PSY 203370 20Exam 203 20Study 20Questions by uY1cCm1


									                              PSY 3370 Exam 3 Study Questions

Place the correct answer on your scantron answer sheet. Write out your essay answers on a
seperate piece of paper.

    1. If individuals do not develop intimacy, they face
       A) low self-esteem.
       B) insecure attachment.
       C) despair.
       D) isolation.

    2. The increase in noncompliance among children is typical of the period in the family life
       cycle called
       A) becoming parents and a family with children.
       B) the family with adolescents.
       C) the family at midlife.
       D) the family in later life.

    3. Research on temperament indicates it
       A) remains relatively stable throughout the life span.
       B) is learned through environmental contingencies.
       C) is discontinuous throughout the life span.
       D) changes as we enter adulthood.

    4. According to E. Mavis Hetherington's research, the largest group of divorced people fall
       into the category of the
       A) good enoughs.
       B) enhancers.
       C) seekers.
       D) defeated.

    5. Physical attractiveness in a relationship is MOST important to
       A) teenagers
       B) men
       C) women
       D) adults in their twenties and thirties

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 6. Strong factors in Americans deciding to marry are passion and romantic love. While
    for the Japanese the most important factors are
    A) chastity and honesty.
    B) housekeeping skills and family background.
    C) honor and purity.
    D) loyalty and commitment.

 7. John Gottman's research on married couples suggests that all of the following will
    increase the likelihood that marriage will work EXCEPT
    A) having partners turn toward each other instead of away from each other in times of
    B) sharing power in the relationship.
    C) solving perpetual problems so they do not cause long-term resentment.
    D) knowing one's partner psychologically.

 8. Which of the following is true about parenting?
    A) Children will always love and respect their parents.
    B) Marital satisfaction increases when a couple has children.
    C) Children's failure can usually be traced to poor parenting practices.
    D) Authoritative parenting is associated with positive outcomes for children.

 9. Approximately what percentage of women who earn over $100,000 a year are childless?
    A) 25
    B) 33
    C) 50
    D) 69

10. All but one of the following is a reason that leisure may be an especially important
    aspect of middle adulthood. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
    A) inevitability of death
    B) life change
    C) opportunity
    D) availability of money

11. A major health concern for middle-aged adults is
    A) diabetes.
    B) cancer.
    C) being overweight.
    D) tooth decay.

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12. Middle-aged adults tend to focus more on assessment of _______than young adults?
    A) how much time remains in life
    B) time spent in different contexts of life
    C) how much time is available for enjoyment
    D) how much time is spent in intimate relationships

13. During middle age, the ability to hear _______ sounds declines first.
    A) lower-pitched
    B) higher-volume
    C) higher-pitched
    D) midrange-pitched

14. A man in his mid-forties is MOST likely to notice
    A) increased strength in his upper arms.
    B) sensitivity to high pitched sounds.
    C) joint stiffness.
    D) decreased bladder control.

15. The concept of Type A behavior was developed in the late 1950s by Meyer Friedman
    and Ray Rosenman, who were
    A) cardiologists.
    B) psychologists.
    C) psychiatrists.
    D) biochemists.

16. The average adult in middle adulthood _______ height and _______ weight.
    A) loses/loses
    B) loses/gains
    C) gains/gains
    D) gains/loses

17. In middle adulthood _______ intelligence continues to increase.
    A) fluid
    B) semantic
    C) crystallized
    D) multiple

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18. During middle age, the visual system begins to change. Which of the following is NOT
    one of those changes?
    A) accommodation ability of the eye diminishes..
    B) the size of the retinal blind spot diminishes..
    C) more illumination is required for visual work
    D) the blood supply to the retina is reduced

19. Cross-cultural studies show that in nonindustrialized countries the concept of middle
    age is
    A) often missing—these cultures only refer to adults as young or old.
    B) about the same as it is in industrialized countries like the United States.
    C) more finely discerned—many cultures speak of five or more different stages of
        middle adulthood.
    D) more rigidly defined—there are rites of passage set at particular ages for entering
        into middle age and the elder years.

20. In the Neugarten Kansas City Study, the _______ characteristics showed the most
    A) adaptive
    B) cognitive
    C) practical
    D) conforming

21. Daniel Levinson's theory of adult development can be criticized because it
    A) was based on interviews with men only.
    B) was not based on the lives of real people.
    C) focused too much on the lives of young adults who were more idealistic.
    D) was based only on the lives of important historical figures rather than on people
       living today.

22. According to Bernice Neugarten's research, adult personality moves from
    A) closed to open.
    B) open to reclusive.
    C) passive to accommodating.
    D) active to passive.

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23. The seventh stage of Erikson's life-span theory is characteristic of middle age. What
    name did Erikson give this stage?
    A) intimacy versus isolation
    B) integrity versus despair
    C) generativity versus stagnation
    D) keeping the meaning vs. rigidity

24. The main reason that some children delay leaving home until early adulthood is that
    A) their parents encourage them to stay home to "keep the nest full."
    B) they need their parents' emotional support.
    C) they do not have enough money to live on their own.
    D) they need to stay in school longer to acquire career skills.

25. Midlife consciousness refers to
    A) the female equivalent of the midlife crisis.
    B) an increase in achieving success at midlife.
    C) a decease in interests and concerns at midlife.
    D) an increase in awareness, interests, and concern at midlife.

26. Which of the following is one of Costa and McCrae's "big five" personality traits?
    A) sensitivity
    B) masculinity/femininity
    C) aggressiveness
    D) extraversion

27. In Erik Erikson's theory, adults strive for generativity to achieve a sense of
    A) immortality.
    B) recognition.
    C) achievement.
    D) satisfaction.

28. The onset of physical changes in late adulthood
    A) occurs at a similar age for most people.
    B) varies from person to person.
    C) is closely associated with changes in endocrine system function.
    D) occurs in a regular series of stages.

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29. Since women have entered the workforce in large numbers, their life expectancy has
    A) decreased.
    B) increased.
    C) remained the same.
    D) become equal to that of men.

30. According to Hayflick's cellular clock theory, cells can divide a maximum of _______
    A) 50 to 60
    B) 65 to 70
    C) 75 to 80
    D) 80 to 100

31. A recent finding by Gould and Nottebohm changed the way we think about the brain.
    We now know that
    A) processing information between hemispheres becomes delayed as we age
    B) the prefrontal cortex becomes less lateralized as we age
    C) the greatest area of decline is in the area of dendrite responses
    D) neurons continue to generate throughout the life span

32. Which of the following is NOT included in the life expectancy test provided in chapter
    18 of your text?
    A) how much income you earn
    B) how much you sleep per day
    C) family history of illnesses
    D) how long you want to live

33. Why is life expectancy for women longer than for men?
    A) Women engage in fewer high-risk behaviors.
    B) Women experience less stress than men.
    C) Women work harder and for more years than men.
    D) Men generally suffer greater financial hardship than women.

34. Which of the following vitamins is an antioxidant?
    A) vitamin B
    B) vitamin C
    C) vitamin D
    D) vitamin K

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35. Which of the following biological theories of aging states that people age because their
    cells' normal metabolism produces unstable oxygen molecules?
    A) cellular clock theory
    B) free-radical theory
    C) telomerase-injection theory
    D) hormonal stress theory

36. The best evidence that the oldest old function effectively is that
    A) most of them live in the community.
    B) the majority of them report having excellent health.
    C) most believe they suffer no activity limitations.
    D) they are a very homogeneous group of people.

37. The retention of information about the when and where of life's happenings is called
    _______ memory.
    A) episodic
    B) situational
    C) formative
    D) historic

38. Which of the following government policies contributed MOST to the increase in the
    number of Americans who retire?
    A) Age Discrimination Act of 1967
    B) deletion of mandatory retirement in 1986
    C) establishment of the Social Security system in 1935
    D) extension of the mandatory retirement age in 1978

39. The key factor that determines whether an individual will adjust well to retirement is
    A) financial security.
    B) a close marriage.
    C) flexibility.
    D) good health.

40. Who is MOST likely to abuse the elderly?
    A) their children
    B) their spouse
    C) their health-care workers
    D) their neighbors

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41. A person's knowledge about the world is called _______ memory.
    A) schematic
    B) functional
    C) normative
    D) semantic

42. Recent analyses by Levin, Taylor, and Chatters specifically indicate that older adults
    participate in religion by
    A) teaching religious classes to children.
    B) doing charitable work in their spare time.
    C) attending religious services regularly.
    D) filling special roles and services in their churches and temples.

43. Mnemonics are techniques that
    A) improve the efficiency of memory.
    B) increase the capacity of memory.
    C) increase motivation for remembering information.
    D) compress the amount of material one needs to remember.

44. Which treatment has been shown to be effective in maintaining the cognitive abilities of
    patients with Alzheimer's disease?
    A) preserving acetylcholine levels in the brain
    B) decreasing neurotransmitter chemicals in the brain
    C) increasing HGH levels in blood carried to the brain
    D) balancing estrogen and androgen levels in the bloodstream

45. What is the relationship between prayer and longevity?
    A) Prayer increases longevity.
    B) Prayer improves mental health but does not increase longevity.
    C) Prayer decreases longevity.
    D) There is no relationship between prayer and longevity.

46. What percentage of individuals over 80 years of age suffer from dementia?
    A) 10
    B) 20
    C) 40
    D) 80

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47. In general, successful aging requires
    A) a biological predisposition toward long-lasting good health.
    B) the refusal to accept that there are any declines during older adulthood.
    C) engaging in an extensive reevaluation of life's meaning during middle age.
    D) a commitment during earlier adulthood to be active, exert effort, and take a
        problem-solving attitude.

48. According to research evidence, gender roles in the elder years tend to
    A) become more stereotypically defined and divided.
    B) stay about the same as they were in earlier adult years.
    C) change, with only women becoming more masculine.
    D) change, with only men becoming more feminine.

49. Which of the following is a stereotype of the elderly that recent research identifies as
    common among young, middle-aged, and elderly adults?
    A) patriarch
    B) wise elder
    C) mystic ancient
    D) perfect grandmother

50. According to Baltes, successful aging is based on selection, optimization, and _______.
    A) elaboration.
    B) flexibility.
    C) adjustment.
    D) compensation.

51. Compared to men, _______ times as many elderly women are living in poverty.
    A) two
    B) three
    C) four
    D) five

52. How do many African Americans cope with the challenges of growing older in a racist
    and ageist society?
    A) They rely on family networks and often the church.
    B) They rely on the kindness and generosity of Whites and other Americans.
    C) They rely on government programs that make up for the discrimination.
    D) They rely on the extra welfare and Social Security they will receive for being
        minority poor.

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53. Which theory explains why older adults spend most of their time with familiar
    individuals and family?
    A) activity theory
    B) socioemotional selectivity theory
    C) social discontinuity theory
    D) disengagement theory

54. While older adults focus on _______, the oldest adults focus on _______.
    A) family/thinking about life
    B) friends/family
    C) cognitive fitness/physical fitness
    D) family/health

55. When it comes to helping elderly patients with chronic health conditions, medical
    services should emphasize _______ rather than _______ .
    A) care/cure
    B) cure/care
    C) Social Security/Medicare
    D) Medicare/Social Security

56. An individual is MOST likely to die
    A) at home.
    B) in a hospice.
    C) in a hospital.
    D) in a car accident.

57. In what ways can denial of death be a positive response?
    A) Denial can help one accept the reality of one's death.
    B) Denial can soften the emotional impact of impending death.
    C) Denial can help one prepare family members for one's death.
    D) Denial can prevent one from receiving unnecessary medical interventions.

58. The _______ portions of the brain often die sooner than the _______ portions.
    A) lower/higher
    B) lower/middle
    C) higher/lower
    D) All portions of the brain die at the same time.

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59. What do researchers know about the cause of sudden infant death syndrome?
    A) They do not know the cause.
    B) It is caused by a genetic disorder.
    C) It is caused by a metabolic imbalance.
    D) It is caused by a nutritional deficiency.

60. Which of the following concerns do people have about dying at home?
    A) lack of access to pain medication
    B) dying more slowly than at a hospital
    C) contracting a virus that might hasten death
    D) placing an undue burden on family members

61. SIDS refers to death of an infant
    A) who had severe neurological injuries.
    B) from virulent salmonella infection.
    C) from septic intravenous respiratory failure.
    D) with no apparent health problems.

62. Death occurs neurologically when _______ for a specified time.
    A) one's brain shows no electrical activity
    B) one stops being able to think
    C) one no longer responds to external stimuli
    D) one stops breathing

63. In the Jewish community, the members of a grieving family all walk together for a short
    distance to symbolize their
    A) common loss.
    B) unity in grief.
    C) return to society.
    D) community unity.

64. In the United States, _______ euthanasia is generally more accepted than ______
    A) active/passive
    B) passive/active
    C) spontaneous/prearranged
    D) prearranged/spontaneous

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