
•   Side of the family
                    KIN TYPES VS. KIN TERMS


¨    KIN TYPES: The basic relationships anthropologists use to describe the
               actual contents of kinship categories.

    1. Kin types are supposedly culture-free (ETIC) elements : what WE call
                            these people.
         2. Kin types are based upon biological relationships.


    ¨ KIN TERMS: The labels for categories of kin that contain one or
                      more kin types (EMIC)

                In other words….what THEY call people.
                                KIN TYPES
A kin type is used to designate each individual relationship e.g. Mother, father,
 mother’s brother, mother’s sister.

Each relationship between kin is described by a sequence of primary
  components strung together to indicate biological relationships.
  Mother     =M
  Father     = F
  Sister     = Z
  Brother    = B           Mother’s Sister = MZ
  Daughter   = D           Mother’s Sister’s Daughter = MZD
  Son        = S           Sister’s Son = ZS
  Husband    = H
  Wife       = W
                   KIN TERMS
• Kin terms are specific to particular cultures
• Uncle, cousin, grandfather ~ these terms are
  peculiar to English terminology.

THESE ARE NOT KIN TYPES BECAUSE THEY
 CAN INCLUDE MORE THAN ONE
 RELATIONSHIPS: They are KIN TERMS!

• Kin Categories are not specific to biological
  relations.
                 KIN VS. KINDREDS


KIN: All those individuals who are considered to be related to
you; all members of your extended family.

KINDREDS: A concept different than that of “Kin”. Kindred
are those to whom one is related and who come together for
support and for special social occasions.
         COGNATIC and UNILINEAL
Cognatic descent rules: both male and female parentage are
  used to establish relationships

   – Bilateral descent: The most common cognatic rule

             Bilateral descent takes into account descent evenly on both
             the male and female sides


   – Ambilineal Descent: rather “Ambiguous”. Depending
     on the social benefits (such as tracing ones lineage to a
     famous distant ancestor) the lineage is a mix of male
     and female relatives.

Unilineal Descent rules: rules restrict parental links
  exclusively to males or exclusively to females.
Kinship Characteristics
      female

      male

      deceased female

      deceased male

      female “ego” of the diagram

      male “ego” of the diagram
Kinship Relationships
      is married to

      is cohabiting with
      is divorced from
      is separated from

      adopted-in female

      adopted-in male

      is descended from
      Is the sibling of
Kinship Symbols
Lineal vs. Collateral Kin
           Unilineal descent
• Basis of kinship in 60% of world’s cultures
• Most associated with pastoralism,
  horticulture and agricultural systems
          Unilineal Descent
• Descent based on links through paternal or
  maternal line.
Advantages:
• Forms nonoverlapping descent groups that
  perpetuate themselves over time even
  though membership changes.
• Provide clear group membership for
  everyone in the society.
Matrilateral vs Patrilateral Kin
              Patrilineage
• Descent is traced through male lineage.
• Inheritance moves from father to son, as
  does succession to office.
• Man’s position as father and husband is the
  most important source of male authority.
• Example: Nuer or Sudan.
Patrilineal Descent
           • Found among 44% of all
           cultures
           • Kinship is traced
           through the male line
           • Males dominate position,
           power and property
           •Girls are raised for other
           families
           •Found in East and South
           Asia and Middle East
Patrilineal Descent, Egocentric, Male Ego
              Matrilineage
• Descent is traced through the female line.
• Children belong to the mother’s descent
  group.
• The inclusion of a husband in the household
  is less important.
• Women usually have higher status.
• Example: Hopi.
Matrilineal Decent
          • Found among 15% of all
          cultures
          • Kinship is traced
          through the female line
          • Women control land and
          products
          •Found in the Pacific,
          Australia, small parts of
          Mediterranean coast
          • Declining though
          capitalism
Matrilineal Descent, Egocentric, Female Ego
    Matrilineal vs. Patrilineal.




Patrilineal Kin ~ linked through males

Matrilineal Kin ~ linked through femalesal Kin - linked through females

Cross relatives ~ cross sex linked
Counting Cousins
           Bilineal Descent
• Descent is traced equally from both parents
• Married couples live away from their
  parents
• Inheritance is allocated equally between
  siblings
• Dominant in foraging and industrial cultures
Egocentric Bilateral Kindred
Dual Descent
 COGNATIC AMBILINEAL DESCENT
AMBILINEAL DESCENT
• The ambiguities of bilateral descent are not useful for
  establishing fixed obligations, inheritance etc.
• In cases where it is important to be linked to an ancestor
  albeit through complex means, ambilineal descent rules
  often occur.
The establishment of a cognatic ambilineal descent
  rule means that a lineage must be decided upon:

COGNATIC LINEAGE
• the group of individuals who claim relation through the
  various combinations of male and female relatives. The
  membership in the lineage will look the same for all
  members.
         FICTIVE KINSHIP

A series of relationships, culturally
determined, which are not based upon birth
or marriage
      LINEAGE SEGMENTATION

• In very large and complex lineages, divisions are
  recognized which indicate degrees of close relationship,
  as well as potential obligations to others in the lineage.

• Maximal Lineage: All members distant and near
• Minimal Lineage: Only three generations

• CLAN: Unilineal descent group descended from a real
  or fixtive ancestor through real or fictive relationships.


• Patriclan or Matriclan
                                           Phratries and Moieties
      Some societies group their clans into even larger-scale unilineal descent groups called
   phratries. As with clans, the actual genealogical links are not clear and the phratry ancestors
                                        are usually mythical.




     Entire societies may be divided into two large unilineal descent groups that have reciprocal
 responsibilities and privileges. These groups are known as moieties      (from the French word for
   half). The distinction between phratries and moieties is not simply a matter of the number of
groupings. Moieties are intended to produce a balanced opposition within a society. The constantly
 reinforced social and economic exchanges between them results in economic equality and political
                                               stability.




 Societies with moieties usually consist of a few thousand people or less. In contrast, societies with
 phratries are often larger. As in the case of clans and phratries, moiety members usually cannot
           demonstrate all of the descent links back to their supposed common ancestor.
   Membership in unilineages, clans, moieties, and phratries is inherited and usually continues
  throughout life. As a result, these unilineal descent groups often function successfully as long-
                   term joint property owners and economic production teams.
                     [Source: Palomar Department of Behavioral Science http://anthro.palomar.edu/kinship/kinship_4.htm]
    Kinship Classification and
             Culture
• Outlines rights and obligations.
• Specifies how people act toward each other.
• Determines the types of social groups that
  are formed.
• Regulates the systems of marriage and
  inheritance.
           Systematic Kinship Terminologies

There are Six basic classes of kinship systems. All known kinship patterns are
                    variants of one of these basic systems.


                      1. Sudanese
                      2. Hawaiian
                      3. Eskimo
                      4. Iroquois
                      5. Omaha
                      6. Crow
                Sudanese Kinship System




Sudanese Naming System ~ The most descriptive system, named after
   the groups that use them in Africa (primarily Ethiopia).
• The Sudanese system is completely descriptive, assigning a different
   kin term to each distinct relative
• Eight different cousin terms, and distinguishes between F, FB, MB
• There are technically no general categories
• Often associated with societies with distinct class divisions
                  Eskimo Kinship System




Inuit (Eskimo) System – Typically found among hunting-and-gathering
       people in North America and correlated with bilateral descent.
   • There is an emphasis on bilateral descent
   • No division is made between patrilineal and matrilineal kin
   • Nuclear family members are assigned unique labels not extended
       to any other relatives.
   • More distant collateral relatives are grouped together on the basis
       of distance. This practice is called Collateral Merging
                   Hawaiian Kinship System




Hawaiian Naming System – This is the least descriptive system.
  • Emphasizes distinctions between generations
  • Merges together many different relatives into a few categories
  • Ego differentiates relatives only on the basis of sex and
      generation.
  • Reflects the equality between the mother’s and the       father’s sides
      of the family.

   Traditional Hawaiian society was highly stratified in terms of
   commoners and the royalty. Membership in a particular lineage and
   age was important for social standing. Your collateral position in the
   lineage was somewhat less important.
                   Iroquois Kinship System




Iroquois Naming System ~ A system common in unilineal descent
systems where it is important to distinguish between Father’s and
Mother’s Kin.
    • Based upon the principle of BIFURCATE MERGING
    • The same term of reference is used for father and father's brother
        (1) as well as mother and mother's sister (2).
    • Parallel cousins from both sides of the family are lumped together
        with siblings but distinguished by gender (5 = male and 6 =
        female).
    • All cross cousins are similarly lumped together and distinguished
        by gender (7 = male and 8 = female).
                    Omaha Kinship System




Omaha Naming System - found among patrilineal peoples including the
Native American group of that name.
   • An example of a bifurcate merging system
   • Patrilineally based kin naming system in which relatives are lumped
       together on the basis of descent and gender.
   • Siblings and parallel cousins of the same gender are given the same
       term of reference (5 = male and 6 = female).
   • Father and father's brother also have the same kin term (1).
   • Other people in ego's mother's patrilineage are lumped across
       generations (2 = female and 4 = male).
   • This system is common in unilineal descent systems where it is
       important to distinguish between Father’s and Mother’s kin.
                  Crow Kinship System




The Crow Naming System- is named for the Crow Indians of
North America. It is the matrilineal equivalent of the Omaha
system.
    • Matrilineally based kin naming system in which siblings and
    parallel cousins of the same gender are given the same term of
    reference (5 = male and 6 = female) as are mother and
    mother's sister (2).
    • Other people in ego's father's matrilineage are lumped across
    generations (1 = male and 3 = female), reflecting the
    comparative unimportance of the father's side of the family in
    societies using the Crow system.
              Divorce
                     Bilineal descent
                     cultures have a
Research             more fluid system
suggests divorce     of joining and
rate is lower in     breaking up
unilineal descent
cultures             In multi-spouse
                     marriages, two
                     wives are more
                     stable than three or
Gender affects       more
ability to divorce
   Widowhood and Remarriage
• In some cultures, women’s position as a
  widow is often marked symbolically
  – modest clothes
  – asexual
  – little food intake
• Remarriage is dependent on economic
  factors and gender expectations
           Household Forms
• Single-person
• Nuclear
  – dominant in foraging and industrial cultures
• Polygamous and Extended
  – dominant in horticultural, pastoral societies
  – household may contain 50 members
  – will decline with industrialization?
    Households as Social Units
• Spouse/Partner relationships
  – studies suggest marital satisfaction is strongly
    correlated to sexual activity
• Sibling relationships
• Domestic violence
  – Males as perpetrators, women as victims is
    found in all cultures
  – More common where men control wealth
  Households in Social Change
• International immigration
  – challenges for parents and siblings
• Shrinking households in the US
• Increasing move away
  from nuclear households in industrialized
  cultures
POSTMARITAL LOCALITY PATTERNS ~ RESIDENCE
                 RULES
   For the most part where a married couple or family resides parallels their general kinship pattern

   AMBILOCALITY: The couple may stay with either the wife’s or husband’s domestic group
   •  Relatively permanent resident relations
   •  Most often associated with cognatic lineages and clans
   •  Sets the stage for more complex permanent economic/social groups (Why?)

  BILOCALITY: The couple may switch between the wife’s and husband’s group
   •   Relatively frequent moves between wife and husband’s sides
   •   Most often associated with bilateral descent in mobil societies
   •   Makes for wide-spread informal relationships

  NEOLOCALITY: The couple does not reside with either family group.

  PATRILOCALITY: With husbands father

  MATRILOCALITY: With wife’s mother

  AVUNCULOCALITY: With husband’s mother’s brother

  AMITALOCALITY: With wife’s father’s sister

  Uxorilocality: with the wife’s kin

  Virilocality: with the husband’s kin

				
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posted:11/11/2011
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