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					RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THREE INDICES OF HAPPINESS:


             MATERIAL, MENTAL AND SPIRITUAL

SONALI BHATTACHARYA
SYMBIOSIS CENTRE FOR MANAGEMENT& HRD,
PUNE – 411057 MAHARASHTRA
SONALI_BHATTACHARYA@SCMHRD.EDU
Abstract

Every individual in this world seeks to achieve a healthy, wealthy, secured and blissful life as
suggested by Maslow‟ Need Hierarchy. Hindu philosophy as evident from the knowledge of ancient
Vedas realizes three stages of happiness: Materialistic Happiness, Mental Happiness and
Spiritualistic Happiness, almost always in that order. A regression analysis taking Life Satisfaction
Index (as obtained from world data base of happiness between 1995-2005) as the dependent
variable indicated rule of law, voice and accountability, regularity authority as well as economic
freedom indicators (as obtained from heritage foundation database, 1995-2006) as very significant
predictors.
In this paper, an attempt has been made to understand this tri-dimensional concept of happiness
and combining them to arrive at a Composite Index of Happiness. Efforts have been also made to
evaluate performance of various Nations in their persistency to achieve these dimensions of
happiness.
Therefore, political and socio-economic well being as well as law and order and technological
well-being were taken as indicators of Materialistic Well-Being. Average of indexes for World
Bank governance indicators 2008 (World Bank database) was taken as proxy variable of political
well-being. The indicators of economic well-being were taken as price level indexes, domestic and
foreign market indicators, gini‟s index and gross national savings and unemployment rate as well
as fiscal deficit indicators. Social indicators were represented by Education (for All) Development
Index(EDI), gender parity index, environmental well-being as well as family life index.

Life satisfaction Index based on World Database of Happiness was taken as proxy variable for
mental happiness.

Importance given by society to practice of traditional values and virtues like honesty, trust, work
ethics, tolerance and regulation on religion practices were taken as proxy variable for Spiritual
Happiness Indicator.

Most studies has been either in direction of Subjective Well-Being or developmental Well Being .
This paper has been in an effort to combine both the factors and incorporating age old values and
virtues required for reaching higher realm of lasting peace, tranquility and happiness for one and all.

The study shows that mental happiness has significant positive correlation with Materialistic and
Spiritualistic Happiness , perhaps for being the intermediary step but Materialistic has no significant
correlation with Spiritualistic Happiness.
 Keywords and Phrases: Happy Planet Index, Subjective Well-Being, Composite Index of Well-
Being, Principle Component Analysis


   1. Introduction

Nations world over are in process of change from an era of largely agro-based economy, to
industrialization to post-industrialisation. There has change in aspirations, values, aims and needs of
nations of nations. The increase in the public and private expenditure in the health and insurance
sector has not only increased the life expectancy but has also improved health condition of the
children and the senior citizens of the world at a large.

It bought about a change in social life of individuals. There has been change in economic structure
of the families. In a largely agro-based society the male patriarch is to be sole bread earner. In the
urbanized post-modern set up, to maintain the financial requirement of the family both the patriarch
and matriarch are willingly contributing to the earnings of the family. The children are being left in
the care of crèche, working women are keeping domestic help to aid them in household chores. As a
result the per capita income and expenditure have both increased.

The concern now is that how rapid change in socio-economic, political, demographic set up of the
society extent to which it has contributing and effecting the subjective-well-being of the
individuals. Subjective-well-being has two components: Life Satisfaction (or Mental Happiness)
and Spiritualistic Happiness.

Happiness in all its form is closely linked with aspiration of humanities. The gap between our
aspiration and achievement as compare to others and as evaluated by our own perceived effort
could give us a measure of happiness. An enlightened individual who has got freedom from all
desires remains unmoved (Samabhava) both in a situation of happiness and misery as would be
defined by Materialistic term. In Bhagvat-Gita the Lord Krishna preaches Arjuna to perform duty
without any fear or desire of result (Niskamkarma). True Happiness lies in being complete freedom
from all desires or Moksha
There is however cultural and conceptual differences in interpretation of happiness. Alfatabi (1995)
philosophy which closely resemble Muslim Philosophy of Happiness states:
“nations and citizens of cities attain earthly happiness in the first life and supreme happiness
in the life beyond when four human things are met: theoretical virtues, deliberative virtues,
moral virtues and practical arts” Theoretical virtues refers to understanding of beings through
rational knowledge of science and politics. Deliberative virtues may be referred as the experiential
learning through will or accident. He stresses the need to practice virtuous acts. The more you
practice virtuous acts the more virtuous you become, which will eventually lead you to happiness.
Effective leadership and quality instruction leads to achievement of theoretical virtues whereas
building up of characters leads to achievement of moral virtues.
Buddhism believes in sacrificing of all sensual and materialistic pleasures (Virragata) and
developing a sense of consideration and compassion for all beings leads to ultimate happiness
(Saher,1970). Prescott Allen (Diwedi, 2005) observed that Chinese seek happiness in long life,
riches, love of virtue , health and natural death in old age, French in principles of equality , liberty
and Fraternity, British in heath, wealth and wisdom, Americans in pursual for life, liberty,
materialistic achievement.
Hindu philosophy of Vedas focus on persistent effort towards achieving higher form of happiness:
from wordly happiness to mental happiness and finally to spiritual happiness.


   2. Objective

           a. To measure and compare the tridimensional concept of happiness: Materialistic,
              Mental and Spiritualistic
           b. Combine them to arrive at a Composite Index of Happiness.
           c. Evaluate performance of various Nations in their persistency to achieve the three
              dimensions of happiness.

   3. Literature Review

General feeling of happiness is consequence of individual‟s interaction with political, social,
economical, legal, cultural, climatic environment. National Economic Foundation (NEF) founded
by The Other Economic Summit (TOES) derived the Happy Planet Index (HPI) to find relative
composite wellbeing of different nations. HPI was defined as product of Life Expectancy and Life
Satisfaction divided by the Economic Footprint. Diener et al (1995) conceptualized well being as
the frequency of positive and negative emotion and life satisfaction. HPI used Happy life Years
(Veenhoven, 1996) as the measurement of Life expectancy. Happy Life Years is defined as the
degree to which people live long and happily in a certain country in a given period .It is defined as
product life expectancy at birth multiplied by the rating of life satisfaction. Ecological Foot Print
can be defined as the extent to which the biosphere has the capacity to supply goods and services to
meet the ecological demand of human species. The Global Foot print data provides for the footprint
data of 144 nations. For other countries it is computed by measuring the carbon dioxide emission
and other variables.

Life Satisfaction to a marked extent was found to be effected by the culture and values of the
country. Country‟s which give high importance to values such as freedom , equality, loyalty,
creativity and caring are more satisfied in their life than Countries which care about values like
wealth, strong government and safety are the least satisfied ones. National culture also affects the
factors determining the happiness of a nation. A high income nation would prefer freedom of choice
more than low income country where people in general would be satisfied in fulfillment of basic
need of food, water, education, sanitation, health and housing. Western countries are more driven by
Darwin‟s law of “Survival of the fittest” to achieve individualistic goals, whereas eastern countries
would visualize collective goal achievement as satisfaction of life.

Bhutan defined the Gross National Happiness (GNH) as measure of well-being which takes into
account both material and spiritual development of humanity. It was developed on the premise that
good governance, sustainable social economic development, promoting and preserving of cultural
values and maintaining of pleasant environment would lead to satisfaction of life.

Subjective-well-being is closely linked with political wellbeing. Inglehart et al. (2008) found that
globally happiness has increased in the last two decade with economic development, effective
democracy, increase in level of social tolerance and freedom of choice. Purchasing power parity,
Foreign Direct Investment as percentage of GDP, External Debt and unemployment rate are the key
economic indicators of Happiness or Life Satisfaction. Economic wellbeing is augmented by
physical and mental wellbeing. Di Tella et al. (2003) found that unemployment rate, unemployment
benefits and inflation as well as age, gender, educational level, marital status are closely linked
overall satisfaction level. Freedom of choice, as measured by Freedom House is defined in terms of
prevailing Political Rights and Civil Rights in countries. Political Rights may include stability of
government in an electoral system and also fairness of the electoral system. Civil Rights include
women empowerment, freedom of expression and belief including free press, good governance and
low corruption.

Both Civil Rights and Political Rights are measured on a scale of 1-7, (1=High degree of civil and
political right, 7= Least Existence of civil rights and political rights). Civil Rights comprised 4
questions on Electoral Process, 4 questions on Political Pluralism and Participation and 3 questions
on Functioning of Government. The civil liberties questions are grouped into four subcategories:
Freedom of Expression and Belief (4 questions), Associational and Organizational Rights (3
questions), Rule of Law (4 questions), and Personal Autonomy and Individual Rights (4).
A score of 2 on political rights implies existence of violence, corruption and atrocities against
minorities.
According to the data of Freedom House India has a score of 2 in Political Rights and Civil Rights
3. A score 3 in Civil Rights is fairly average. These indicates existence of some restriction in
associations, censorship and political terror. The reasons cited are: Section 144 of the Criminal
Procedure Act which allows authorities to declare emergency, impose curfews and restrict free
assembly and also the provision of ESMA against striking employees. Occasional incidents of
Violence against protesting NGO‟s,            police torture against detainees, crime against women,
naxalite killings, terrorist activities also add to civil right violation. India‟s score has remained quite
consistent since the 1970‟s except between the year 1993-to 1995 both civil right and political right
score went up to 4, when India witnessed several multi-crore scams at political level and also the
nation faced the Kargil war. In 1975 the political right score went upto 5 due to declaration of state
of emergency.
An effective democracy (Welzel and Inglehart,2008) should have sufficiently high percentage of
women representation in the government (see Welzel, 2008), and high percentage of women going
to school. Corruption is measured widely by the Transparency Internationals‟ Corruption Perception
Index, though its reliability is highly questionable

There are several indicators of good governance (see, Kaufmann and Kraay, 2008). The Worldwide
Governance Indicator(WGI) is the most widely used indicator takes into account six dimensions of
governance for more than 200 countries. They are:
   1. Voice Accountability
   2. Political Instability & Violence
   3. Government Effectiveness
   4. Regulatory Burden
   5. Rule of Law
   6. Control of Corruption

Freedom of choice (see, Veenhoven, 1999) includes economic and personal freedom. Economic
freedom implies freedom to produce and consume what one wants, freedom of keeping one‟s
earning and freedom of exchange and security of money. Personal freedom includes freedom to
marriage, divorce, abortion or contraception and euthanasia.

In his address at the convocation of Punjab University, Chandigarh on 7th March, 2007, Former
President of India, Abdul Kalam defined National Prosperity Index as sum total of annual growth
rate of GDP, improvement of overall quality of life by ensuring all citizens the availability of basic
amenities of life and adoption of ancient value system by inculcating value-based education to
children at schools. Easterlin (2001) found happiness is highly correlated with level of income and
human aspiration at various stages of life-cycle.

Another important index is the Legatum Index developed by the Legatum Institute in 2007 which
takes into account economic competitiveness and livability index to constitute the Overall progress
of the nation. LOESS Regression has been used to compute the Index number.

The Global Competitiveness Index as measured by World economic Forum takes into account
twelve pillars of development:
    The First Pillar: The public and private institutional framework and the governments interaction
with them.
    The Second Pillar: The infrastructural development including roads, railways, ports, airports
and electricity.
   The Third Pillar: Macroeconomic Stability which effect the business competitiveness of the
nations.
    The Fourth Pillar: Efficiency of the human capital as measured by general conditions of health
and level of education attained.
The Fifth Pillar: Higher Education attainment and success in fields of research and development.
The Sixth Pillar: The good mixture of goods and services to assure efficient supply and demand
condition
The Seventh Pillar: The Efficient Labour market which is flexible in adjusting workforce to
different shifts, different activities at low cost and minimum wage disruption.
The Eight Pillar: Development in financial sector as marked sound banking and financial
institutions. It is further measured. The ease at which an entrepreneurial and innovative projects
initiated to assured to maximize rate of return without political intervention also measures financial
market sophistication of the nations
The Ninth Pillar: Accessibility of technology for the Nation‟s development
The Tenth Pillar: The total market size as determined by the domestic market and volume of
export.
The Eleventh Pillar: The business sophistication of the country as determined by the countries‟
business network and supporting industry
The Twelfth Pillar: Tapping development in technology to bring in innovative practices.
Economies of the countries were divided into 3 stages of economies: Factor Driven, Efficiency
Driven and Innovation Driven according to GDP per capita and percentage of export of primary
goods that form the total export. The developments in the first four pillar correspond to the factor
driven stage, the 5th to 10th pillars correspond to the efficiency building and developments in the 11th
12th pillar are hallmarks innovative stage of economy. The weights were given to various factors
according to its importance to individual countries depending upon its stage of economic
development. The weights were obtained by regressing per capita GDP with of various subindexes
by Maximum Likelyhood regression technique.
Most studies has been either in direction of Subjective Well-Being or developmental Well Being .
There has been very limited or no effort in incorporating measurement of traditional values and
ethics of trust, honesty, loyalty, hard work, work ethics and tolerance in computation of Happiness
Index. There is growing realization of incorporating these age old values which could hold the
family units and the nation together.
As President Obama has said in his first presidential address
“We know Patch work heritage is a strength not a weakness. We are nation of Christians and
Muslims, Jews and Hindus – and non-believers”


  4. Sources of Data and Limitation
Happiness
Indicator          Indexes                     Components
Materialistic Political Well Being    Voice Accountability               Worldwide Governance Indicato
                                      Political Instability & Violence
                                      Government Effectiveness
                                      Regulatory Burden
                                      Rule of Law
                                      Control of Corruption

              Economical Well-Being   Price Level Index                  2005 International Comparision
                                      FDI , Import and Export as % of
                                      GDP                                World Development Indicators
                                      Unemployment rate                  ILO Sources

                                      National Gross Saving as % of
                                      GDP                                World Development Indicators



                                      Index for new start-up business    World Bank Doing Business Ind


              Social Well-Being       EDI                                UNESCO Institute for Statistics
                                      Health Data                        World Development Indicators 2
                                                                         UNICEF, World Health Organis
                                      Gender Parity                      UNESCO Institute for Statistics

                                      Family Life data                   UNICEF, UNESCO Institute for

              Environmental           Pollution                          CDIAC (Carbon Dioxide Inform
                                                                         UNICEF,

                                                                         FAO (Food and Agriculture Org
                                                                         2005

              Technological           Cellulars, internet, telephones    World Bank. 2007b. World Deve

                                      Patents                            WIPO (World Intellectual Prope
                                         Percentage expenditure on tertiary
                                         education and research as % of
                                         GDP                                   UNICEF
               Law and Order                                                   UNICEF, ICPS

Mental
(Life
Satisfaction
)                                                                              http://worlddatabaseofhappiness
Spiritual      Religious                                                       Grin and Fike(2006)
               Values                                                          World Value Survey, 2005

                                                                               www.worldbank.org/wbi/govern
Note N/A
implies non-
availability
of data

    5. Research Methodology
One of the premise behind selecting the indicators is the following analysis:
A regression analysis was carried out on the life satisfaction score based on World Value survey of
28 countries between 1995-2006 with respect to
    (i) world governance indicators as obtained by world bank and
    (ii) the economic scores as obtained from the freedom house data which takes into account
             following parameters:
             a. Business Freedom
             b. Fiscal Freedom
             c. Trade Freedom
             d. Government Size
             e. Monetary Freedom
             f. Property Rights
             g. Labour Freedom
             h. Freedom from Corruption
       The countries were represented as dummy variable in the model
       It gave the following result for the best model.
       Thus the model was

                                  Std.
                 Adjusted         Error of
        R        R                the
R       Square Square             Estimate
  0.983    0.966     0.96         0.181186
           ANOVA table
          Sum of                   Mean
          Squares Df               Square    F         Sig.
Regression 121.713                      25       4.869 148.302                       0
                                                3.28E-
Residual          4.268               130           02
Total           125.981               155

5.1 Indicators of Well-Being
                                       Political Well-Being
Indexes for all the five standardized parameters of World bank governance indicator(for each
country in 2008) was obtained and then the simple arithmetic mean of all the index was taken as
political wellbeing score.
                                      Economic Well-Being

Economic Well Being Index was computed at three steps
First we computed the following indexes to measure the economic development index which is
weighted average of the the following indexes
     Price Level Index which is the ratio of purchasing power parity with the market exchange
        rate. It gives the measure of cost of goods and services of one country when converted at
        prevailing exchange rate, ED1.
     Domestic market index which is the index for (% foreign direct investment as percentage of
        GDP+ Import as percentage of GDP –Export as percentage of GDP), ED2.
     Foreign market index which index for percentage, ED3.
     Economic Equality index which is 1-(gini‟s index). ED4.
     Employment Rate Index taken as Index for (1-unemployment rate)
     Index for gross national saving as % of GDP, ED6.
The source of data for the first four data was World Bank, 2005. The source of data for Gross
National Saving is taken from UNDP
                                        2                                               1
Then, Economic Developmen t Index   (Average of ED 1 , ED 2 , ED 3 , ED 4 and ED 5 )   (ED 6 )
                                        3                                               3
In the next step, we computed Index for Hindrances for New Start-Up Business. It is the average
of following indexes.
     Tariff rate, H1
     Individual Income Tax Rate, H2
     Corporate Tax Rate, H3.
     Inflation (3 year weighted average), H4
     Minimum/Average Wage, H5
     Days to open a Business, H6.
    
       Index for Hindrances for New Start - Up Business  (Average of H1 , H 2 , H 3 , H 4 , H 5 and H 6 )
                                    2
       Economic Well - Being Index   (Economic Developmen t Index) 
                                    3
                                         1
                                            (1 - Index for Hindrances for new Start - Up Business)
                                         3
                                                     Social Well-Being

The Components of Social Well Being considered are:
   (i) Educational Attainment
   (ii) Well Being of Health: Physical, Mental and Nutritional
   (iii)Gender Equality
   (iv) Family Life Well Being

     (i)     The UNESCO has set up the 5 millennium goals under the EDI (Education for All
             Development Index)
      The scores of EDI on a scale of 100 as obtained by taking the arithmetic mean of scores on
     total primary national enrolment ratio, adult literacy rate, gender specific EDA and survival
     rate to grade 5 has been taken from the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2009
     published by UNESCO are given as below.
     (2) Wellbeing of Health: Physical, Mental and Nutritional
     Physical Health Well being index was computed by the following steps
     Step 1: Computation of Index for Physical Health Effort as the simple arithmetic mean of
     following four indexes
          Index for total expenditure (public + private) towards health as percentage of GDP for
             each                    country                        computed                    as
                Expenditur e index of country A
                         Max (Total Expenditur e on Health as % of GDP) - Expenditur e on Health of nation A
                
                    Max (Total Expenditur e on Health as % of GDP) - Min (Total Expenditur e on Health as % of GDP
            index for Life expectancy,
            index for number of physicians per thousand population
            index for average of percentage population getting improved water supply and
             sanitation was computed.
Step2: Index for health Deficiency was computed as the simple arithmetic mean for Childbirth
deficiency Index, Early childhood care deficiency index, adult healthcare deficiency index.
     Child Birth Deficiency Index            
                                            1 3
                                            4
                                              P  P23  P33  P43
                                               1                    
                                                                    1/ 3



     P1 = Infant Mortality Rate Index
     P2 = Maternal Mortality Rate Index
     P3 = Non immunization Index
     P4 = Inefficient Child care Index
     Infant Mortality Rate index of countryA (P1 )
         Max (Infant Mortality Rate) - Infant Mortality Rate of nation A
     
           Max (Infant Mortality Rate) - Min (Infant Mortality Rate)
     Maternal Mortality Rate index of countryA (P2 )
         Max (Maternal Mortality Rate) - Maternal Mortality Rate of nation A
     
           Max (Maternal Mortality Rate) - Min (Maternal Mortality Rate)
     P3 = Average of Non-immunization index against tuberculosis and non-immunization index
     against measles.
     Non - immunizati on index against tuberculosis of country A
          Max (% non - immunized against tuberculosis ) - % non - immunized against tuberculosis A
     
         Max (% non - immunized against tuberculosis ) - Min (% non - immunized against tuberculosis )
     Similarly, non-immunization index against measles was also obtained.
     Inefficient Child care Index was obtained in following manner.
Percentage child-birth under unskilled health personnel and percentage underweight children
were converted into indexes by usual method and then average of the two indexes for each
country was taken as P4 value.
Early Childhood care deficiency index was obtained by converting into indexes the
percentage of children who have died under diseases such as diarrhea, HIV/AIDS and malaria
within 5 years of age in every country.
Adult healthcare deficiency index was taken as the simple arithmetic mean of adult (15-49
years) mortality rate and average of indexes of prevalence of HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis
among adults.
The Arithmetic mean of Childbirth index, early childhood care deficiency index and adult
care deficiency index gave the Index for Health Deficiency.
Step 3: Physical Health Well being index for each country was obtained assubtracting the
(2/3)  (Index for Physical Health Effort) + (1/3)  (1- Index for Health Deficiency )
Mental Health was indicated by the number of deaths due to mental and psychological 14
most commonly neuro-psychological diseases recognized by World Health Organisation.
Nutritional deficiency diseases include protein deficiency malnutrition, iodine, Vitamin A and
Iron deficiency. Deaths per 100,000 population in each country due to diseases were taken as
indicators of mental health and nutitional health inefficiency.
Overall Health Index = (1/2) (Physical Well Being Index) + (1/2) (1-Mental and
Nutritional Ineffectiveness)
© Gender Parity Index
Gender equality Index was taken as the average of gender development Index(GDI) and
gender empowerment measure (GEM) based on the Human Development Report 2008.
Gender Development Index is based on equally distributed life expectancy at birth, equally
distributed education index and equally distributed earned income
GEM is based on percentage of women representation in parliament, extent of economic
participation of women and equally distributed of income.

 (d) Family Life Index
Index for Spousal Life was indicated by the average of Index for Divorce rate, index for death
rate due to self inflicted injuries including suicides, index for number of abortions per 1000
population, index for percentage women (age 15-49 years) who think domestic violence to be
proper.

Child life protection index was obtained by taking arithmetic mean for indexes for percentage
child labour, percentage child marriage and percentage children aged 2-14 years who have
ever experienced physiological and psychological punishment as the child life protection
index.

Arithmetic mean of childlife protection index and spousal life index subtracted from one gave
the family life index.
(e) Environmental Well-Being
The extent to which life is being effected by pollution determines the environmental
wellbeing. A pollution free clean air and water and a dense vegetation minimizes occurrence
of communicable diseases and provides a sustainable economic environment. Environmental
Well being Index has been computed by the following method:
            Average of per capita emission of Carbon-dioxide, Nitrous gas, Chloro-Fluoro-
             Carbon, Sulphur Hexafloride in giga grams per capita were converted into indexes by
             usual method and their average was taken Bad Environment Index.
            Percentage forest cover was also converted into index
            Environmental well being index was obtained by subtracting bad environment index
             from 1 and adding it to the index for percentage of land under forest cover.

                                        Technological Well Being
      Technological Well-Being Index is the arithmetic mean of all the four indexes
           Index for Government expenditure on tertiary education and research development as
             percentage of GDP.
           Index for percentage of students undertaking education in science, engineering,
             manufacturing and construction as percentage of those taking tertiary education.
           Index for infrastructure representing science & technology penetration. (telephone
             mainline and internet per 1000 people and percentage penetration of electricity)
           Index for patents granted per million population
                                       Law and Order Well-Being
Law and Order Situation and criminal justice in a nation gives the overall feeling of security of the
nations. Mean of indexes for number of prisoners and number of homicides per 100,000 population
and average of indexes for estimated deaths per 100,000 population due to violence and war has
been taken as the measure Legal Well-Being

                                            Religious Well Being
Under the direction of Brian Grim, the ARDA‟s Project Manager for International Data, a survey
was carried out to measure the discrimination, prejudice, persecution, warfare, property rights,
forced migration, political, social and religious freedom of various country country, see Grim and
Finke (2006). We took a subset of 95 items out of the questionnaire to measure the religious,
political, civil and social feeling of discrimination faced by the nations. A principal component
analysis with varimax rotation was carried out and first 3 principle components extracted which
explained 40.69% of variation was considered for our analysis (see, Appendix 2). The data sheet
was       obtained     from       The       Association     of     Religion     Data      Archives
http://www.thearda.com/Archive/Files/Descriptions/IRFAGG.asp


      However across countries there is no significant difference found between life satisfaction and
      religion dominance though Christians were found to be more satisfied with life than other
                                            Repor t

                     lif e satisf action score
                     religion      Mean           N             Std. Deviation
                     budhist        .6033               9          7.176E-02
                     chris tia      .6253              94               .1282
                     hindu          .5400               1                    .
                     jew s          .6700               1                    .
                     multirel       .5459              17          9.138E-02
                     mus lim        .5862              39               .1020
                     Total          .6060             161               .1178
    religions
                                                            ANOVA Table

                                                                Sum of
                                                                Squares          df             Mean Square   F           Sig.
      life satisfaction   Betw een Groups (Combined)                .120                5              .024   1.777         .121
      score * religion    Within Groups                            2.100              155              .014
                          Total                                    2.220              160


                                 Value and Ethics Based Well-Being
    Value based well-being is estimated as the average of the following values and ethics:
        Elite Ethics Index, which is the mean of corporate ethics index (corporate illegal
           corruption index and corporate legal index),public sector ethics index, judicial
           effectiveness and corporate governance index. The data were obtained from Appendix
           of paper: Corruption, Governance and Security: Challenges for the Rich
           Countries and the World - by Daniel Kaufmann (September, 2004) – A Chapter in
           the           Global           Competitiveness             Report            2004/2005
           (www.worldbank.org/wbi/governance/pubs/gcr2004.html).
        Work Ethics Index, which is based on the responses of countries to the following
           work value related questions according to the World Value Survey,
           Please specify for each of the following statements how strongly you agree or
           disagree with it! Do you strongly agree, agree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree
           or strongly disagree? (Read out and code one answer for each statement):

                                                                Agree Neither Disagree Strongly
                     Strongly                                                          disagree
                                                 agree


V50. To fully develop your talents,                         1         2                     3             4           5
     you need to have a job.
V51. It is humiliating to receive                           1         2                     3            4            5
     money without working for it.
V52. People who don‟t work                                  1         2                 3                4            5
     become lazy.
V53. Work is a duty toward society.                         1         2                     3            4            5
 V54. Work should always come first, 1             2        3       4           5
         even if it means less free time.
A cross-tabulation of number of responses from each country for each work ethic
question under the likert scale response was recorded. The Scoring for the likert
scale was done in following manner
 Likert         Strongly       Agree         Neither     Disagree     Strongly
 Scale          Agree                        Agree                    Disagree
 Response                                    Nor
                                             Disagree
 Scoring        2              1             0           -1           -2
Average Score of each Nation was obtained and converted into indexes by the
usual method.
     Trust index, it was based on the responses of the countries on the
        following question on world value survey
V23. Generally speaking, would you say that most people can be trusted or that
      you need to be very careful in dealing with people? (Code one answer):
1 Most people can be trusted.
2 Need to be very careful.
        The percentage of responses from each country who coded the response
        with 1 was taken as the trust index.
     Tolerance Index was based on the following items in the World Value
        Survey Questionnaire
On this list are various groups of people. Could you please mention any that you
would not like to have as neighbors? (Code an answer for each group):
                                                                          Not
                            Mentioned                               mentioned
 V34. Drug addicts                                                 1          2
 V35. People of a different race                                   1          2
 V36. People who have AIDS                                         1          2
 V37. Immigrants/foreign workers                                   1          2
 V38. Homosexuals                                                  1          2
 V39. People of a different religion                               1          2
 V40. Heavy drinkers                                               1          2
 V41. Unmarried couples living together                            1          2
 V42. People who speak a different language                        1          2
 V43. (optional: minority relevant to given country, write         1          2
         in):_________

       The average of percentages of responses from each country who answered
       „1‟ for all these items was taken as the tolerance index.


                                          Life Satisfaction Index
     Life Satisfaction index as measured on a scale of 0 to 10 (0 = least satisfied and 10 = most
     satisfied) is based on data obtained by New Economic Foundation, a charity foundation by
     The Other Economic Summit (TOES) to compute Happy Planet Index.
            They consolidated the following databases:
     Ruut Veenhoven‟s World database on Happiness between 1995-2005. In which questions of
      the following types were asked
              “All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?”
              “Suppose the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and bottom of
              the ladder the worst possible life. Where on the ladder you do you feel you
              personally stand at the present time?”
     World Health Survey
              “ How often do you feel you are unable to control the important things in your life?”
     Latinobarometer
              “ In general, would you say you are satisfied with your life? Would you say you are
                  1. Very Satisfied
                  2. Fairly Satisfied
                  3. Not very satisfied
                  4. Not satisfied at all?
     Afrobarometer
    Average life satisfaction score in most countries measured on a scale of 1-10 as shown an
    increasing trend                           Hungary

        9                                      Greece

                                               Germany

        8                                      France

                                               Finland

        7                                      Estonia

                                               Denmark
        6
                                               Czech Re

                                               Cyprus
        5
                                               Croatia

                                               Bulgaria
        4
                                               Belgium

        3                                      Austria
        1970       1980   1990   2000   2010


            year




5.1 Computation of the Composite Well-Being Index

    According to World Value Survey Countries were asked which is the your first choice for
    serious problem of their own country the nations put forth their views according to the
    following table:
         Country/Re gion Ge rm any m er ge d * Most se rious proble m for ow n country: 1st choice Cross tabulation

Count
                                                      Mos t serious problem f or ow n country: 1s t choice
                                                                               Poor
                                        People living   Disc riminatio   sanitation and
                                         in pov erty   n against girls     inf ec tious    Inadequate      Environment
                                          and need      and w omen          diseases        educ ation      al pollution    Total
Country /Region   Italy                           586               62                 38            123              184      993
Germany           Spain                                                                                             1200      1200
merged            Japan                           112               52                 18            102              763     1047
                  Mex ico                         813             219                  89            242              168     1531
                  S A f ric a                   1640              286                 552            361              149     2988
                  A us tralia                     699               37                 35            256              364     1391
                  Sw eden                         214             288                  15            136              320      973
                  A rgentina                      701               20                 67            155               34      977
                  Finland                         445               42                 26             77              360      950
                  S Korea                         689             114                  46             61              290     1200
                  Poland                          787               24                 43             68               69      991
                  Sw itzerland                    516               74                 34            176              410     1210
                  Brazil                          915               98                163            195               86     1457
                  Chile                           672               62                 41            154               62      991
                  India                         1032              283                 154            253               84     1806
                  Slov enia                       580               39                 19            113              228      979
                  Bulgaria                        704               17                183             35               43      982
                  Romania                       1397                33                123            116               55     1724
                  China                           875               49                157            269              266     1616
                  Taiw an                         594               38                 46            126              411     1215
                  Turkey                          664             180                  55            375               65     1339
                  Ukraine                         641               39                 95             25              180      980
                  Peru                            992               81                 70            263               67     1473
                  Moldov a                        863               54                 52             40               36     1045
                  Thailand                        975             116                 126            181               99     1497
                  Indones ia                    1436                58                 81            322               73     1970
                  V ietnam                      1015                76                109            151              105     1456
                  Serbia                          895               71                 67             72               66     1171
                  Egypt                         2428                22                231            222              132     3035
                  Morocco                         895               47                 96             78               32     1148
                  Jordan                          973               48                 74             40               54     1189
                  Cyprus                          298             143                 179            176              237     1033
                  Trinidad and Tobago             628               73                108            106               85     1000
                  A ndorra                        587               75                 23             74              234      993
                  Malays ia                       169             156                 360            236              261     1182
                  Burkina Faso                    916             130                 192            198               74     1510
                  Ethiopia                        626             345                 232            221               42     1466
                  Mali                            702             229                 240            213              115     1499
                  Rw anda                       1092              102                 167            117               26     1504
                  Zambia                          954             148                 209            148               30     1489
                  Germany                         882             128                  53            589              287     1939
Total                                         32602              4158                4668           6865            7846     56139



        Further, when respondents across countries were asked to rate the importance of family life on
        a likert scale (Very Important, Rather Important, Not Very Important, Not at all Important) ,
        54529 respondents out of a total of 60352 respondents rated family life to be “very
        important”.
        Accordingly, a socio-economic index is created as the weighted mean of
        (i)     Economic Well-Being Index (weights attached = 0.3)
(ii)   Family Life Index (weights attached= 0.3)
(iii)  Educational Development Index (weight attached =0.2)
(iv)   Environmental Well-Being Index (weight attached = 0.1)
(v)    Overall Health Index (weight attached = 0.05)
(vi)   Gender Equality Index (weight attached =0.05)
In some cases, were information regarding any of the components of the socio-economic
well-being index could not be recorded some relative adjustment in the weight allocation has
been done. For Example: In Nations where there was no record of EDA (Education for All
Development Index) weight allocation of Overall Heath index and gender equality index has
been increased to 0.1 each.
In another question, in the world value survey, respondents were asked about what should be
most important aim of their country the responses are as given below:
          Country/Re gion Ge rm any m e rge d * Aim s of country: firs t choice Cr os stabulation

  Count
                                                         A ims of c ountry : f irs t c hoice
                                                                         People have          Try ing to
                                          A high level      A strong        more s ay         make our
                                          of ec onomic       def enc e    about how          cities more
                                             grow th          f orc es         things         beautif ul    Total
  Country /Region   Italy                          598               22                322             50      992
  Germany           Spain                          533              101                440             88     1162
  merged            USA                            560              394                230             44     1228
                    Japan                          510               92                314           136      1052
                    Mex ico                        801               91                478           157      1527
                    S A f ric a                   1815              287                644           203      2949
                    A us tralia                    737              166                435             48     1386
                    Sw eden                        673               16                270             35      994
                    A rgentina                     575               77                254             51      957
                    Finland                        206               88                638             62      994
                    S Korea                        707               72                294           127      1200
                    Poland                         593               49                312             16      970
                    Sw itzerland                   472               37                522           164      1195
                    Brazil                         850              140                379             91     1460
                    Chile                          575               75                279             51      980
                    India                          799              230                223           362      1614
                    Slov enia                      538               26                375             58      997
                    Bulgaria                       753               42                102             47      944
                    Romania                       1269              129                138           111      1647
                    China                          707              354                127           374      1562
                    Taiw an                        856              124                 52           190      1222
                    Turkey                         851              205                152           115      1323
                    Ukraine                        737               67                162             19      985
                    Peru                           885               71                412             90     1458
                    Ghana                         1076              208                175             72     1531
                    Moldov a                       706               69                170             96     1041
                    Thailand                      1008              319                123             40     1490
                    Indones ia                    1569              114                150             70     1903
                    V ietnam                      1001              170                138           153      1462
                    Serbia                         860               97                169             41     1167
                    Egypt                         2276              419                265             88     3048
                    Morocco                        766              151                149           103      1169
                    Jordan                         812              244                 57             59     1172
                    Cyprus                         648              195                147             48     1038
                    Trinidad and Tobago            521              105                283             89      998
                    A ndorra                       251                 4               607           133       995
                    Malays ia                      767              217                133             61     1178
                    Burkina Faso                   990              213                175           115      1493
                    Ethiopia                      1099              168                144             67     1478
                    Mali                           946              322                116           119      1503
                    Rw anda                        395              668                278           166      1507
                    Zambia                        1012              167                250             55     1484
                    Germany                       1210               49                646             91     1996
  Total                                          35513            6854              11729           4355     58451
                            Based on the above survey result, Material well-being index was obtained by taking
                            weighted mean of the following indices
                            (i)     Economic Well-Being Index (weight = 0.4)
                            (ii)    Political Well-Being Index (weight = 0.3)
                            (iii)   Law and Order Well-Being Index(weight = 0.2)
                            (iv)    Technological Well-Being Index (weight =0.1)
                            Spiritual Well-Being Index is obtained as the average of Religious Well-Being Index and
                            Value and Ethics Index.
                            The Composite Well-Being Index is obtained as the average of Material Well-Being Index,
                            Spiritual Well-Being Index and Life Satisfaction Index (see, Appendix 1)
                          6. Data Analysis
                              7.1 Interrelationship Between the Three Indices : Materialistic (Developmental),
                                  Mental (Life Satisfaction), Spiritual
                            (i)     Correlation Analysis
                                                                                             Cor relations

                                                                                                                      Developmen        Spiritual         lif e
                                                                                                                      tal w ellbeing   w ellbeing    satisf action
                                                                                                                          index          index          index
                                     Spearman's rho       Developmental                  Correlation Coef f ic ient            1.000          .131              .576**
                                                          w ellbeing index               Sig. (2-tailed)                            .         .097              .000
                                                                                         N                                       168           161               166
                                                          Spiritual w ellbeing index     Correlation Coef f ic ient             .131        1.000               .254**
                                                                                         Sig. (2-tailed)                        .097              .             .001
                                                                                         N                                       161           161               159
                                                          lif e satisf action index      Correlation Coef f ic ient             .576**        .254**          1.000
                                                                                         Sig. (2-tailed)                        .000          .001                  .
                                                                                         N                                       166           159               166
                                       **. Correlation is s ignif icant at the .01 lev el (2-tailed).
                                                                                                        Belarus

                                          .9                                                            Barbados

                                                                                                        Bangladesh
                                          .8
                                                                                                        Bahrain

                                                                                                        Bahamas
                                          .7
                                                                                                        Azerbaijan

                                          .6                                                            Austria

                                                                                                        Australia
                                          .5
life satisfaction index




                                                                                                        Armenia

                                          .4                                                            Argentina

                                                                                                        Angola
                                          .3
                                                                                                        Algeria

                                          .2                                                            Albania
                                               .3    .4       .5      .6       .7       .8       .9


                                               Developmental wellbeing index




                            (ii)   Scatter Plot: Life Satisfaction Vs Spiritual Well-Being index
                                                                                                                    Belarus

                                                             .9                                                     Barbados

                                                                                                                    Bangladesh
                                                             .8
                                                                                                                    Bahrain

                                                                                                                    Bahamas
                                                             .7
                                                                                                                    Azerbaijan

                                                             .6                                                     Austria

                                                                                                                    Australia
                                                             .5
life satisfaction index




                                                                                                                    Armenia

                                                             .4                                                     Argentina

                                                                                                                    Angola
                                                             .3
                                                                                                                    Algeria

                                                             .2                                                     Albania
                                                                  .2        .3        .4   .5   .6   .7   .8   .9


                                                                  Spiritual wellbeing index
                                  (iii)
                                   Linear Regression Analysis to test whether Material(Developmental) Well-Being Index and
                                  Spiritual Well-Being Index are determinants of Life Satisfaction Index (by Step-Wise
                                  Regression Technique) gave us following result.
                                   Variables Enter ed/Re m ovead

                                     Variables       Variables
                          Model      Entered         Remov ed           Method
                          1                                            Stepw ise
                                                                       (Criteria:
                                                                       Probabilit
                                     Developm                          y-of -F-to-e
                                     ental                             nter <=
                                                                  .
                                     w ellbeing                        .050,
                                     index                             Probabilit
                                                                       y-of -F-to-r
                                                                       emove >=
                                                                       .100).
                          2                                            Stepw ise
                                                                       (Criteria:
                                                                       Probabilit
                                                                       y-of -F-to-e
                                     Spiritual
                                                                       nter <=
                                     w ellbeing                   .
                                                                       .050,
                                     index
                                                                       Probabilit
                                                                       y-of -F-to-r
                                                                       emove >=
                                                                       .100).
                              a. Dependent Variable: lif e s atis f ac tion index
                               Model Sum m ary

                                                    Adjusted           Std. Error of
Model               R           R Square            R Square           the Estimate
1                    .596 a         .356                 .352            9.414E-02
2                    .614 b         .377                 .369            9.287E-02
     a. Predictors: (Constant), Developmental w ellbeing index
     b. Predictors: (Constant), Developmental w ellbeing
        index, Spiritual w ellbeing index



                                                          ANOVAc

                                       Sum of
Model                                  Squares             df           Mean Square            F             Sig.
1             Regression                   .768                   1            .768           86.651           .000 a
              Residual                    1.392                 157       8.863E-03
              Total                       2.160                 158
2             Regression                   .814                   2                .407       47.183            .000 b
              Residual                    1.346                 156           8.626E-03
              Total                       2.160                 158
     a. Predictors: (Constant), Developmental w ellbeing index
     b. Predictors: (Constant), Developmental w ellbeing index , Spiritual w ellbeing index
     c. Dependent Variable: lif e s atisf action index


                                                         a
                                             Coe fficients

                                                                   Standardi
                                                                      zed
                                           Unstandardiz ed         Coef f icien
                                            Coef f icients             ts
Model                                      B          Std. Error     Beta           t        Sig.
1         (Cons tant)                       .216            .042                    5.109      .000
          Developmental
                                             .620          .067          .596       9.309      .000
          w ellbeing index
2         (Cons tant)                        .164          .047                     3.473      .001
          Developmental
                                             .597          .066          .574       8.987      .000
          w ellbeing index
          Spiritual w ellbeing index         .125          .054          .148       2.308      .022
    a. Dependent Variable: lif e satisf action index




                                                       Excluded Variables
                                                                        b


                                                                                                          Collinearit
                                                                                                             y
                                                                                             Partial      Statistics
    Model                                        Beta In              t           Sig.      Correlation   Tolerance
    1         Spiritual wellbeing index             .148 a            2.308         .022           .182        .978
       a. Predictors in the Model: (Constant), Matarialistic wellbeing index
       b. Dependent Variable: life satisfaction index
         The results show both material well-being index and spiritual well-being index are good
         indicators of the Life Satisfaction Index. Significant positive correlation exits between life
         satisfaction index and developmental well-being index and also life satisfaction index and
         spiritual index.
         (iii)Interrelationship between subindices of material Well-being Index
                                                               Cor relations

                                                                     social and
                                                                     ec onomic      political     law and order        sc ience and
                                                                     w ellbeing    w ell-being      w ell-being       technologic al
                                                                       index         index            index             w ell being
social and ec onomic        Pearson Correlation                           1.000            .566**            .025                .559**
w ellbeing index            Sig. (2-tailed)                                     .          .000              .752                .000
                            N                                                168            164               168                 168
political w ell-being index Pearson Correlation                             .566**        1.000              .170*               .686**
                            Sig. (2-tailed)                                 .000               .             .029                .000
                            N                                                164            164               164                 164
law and order w ell-being Pearson Correlation                               .025           .170*           1.000                 .096
index                       Sig. (2-tailed)                                 .752           .029                  .               .215
                            N
                                                                            168             164               168                   168

sc ience and                       Pearson Correlation                     .559**          .686**             .096             1.000
technologic al w ell being         Sig. (2-tailed)                         .000            .000               .215                 .
                                   N                                        168             164                168               168
    **. Correlation is s ignif icant at the 0.01 lev el (2-tailed).
    *. Correlation is s ignif icant at the 0.05 lev el (2-tailed).




         There is significant positive correlation between political well-being index and
               (i) socio-economic well-being index, (at 0.01 level of significance)
               (ii)     science and technological well-being index (at 0.01 level of significance)
               (iii) law and order well-being index (at 0.05 level of significance)
         There is significant correlation between socio-economic well-being index and science and
         technological well-being index (at 0.01 level of significance)
         Interrelationship between indicators of socio-economic wellbeing


                                                            Cor relations

                                                           ec onomic                                Environment       Overall
                                                           w ell being    f amily lif e    EDA      al w ell being  Health Index
ec onomic w ell being           Pearson Correlation              1.000          .315**       .595**          -.142          .067
                                Sig. (2-tailed)                        .        .000         .000             .068          .410
                                N                                   168          168          119              167           153
f amily lif e                   Pearson Correlation                .315**     1.000          .574**          -.139         -.089
                                Sig. (2-tailed)                    .000                .     .000             .073          .273
                                N                                   168          168          119              167           153
EDA                             Pearson Correlation                .595**       .574**      1.000            -.036          .017
                                Sig. (2-tailed)                    .000         .000             .            .699          .859
                                N                                   119          119          119              119           109
Environmental w ell being       Pearson Correlation               -.142        -.139        -.036            1.000         -.174*
                                Sig. (2-tailed)                    .068         .073         .699                 .         .033
                                N                                   167          167          119              167           152
Overall Health Index            Pearson Correlation                .067        -.089         .017            -.174*       1.000
                                Sig. (2-tailed)                    .410         .273         .859             .033              .
                                N                                   153          153          109              152           154
   **. Correlation is s ignif icant at the 0.01 lev el (2-tailed).
   *. Correlation is s ignif icant at the 0.05 lev el (2-tailed).
7. Conclusion and Suggestions
  Though in general the richer and economically more developed countries score higher in the
  Composite Well-Being Index, but the wealthiest countries are not necessarily the best
  performer of Composite well-being index. Political, freedom, voice and accountability, rule of
  law a corruption free environment are strong indicators of material wellbeing.
  Our analysis also shows significant positive correlation of 0.300 (at 0.01 level of significance)
  between Family Life Index and Life Satisfaction Index. Families (households) are the units of
  Nation. Safe, secured, happy and healthy childhood with high family values would bring
  confident, virtuous citizens of tomorrow.
  Family Life Index has significant positive correlation with both economic well-being and
  EDI. Life satisfaction (Mental Well Being) have also strong positive correlation (+0.475)
  with EDI. Attainment of moral based EDUCATION FOR ALL is the need of the hour. With
  improvisation of health facilities with development science and technology, educational
  attainment seems to be single most concern of most societies. With increase in socio-
  economic development there is evident of little concern in Elimination of pollution.
  Political stability with corruption free, democratic form of government and strong rule of law
  is likely to bring socio-economic as well as technological well-being as evident from high
  positive correlation of political well-being with both socio-economical and technological well
  being. Freedom with self sustained economy is likely bring happiness in all dimension.
  Our study was based on secondary data. We would have liked to take into account
  individual‟s adjustment level to changing stress level of the competitive world. Though Gall
  Up Poll carried out survey on quality and quantity of time spent on leisure apparently there is
  more research required to be done physiological and psychological impact and adjustment on
  dealing with the competitive world.

   8.      References

  Alfarabi, AN (1995).“Tahsil al Sa‟ada.” (Attainment of Happiness) Ed. Ali- Abu Melehem.
  Beirut .
  Diwedi, OP (2005) Integrating the Human and Eco-System WellBeing.In Proceedings of
  Global Blues and Sustainable Development, IPSA, Florida.
  http://www.patelcenter.usf.edu/assets/pdf/IPSA-Dwivedi.pdf
  Easterlin, R A (2001). Income and Happiness: Towards a Unified Theory, The Economic
  Journal, 111 (July), 465-484
   Grim, Brian J. and Roger Finke (2006). "International Religion Indexes: Government
  Regulation, Government Favoritism, and Social Regulation of Religion." Interdisciplinary
  Journal of Research on Religion 2
  Inglehart R., Foa R., Peterson C. and Welzel, C (2008). Development, Freedom and Rising
  happiness: A Global Perspective (1981-2007) Perspective of Psychological Science , 3(4),
  264-285.
  Kaufmann, D. and Kraay, A. (2008). Governance Indicator: Where are we and where are
  we going? Ed: Oxford University Press
          Kaufmann, D. and Kraay, A. (2008). Growth Without Governance. Working Paper from
          World Bank.
          Saher, P J (1970). “Happiness and Immortality”. London: George Allen and Unwin.
          Tella, Di, Rafael, MacCulloch, R J and Oswald, A J (2003). The Macroeconomics of
          Happiness, The Review of Economics and Statistics, 85(4), 809-827.
          Veenhoven, R (1996). Happy Life Expectancy: A Comprehensive Measure of Quality of
          Life in Nations, Social Indicators Research, 39, 1-58.
          Veenhoven, R. (1999).Quality of Life in Individualistic Society: A Comparisons of 43
          Nation in Early 1990’s. Social Indicator Research,48, 157-186.
          Veenhoven, R. (2005) Is Life Getting Better: How Long and Happy People Live in
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          Welzel, C (2008). Effective Democracy, Mass Culture, Quality of Elites: Human
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          Journal of Democracy,19(1), 126-140.




          APPENDIX: COMPOSIE INDEX OF HAPPINESS ( Red= Lowest, Yellow= Moderate, Green=High in

          Happiness)

                                                 Gen                    La
                                                 der                    w
                                                 Equ                    an
                                                 ality                  d                             Et
           Econ                                  Ind     Soci   Poli    Or             Mat     Reli   hic
           omic                           Ov     ex      al     tical   de    Scienc   erial   giou   s                      Com
           Well                           eral           and    Wel     r     e        Wel     s      &     Spir             posit
           -                    environ   l              Eco    l       W     &Tech    l-      Well   Va    itual            e
           Bein                 mental    He             nmi    Bei     ell   nology   Bei     Bein   lue   Wel     Life     Well
           g      Family   E    well-     alth           c      ng      Be    Well-    ng      g      In    l       Satisf   Bein
Count      Inde   Life     D    being     Ind            Inde   Ind     in    Being    Inde    scor   de    Bei     action   g
ry         x      index    A    index     ex             x      ex      g     Index    x       e      x     ng      Index    Index
Weight                     0.             0.0
s          0.3    0.3      2    0.1       5      0.05           0.3     0.2   0.1
Paragu                     0.   0.62      0.7    0.75                   0.8                           0.1
ay         0.41   0.76     94             9              0.68   0.38    7     0.31     0.59    ..     6     0.16             0.38
Zimba                      0.   0.73      0.5                           0.8                           0.3
bwe        0.43   0.35     84             6              0.53   0.20    4     0.17     0.46    ..     6     0.36    0.33     0.38
Ugand                           0.60      0.6    0.54                   0.8                           0.2
a          0.42   0.15                    2              0.39   0.41    4     0.08     0.46    ..     9     0.29    0.47     0.41
Angola                          0.75      0.4    ..                     0.8                           0.2
           0.41   0.59                    7              0.54   0.32    2     0.15     0.49    ..     8     0.28    0.48     0.42
Central                         0.69             0.34
Africa
n
Republ                                    0.6                           0.9                           0.1
ic         0.40   0.36                    6              0.45   0.23    5     0.00     0.43    0.63   5     0.39    0.45     0.42
Zambi                           0.80      0.5    0.43                   0.9                           0.2
a          0.41   0.71                    7              0.47   0.45    0     0.05     0.51    ..     7     0.27    0.49     0.42
Niger                      0.   0.56      0.5    0.35                   0.9
           0.44   0.13     47             8              0.37   0.38    4     0.00     0.45    0.37   ..    0.37    0.45     0.42
Belaru                     0.   0.66      0.8    0.82                   0.7                           0.1
s          0.64   0.63     97             6              0.72   0.34    4     0.34     0.58    0.46   7     0.31    0.40     0.43
Malaw                      0.   0.83      0.6    0.45                   0.9                           0.3
i          0.44   0.65     74             0              0.61   0.44    3     0.01     0.56    0.19   7     0.28    0.46     0.43
Congo                        0.84         0.61                 0.7
          0.28   0.54               ..           0.50   0.19   3     0.00   0.40   0.58   ..    0.58   0.33   0.44
Tanzan                       0.65         0.55
ia
(Unite
d
Republ                              0.5                        0.8                        0.2
ic of)    0.49   0.20               7            0.44   0.47   6     0.19   0.51   ..     6     0.26   0.55   0.44
Ethiopi                 0.   0.56   0.6   0.43                 0.8                        0.3
a         0.50   0.38   60          3            0.49   0.36   8     0.14   0.49   ..     7     0.37   0.47   0.45
Armen                   0.   0.54   0.8   0.59                 0.9                        0.2
ia        0.55   0.86   97          6            0.74   0.49   5     0.07   0.64   0.45   2     0.33   0.37   0.45
Canad                        0.57   0.7   0.89                 0.8
a         0.61   0.82               6            0.57   0.25   3     0.00   0.42   ..     ..    ..     0.49   0.46
Bangla                  0.   0.53   0.7   0.52                 0.9                        0.1
desh      0.45   0.38   75          3            0.51   0.33   6     0.20   0.52   0.42   5     0.29   0.57   0.46
Georgi                       0.70   0.8   0.40                 0.8                        0.1
a         0.51   0.81               3            0.65   0.48   4     0.21   0.59   0.58   7     0.37   0.41   0.46
Moldo                   0.   0.52   0.8   0.63                 0.8                        0.4
va        0.54   0.68   95          1            0.68   0.43   3     0.17   0.58   ..     4     0.44   0.35   0.46
Mali                    0.   0.51   0.4   0.38                 0.9                        0.3
          0.45   0.52   57          2            0.50   0.46   5     0.01   0.53   ..     3     0.33   0.53   0.46
Nigeri                  0.   0.66   0.6   0.49                 0.9                        0.2
a         0.45   0.75   73          0            0.62   0.28   3     0.23   0.54   0.32   8     0.30   0.55   0.46
Lesoth                  0.   0.00   0.6   0.54                 0.6
o         0.44   0.78   79          0            0.58   0.47   5     0.15   0.52   0.45   ..    0.45   0.43   0.47
Kenya                   0.   0.53   0.7   0.53                 0.8                        0.3
          0.47   0.55   82          0            0.59   0.38   7     0.25   0.55   0.30   4     0.32   0.56   0.47
Burun                   0.   0.53   0.6   0.38                 0.6                        0.6
di        0.42   0.36   76          7            0.49   0.28   3     0.06   0.41   0.75   9     0.72   0.30   0.48
Pakista                 0.   0.84   0.6   0.46                 0.9                        0.1
n         0.49   0.69   65          6            0.62   0.31   7     0.27   0.56   0.70   9     0.45   0.43   0.48
Algeri                  0.   0.47   0.8   0.52                 0.9                        0.3
a         0.51   0.71   89          1            0.66   0.39   0     0.46   0.60   0.31   5     0.33   0.52   0.49
Sri                          0.65   0.7   0.55                 0.9                        0.3
Lanka     0.53   0.69               1            0.49   0.44   0     0.23   0.53   ..     2     0.32   0.61   0.49
Madag                        0.69   0.6   0.46                 0.9                        0.2
ascar     0.44   0.67               2            0.57   0.50   4     0.13   0.58   0.41   0     0.31   0.58   0.49
Rwand                   0.   0.58   0.5   0.43                 0.5                        0.3
a         0.38   0.75   71          9            0.59   0.46   9     0.00   0.49   0.73   3     0.53   0.44   0.49
Bulgar                  0.   0.64   0.8   0.72                 0.9                        0.3
ia        0.56   0.79   96          7            0.74   0.57   2     0.34   0.69   0.37   2     0.35   0.43   0.49
Turkm                                     ..
enistan                             0.7                        0.6
          0.51   0.69               8            0.64   0.28   4     0.06   0.47   0.60   ..    0.60   0.40   0.49
Moza                         0.76         0.36
mbiqu                   0.          0.5                        0.9                        0.1
e         0.42   0.46   62          5            0.51   0.46   4     0.16   0.55   0.59   8     0.39   0.54   0.49
Gambi                        0.72   0.6   0.47                 0.9                        0.4
a         0.41   0.65               9            0.56          6     0.23   0.44   0.53   1     0.47   0.57   0.49
Samoa                        0.64         0.75                 0.9
          0.45   0.90               ..           0.65          3     0.13   0.46   0.33   ..    0.33   0.69   0.49
Cambo                   0.   0.81   0.6   0.49                 0.8                        0.3
dia       0.45   0.62   78          8            0.61   0.37   9     0.31   0.50   0.68   1     0.50   0.51   0.50
Cote d                              0.7   0.41                 0.9                        0.1
Ivoire    0.44   0.55        0.67   6            0.42   0.37   1     0.17   0.56   0.65   5     0.40   0.56   0.50
Ukrain                       0.52   0.7   0.62                 0.7                        0.4
e         0.58   0.72               9            0.63   0.44   7     0.34   0.57   0.75   2     0.59   0.36   0.51
Lao                          0.87         0.60
People'
s
Democ
ratic
Republ                  0.                                     0.9
ic        0.43   0.68   75          ..           0.61   0.38   5     0.01   0.55   0.43         0.43   0.54   0.51
Costa                        0.74   0.8   0.77                 0.8
Rica      0.54   0.89               4            0.71   0.24   7     0.24   0.44   0.64   ..    0.64   0.45   0.51
Bosnia                       0.70         ..
and
Herzeg                              0.8                        0.9                        0.1
ovina     0.45   0.94               5            0.69   0.43   7     0.19   0.62   0.63   9     0.41   0.51   0.51
India                   0.   0.43   0.7   0.59                 0.9                        0.4
          0.51   0.76   79          1            0.65   0.48   6     0.30   0.63   0.32   5     0.38   0.54   0.52
Burkin                       0.65         0.36
a Faso                  0.          0.6                        0.9                        0.3
          0.48   0.55   54          3            0.53   0.46   6     0.02   0.54   0.73   5     0.54   0.47   0.52
Egypt                   0.   0.49   0.7   0.28                 0.9                        0.3
          0.53   0.69   88          7            0.64   0.45   7     0.37   0.62   0.61   0     0.45   0.48   0.52
Maced                        0.58         0.72
onia
(TFYR                               0.8                        0.9                        0.2
)         0.48   0.80               5            0.63   0.48   3     0.26   0.61   0.68   4     0.46   0.49   0.52
Swazil                  0.   0.85   0.5   0.53                 0.8
and       0.50   0.79   85          4            0.69   0.43   1     0.06   0.58   0.57   ..    0.57   0.42   0.52
Chile                   0.   0.59   0.8   0.69                 0.9                        0.3
          0.55   0.94   97          1            0.77   0.48   4     0.49   0.57   ..     8     0.38   0.63   0.53
Ecuad                   0.   0.69   0.7   0.61                 0.8                        0.1
or        0.45   0.83   92          8            0.71   0.33   2     0.33   0.58   0.71   8     0.45   0.56   0.53
Russia                       0.55         0.67
n
Federa                              0.7                        0.5                        0.3
tion      0.57   0.42               9            0.42   0.39   3     0.24   0.42   0.74   0     0.52   0.65   0.53
Ghana                   0.   0.63   0.7   0.53                 0.9                        0.3
          0.50   0.56   71          2            0.59   0.54   5     0.34   0.62          6     0.36   0.62   0.53
Djibou                       0.50   0.7   0.50                 0.9
ti        0.39   0.83               0            0.47   0.42   6     0.05   0.51   0.61   ..    0.61   0.48   0.54
Jamaic                  0.   0.64   0.7   0.65                 0.7                        0.3
a         0.52   0.79   89          7            0.71   0.51   4     0.36   0.62   0.28   3     0.30   0.70   0.54
Iran                         0.50         0.56
(Islami
c
Republ                  0.          0.7                        0.8                        0.4
ic of)    0.50   0.87   88          8            0.71   0.32   9     0.56   0.61   ..     1     0.41   0.60   0.54
Slovak                  0.   0.75   0.8   0.75                 0.9                        0.3
ia        0.58   0.79   97          4            0.76   0.68   2     0.37   0.73   ..     6     0.36   0.54   0.54
China                        0.59   0.8   0.64                 0.4                        0.2
          0.42   0.74               2            0.48   0.44   2     0.45   0.51   0.51   8     0.40   0.72   0.54
Azerba                  0.   0.54   0.8   0.59                 0.8
ijan      0.62   0.87   95          1            0.76   0.38   9     0.10   0.61   0.53   ..    0.53   0.49   0.54
Syrian                       0.49         0.57
Arab
Republ                              0.7                        0.9
ic        0.43   0.70               6            0.55   0.36   7     0.49   0.57   0.55   ..    0.55   0.51   0.54
Latvia                  0.   0.73   0.7   0.75                 0.8                        0.3
          0.57   0.64   97          9            0.71   0.68   0     0.22   0.67   0.67   3     0.50   0.47   0.55
Benin                   0.   0.61   0.6   0.44                 0.9
          0.45   0.55   64          6            0.54   0.47   3     0.10   0.55   ..     ..    ..     0.54   0.55
Eritrea                 0.   0.58   0.7   0.43                 0.9
          0.48   0.58   62          3            0.56   0.28   4     0.34   0.53   0.67   ..    0.67   0.44   0.55
Togo                    0.   0.52   0.6   0.46                 0.9
          0.38   0.45   69          7            0.50   0.33   4     0.07   0.49   0.67   ..    0.67   0.49   0.55
Nicara                  0.   0.50   0.7   0.61                 0.8                        0.2
gua       0.51   0.64   80          4            0.62   0.40   7     0.24   0.57   0.68   3     0.45   0.63   0.55
Sierra                       0.52         0.31
Leone                               0.4                        0.8
          0.40   0.50               0            0.45   0.35   1     0.03   0.45   0.65   ..    0.65   0.55   0.55
Philipp                 0.   0.71   0.7   0.65                 0.8                        0.1
ines      0.54   0.80   89          3            0.72   0.42   8     0.37   0.63   0.59   9     0.39   0.64   0.55
Poland                  0.   0.91   0.8   0.75                 0.8                        0.3
          0.53   0.84   98          1            0.77   0.63   9     0.30   0.71   0.40   3     0.36   0.59   0.55
Occupi                       1.00         0.68
ed
Palesti
nian
Territo                 0.                                     0.9
ries      0.40   0.35   91          ..           0.53          4     0.22   0.42   0.70   ..    0.70   0.54   0.55
Guinea                       0.89         0.37
-                                   0.5                        0.9
Bissau    0.44   0.50               9            0.55   0.32   2     0.02   0.50   0.63   ..    0.63   0.54   0.56
Indone                  0.   0.75   0.7   0.58                 0.9                        0.4
sia       0.49   0.82   93          3            0.72   0.40   6     0.20   0.62   0.32   7     0.39   0.66   0.56
Moroc                   0.   0.62   0.7   0.47                 0.9                        0.3
co        0.46   0.76   74          4            0.64   0.49   2     0.37   0.62   0.61   7     0.49   0.56   0.56
South                        0.63         0.66
Africa                  0.          0.6                        0.5                        0.3
          0.44   0.92   90          5            0.72   0.62   0     0.34   0.61   0.64   6     0.50   0.57   0.56
Peru                    0.   0.65   0.7   0.71                 0.9                        0.3
          0.46   0.79   93          2            0.70   0.45   1     0.29   0.63   0.70   1     0.50   0.56   0.56
Maurit                  0.   0.66   0.7   0.65                 0.9                        0.3
ius       0.52   0.92   95          6            0.76   0.68   0     0.46   0.73   0.74   2     0.53   0.43   0.56
Bolivia                 0.   0.78   0.7   0.61                 0.9
          0.44   0.62   92          4            0.65   0.35   5     0.25   0.58   0.57   ..    0.57   0.55   0.57
Argent                  0.   0.54   0.8   0.77                 0.8                        0.2
ina       0.51   0.91   96          6            0.75   0.47   8     0.41   0.66   0.60   0     0.40   0.65   0.57
Croatia                 0.   0.66   0.8   0.74                 0.9                        0.2
          0.52   0.92   99          2            0.77   0.61   6     0.36   0.72   0.55   4     0.40   0.59   0.57
Hondu                   0.   0.71   0.7   0.65                 0.8                        0.1
ras       0.51   0.82   89          3            0.72   0.42   6     0.28   0.61   0.60   6     0.38   0.72   0.57
Hunga                   0.   0.93   0.8   0.73                 0.9                        0.3
ry        0.58   0.65   98          3            0.74   0.70   2     0.27   0.72   0.47   9     0.43   0.57   0.57
Venez                        0.74         0.70
uela
(Boliv
arian
Republ                  0.          0.7                        0.7                        0.2
ic of)    0.53   0.68   93          9            0.70   0.28   2     0.39   0.54   0.65   1     0.43   0.74   0.57
Lithua                  0.   0.68   0.8   0.74                 0.8                        0.3
nia       0.56   0.94   97          4            0.79   0.69   2     0.34   0.72   0.70   4     0.52   0.47   0.57
Maurit                  0.   0.59         0.55                 0.9
ania      0.45   0.77   70          ..           0.58   0.44   5     0.01   0.56   0.63   ..    0.63   0.53   0.57
Maldiv                  0.   0.54   0.7   0.59                 0.8
es        0.57   0.45   91          3            0.61   0.50   3     0.10   0.57   0.49   ..    0.49   0.66   0.57
Equato                       0.74         0.71
rial                                0.6                        0.9
Guinea    0.38   0.55               3            0.53   0.31   1     0.02   0.49   0.71   ..    0.71   0.52   0.57
Roman                   0.   0.72   0.7   0.66                 0.9                        0.4
ia        0.56   0.56   97          9            0.68   0.55   1     0.27   0.65   0.71   1     0.56   0.52   0.58
Korea                        0.77         0.73
(Repub
lic of)                 0.          0.7                        0.9                        0.5
          0.62   0.82   98          6            0.78          1     0.77   0.57   0.63   2     0.58   0.58   0.58
Czech                        0.62         0.77
Republ                  0.          0.8                        0.9                        0.3
ic        0.60   0.79   98          6            0.76   0.71   1     0.40   0.74   ..     5     0.35   0.64   0.58
Trinida                      0.38         0.80
d and
Tobag                   0.          0.7                        0.7                        0.3
o         0.57   0.73   94          2            0.69   0.57   8     0.52   0.66   ..     8     0.38   0.69   0.58
Chad                    0.   0.55   0.6   0.37                 0.8                        0.3
          0.38   0.40   41          3            0.42   0.79   8     0.47   0.77   ..     1     0.31   0.65   0.58
Guinea                  0.   0.64   0.6   0.41                 0.8
          0.43   0.52   61          8            0.53   0.22   8     0.39   0.49   0.73   ..    0.73   0.51   0.58
Viet                    0.   0.70   0.7   0.64                 0.9                        0.4
Nam       0.44   0.51   90          4            0.60   0.47   3     0.35   0.60   0.65   1     0.53   0.61   0.58
Guate                   0.   0.69   0.7   0.68                 0.7                        0.1
mala      0.47   0.71   82          4            0.66   0.40   6     0.42   0.58   0.76   9     0.47   0.70   0.58
Uzbeki                       0.51   0.7   0.70                 0.8
stan      0.50   0.89               7            0.65   0.30   8     0.05   0.53   ..     ..    ..     0.64   0.58
Yemen                   0.   0.50   0.6   0.34                 0.9
          0.51   0.74   64          6            0.60   0.34   5     0.18   0.55   ..     ..    ..     0.62   0.58
Kyrgy                        0.52         0.63
zstan                   0.          0.7                        0.8
          0.51   0.84   98          7            0.72   0.35   1     0.14   0.57   0.53   ..    0.53   0.66   0.59
Brazil                  0.   0.79   0.8   0.65                 0.7                        0.2
          0.45   0.85   90          0            0.72   0.50   7     0.41   0.63   0.75   7     0.51   0.63   0.59
Haiti                        0.52   0.5   ..                   0.9
          0.40   0.59               7            0.50   0.27   5     0.19   0.49   0.73   ..    0.73   0.55   0.59
Nepal                   0.   0.56   0.6   0.50                 0.9
          0.44   0.64   74          6            0.58   0.33   4     0.15   0.54   0.69   ..    0.69   0.55   0.59
Mexic                   0.   0.53   0.7   0.72                 0.8                        0.3
o         0.52   0.82   96          7            0.72   0.50   3     0.33   0.64   0.58   2     0.45   0.69   0.59
Panam                   0.   0.73   0.7   0.71                 0.7                        0.2
a         0.53   0.95   94          8            0.78   0.55   7     0.36   0.67   0.53   5     0.39   0.72   0.59
El                           0.57         0.63
Salvad                  0.          0.7                        0.6                        0.4
or        0.52   0.88   87          2            0.72   0.51   7     0.36   0.61   0.61   1     0.51   0.66   0.59
Jordan                       0.49   0.8   0.76                 0.9                        0.5
          0.50   0.86               4            0.64   0.59   5     0.53   0.68   0.63   7     0.60   0.51   0.60
Bhutan                       0.86   0.7   0.60                 0.9
          0.33   0.79               2            0.49   0.60   7     0.06   0.58   0.46   ..    0.46   0.76   0.60
Libyan                       0.88         ..
Arab
Jamahi                              0.7                        0.8
riya      0.49   0.28               6            0.53   0.41   6     0.59   0.57   0.66   ..    0.66   0.57   0.60
Domin                        0.64         0.66
ican
Republ                              0.8                        0.8                        0.2
ic        0.45   0.72               1            0.60   0.47   8     0.55   0.61   0.74   4     0.49   0.70   0.60
Gabon                        0.94   0.7   ..                   0.8
          0.40   0.72               1            0.64   0.44   4     0.25   0.58   ..     ..    ..     0.62   0.60
Comor                        0.51   0.7   0.57                 0.8
os        0.27   0.73               3            0.50   0.30   6     0.10   0.47   0.76   ..    0.76   0.57   0.60
Colom                   0.   0.80   0.8   0.64                 0.9
bia       0.48   0.47   91          3            0.62   0.32   7     0.09   0.50   0.72   ..    0.72   0.59   0.60
Sloven                  0.   0.88   0.8   0.77                 0.9                        0.3
ia        0.60   0.82   99          1            0.79   0.74   7     0.43   0.78   ..     8     0.38   0.66   0.60
Estoni                  0.   0.49   0.8   0.76                 0.7                        0.6
a         0.61   0.65   98          4            0.70   0.77   8     0.35   0.70   ..     1     0.61   0.51   0.61
Turkey                  0.   0.53   0.8   0.58                 0.9                        0.4
          0.53   0.90   91          0            0.73   0.53   4     0.26   0.67   0.74   5     0.60   0.56   0.61
Cuba                    0.   0.62   0.8   0.76                 0.6
          0.74   0.70   98          7            0.77   0.41   6     0.43   0.61   0.60   ..    0.60   0.63   0.61
Botsw                   0.   0.60   0.7   0.60                 0.8                        0.5
ana       0.46   0.87   87          2            0.70   0.70   3     0.24   0.68   0.71   2     0.62   0.54   0.61
Kazak                   1.   0.42   0.7   0.66                 0.7
hstan     0.54   0.73   00          9            0.69   0.44   2     0.08   0.56   0.70   ..    0.70   0.58   0.61
Tonga                   0.   0.73         0.56                 0.9
          0.47   0.90   97          ..           0.68   0.48   5     0.03   0.61   0.55   ..    0.55   0.69   0.62
Solom                        0.54         ..
on                                                             0.9
Islands   0.48   0.00               ..           0.35   0.41   7     0.01   0.46   0.71   ..    0.71   0.69   0.62
Sao                          0.50         0.63
Tome
and                                                                                             #DI
Princip                 0.                                     0.9                              V/0
e         0.48   0.81   86          ..           0.60   0.45   3     0.11   0.57   ..     ..    !      0.67   0.62
Urugu                   0.   0.53   0.7   0.70                 0.8                        0.4
ay        0.51   0.66   96          3            0.67   0.68   8     0.45   0.69   0.64   5     0.54   0.63   0.62
Namib                   0.   0.63   0.6   0.62                 0.7                        0.5
ia        0.42   0.77   87          5            0.66   0.60   9     0.18   0.62   0.70   0     0.60   0.65   0.62
Thaila                       0.76   0.6   0.65                 0.8                        0.4
nd        0.57   0.74               9            0.67   0.49   2     0.38   0.62   0.73   8     0.61   0.65   0.62
Bahrai                  0.   0.35   0.8   0.76                 0.9                        0.5
n         0.47   0.90   96          4            0.72   0.64   6     0.53   0.72   0.29   8     0.43   0.72   0.63
Papua                        0.78         ..
New                                 0.6                        0.8
Guinea    0.58   0.80               1            0.52   0.37   9     0.02   0.50   0.75   ..    0.75   0.63   0.63
Fiji                    0.   0.78   0.7   0.74                 0.9
          0.63   0.80   92          7            0.77   0.47   4     0.13   0.65   0.57   ..    0.57   0.67   0.63
Tajikis                 0.   0.71   0.7   0.68                 0.8
tan       0.55   0.70   97          4            0.71   0.33   7     0.18   0.58   0.71   ..    0.71   0.61   0.63
Spain                   0.   0.62   0.7   0.89                 0.9                        0.3
          0.56   0.80   99          3            0.75   0.74   3     0.58   0.76   0.53   5     0.44   0.70   0.63
Albani                 0.   0.65   0.8   0.80                 0.9
a        0.50   0.86   95          1            0.74   0.46   2     0.13   0.63   0.81   ..    0.81   0.46   0.63
Leban                  0.   0.54   0.8   ..                   0.8
on       0.47   0.90   89          4            0.68   0.36   9     0.60   0.62   0.66   ..    0.66          0.64
United                      0.51         0.85
States                             0.7                        0.6                        0.4
         0.55   0.65               7            0.60   0.82   2     0.62   0.67   0.59   4     0.52   0.74   0.64
Saint                       0.81         ..
Vincen
t and
the
Grenad                 0.                                     0.7
ines     0.51   0.80   90          ..           0.71   0.72   5     0.08   0.66   0.55   ..    0.55   0.72   0.64
Cyprus                 0.   0.54         0.76                 0.9                        0.4
         0.62   0.68   99          ..           0.72   0.75   7     0.27   0.73   0.60   2     0.51   0.69   0.64
Senega                 0.   0.97   0.7   0.49                 0.9
l        0.48   0.72   64          1            0.65   0.47   3     0.16   0.60   0.78   ..    0.78   0.56   0.65
Portug                 0.   0.62   0.8   0.82                 0.9                        0.5
al       0.52   0.84   97          4            0.75   0.75   4     0.52   0.77   ..     7     0.57   0.61   0.65
Italy                  0.   0.63   0.8   0.84                 0.9                        0.3
         0.58   0.87   99          1            0.78   0.65   5     0.53   0.75   0.62   9     0.50   0.69   0.65
Guyan                       0.89   0.6   0.65                 0.8
a        0.45   0.79               8            0.66   0.45   2     0.22   0.59          ..    ..     0.72   0.65
Congo                       0.81         0.35
(Demo
cratic
Republ
ic of                              0.7                        0.8                        0.4
the)     0.41   0.42               3            0.50   0.65   8     0.48   0.70   0.60   2     0.51   0.75   0.65
Seyche                 0.   0.66         ..                   0.8
lles     0.50   0.59   97          ..           0.64   0.57   5     0.22   0.62   0.61   ..    0.61   0.74   0.66
Greece                 0.   0.60   0.9   0.82                 0.9                        0.4
         0.55   0.91   98          0            0.78   0.66   6     0.63   0.77   0.74   2     0.58   0.63   0.66
Belize                      0.86   0.7   0.51                 0.6
         0.43   0.59               8            0.59   0.52   3     0.12   0.53   0.69   ..    0.69   0.76   0.66
Surina                      0.63   0.7   0.68                 0.7
me       0.33   0.85               3            0.49   0.51   8     0.26   0.53   0.71   ..    0.71   0.73   0.66
Tunisi                 0.   0.55   0.7   0.75                 0.8                        0.5
a        0.45   0.85   90          7            0.70   0.59   8     0.49   0.68   0.73   7     0.65   0.64   0.66
New                         0.59         0.88
Zealan                             0.7                        0.9                        0.5
d        0.58   0.74               6            0.65   0.94   1     0.53   0.78   0.37   5     0.46   0.74   0.66
Germa                       0.61   0.8   0.89                 0.9                        0.4
ny       0.59   0.79               5            0.69   0.87   6     0.69   0.80   0.50   3     0.46   0.72   0.66
France                 0.   0.59   0.7   0.87                 0.9                        0.4
         0.56   0.77   99          4            0.74   0.78   6     0.64   0.79   0.69   0     0.54   0.66   0.66
Kuwait                 0.   0.27   0.8   0.89                 0.9
         0.55   0.87   94          1            0.72   0.63   4     0.57   0.72   0.58   ..    0.58   0.72   0.67
Mongo                  0.   0.53   0.7   0.56                 0.8
lia      0.47   0.70   95          9            0.66   0.48   1     0.31   0.60   0.75   ..    0.75   0.67   0.67
United                      0.50         0.86
Kingd                  0.          0.7                        0.9                        0.4
om       0.55   0.65   99          4            0.69   0.88   4     0.58   0.79   0.61   5     0.53   0.71   0.68
Saudi                       0.65         0.30
Arabia                 0.          0.5                        0.9
         0.63   0.80   88          1            0.71   0.51   4     0.48   0.67   0.63   ..    0.63   0.73   0.68
Israel                 0.   0.48   0.8   0.66                 0.8                        0.6
         0.56   0.84   98          5            0.74   0.65   9     0.64   0.73   0.66   4     0.65   0.67   0.68
Qatar                       0.30   0.8   0.63                 0.9
         0.59   0.93               0            0.56   0.69   8     0.46   0.67   0.69   ..    0.69   0.70   0.69
Saint                  0.   0.63         0.59                 0.7
Lucia    0.51   0.80   94          ..           0.63   0.72   8     0.14   0.64   0.73   ..    0.73   0.70   0.69
United                      0.30         0.79
Arab
Emirat                 0.          0.8                        0.8                        0.6
es       0.49   0.87   96          1            0.71   0.71   7     0.64   0.74   0.52   8     0.60   0.74   0.69
Malays                 0.   0.47   0.7   0.68                 0.9                        0.5
ia       0.53   0.90   97          5            0.74   0.65   1     0.61   0.73   0.70   1     0.60   0.74   0.69
Oman                        0.43         0.63
         0.49   0.90   0.          0.7          0.71   0.66   0.9   0.49   0.72   0.63   ..    0.63   0.73   0.70
                            89          9                          7
Japan                            0.83   0.8   0.76                 0.9                              0.5
          0.64   0.81                   4            0.74   0.80   8     0.62       0.80   0.75     9     0.67   0.62      0.70
Nether                           0.60         0.91
lands                       0.                                     0.9                              0.5
          0.59   0.81       99          ..           0.69   0.91   4     0.58       0.80   0.60     1     0.55   0.75      0.70
Austral                          0.51   0.8   0.91                 0.9                              0.4
ia        0.58   0.83                   1            0.67   0.90   4     0.61       0.79   0.77     4     0.61   0.73      0.71
Belgiu                      0.   0.55   0.7   0.89                 0.9
m         0.60   0.86       98          7            0.77   0.83   6     0.53       0.80   0.60     ..    0.60   0.73      0.71
Malta                       0.   0.46   0.8   0.71                 0.9                              0.5
          0.50   0.90       96          5            0.74   0.83   6     0.26       0.76   0.75     1     0.63   0.75      0.71
Switze                      0.   0.48   0.7   0.89                 0.9                              0.5
rland     0.66   0.85       98          2            0.78   0.95   6     0.67       0.85   0.42     4     0.48   0.82      0.72
Domin                       0.   0.81         ..                   0.7
ica       0.49   0.90       82          ..           0.71   0.71   9     0.41       0.70   0.73     ..    0.73   0.73      0.72
Swede                       0.   0.62   0.6   0.94                 0.9                              0.4
n         0.62   0.69       98          8            0.73   0.94   6     0.75       0.84   0.67     6     0.57   0.77      0.73
Camer                            0.74   0.6   0.51                 0.9                              0.6
oon       0.43   0.61                   9            0.44   0.91   5     0.64       0.75   ..       9     0.69   0.76      0.74
Barbad                      0.   0.49   0.7   0.75                 0.7                              0.6
os        0.43   0.90       94          9            0.71   0.80   8     0.82       0.76   0.75     9     0.72   0.73      0.74
Saint                            0.63         ..
Kitts
and                                                                0.7
Nevis     0.55   0.90                   ..           0.70   0.72   0     0.74       0.71   0.76     ..    0.76   0.74      0.74
Finlan                      0.   0.80   0.6   0.92                 0.9                              0.5
d         0.63   0.80       99          5            0.78   0.95   5     0.80       0.87   ..       9     0.59   0.77      0.74
Baham                       0.   0.73   0.8   0.79                 0.6
as        0.67   0.84       92          1            0.79   0.78   6     0.49       0.73   0.73     ..    0.73   0.77      0.74
Iceland                     0.   0.57   0.7   0.92                 0.9                              0.8
          0.59   0.78       99          7            0.75   0.97   9     0.60       0.85   0.39     5     0.62   0.78      0.75
Ireland                     0.   0.45   0.8   0.84                 0.9                              0.6
          0.63   0.80       98          0            0.75   0.89   7     0.56       0.82   ..       7     0.67   0.76      0.75
Singap                           0.63   0.8   0.84                 0.8                              0.8
ore       0.64   0.85                   1            0.72   0.95   4     0.64       0.81   0.66     5     0.76   0.69      0.75
Austria                     0.   0.69   0.8   0.84                 0.9                              0.7
          0.60   0.89       99          7            0.80   0.91   6     0.62       0.85   0.60     3     0.67   0.78      0.76
Luxem                            0.56         0.94
bourg                       0.          0.7                        0.9                              0.7
          0.65   0.71       99          6            0.75   0.95   2     0.64       0.83   0.70     5     0.73   0.76      0.77
Norwa                       0.   0.42   0.7   0.94                 0.9                              0.8
y         0.67   0.79       99          5            0.76   0.93   7     0.62       0.84   0.65     6     0.76   0.74      0.78
Denma                       0.   0.49   0.7   0.92                 0.9                              0.9
rk        0.64   0.58       99          4            0.70   0.95   7     0.63       0.82   0.54     0     0.72   0.82      0.79

Appendix 2: Principal Component Analysis Output of Religious Indicators

                                                                    Political and          Religious
                                                                    Religious              tolerance          ReligiousDiscri
 Rotated Component Matrix                                           Freedom                index              mination index
                                                                    Component
                                                                                      1                   2                     3
 Bahai (WCD 2005)                                                           -7.38E-02             6.44E-03           -4.42E-02
 Buddhist (WCD 2005)                                                        -2.07E-02                0.141           -4.07E-02
 Chinese Universist (WCD 2005)                                                  0.103           -2.06E-02            -4.76E-02
 Christian (WCD 2005)                                                       -8.66E-02           -3.35E-02               5.51E-03
 Confucianist (WCD 2005)                                                    4.55E-02            -4.42E-02            -5.01E-02
 Ethnoreligionist (WCD 2005)                                                3.17E-02                -0.114              8.24E-02
 Hindu (WCD 2005)                                                               0.111           -2.07E-03                   0.19
 Jew (WCD 2005)                                                             -2.21E-02           -4.33E-03            -4.68E-02
Muslim (WCD 2005)                                                          1.04E-02    8.15E-03    -5.48E-02
Spiritist (WCD 2005)                                                       -6.19E-02   4.58E-02    -7.00E-02
2005 Freedom of the Press (Freedom House, 2005)                               0.655    -5.14E-03   6.57E-02
2000 Political Typology (Freedom House's "Democracy's Century"
Report                                                                        0.474    1.32E-02       0.102
1950 Political Typology (Freedom House's "Democracy's Century"
Report)                                                                       0.116       -0.179   -7.93E-02
1900 Political Typology                                                       0.227       -0.117      0.149
2005 Political Rights                                                         0.644    -1.93E-02      0.104
2005 Civil Liberties                                                          0.637    -7.71E-03      0.126
Goverment Regulation of Religion Index                                        0.933       0.176       0.174
Does the government interfere with an individual's right to worship?          0.761    9.51E-02       0.122
How is freedom of religion described?                                         0.836       0.266    5.92E-02
Does the government generally respect the right to freedom of
religion in practice?                                                         0.852       0.148       0.114
Does the government policy contribute to the generally free practice
of religion?                                                                  0.771       0.163       0.144
Are foreign and other missionaries allowed to operate?                        0.794    7.93E-02    7.17E-02
Is proselytizing, public preaching, or conversion limited or restricted?      0.752       0.147       0.325
Government Favoritism of Religion Index                                       0.222       0.928       0.162
Does the government fund some things related to religion?                     0.229       0.786         0.11
To what extent is there a favored (or established) religious brand?           0.305       0.613         0.26
How does the government subsidize (including in-kind) religion?               0.283         0.78      0.122
What is the nature of government funding to the religious sector?          6.73E-03       0.846    5.43E-02
Government Funding of Religion Index (0-12: Schools, buildings,
clergy, media, charity, religious work)                                    9.41E-02       0.686         0.15
Does the government fund religious education?                              -8.19E-03      0.693    8.05E-02
Does the government fund religious buildings                                  0.119       0.526       0.155
Does the government fund clergy salary or benefits?                        7.98E-02       0.564       0.223
Does the government fund religious print or broadcast media?               7.13E-02       0.343    3.71E-02
Does the government fund religious charity or public service work?         2.34E-03       0.262    -5.36E-02
Does the government fund religious practice or mission work?                  0.123       0.172    9.16E-02
Social Regulation of Religion Index                                           0.622         0.24      0.308
Societal attitudes toward other or nontraditional religions are reported
to be…                                                                        0.465    8.78E-02    5.64E-02
What are the social attitudes towards conversions to other religions?         0.589       0.174       0.462
Do traditional attitudes and/or edicts of the clerical establishment
strongly discourage proselytizing (trying to win converts)?                   0.501       0.217         0.39
Do established or existing religions try to shut out new religions in
any way?                                                                      0.448       0.238       0.168
What is the situation regarding social movements in relation to
religious brands in the country?                                              0.477       0.194       0.151
Is there a constitution?                                                        0.11   7.19E-02    5.44E-03
Does the constitution provide for freedom of religion?                          0.38      0.114       0.194
Are the relationships among religions in society generally amicable?          0.579         0.12      0.115
Was there a change in the status of respect for religious freedom?            0.248    6.83E-02    1.37E-03
What is mentioned about social tensions?                                      0.122    -3.95E-03      0.187
Do people face hassles if they do not belong to the dominant religion
of the country?                                                              0.322         0.22   7.06E-02
Were there any land or property disputes?                                    0.297    7.40E-02    -2.44E-02
Were there any religiously-related land or property disputes?                0.142    6.38E-02         0.16
Does the report say the government promotes interfaith
understanding?                                                            1.86E-02    -7.35E-02      -0.129
What is the nature of government or public holidays?                      3.14E-02    3.19E-02       0.287
Does the government require religions to register?                           0.391    -7.87E-02   4.05E-02
Is religious literature or broadcasting limited or restricted?               0.479    4.61E-02       0.211
Do laws take into account a person's religion?                               0.396       0.144       0.494
According to the report, are there laws regulating daily life based on
(biased towards) religion?                                                   0.428       0.231       0.649
Is blasphemy prohibited by law?                                              0.296       0.212       0.639
According to the report, does it say there were reports of religious
prisoners or detainees?                                                      0.636       -0.141   7.62E-02
Are people, based on religious identity or activity, discriminated
against?                                                                     0.527       0.139    -1.46E-02
Are people put into prison based on religion?                                0.748    -5.39E-02   7.43E-02
Does the state (i.e. the government) defer to religious authorities on
life issues?                                                                 0.311       0.298         0.73
Are allegations reported of discrimination in education, housing
and/or employment based on religion?                                         0.405       0.219       0.141
When a person sells or buys land or property, do laws or practices
benefit or discriminate based on religion?                                   0.368       0.274       0.214
Do legal rights of males and females have anything to do with
religion?                                                                    0.358       0.212       0.816
Do divorce rights and/or adultery's legal status have anything to do
with religion?                                                               0.241       0.171       0.787
Has there been any harassment of minority religious groups?                  0.404       0.121    3.71E-02
Is there a government bureau that supervises religions?                         0.4      0.256    7.41E-02
Do government or security authorities harass or allow harassment
based on religious brand?                                                    0.739    2.50E-02       0.133
Are there activities reported that promote tolerance and
understanding between adherents of different religions                       -0.144   2.53E-02    -2.40E-02
Are social movements reported that have religious agendas                    0.155    6.72E-02    5.54E-02
Are tensions related to religion reported                                    0.253       0.105    1.28E-02
According to the report, is there an organized interfaith dialog             -0.113   -3.72E-02      0.109
Does the report mention cases of vandalism towards religious
properties or cemeteries by citizens                                      6.37E-02       0.175    -3.89E-02
Are certain parts of the country or its cities strongly associated with
certain religions                                                         7.40E-02    -2.58E-02      0.221
Are certain parts of the country or its cities strongly associated with
certain religions                                                            0.362    9.94E-02    5.25E-02
Does the report mention that societal discrimination is more likely to
be based upon ethnic bias than upon religious prejudice?                  4.16E-02    -2.38E-02   -3.00E-02
were there reports of derogatory graffitti being put on religious
properties                                                                -3.07E-02      0.186       -0.255
What is the highest level of restriction reported                              0.69      0.377       0.179
Estimate the number of people who are physically abused                      0.574    9.36E-03         0.14
Is ethnic identity related to religious affiliation                          0.244    8.78E-02    -6.98E-02
Country's largest religion by %                                              0.447    -4.02E-02      0.182
Govt. favoritism of religion index                                           0.202       0.919       0.146
Govt. regulation of religion index                    0.918      0.166   0.192
Social Regulation of Religion index                   0.601      0.223   0.342
Poltical Typology(Freedom's house)                     0.49   8.08E-03    0.11
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.

				
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