-For Health Practitioners
Volume 1, Edition 6
Mycology News is a newsletter for health care professionals dedicated to the
dissemination of information on the clinical use of mushroom-nutrition.
In this sixth edition, we revisit the importance of diagnosing and using
mushroom nutrition to enhance the body´s ability to fight the Epstein Barr Virus
(EBV) in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS / ME). We provide clinical
information on the use of Coriolus versicolor supplementation in HIV+ patients
and we provide information on the potential enzyme therapy provided by
mushroom nutrition in oncology.
When not diagnosed, the Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) can become responsible for an
array of outcomes that have only recently been documented:
Epstein Barr Virus (EBV)------------------------Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
(*Please see the article "The Virus-Cancer Link" outlined in Mycology News 4 which is available on
The Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) is a DNA virus responsible for glandular fever. While the
virus is a member of the herpes virus family and quite common, recent research has
linked EBV to the development of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Fibromyalgia and
subsequently to Rheumatoid Arthritis (1).
Breast cancer, a multiple-step disease has also been linked to EBV. (2,3,4).
In some countries the overlap between regions with high incidences of EBV-associated
lymphoma and a high frequency of male breast cancer has been reported (3)(5). EBV-
associated lymphomas have been reported to be localised in the breast. (6)(7)
In two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) studies. EBV was observed in 20%-40% of
breast tumours assessed. Labrecque et al. identified EBV encoded small RNA1 (EBER-
1) in a fraction of malignant cells in six different breast cancer tumours while Bonnett et
al demonstrated the presence of EBV gnome in a large subset of brest cancers (3)(8).
The virus was restricted to tumour cells and was more frequently associated with the
most aggressive tumours (9).
The aforementioned links between the EBV virus and aforementioned outcomes have
only been confirmed since 1998 (10). However, the implications for preventative
medicine and preventative nutrition in cancer care are significant.
If health care practitioners commence using diagnostic techniques to detect EBV viral
loads in their patients with chronic fatigue illnesses, then both the patient and the
practitioner can jointly participate in assessing whether immune enhancing
supplementation can lead to both a decrease in EBV viral load, and a subsequent
decrease in fatigue and pain symptoms.
As outlined in Mycology News 4 and 5, when working with fifteen CFS patients with
Coriolus versicolor supplementation, Dr Monro noted significant increases in Natural
Killer (NK) cell count. Her patients also noted increased sense of energy. (See
http://www.mycologyresearch.com for copies of Mycology 4 and 5).
(1) Blaschke et al. Epstein-Barr Virus May Play a Role in the Development of Rheumatoid Arthritis. J
Rheumatol 2000, 27:866-873.
(2) Wang F. Pathogenesis of Epstein-Barr virus infection and associated malignancies:development of
new primate models. Presented at the 37th Annual Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America;
Philadelphia, Pa;November 18-21, 1999. Session 61, S102.
(3) Labrecque LG, Barnes DM, Fentiman IS, Griffin BE, Epstein-BAR virus in epithelial cell tumors: a
breast cancer study. Cancer Rsearch 1995; 55:39-45.D F
(4) Richardson et al, Is breast cancer caused by late exposure to a common virus? Med Hypotheses
(5) Sasco Aj, Lownfels AB, Pasker-de Jong P. Epidemiology of male breast cancer. A meta-analysis of
published case-contolled studies and discussion of selected aetiological factors." Int J Cancer
(6) Abhyankar SH, Chiang KY, Mc Guirk JP, Pati AR, Godder KT, Welsh JÁ et al. Late onset Epstein-
Bar virus-associated lymphoproliferative disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplant presenting as
breast masses. Bone Marrow Transplant.1998;21:295-297
(7) Koulibaly M Diallo SB, Wann AR, Diallo MB, Charlotte F, Le Charpentier Y. Apparently isolated
case of African Burkett lymphoma of the breast localized in the breast (letter) Ann Pathol 1998;18:237-8.
(8) Luqmani YA, Shousha S. Presence of Epstein-Barr virus in breast carcinoma. Int J Oncol
(9) Bonnet M, Guinebretiere JM Kremmer E, Grunewald V, Benhamou E, Contesso G, Joab I-
Detection of Epstein-Barr Virus in Invase Breast Cancers"-Journal of the National Cancer Institutes, Vol
91, No. 16, August 18, 1999.
(10) Dr. Kent Sepkowitz Virus and Cancer:Finding the Links- MD Infectious Diseases Society of
America-37th Annual Meeting Day 3-November 20, 1999.
Chronic Fatigue Illnesses
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Fibromyalgia Syndrome and Other Fatigue
by Prof. Garth L. Nicolson-The Institute for Molecular Medicine -Tel_1-714-379-
2082 / Fax:1-714-379-2082- firstname.lastname@example.org
Professor Garth L.Nicolson is the President and Chief Scientific Officer of the Institute
for Molecular Medicine in Huntington Beach, California. He was formally the David
Bruton Jr. Chair in Cancer Research and the Professor and Chairman at the Univeristy of
Texa M.D.Anderson Cancer Center in Houston.
Chronic fatigue is reported by 20% of all patients seeking medical care and is
considered as a nonspecific sign that is associated with many well known medical
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME), and Fibromyalgia
Syndrome (FMS) patients suffer from complex overlapping signs and symptoms. CFS is
primarily characterized by persisting or relapsing fatigue without previous history of
comparable symptoms that does not resolve with rest. In these patients other clinical
conditions are absent that can explain the signs and symptoms such as malignancies or
In contrast, FMS patients have overall muscle pain, tenderness, and weakness as
primary complaints, but they have most if not all of the commonly found signs and
symptoms for CFS. We previously proposed that CFS/ME patients might be suffering
from chronic infections that can cause, in part, their complex signs and symptoms. For
example, systemic mycoplasmal infections can cause chronic fatigue, muscle pain and
a variety of additional signs and symptoms, some of which are related to dysfunctional
immune responses and in extreme cases autoimmune-like disorders.
Some mycoplasmas can invade virtually every human tissue and can compromise the
immune system, permitting opportunistic infections by other bacteria, viruses, fungi and
yeast. When mycoplasmas exit certain cells, such as synovial cells, nerve cells, among
others that can be infected, they can stimulate autoimmune response. Our recently
published studies demonstrated a possible link between mycoplasmal infections and
CFS and FMS, since we found high frequencies of mycoplasmal infections in these
patients. Previously we examined patients with chronic illnesses for the presence of
We found that about one half of patients with Gulf War Illness and two third of patients
with CFS/ME and FMS were positive for mycoplasmal infections in their blood. The Gulf
War Veterans suffer from signs and symptoms similar to patients diagnosed with CFS
and FMS. They can be treated using antibiotics effective against mycoplasmal
infections, and once they recover, their blood is no longer positive for the presence of
mycoplasmal infections. Our recent results indicate that Rheumatoid Arthritis is also
associated with mycoplasmal infections. (see 'Autoimmune Diseases' on our website
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome CFS
Myalgic Encephalomyelitis ME
Fibromyalgia Syndrome FM
Rheumatoid Arthritis RA
Recent reports and publications indicate that in addition to mycoplasmal infections,
CFS/ME and FMS patients have other chronic infections caused by other intracellular
bacteria and viruses. For example, patients with Lyme Disease, caused by intracellular
Borrelia infections, have been diagnosed with CFS/ME. Also, CFS/ME and FMS
patients can have intracellular Chlamydia species and HHV-6 viral infections. Most of
these patients had multiple infections, and they can also have infections by other
bacteria that enter their bodies through "leaky gut" problems. Chronically ill patients
often have inflammatory bowel syndrome and other gut problems, and this can allow
pathogenic bacteria to enter their systems.
Patients with CFS/ME and FMS can also have viral infections that complicate their
conditions and cause morbidity. Such infections can occur with or without the bacterial
infections described above.
Viruses that have been associated with CFS/ME and FMS are Human Herpes Virus-6
(HHV-6) and Cytomeglovirus (CMV). These viruses have been found at high incidence
in chronically ill patients, and especially those with CFS/ME.
Patients with CFS/ME or FMS can have predominantly intracellular bacterial infections,
predominantly viral infections, or a combination of intracellular bacterial and viral
infections. This may be one reason why the underlying causes of these chronic
illnesses are so difficult to determine and effectively treat. The other reason could be
the persistent nature of the infections and their ability to hide inside cells where they are
essentially refractory to immune system responses, their slow growing natures and their
relative insensitivity to therapeutic drugs (see references below).
1 The Pathogenesis and Treatment of Mycoplasmal Infections
Antimicrob. Infect. Dis. Newsl. 1999; 17(11) : 81-88
2 Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Mycoplasmal Infections in Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue
Syndromes: Relationship to Gulf War Illness Biomed. Therapy 1998; 16: 266-271
3 Mycoplasmal Infections in Chronic Illnesses: Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndromes, Gulf War
Illness, HIV-AIDS and Rheumatoid Arthritis Med. Sentinel 1999; 4: 172-176
4 Multiple Mycoplasmal Infections Detected in Blood of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Fibromyalgia
Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 1999 ; 18 : 859-865
5 Identification And Treatment Of Chronic Infections In CFIDS, Fibromyalgia Syndrome and Rheumatoid
Arthritis CFIDS Chronicle 1999; 12(3): 19-21
6 Role of Mycoplasmal Infections in Fatigue Illnesses: Chronic Fatigue and Fibromyalgia Syndromes,
Gulf War Illness and Rheumatoid Arthritis J. Chronic Fatigue Syndr. 2000; 6(3/4):23-39
7Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Infections in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Fibromyalgia Syndrome
and Gulf War Illness
International Journal of Occupational Medicine, Immunology and Toxicology 1996 ; 5 : 69-78
8 Diagnosis and integrative treatment of intracellular bacterial infections in Chronic Fatigue and
Fibromyalgia Syndromes, Gulf War Illness, Rheumatoid Arthritis and other chronic illnesses. Clin. Pract.
Alt. Medicine 2000; 1(2): 92-102
9 Examination of mycoplasmas in blood of 565 Chronic Illness patients by polymerase chain reaction.
Intern. J. Med. Biol. Environ. 2000; 28(1): 15-23.
1Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Myalgic Encephalomyelitis, Fibromyalgia Syndrome and Gulf War Illness.
2 New Treatments for Chronic Infections Found in CFS, Fibromyalgia Syndrome and Gulf War
IllnessesAmerican Academy of Environmental Medicine Newsletter (Winter 1997)
3 Mycoplasmal Infections in Blood from Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome,Fibromyalgia Syndrome
or Gulf War Illness
International CFS Congress, Sydney, Australia, 1998
4 Identification and Treatment of Chronic Infections in Fibromyalgia Syndrome FMS Newsletter
5 The Role of Chronic Infections in the Maintenance and Progression of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome,
Fibromyalgia Syndrome, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Gulf War Illness
ME/CFS Congress, Sydney, Australia, 1999
6 Identification and Treatment of Chronic Infections in CFIDS, Fibromyalgia Sydrome and Rheumatoid
Arthritis Patients that Cause Morbidity and Illness Progression Doctor's Educational Booklet, CFIDS
Assoc. of America
7 New Treatments for Chronic Infections Found in Fibromyalgia Syndrome, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome,
Rheumatoid Arthritis and Gulf War Illnesses Kuwait University Faculty of Science and Medicine Newsletter
8 Chronic Infections in Fibromyalgia Syndrome: Sources of Morbidity and Illness Progression.
Fibromyalgia Survivor 2000
9.Recommendations for Diagnostic Laboratory Testing
10 / CFS National Radio Program with Dr. Roger G. Mazlen interviewing Prof. Garth Nicolson
Diagnostic Section: EBV Diagnostics
When using mushroom nutrition with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) ,
Fibromyalgia and Rheumatoid Arthritis patients, the health care practitioner
should be prepared to monitor any changes in Epstein Barr Virus over the course
of the supplementation period. The following is a case study in the use of
diagnostic monitoring when using Coriolus versicolor supplementation
(Coriolus-MRL) in Spanish a CFS / Fibromyalgia patient.
Case Study: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome-Testing Epstein Bar Virus while using
Coriolus versicolor Supplementation.
Maria Carmen Martinez (L.Ac-TCM) C/Garrabia, 5 17150-San Greorio, Gerona-Spain -
In the course of treating Patient A (female, 40 years) with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, I noted
the symptoms of the patient prior to Coriolus supplementation and over the course of two
months of supplementation
Female and 40 years old, Patient A arrived in my office on April 12 , 2001 with the following
-Extreme fatigue -Insomnia -Poor memory
-Tire easily -Pain in joints -General discomfort
With these symptoms, the local public health authorities diagnosed Patient A with Fibromyalgia.
Coriolus-MRL Supplementation Schedule*
On the 9th of July, we began Coriolus-MRL (500 mg) supplementation:
-6 tablets (3 grams daily) for first 15 days
-3 tablets (1.5 grams daily) for next 61 days
1 Blood Serum Immunoglobin G 1.010 mg d/L 1.060 mg d/L
Technical Reference:700-1.600 mg/dL
2 Blood Serum Immunoglobin M 133 mg/dL 133 mg/dL
Technical Reference:40-230 mg/dL
3 Blood Serum IgG Anti Virus Epstein-Barr (H) 4,6 (H) 3,2
Absència d´ Anticossos:Index inferior a 1,00
4 Blood Serum IgM Anti Virus Epstein- 0,3 (index) 0,3 (index)
Absència d´ Anticossos:Index inferior a 1,10
Laroratori Rispau-Passeig Dèn Blay, 55
Update-October 3rd, 2001
In this visit the patient commented on feeling better in the following manner:
-more energy to complete day to day activities
-less headaches and less frequent in number of headaches
-sleep during night more peaceful, with no need to nap in day
-joint pain is less and not as constant.
There was a 30% decrease in Blood Serum AC IgG Anti-Virus Epstein Barr from July 9 to
September 14th, 2001.
* In the United Kingdom, Breakspear Pathologies offers EBV virus testing services to health care
practitioners and their patients. For more information, please contact Mr.Alister Grant at Tel:44-
1442-261-333 or Fax:44-1442-266-388.
The Effectiveness of Coriolus versicolor Supplementation in the
Treatment of Secondary Phenomena Associated with HIV.
PZZA San Theodoro, 27100, Pavia, Italy
G.Rotolo, The effectiveness of Coriolus versicolor in the treatment of secondary phenomena
associated with HIV.-Poster 8.4-Submitted to the 10th International Congress of Mucosal
Immunology, June 27-July 1,1999. Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Background: Immune enhancement properties of select plants and mushrooms have been
studied by Japanese researchers in the 1960´s, with the majority of mycological research
focused on extracts derived from both Ganoderma lucidium (reishi) and Lentinula edodes
In the late 1960´s, a hot water extract of Lentinula edodes (Berk)Sing. edible mushroom,
completely inhibited the growth of sarcoma 180 implanted subcutaneously in ICR mice.
From the extract, Professor Goro Chihara isolated and purified a polysaccharide, which showed
marked antitumour activity, and named the polysaccharide Lentinan (1). However, Lentinan was
proven to be too toxic for long term clinical use (2).
It was the search for a mycological extract that had less toxicity and fewer side effects than
Lentinan that led researchers at Kureha Chemical Industry Company to focus on the
effectiveness of the oral administration of Polyporaceae (one of the Basidiomycetes) on
stomach cancer patients.
Kureha screened over 200 species of the fruit bodies of the Basidiomycetes for their antitumor
activity against various tumour cells, including sarcoma 180 and found several promising
Polyporaceae strains (3). Among these strains Coriolus versicolor (Fr.) Quel (kawaratake), was
considered to be the most suitable
for further fractionation due to its high antitumour activity and stability during serial cultivation
Extracts of cultured mycelia of Coriolus versicolor demonstrated antitumour activity comparable
to that of the fruitbody. In 1971, the active principle was precipitated from extracts of cultured
hyphae of Coriolus versicolor (Fr.) Quel (CM-101 strain) with saturated ammonium sulfate,
desalted and named PSK or Krestin (5). PSK has been reported to induce host-mediated
antitumor activity (6).
(1) “Medical Aspects of Lentinan Isolated From Lentinus Edodes (Berk) Sing”-Goro Chihara,
Biotechnology Research Centre, Teikyo University, Nogawa 907, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki 213, Japan.
Chapter 27-Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products-Preceedings of the Second International
Conference-University Park, Pennsylvania June 9-12, 1996. Edited by D.J. Royce.
(2) Translation of “Cancer Immunotherapy 1977”-Takeo Mori, Tadaaki Sakai, Ichiji Itoh, Tokyo
Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, Published by Life Science August 5th, 1977.
(3) “Diverse Biological Activity of PSK (Krestin), A Protein-Bound Polysaccharide from Coriolus versicolor
(Fr.) Quel-Hiroshi Sakagami and MinoruTakeda-First Department of Biochemistry, School of
Medicine, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 142 Japan, Page 237 Chapter
25-Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products-Proceedings of the Second International Conference-
University Park, Pennsylvania June 9-12, 1996, Edited by D.J. Royce.
(4) Ibid Page 237
(5) Ibid Page 237
(6) Ibid Page 237
Aim of Study
To assess the efficacy of non-fractionalized Coriolus versicolor supplementation in HIV+
patients. The principal parameters being white blood count (WBC) and quality of life
assessment related to fatigue.
-Open label study in Italy in three (3) patients.
-Patients over 35 years
-White Blood Count (WBC) inferior to 4000.
Measurements of white blood count (WBC) were taken prior to Coriolus
supplementation, 15 days after initial supplementation and 45 days after initial
Patients were interviewed during the Coriolus supplementation period, in order to assess
changes in perceived quality of life, with reference to fatigue.
Dosages commenced at 3 grams (6 tablets x 500 mg) per day and were maintained for
15 days and then decreased to 1.5 grams (3 tablets x 500 mg). The 1.5 gram
supplementation was maintained for 30 days.
1). After 15 days of 3.0 grams (per day) of Coriolus supplementation, there was an average
increase of 27% in WBC, in all three (3) patients (Table 1).
Before 14 Days After +/- %
Patient A-Male 4000 4800 +800 20.0%
(37 years old)
Patient B-Female 3100 4150 +1050 33.9%
(38 years old)
Patient D-Male 3150 4000 +850 27.0%
(41 years old)
Table 1-Italy-G. Rotolo-Investigating the white blood cell characteristics of the three patients, it
was noted that there was an average increase in white blood cell count of 27% within the first
fifteen (15) days of 3.0 grams of Coriolus versicolor supplementation.
2). With a 50% reduction in supplementation (from 3.0 grams to 1.5 grams per day), after thirty
(30) days, WBC increased on average a further 14.1% (Table 2).
14 Days After 30 Days After +/- %
Patient A 4800 5000 +200 4.2%
Patient B 4150 4900 +750 18.1%
Patient D 4000 4800 +800 20.0%
Table 2. Italy-G.Rotolo. When the Coriolus supplementation was reduced from 3.0 grams to 1.5 grams per
day, after 30 days at the reduced supplementation, the average increase in white blood count was 14.1%.
3). Over the 45 day initial Coriolus supplementation period, with the two phases in
supplementation, WBC increased by 45.2% (Table 3).
Before After +/- %
Patient A 4000 5000 +1000 25.0%
Patient B 3100 4900 +1800 58.1%
Patient D 3150 4800 +1650 52.4%
Table 3-Italy-G.Rotolo-After 45 days of Coriolus supplementation (Days 1-15 at 3.0 grams per
day and from days 16 to 45 at 1.5 grams per day, the total percentage increase in white blood
count (WBC) was 45.2%.
4). Patients commented on increased energy and improved quality of life during the course of
Overall patients expressed a remarkable feeling of increased energy while taking
Coriolus supplementation as compared to not taking Coriolus supplementation. This
observation included the significant increases in WBC.
Of further note, with a 50% reduction in supplementation (3.0 grams per day to 1.5
grams per day), after 30 days, WBC continued to increase by 14.1%, indicating that Coriolus
supplementation nutrition may play a role in host mediated immune response.
Taking into account the limitations of such a small sample size, we have a curiosity.
Further research is required to confirm that Coriolus versicolor supplementation is an effective
adjuvant nutrition therapy for HIV+ patients. In this regard we invite other researchers to
explore the hypothesis that Coriolus versicolor plays a role in initiating host-mediated response.
The results of this open label study indicate that Coriolus versicolor supplementation may
enhance white blood count (WBC) in HIV+ patients. Further research is required to explore this
curiosity in greater detail.
The Role of Mushroom Nutrition as A Delivery Agent for
Enzyme Therapy in Cancer Care?-Chemical and Biological
Properties in Mushroom Nutrition
Professor Amin Karmali-Biotechnology Section,
Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa.
Rua Conselheiro Emídio Navarro
(Tel:00-351-21-831-7052; Fax:00-351-21-831-7267 / email@example.com)
Recently, mushrooms have become the target of studies trying to determine if fungi
have nutritional benefits which could improve the body´s immune function (1).
In Japan, when faced with a cancer patient, Japanese medical doctors not only use
radical surgery, as well as radiation or chemotherapy, but also nutritional management
(immunotherapy). The use of mushroom nutrition as part of nutritional management to
enhance the body´s immune function is considered standard practice in Japan and in
other Asian cultures.
Several researchers have demonstrated that protein-bound polysacharide complexes
such as PSK or PSP, derived from Coriolus versicolor ; or Lentinan derived from
Letinula edodes are the most important component responsible for immunoenhancing
and anti-tumour activities. In fact PSP is responsible for oxidative stress relief in cancer
patients because it mimicks superoxide dismutase activity due to a small peptide
(10KD) present in PSP. (2)
Furthermore, it is a biological response modifier because it induces increased levels of
gamma-interferon, interleukin-2, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and T-cell
proliferation in experimental animals (3, 4). On the other hand, SOD plays an important
role in protecting cells against superoxide radical (-O2) damages and overproduction of
-O2 in vivo.
However, other factors may be also involved in these biological processes which have
not been fully investigated. Mushrooms contain a number of enzymes which may
participate in several clinical conditions such as tumour and cancer invasion and
cardiovascular disorders. It has been known that enzyme therapy plays an important
role in several clinical conditions such as in cancer treatment, malignant lymphoma and
cardiovascular disorders (5, 6). These mushroom enzymes mentioned below are
thought to prevent oxidative stress as well as to inhibit cell growth in several diseases.
Upon analyzing the enzyme, protein and sugar content in Coriolus versicolor,
Cordyceps sinensis, Ganoderma lucidium (Reishi) and Grifola frondosa (Maitake) we
found the following results:
Maitake Reishi Coriolus Cordyceps
Enzyme, Protein and Sugar MRL MRL MRL MRL
Analysis Per Tablet of MRL Product
1 Protein content 20.2 mg 22.2 mg 17.3 mg 8.4 mg
2 Reducing sugars 12.6 mg 24.0 mg 14.8 mg 265.6 mg*
3 Protein-bound polysaccharide 79.5 mg 69.5 mg 91.5 mg 82.1 mg
4 Peroxidase activity 40.2 mU 11.2 mU 67.2 mU 57.2 mU
5 Laccase activity 411.5 mU 451.5 mU 521.5 mU
6 Glucoamylase / 1.6 U 2.7 U 6.9 U
/ Beta-glucansase activity
7 Protease activity 4.9 U 4.4 mU 5.9 U 5.6 U
8 Glucose 2-oxidase activity 8.2 U 49.5 mU
*Reduced sugars due to use
of 200 mg of maltodextrin in
Background on the aforementioned enzymes is provided below:
a) Laccase (benzenediol:oxygen oxidoreductase; EC 220.127.116.11) is present in active form
and catalyses the reduction of dioxygen to water as well as the oxidation of a wide range
of phenolic and related compounds. This enzyme also catalyses the oxidation of 3-
hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA) into cinnabarinic acid (CA) which is of great clinical
interest because 3-HAA is produced in large quantities by interferon-y primed
mononuclear phagocytes (7). Furthermore, 3-HAA has been shown to act as a powerful
scavenger of reactive oxygen species. On the other hand, cinnabarinic acid (CA) is one
of the major products of oxidation of 3-HAA suggesting that laccase may prevent
oxidative damage in mammalian tissues. In a similar manner, the mammalian protein,
ceruloplasmin which like laccase, is a member of the blue copper oxidase class of
enzymes also catalysed the conversion of 3-HAA into CA.
On the other hand, this enzyme also plays an important role in biodegradation of
environmental pollutants such as dechlorination of chlorophenolic compounds.
b. Pyranose oxidase also known as glucose 2 oxidase pyranose:oxygen 2-
oxidoreductase; EC 18.104.22.168) catalyses the oxidation of several aldopyranoses
producing hydrogen peroxide and 2-keto-D-glucose (8,9). Several species of
basidiomycetes express this enzyme which also catalyses one-electron reduction of
several different classes of xenobiotic compounds. On the other hand, this enzyme
plays an important role in clinical diagnosis of diabetes as well as in production of fine
chemicals and antibiotics (i.e cortalcerone).
c. Peroxidases (EC 22.214.171.124) . These are a family of isoenzymes produced during the
secondary metabolism in white-rot basidiomycetes . These enzymes catalyse hydrogen
peroxide –dependent one-electron oxidation of a wide range of phenolic and related
compounds which result in the formation of aryl cation radicals. These radicals are
converted non-enzymatically in several end-products. There is a great interest in these
enzymes because they can be used in the detoxification of a broad range of
environmental pollutants namely PCBs and dioxins
d. Protease activity. The white-rot basidiomycete fungi Coriolus versicolor produces a
significant amount of proteolytic activity. These fungi synthesize intracellular and
extracellular proteases which are involved in the regulation of laccase and peroxidase
activity in cultures of Coriolus versicolor. A protease is synthesized which cleaves
protein substrates (i.e. fibrinogen and casein) specifically by hydrolysing some peptide
bonds. This enzyme is of interest for two main reasons: First of all, it has a high
fibrinolytic activity and hence it could be used as a potential therapeutic agent in the
treatment of thrombosis. Secondly, this enzyme could be used in protein sequencing
due to its unique specificity.
Furthermore, mushrooms have been known to possess a large number of different
secondary metabolites (i.e. lectins, terpenoids, antibiotics and metal chelating agents)
which may play an important role in immune function of the host and hence could be
used in immunotherapy of several pathological states (1).
The immunotherapeutic properties in mushroom nutrition are due to the delivery of:
i) protein-bound polysacharide complexes responsible for immunoenhancing
and anti-tumour activities;
ii) enzymes are thought to prevent both oxidative stress and inhibit cell growth.
iii) secondary metabolites involved in several biological processes.
Further research is required to confirm whether mushroom nutrition delivers the
enzymes and secondary metabolites, with "absorption" in the lower intestine or whether
the presence of the enzyme activity and secondary metabolites in the digestive tract
provokes a "sympathetic response" by body, providing the same therapeutic impact.
1. Wasser, S.P. and Weis, A.L. (1999) "Therapeutic effects of substances occurring in
higher basidiomycetes mushrooms: a modern perspective" Crit Rev. Immunol 19,65-96
2. Kariya, K, Nakamura, K, Nomoto, K Matama, S and Saigenji, K (1992) "Mimicking of
superoxide dismutase activity by protein-bound polysaccharide of Coriolus versicolor
QUIL and oxidative stress relief in cancer patients" Mol. Biother 4, 40-46.
3. Habelhaj, H (1998) "Induction of manganese superoxide dismutase by an
immunopotentiaor as a mechanism of inhibiting malignant tumour progression of murine
tumour cells" Hokkaido Igaku Zasshi 73, 519-529.
4. Ng TB (1998) " A review of research on the protein-bound polysaccharide from the
mushroom Coriolus versicolor " Gen Pharmacol 30, 1-4
5. Ossowski, L , Mira y Lopez R (1996) "Proteolytic enzymes in cancer invasion
Introduction" Enzyme protein 49, 5-6.
6. Gubareva, A A (1998) "The use of enzymes in treating patients with malignant
lymphoma with large tumour mass" Lik Sprava 6, 141-143
7. Eggert, C., Temp, U., Dean, J.F.D. and Eriksson, K.L. "Laccase-mediated formation of
the phenoazinone derivative, cinnabarinic acid" FEBS Letters 376, 202-206.
8. Karmali A and Oliveira, P (1999) "Glucose 1- and 2- oxidases from fungal strains,
isolation and production of monoclonal antibodies J. Biotechnology 69, 151-62.
9. Pacheco, V. and Karmali, A (1998) "Chromatographic behaviour of glucose 1-and 2-
oxidases from fungal strains on immobilized metal chelates" J. Industrial Microbiology &
Biotechnology 21, 57-64.
The Potential Role of Mushroom Nutrition as a Sports Supplement for
Fatigue Caused by Overtraining
In Asia, mushroom nutrition has been recognized as having nutritional benefits
which improve the body´s immune function. In Japan, an extract of Coriolus versiclor ,
known as Krestin or PSK is marketed by Sankyo Pharmaceutical to reduce the side-
effects associated with chemotherapy. (1)
Acting as a non-specific immunomodulator, Krestin supports the body´s immune
system against the side-effects associated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
Japanese clinical experimentation has demonstrated that Krestin improves five-year
survival rates in some cancers (2).
Working with immune depressed HIV+ patients in the United Kingdom, Italy and
the Netherlands; TCM practitioners have begun using Coriolus versicolor
supplementation (non-extracted) as adjuvant nutrition to increase both White Blood
Count and CD4 levels in HIV+ patients. (3) (4) (5).
Potential sports applications for mushroom nutrition would be in the area of
"overtraining", in which the athlete has "overprepared" through excessive training and
thereby reduced his or her immune system to such a low level that a virus, typically
Epstein Barr, is able to establish a presence. In such "overprepared" patients, the
condition is characterized by excessive tiredness, lethargy and overall change in mood
and attitude. i.e. depression which can last for over four to six months. Triathletes and
high performance athletes, both of whom are training for over three to four hours per
day, are very susceptible to weakening their immune system.
As this condition resembles Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Dr.Jean Monro working
with Mycology Research Laboratories Ltd. has begun to work with Coriolus versicolor
supplementation to increase natural killer cell activity in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Dr. Jean Monro developed an interest in Coriolus versicolor as a result to the
efforts of Dr. Grazia Rotolo, a Milan based medical doctor and TCM doctor working with
HIV+ patients with White Blood Counts (WBC) below 4000. (7) (Normal WBC should be
between 6000-7000). Dr. Rotolo found that Coriolus versicolor supplementation was
able to increase White Blood Count (WBC) by 27% within 15 days of supplementation
(3 grams per day). Furthermore, by reducing supplementation to 1.5 grams per day, the
WBC increased a further 14% after 30 days.
Using Dr.Rotolo´s Coriolus versicolor supplementation schedule in 60 Chronic
Fatigue Syndrome patients for six weeks, Dr.Monro was able to increase % of natural
killer cells by 25% and increase natural killer cell count by 44%. All patients
experienced an improved sense of quality of life, based on symptom scoring chart. (8)
Given these results, Coriolus versicolor supplementation has begun to be used
as adjuvant nutrition for high performance athletes suffering from weak immune
systems. Since 1998, Mycology Research Laboratories Ltd. has been working with a
leading ironman triathlete, Mr. Chad Hawker, provided both Coriolus versicolor
supplementation for immune support and Cordyceps sinensis for stamina support. (9)
In 1997, after his second Ironman, Chad Hawker consulted with Dr. Abraham Kryger
regarding his low thrroid levels detected by his endocrinologist. An MRI lead his doctors
to determine that Chad had
Hpogondadism, hypothyroidism and diabetes insipidis couased by a miroadenoma on
the pituitary gland. The microadenoma was remove in February of 1998.
In April of 1998, Dr. Kryger supplemented Chad´s diet with 2 tablets of Coriolus
versicolor (1 grams) three (3) times per day, to enhance his immune system.
In May of 1999, Cordyceps-MRL supplementation was added to enhance recovery from
excessive training. In October of 1999, Chad improved his time in the Ironman event by
17 minutes and placed 46th out of 1500.
At present, under Dr. Kryger´s supervision, the MRL supplementation program is:
1 Tablet=500 mg
Pre-Event Supplementation Program 14 days before 6 tablets per day
Maintenance Training Program 3 tablets per day
1 Tablet=500 mg
Recovery Supplementation Program 14 days after 6 tablets per day
Maintenance Training Program 3 tablets per day
The major observation by Chad Hawker and Dr.Kryger has been lower incidences of
illness, a rapid recovery from colds and flu. Dr.Kryger has focused on maintaining the
immune function with Coriolus-MRL , while also increasing lung capacity (VO2 Max) to
assist in the post event recovery phase. Chad´s performance over the past three years
in major events is given below:
Position Position Position
Event Country 1999 2000 2001
1 New Zealand New 7 ? 16
2 Maizuru Japan 3 3 ?
3 Keauhou Kona USA 1 1 1
4 Santa Barbara USA 1 3 ?
5 Triathlon at USA 1 ? ?
6 Whitney Classic USA ? 1 ?
For more information on Chad Hawker please review Mycology News, 2nd Edition.
Furthermore, please find his website at http://www.mbay.net/~thehawk or email:
(1) The Use of Mushroom Glucans and Proteoglycans in Cancer Treatment -by Dr.Paris Kidd
(Ph.D) Alternative Medicine Review, Page 16, Volume 5, Number 1, 2000.
(2) Ibid, page 16
(3) The Effectiveness of Coriolus versicolor Supplementation in the Treatment of Secondary
Phenomena Associated with HIV-Dr.Grazia Rotolo-Pzza San Theodoro, 27100, Pavia Italy.
Presented at the 10 International Symposium on Mucosal Immunology in Amsterdam Holland on
June 28 , 1999.
(4)The Effectiveness of Coriolus versicolor Supplementation in the Treatment of Kaposi´s
Sarcoma in HIV+ Patients.-John Tindall and Elizabeth Clegg, Gateway Clinic, Community Health
Center, South London, NHS Trust 108 , Landor Road, London SW9 9NT, England. Presented at
the 10 International Symposium on Mucosal Immunology in Amsterdam Holland on June 28 ,
(5) The Clinical Use of Coriolus versicolor Supplementation in HIV+ Patients and Impact on CD4
Count and Viral Load. by Marijike Pfeiffer -Centrum Voor Integrale Geneeskunde, Amsterdam.
Presented at the 3 International Symposium on Mushroom Nutrition, in Milan Italy on March 10 ,
(6) Phenotypic and Functional Deficiency of Natural Killer Cells in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.
Caligiuri M et al.-J.Immunol 1987 139 (10) 3306-13.
(7) See footnote 3.
(8) The Use of Coriolus versicolor Supplementation in Chronic Fatigue Patients and the Impact on
NK Cell Activity-by Dr.Jean Monro Breakspear Hospital -Presented at the 3 International
Symposium on Mushroom Nutrition, in Milan Italy on March 10 , 2001.
(9) See http://www.mycologyresearch.com/mrl_spon.htm
4th International Symposium on Mushroom Nutrition.
The Use of Mushroom Nutrition as Adjunct Nutrition in
Saturday, June 15th, 2002
Lecture Hall 2
9:00 am -5:00 pm
Mycology Research Laboratories Ltd, in collaboration with the School of Bioscience and the
School of Integrated Health of Westminster University are organizing the 4th International
Symposium on Mushroom Nutrition. The theme of the symposium will be the -The Use of
Mushroom Nutrition as Adjunct Nutrition in Oncology .
Clinical presentations will focus on:
I) Historical Use of Mushroom Nutrition as Adjunct Nutrition in China and Japan.
II) Mushroom Properties:
a) immunotherapeutic impact of complex polyascharrides
b) enzyme activity
c) secondary metabolites
III) Clinical Applications
a) Use in Chemotherapy
b) Use in Radiotherapy
c) Use in Palliative Care
IV) Clinical Application in Immunotherapy
The lectures will focus on clinical application of mushroom nutrition as adjunct nutrition in
chemotherapy, radiotherapy and palliative care. In addition to the clinical perspective, a
biochemical perspective will be presented to provide information on the polysaccharides,
enzymes and second metabolites provided by mushroom nutrition.
Attendance is restricted to 200 health care practitioners with reservations accepted in advance.
Please contact Ms. Gabrella Perierra at the following email address to confirm space (Fax:00-
351-21-484-9629 or email: firstname.lastname@example.org ). Price of admission £ 25.00. Coffee served in
morning and afternoon.
Mycology News is published by Aneid Press, a division of Aneid Lda.
For comments or suggestions please contact:
Editors: William Ahern email@example.com
Martin Powell firstname.lastname@example.org
Graphic Design by: Allan Parker email@example.com