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									INSECT NAME AND CLASS                                                                                                                     INSECT THRESHOLDS AND
                                                                                                                                 Base Devel.    Upper Devel.
        Scientific name                 Common Name                   Order          Family          Genus             Species    temp (C)        temp (C)
Abgrallaspis cyanophylli       Cyanophyllum scale                Hemiptera      Diaspididae     Abgrallaspis     cyanophylli        12.47
Acanthoscelides obtectus       Bean beatle                       Coleoptera     Bruchidae       Acanthoscelides obtectus
Acrobasis nuxvorella           Pecan nut casebearer              Lepidoptera    Pyralidae       Acrobasis        nuxvorella         3.30
Acrolepiopsis assectella       Leek moth                         Lepidoptera    Yponomeutidae   Acrolepiopsis    assectella         6.00
Acyrthosiphon kondoi           Blue alfalfa aphid                Hemiptera      Aphididae       Acyrthosiphon kondoi                3.45         27.10
Acyrthosiphon pisum            Pea aphid                         Hemiptera      Aphididae       Acyrthosiphon pisum                 2.40         28.00
Adalia bipunctata              Two spotted lady beetle           Coleoptera     Coccinellidae   Adalia           bipunctata         9.00         30.00
Adalia decempunctata           Ten spot Ladybird                 Coleoptera     Coccinellidae   Adalia           decempunctata
Adelges tsugae                 Hemlock woolly adelgid            Hemiptera      Adelgidae       Adelges          tsugae
Adonia variegata               Adonis Ladybird                   Coleoptera     Coccinellidae   Adalia           variegata
Adoxophyes orana               Summer fruit tortrix              Lepidoptera    Tortricidae     Adoxophyes       orana              6.81
Agasicles hygrophila           Alligator weed flea-beetle        Coleoptera     Chrysomelidae   Agasicles        hygrophila        13.30
Aglais urticae                 Small tortoiseshell butterfly     Lepidoptera    Nymphalidae     Aglais           urticae           10.60
Agrilus anxius                 Bronze birch borer                Coleoptera     Buprestidae     Agrilus          anxius             9.00
Agriotes ustulatus             Wireworm                          Coleoptera     Elateridae      Agriotes         ustulatus
Agrotis ipsilon                Black cutworm                     Lepidoptera    Noctuidae       Agrotis          ipsilon           10.40         30.00
Aleurocanthus woglumi          Citrus blackfly                   Hemiptera      Aleyrodidae     Aleurocanthus woglumi              13.70
Aleurotuberculatus takahashi   Whitefly                          Hemiptera      Aleyrodidae                      takahashi
                                                                                                Aleurotuberculatus                 10.10
Amblyseius californicus        A predatory mite                  Mesostigmata   Phytoseiidae    Amblyseius       californicus       8.60
Amblyseius fallacis            A predatory mite                  Mesostigmata   Phytoseiidae    Amblyseius       fallacis          10.75
Amblyseius womersleyi          A predatory mite                  Mesostigmata   Phytoseiidae    Amblyseius       womersleyi        11.60
Amorbus obscuricornis          Gumtree bug                       Hemiptera      Coreidae        Amorbus          obscuricornis
Amphitetranychus viennensis    Hawthorn spider mite              Acari          Tetranychidae   Amphitetranychus viennensis        11.48
Amyelois transitella           Naval orangeworm                  Lepidoptera    Pyralidae       Amyelois         transitella       12.80         34.40
Anagrus epos                   An egg parasitoid                 Hymenoptera    Mymaridae       Anagrus          epos               7.20
Anagrus incarnatus                                               Hymenoptera
                               An egg parasitoid of rice planthoppers           Mymaridae       Anagrus          incarnatus        11.00
Anagyrus pseudococci           A parasitoid                      Hymenoptera    Elateridae      Anagyrus         pseudococci       12.81
Anaphes iole                   A parasitoid                      Hymenoptera    Mymaridae       Anaphes          iole               9.60
Anarsia lineatella             Peach twig borer                  Lepidoptera    Gelechiidae     Anarsia          lineatella        10.00         31.10
Anasa tristis                  Squash bug                        Hemiptera      Coreidae        Anasa            tristis           14.46         33.33
Anastrepha fraterculus         South American fruit fly          Diptera        Tephritidae     Anastrepha       fraterculus       10.72
Anastrepha ludens              Mexican fruit fly                 Diptera        Tephritidae     Anastrepha       ludens             9.40
Anastrepha serpentina          Sapodilla fruit fly               Diptera        Tephritidae     Anastrepha       serpentina         9.50         30.00
Ancylis comptana               Strawberry leafroller             Lepidoptera    Tortricidae     Ancylis          comptana          10.20
Anomalochrysa maclachlani      A green lacewing                  Neuroptera     Chrysopidae     Anomalochrysa maclachlani           9.70
Anoplophora glabripennis       Asian longhorned beetle           Coleoptera     Cerambycidae    Anoplophora      glabripennis      10.00
Anthonomus grandis             Mexican cotton boll weevil        Coleoptera     Curculionidae   Anthonomus       grandis           13.01         39.00
Anthonomus pomorum             Apple blossom weevil              Coleoptera     Curculionidae   Anthonomus       pomorum            6.00
Anticarsia gemmatalis          Velvetbean caterpillar            Lepidoptera    Noctuidae       Anticarsia       gemmatalis        10.90         32.20
Antilochus coqueberti          A predator                        Hemiptera      Pyrrhocoridae   Antilochus       coqueberti        12.90
Aonidiella aurantii            California red scale              Hemiptera      Diaspididae     Aonidiella       aurantii          11.50         30.00
Apanteles fumiferanae                                            Hymenoptera
                               A parasitoid of Choristoneura species            Braconidae      Apanteles        fumiferanae
Aphelinus albipodus            A parasitoid of Diuraphis noxia Hymenoptera      Aphelinidae     Aphelinus        albipodus          9.70
INSECT NAME AND CLASS                                                                                                                        INSECT THRESHOLDS AND
                                                                                                                                    Base Devel.    Upper Devel.
        Scientific name                 Common Name                    Order         Family          Genus           Species         temp (C)        temp (C)
Aphelinus asychis             A parasitoid of Diuraphis noxia Hymenoptera       Aphelinidae     Aphelinus      asychis                  7.10
Aphelinus gossypii            A parasitoid of aphids              Hymenoptera   Aphelinidae     Aphelinus      gossypii                 6.70
Aphelinus sp. near varipes    A parasitoid                        Hymenoptera   Aphelinidae     Aphelinus      sp. near varipes         7.53
Aphelinus spiraecolae         A parasitoid of aphids              Hymenoptera   Aphelinidae     Aphelinus      spiraecolae              7.90
Aphelinus varipes             A parasitoid                        Hymenoptera   Aphelinidae     Aphelinus      varipes                 10.30
Aphidius colemani             A parasitoid                        Hymenoptera   Braconidae      Aphidius       colemani                 2.36
Aphidius ervi ervi            A parasitoid                        Hymenoptera   Braconidae      Aphidius       ervi ervi                6.10
Aphidius ervi pulcher         A parasitoid                        Hymenoptera   Braconidae      Aphidius       ervi pulcher             6.10
Aphidius gifuensis            A parasitoid                        Hymenoptera   Braconidae      Aphidius       gifuensis                5.60
Aphidius matricariae          A parasitoid of Diuraphis noxia Hymenoptera       Braconidae      Aphidius       matricariae              4.50
Aphidius smithi               A parasitoid                        Hymenoptera   Braconidae      Aphidius       smithi                   6.20
Aphis gossypii                Cotton aphid                        Hemiptera     Aphididae       Aphis          gossypii                 6.20
Aphis nasturtii               Buckthorn aphid                     Hemiptera     Aphididae       Aphis          nasturtii                6.50           35.60
Aphytis chrysomphali          A parasitoid of Aonidiella aurantii Hymenoptera   Aphelinidae     Aphytis        chrysomphali             8.50
Aphytis melinus               A parasitoid of Aonidiella aurantii Hymenoptera   Aphelinidae     Aphytis        melinus                  9.70           30.00
Aproaerema modicella          Groundnut leaf miner                Lepidoptera   Gelechiidae     Aproaerema     modicella               12.45
Aprostocetus bruchophagi                                          Hymenoptera
                              A parasitoid of Bruchophagus platypterus          Eulophidae      Aprostocetus   bruchophagi             12.00
Archanara geminipuncta        Twin-spotted Wainscot               Lepidoptera   Noctuidae       Archanara      geminipuncta
Archips argyrospilus          Fruit tree leafroller               Lepidoptera   Tortricidae     Archips        argyrospilus
Argyreus hyperbius            Laced fritillary                    Lepidoptera   Nymphalidae     Argyreus       hyperbius              10.00
Argyrotaenia citrana          Orange tortrix                      Lepidoptera   Tortricidae     Argyrotaenia   citrana                 6.10         25.60
Argyrotaenia sphaleropa       South American tortricid moth       Lepidoptera   Tortricidae     Argyrotaenia   sphaleropa             11.00
Argyrotaenia velutinana       Redbanded leafroller                Lepidoptera   Tortricidae     Argyrotaenia   velutinana              5.50
Arma custos                   A predator                          Hemiptera     Pentatomidae    Arma           custos
Asaphes lucens                A parasitoid                        Hymenoptera   Pteromalidae    Asaphes        lucens                  8.10
Atherigona soccata            Sorghum stem fly                    Diptera       Muscidae        Atherigona     soccata                 9.12
Aubeonymus mariaefranciscae   -                                   Coleoptera    Curculionidae   Aubeonymus     mariaefranciscae       16.70
Aulacorthum solani            Foxglove aphid                      Hemiptera     Aphididae       Aulacorthum    solani                  2.69
Aulocara elliotti             Elliott grasshopper                 Orthoptera    Acaridae        Aulocara       elliotti
Autographa californica        Alfalfa looper                      Lepidoptera   Noctuidae       Autographa     californica
Autographa gamma              Silver Y moth                       Lepidoptera   Noctuidae       Autographa     gamma
Bactrocera cucurbitae         Melon fly                           Diptera       Tephritidae     Bactrocera     cucurbitae              9.06
Bactrocera dorsalis           Oriental fruit fly                  Diptera       Tephritidae     Bactrocera     dorsalis                8.88
Bactrocera latifrons          Malaysian fruit fly                 Diptera       Tephritidae     Bactrocera     latifrons               9.20
Bactrocera oleae              Olive fly                           Diptera       Tephritidae     Bactrocera     oleae                  12.00
Bactrocera tau                A fruit fly                         Diptera       Tephritidae     Bactrocera     tau
Bactrocera tryoni             Queensland fruit fly                Diptera       Tephritidae     Bactrocera     tryoni                 13.50
Bactrocera zonata             Guava fruit fly                     Diptera       Tephritidae     Bactrocera     zonata                 10.78
Bathyplectes curculionis                                          H
                              Larval parasitoid of Hypera postica ymenoptera    Ichneumonidae   Bathyplectes   curculionis             6.10
Bemisia argentifolii          Silverleaf whitefly                 Hemiptera     Aleyrodidae     Bemisia        argentifolii           10.32
Bemisia tabaci                Tabacco whitefly                    Hemiptera     Aleyrodidae     Bemisia        tabaci                 11.10
Blastothrix sp.                                                   querciflex
                              A parasitoid of Parthenolecanium Hymenoptera      Elateridae      Blastothrix    sp.                     3.30
Blissus leucopterus hirtus    Hairy chinch bug                    Hemiptera     Lygaeidae       Blissus        leucopterus hirtus
INSECT NAME AND CLASS                                                                                                                    INSECT THRESHOLDS AND
                                                                                                                                Base Devel.    Upper Devel.
        Scientific name               Common Name                   Order           Family         Genus          Species        temp (C)        temp (C)
Brachycaudus schwartzi       Almond aphid                      Hemiptera      Aphididae       Brachycaudus schwartzi                3.60
Bradysia sp.                 Sciarid fly                       Diptera        Sciaridae       Bradysia       sp.                    2.03
Brevicoryne brassicae        Cabbage aphid                     Hemiptera      Aphididae       Brevicoryne    brassicae              6.70
Bruchophagus platypterus     Clover seed chalcid               Hymenoptera    Eurytomidae     Bruchophagus platypterus             12.10
Cacopsylla pyricola          Pear psyllid                      Hemiptera      Psyllidae       Cacopsylla     pyricola               6.00
Calleida decora              A ground beetle                   Coleoptera     Carabidae       Calleida       decora                12.80           35.00
Calliptamus abbreviatus      -                                 Orthoptera     Acaridae        Calliptamus    abbreviatus           13.10
Callosobruchus maculatus     Cowpea seed beetle                Coleoptera     Bruchidae       Callosobruchus maculatus             12.96
Calocoris norvegicus         Strawberry bug                    Hemiptera      Miridae         Calocoris      norvegicus             6.39           34.10
Calophasia lunula                                              Linaria spp.
                             Biological control agent for weedyLepidoptera    Noctuidae       Calophasia     lunula                13.50
Calvia quatuordecimguttata   A lady beetle                     Coleoptera     Coccinellidae   Calvia         quatuordecimguttata    8.20
Campylomma verbasci          Mullein bug                       Hemiptera      Miridae         Campylomma     verbasci               9.20
Carpophilus hemipterus       Dried fruit beetle                Coleoptera     Nitidulidae     Carpophilus    hemipterus            14.60
Carpophilus humeralis        Pineapple beetle                  Coleoptera     Nitidulidae     Carpophilus    humeralis             15.40
Carpophilus mutilatus        Flower beetle                     Coleoptera     Nitidulidae     Carpophilus    mutilatus             15.30
Carposina sasakii            Peach fruit borer                 Lepidoptera    Carposinidae    Carposina      sasakii                7.02
Casinaria nigripes                                             Hymenoptera
                             A parasitoid of Dendrolimus punctatus            Ichneumonidae   Casinaria      nigripes               9.00
Catolaccus grandis           A parasitoid                      Hymenoptera    Pteromalidae    Catolaccus     grandis               11.76
Ceranisus menes              A parasitoid                      Hymenoptera    Eulophidae      Ceranisus      menes                 10.05
Ceratitis capitata           Mediterranean fruit fly           Diptera        Tephritidae     Ceratitis      capitata              10.45
Ceratitis catoirii           Mascarene fruit fly               Diptera        Tephritidae     Ceratitis      catoirii               9.51
Ceratitis rosa               Natal fruit fly                   Diptera        Tephritidae     Ceratitis      rosa                   7.92
Cerostegia japonicus         Japanese wax scale                Hemiptera      Coccidae        Cerostegia     japonicus
Cerotoma arcuatus            -                                 Coleoptera     Chrysomelidae   Cerotoma       arcuatus              10.70
Chaetosiphon fragaefolii     Strawberry aphid                  Hemiptera      Aphididae       Chaetosiphon   fragaefolii
Cheilomenes sexmaculata      A ladybird beetle                 Coleoptera     Coccinellidae   Cheilomenes    sexmaculata           10.00
Cheilomenes sulphurea        A predator                        Coleoptera     Coccinellidae   Cheilomenes    sulphurea
Chilo partellus              Spotted stem borer                Lepidoptera    Pyralidae       Chilo          partellus             13.26           32.30
Chilo polychrysa             Dark-headed striped borer         Lepidoptera    Pyralidae       Chilo          polychrysa            10.15
Chilo suppressalis           Rice stem borer                   Lepidoptera    Pyralidae       Chilo          suppressalis          12.65
Chilocorus nigritus          A scale insect predator           Coleoptera     Coccinellidae   Chilocorus     nigritus              16.60
Chionaspis pinifoliae        Pine needle scale                 Hemiptera      Diaspididae     Chionaspis     pinifoliae
Choristoneura fumiferana     Spruce budworm                    Lepidoptera    Tortricidae     Choristoneura fumiferana              8.00
Choristoneura rosaceana      Obliquebanded leafroller          Lepidoptera    Tortricidae     Choristoneura rosaceana              10.00           32.00
Chorthippus fallax           -                                 Orthoptera     Acaridae        Chorthippus    fallax                14.00
Chrysopa carnea              Aphid lion                        Neuroptera     Chrysopidae     Chrysopa       carnea
Chrysopa commata             A green lacewing                  Neuroptera     Chrysopidae     Chrysopa       commata
Chrysopa harrisii            A green lacewing                  Neuroptera     Chrysopidae     Chrysopa       harrisii
Chrysopa oculata             Goldeneye lacewing                Neuroptera     Chrysopidae     Chrysopa       oculata
Chrysopa perla               A green lacewing                  Neuroptera     Chrysopidae     Chrysopa       perla
Chrysopa prasina             A green lacewing                  Neuroptera     Chrysopidae     Chrysopa       prasina
Chrysopa septempunctata      A green lacewing                  Neuroptera     Chrysopidae     Chrysopa       septempunctata
INSECT NAME AND CLASS                                                                                                                            INSECT THRESHOLDS AND
                                                                                                                                         Base Devel.   Upper Devel.
         Scientific name                  Common Name                       Order        Family          Genus             Species        temp (C)       temp (C)
Chrysopa ventralis               A green lacewing                     Neuroptera    Chrysopidae     Chrysopa         ventralis
Chrysophtharta agricola          Southern eucalypt leaf beetle        Coleoptera    Chrysomelidae Chrysophtharta agricola                     8.00
Chrysophtharta bimaculata        Tasmanian eucalyptus leaf beetleColeoptera         Chrysomelidae Chrysophtharta bimaculata
Chrysoteuchia topiaria           Cranberry girdler                    Lepidoptera   Pyralidae       Chrysoteuchia topiaria                    9.36
Cicadella viridis                Green leafhopper                     Hemiptera     Cicadellidae    Cicadella        viridis
Circulifer tenellus              Beet leafhopper                      Hemiptera     Cicadellidae    Circulifer       tenellus                14.40      35.00
Cirrospilus sp. near lyncus                                           Hymenoptera
                                 A parasitoid of Phyllocnistis citrella             Eulophidae      Cirrospilus      sp. near lyncus          8.80      37.80
Cirrospilus vittatus                                                  Hymenoptera
                                 An ectoparasitoid of Phyllocnistis citrella        Eulophidae      Cirrospilus      vittatus                 8.20      38.20
Citrostichus phyllocnistoides    A parasitoid                         Hymenoptera   Eulophidae      Citrostichus     phyllocnistoides         9.80
Clavigralla tomentosicollis      African pod bug                      Hemiptera     Coreidae        Clavigralla      tomentosicollis
Coccinella quinquepunctata       Five-spot ladybird                   Coleoptera    Coccinellidae   Coccinella       quinquepunctata
Coccinella septempunctata        Seven-dotted ladybird                Coleoptera    Coccinellidae   Coccinella       septempunctata          11.74
                                 Transverse lady beetle
Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni                              Coleoptera    Coccinellidae   Coccinella                               12.20
                                                                                                                     transversoguttata richardsoni
Coccobius fulvus                 A parasitoid of Unaspis yanonensis   Hymenoptera   Aphelinidae     Coccobius        fulvus                  11.50
Coccus pseudomagnoliarum         Citricola scale                      Hemiptera     Coccidae        Coccus           pseudomagnoliarum 11.00
Coleomegilla maculata            Spotted ladybird beetle              Coleoptera    Coccinellidae   Coleomegilla     maculata                11.30
Conotrachelus nenuphar           Plum curculio                        Coleoptera    Curculionidae   Conotrachelus nenuphar                   10.00
Contarinia nasturtii             Swede midge                          Diptera       Cecidomyiidae Contarinia         nasturtii               10.45      32.50
Coreus marginatus                A squash bug                         Hemiptera     Coreidae        Coreus           marginatus
Costeia rubecula                 A parasitoid                         Hymenoptera   Braconidae      Cotesia          rubecula
Cotesia flavipes                 A larval parasitoid                  Hymenoptera   Braconidae      Cotesia          flavipes                14.61      34.46
Cotesia glomeratus               A parasitoid                         Hymenoptera   Braconidae      Cotesia          glomeratus
Cotesia plutellae                                                     Hymenoptera
                                 A larval parasitoid of Plutella xylostella         Braconidae      Cotesia          plutellae               12.30
Cotesia urabae                   A parasitoid of Uraba lugens         Hymenoptera   Braconidae      Cotesia          urabae
Crioceris asparagi               Asparagus beetle                     Coleoptera    Chrysomelidae Crioceris          asparagi                10.00      30.00
Croesia curvalana                Blueberry leaftier                   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae     Croesia          curvalana
Cryptophlebia illepida           Koa seedworm                         Lepidoptera   Tortricidae     Cryptophlebia    illepida                10.20      25.90
Cryptophlebia leucotreta         False codling moth                   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae     Cryptophlebia    leucotreta              12.00      40.00
Ctenoplusia albostriata          -                                    Lepidoptera   Noctuidae       Ctenoplusia      albostriata             12.60
Ctenopseustis obliquana          Brown headed leafroller              Lepidoptera   Tortricidae     Ctenopseustis obliquana                   6.07
Culex annulirostris              Common banded mosquito               Diptera       Culicidae       Culex            annulirostris           13.70
Culicoides variipennis           A midge                              Diptera       Ceratopogonidae Culicoides       variipennis
Culiseta melanura                -                                    Diptera       Culicidae       Culiseta         melanura                 9.93
Cydia latiferreana               Filbertworm                          Lepidoptera   Tortricidae     Cydia            latiferreana            10.55
Cydia nigricana                  Pea moth                             Lepidoptera   Tortricidae     Cydia            nigricana
Cydia pomonella                  Codling moth                         Lepidoptera   Tortricidae     Cydia            pomonella               10.00      31.10
Cylindrocopturus adspersus       Sunflower stem weevil                Coleoptera    Curculionidae   Cylindrocopturus adspersus                5.00      32.00
Cyrtorhinus lividipennis         An egg predator of rice planthoppers Hemiptera     Miridae         Cyrtorhinus      lividipennis             9.83
Dasineura tetensi                Black currant leaf midge             Diptera       Cecidomyiidae Dasineura          tetensi                  7.00
Delia antiqua                    Onion maggot                         Diptera       Anthomyiidae    Delia            antiqua                  4.40
Delia platura                    Seedcorn maggot                      Diptera       Anthomyiidae    Delia            platura                  3.90
Delia radicum                    Cabbage root fly                     Diptera       Anthomyiidae    Delia            radicum                  6.10
Delias nigrina                   Black jezebel                        Lepidoptera   Pieridae        Delias           nigrina
INSECT NAME AND CLASS                                                                                                                            INSECT THRESHOLDS AND
                                                                                                                                         Base Devel.   Upper Devel.
        Scientific name                    Common Name                     Order         Family           Genus          Species          temp (C)       temp (C)
Dendrocerus carpenteri           A parasitoid                       Hymenoptera    Megaspilidae     Dendrocerus    carpenteri               6.50
Dendroctonus rufipennis          Spruce beetle                      Coleoptera     Scolytidae       Dendroctonus   rufipennis
Diabrotica barberi               Northern corn rootworm             Coleoptera     Chrysomelidae    Diabrotica     barberi
Diabrotica speciosa              Cucurbit beetle                    Coleoptera     Chrysomelidae    Diabrotica     speciosa                11.04
Diabrotica virgifera virgifera   Western corn rootworm              Coleoptera     Chrysomelidae    Diabrotica     virgifera virgifera     11.00        18.00
Diachasmimorpha tryoni           A parasitoid of Ceratitis capitata Hymenoptera    Braconidae       Diachasmimorphatryoni                   9.19
Diadromus collaris                                                  Hymenoptera
                                 A pupal parasitoid of Plutella xylostella         Ichneumonidae    Diadromus      collaris                 7.40
Diaeretiella rapae               A parasitoid of Diuraphis noxia Hymenoptera       Braconidae       Diaeretiella   rapae                    3.56        30.00
Dialectica scalariella           Paterson's curse leaf mining mothLepidoptera      Gracilariidae    Dialectica     scalariella             10.20
Dialeurodes citri                Citrus white fly                   Hemiptera      Aleyrodidae      Dialeurodes    citri                   11.50
Diaphania indica                 Cotton caterpillar                 Lepidoptera    Pyralidae        Diaphania      indica                  13.50
Diaphania nitidalis              Pickleworm                         Lepidoptera    Pyralidae        Diaphania      nitidalis               11.55
Diaphorina citri                 Asian citrus psyllid               Hemiptera      Psyllidae        Diaphorina     citri                    7.59
Diaprepes abbreviatus            Citrus weevil                      Coleoptera     Curculionidae    Diaprepes      abbreviatus
Diaspidiotus uvae                Grape scale                        Hemiptera      Diaspididae      Diaspidiotus   uvae                    10.00
Diatraea grandiosella            Southwestern corn borer            Lepidoptera    Pyralidae        Diatraea       grandiosella            10.10
Diatraea lineolata               Neotropical corn stalk borer       Lepidoptera    Pyralidae        Diatraea       lineolata                8.50
Diglyphus isaea                  A parasitoid of leafminers         Hymenoptera    Eulophidae       Diglyphus      isaea                    8.71
Dikrella californica             Blackberry leafhopper              Hemiptera      Cicadellidae     Dikrella       californica              8.10        28.00
Diomus hennesseyi                Predator of Phenacoccus manihoti   Coleoptera     Coccinellidae    Diomus         hennesseyi               9.60
Dioryctria amatella              Southern pine coneworm             Lepidoptera    Pyralidae        Dioryctria     amatella
Diuraphis noxia                  Russian wheat aphid                Hemiptera      Aphididae        Diuraphis      noxia                    3.80
Dociostaurus maroccanus          Moroccan locust                    Orthoptera     Acaridae         Dociostaurus   maroccanus
Dolichogenidea eucalypti         A parasitoid of Uraba lugens       Hymenoptera    Braconidae       Dolichogenidea eucalypti
Dryocoetes autographus           Silver fir bark beetle             Coleoptera     Scolytidae       Dryocoetes     autographus              7.10
Dysdercus peruvianus             Cotton stainer                     Hemiptera      Pyrrhocoridae    Dysdercus      peruvianus              12.86
Dysmicoccus brevipes             Pineapple mealybug                 Hemiptera      Pseudococcidae   Dysmicoccus    brevipes
Earis insulana                   Spiny bollworm                     Lepidoptera    Noctuidae        Earis          insulana                11.60
Egira curialis                   Citrus cutworm                     Lepidoptera    Noctuidae        Egira          curialis                 7.60
Eldana saccharina                African sugarcane borer            Lepidoptera    Pyralidae        Eldana         saccharina               7.94
Empoasca fabae                   Potato leafhopper                  Hemiptera      Cicadellidae     Empoasca       fabae                   11.40        30.00
Encarsia formosa                 A parasitoid of whiteflies         Hymenoptera    Aphelinidae      Encarsia       formosa                 12.70
Encyrtus fuscus                                                      querciflex
                                 A parasitoid of Parthenolecanium Hymenoptera      Elateridae       Encyrtus       fuscus                   8.30
Eocanthecona furcellata          A predator                         Hemiptera      Pentatomidae     Eocanthecona furcellata                13.45
Eotetranychus carpini borealis   Yellow spider mite                 Acari          Tetranychidae    Eotetranychus carpini borealis          3.33        35.00
Ephestia calidella               Carob moth                         Lepidoptera    Pyralidae        Ephestia       calidella               10.50
Ephestia cautella                Dried fruit moth                   Lepidoptera    Pyralidae        Ephestia       cautella
Epilachna varivestis             Mexican bean beetle                Coleoptera     Coccinellidae    Epilachna      varivestis              11.50
Epiphyas postvittana             Light brown apple moth             Lepidoptera    Tortricidae      Epiphyas       postvittana              7.50        31.50
Episomus kwanhsiensis            A weevil                           Coleoptera     Curculionidae    Episomus       kwanhsiensis
Episyrphus balteatus             A predator of aphids               Diptera        Syrphidae        Episyrphus     balteatus                6.80
Epitrimerus pyri                 Pear rust mite                     Acari          Eriophyidae      Epitrimerus    pyri                     5.31
Eretmocerus eremicus             A parasitoid wasp                  Hymenoptera    Aphelinidae      Eretmocerus    eremicus                 6.10
INSECT NAME AND CLASS                                                                                                                      INSECT THRESHOLDS AND
                                                                                                                                  Base Devel.    Upper Devel.
        Scientific name               Common Name                  Order          Family            Genus             Species      temp (C)        temp (C)
Eriopis connexa              A lady beetle                    Coleoptera     Coccinellidae     Eriopis          connexa               9.20
Eriosoma lanigerum           Woolly apple aphid               Hemiptera      Aphididae         Eriosoma         lanigerum             5.19           32.00
Erythroneura comes           Grape leafhopper                 Hemiptera      Cicadellidae      Erythroneura     comes                10.00
Erythroneura elegantula      Western grape leafhopper         Hemiptera      Cicadellidae      Erythroneura     elegantula           10.30
Eucosoma sonomana            Western pine shoot borer         Lepidoptera    Olethreutidae     Eucosoma         sonomana              5.50
Eunotus lividus                                               querciflex
                             A parasitoid of Parthenolecanium Hymenoptera    Pteromalidae      Eunotus          lividus              10.60
Eupeodes corollae            A hover fly                      Diptera        Syrphidae         Eupeodes         corollae
Euplectrus melanocephalus    An ectoparasitoid                Hymenoptera    Eulophidae        Euplectrus       melanocephalus      15.55         30.00
Euproctis pseudoconspersa    Tea caterpillar                  Lepidoptera    Lymantriidae      Euproctis        pseudoconspersa     10.26
Eurygaster integriceps       Sunn pest                        Hemiptera      Scutelleridae     Eurygaster       integriceps         18.85
Euschistus conspersus        Consperse stink bug              Hemiptera      Pentatomidae      Euschistus       conspersus          12.00         37.00
Fannia canicularis           Little house fly                 Diptera        Muscidae          Fannia           canicularis          0.50
Fannia femoralis             Coastal fly                      Diptera        Muscidae          Fannia           femoralis            4.90
Frankliniella fusca          Tabacco thrips                   Thysanoptera   Thripidae         Frankliniella    fusca               10.50
Frankliniella occidentalis   Western flower thrips            Thysanoptera   Thripidae         Frankliniella    occidentalis         9.50
Gastrophysa viridula         -                                Coleoptera     Chrysomelidae     Gastrophysa      viridula             7.10
Gelonus tasmanicus           Tasmanian gelonus bug            Hemiptera      Coreidae          Gelonus          tasmanicus
Glyptapanteles muesebecki    A parasitoid                     Hymenoptera    Braconidae        Glyptapanteles   muesebecki           9.60
Glyptotendipes paripes       A midge                          Diptera        Chironomidae      Glyptotendipes   paripes              4.96         35.00
Gnophothrips fuscus          Slash pine flower thrips         Thysanoptera   Phlaeothripidae   Gnophothrips     fuscus               4.40
Gossyparia spuria            European elm scale               Hemiptera      Eriococcidae      Gossyparia       spuria              11.00
Gracilaria syringella        Citus leaf miner                 Lepidoptera    Gracilariidae     Phyllocnistis    syringella          13.28
Grapholita funebrana         Red plum maggot                  Lepidoptera    Tortricidae       Grapholita       funebrana           10.00
Grapholita molesta           Oriental fruit moth              Lepidoptera    Tortricidae       Grapholita       molesta              7.20         32.20
Grapholita prunivora         Plum moth                        Lepidoptera    Tortricidae       Grapholita       prunivora
Graphosoma lineatum          -                                Hemiptera      Pentatomidae      Graphosoma       lineatum
Gronotoma micromorpha        A parasitoid of leafminers       Hymenoptera    Eucoilidae        Gronotoma        micromorpha         11.70
Gynaikothrips ficorum        Cuban laurel thrips              Thysanoptera   Phlaeothripidae   Gynaikothrips    ficorum             12.00         35.00
Haplogonatopus apicalis      A parasitoid of Hemiptera        Hymenoptera    Dryinidae         Haplogonatopus   apicalis            13.00
Harmonia axyridis            Multicolored asian lady beetle   Coleoptera     Coccinellidae     Harmonia         axyridis            11.20
Harrisina brillians          Western grapeleaf skeletonizer Lepidoptera      Zygaenidae        Harrisina        brillians            9.00         28.20
Helicoverpa armigera         Cotton bollworm                  Lepidoptera    Noctuidae         Helicoverpa      armigera            13.80         36.00
Helicoverpa zea              American cotton bollworm         Lepidoptera    Noctuidae         Helicoverpa      zea                 12.60         33.30
Heliothis subflexa           -                                Lepidoptera    Noctuidae         Heliothis        subflexa
Heliothis virescens          Tabacco budworm                  Lepidoptera    Noctuidae         Heliothis        virescens           13.30         33.00
Hemerobius pacificus         A brown lacewing                 Neuroptera     Hemerobiidae      Hemerobius       pacificus            0.60         27.00
Hemiberlesia rapax           Greedy scale                     Hemiptera      Diaspididae       Hemiberlesia     rapax               10.30
Hippodamia convergens        Convergent lady beetle           Coleoptera     Coccinellidae     Hippodamia       convergens          12.00         29.00
Hippodamia septemmaculata    -                                Coleoptera     Coccinellidae     Hippodamia       septemmaculata
Homadaula anisocentra        Mimosa webworm                   Lepidoptera    Plutellidae       Homadaula        anisocentra         12.30
Homalodisca coagulata        Glassy winged sharpshooter       Hemiptera      Cicadellidae      Homalodisca      coagulata
Homoeosoma electellum        Sunflower moth                   Lepidoptera    Pyralidae         Homoeosoma       electellum          15.24
Homona magnanima             Oriental tea tortrix             Lepidoptera    Tortricidae       Homona           magnanima            9.85
INSECT NAME AND CLASS                                                                                                                   INSECT THRESHOLDS AND
                                                                                                                                Base Devel.   Upper Devel.
         Scientific name             Common Name                    Order           Family           Genus           Species     temp (C)       temp (C)
Hoplocampa testudinea       Apple sawfly                       Hymenoptera    Tenthredinidae   Hoplocampa      testudinea          6.30
Hydraecia immanis           Hop vine borer                     Lepidoptera    Noctuidae        Hydraecia       immanis             5.30           23.90
Hylobius pales              Pales weevil                       Coleoptera     Curculionidae    Hylobius        pales
Hypera brunnipennis         Egyptiona alfalfa weevil           Coleoptera     Curculionidae    Hypera          brunnipennis        7.20
Hypera postica              Alfalfa weevil                     Coleoptera     Curculionidae    Hypera          postica            10.00        31.00
Hypoaspis miles             A predatory mite                   Mesostigmata   Laelapidae       Hypoaspis       miles               9.90
Hypsipyla grandella         Mahogany shoot borer               Lepidoptera    Pyralidae        Hypsipyla       grandella           9.45
Hyssopus pallidus           A parasitoid                       Hymenoptera    Eulophidae       Hyssopus        pallidus           10.00
Inachis io                  Peacock butterfly                  Lepidoptera    Nymphalidae      Inachis         io                  9.20
Ips calligraphus            Six-spined engraver beetle         Coleoptera     Scolytidae       Ips             calligraphus       10.00
Ips cembrae                 Large larch bark beetle            Coleoptera     Scolytidae       Ips             cembrae            11.30
Ips typographus             Spruce bark beetle                 Coleoptera     Scolytidae       Ips             typographus         8.30        38.90
Ixodes scapularis           Deer tick                          Acari          Ixodidae         Ixodes          scapularis
Keiferia lycopersicella     Tomato pinworm                     Lepidoptera    Gelechiidae      Keiferia        lycopersicella     10.20        35.00
Kytorhinus sharpianus       Bruchid beetle                     Coleoptera     Bruchidae        Kytorhinus      sharpianus         12.00
Lacanobia subjuncta         -                                  Lepidoptera    Noctuidae        Lacanobia       subjuncta          10.05
Lampides boeticus           Bean butterfly                     Lepidoptera    Lycaenidae       Lampides        boeticus
Laricobius nigrinus         A beetle                           Coleoptera     Derodontidae     Laricobius      nigrinus            3.70
Leptinotarsa decemlineata   Colorado potato beetle             Coleoptera     Chrysomelidae    Leptinotarsa    decemlineata        9.10
Leptomastidea abnormis      A parasitoid                       Hymenoptera    Elateridae       Leptomastidea   abnormis           10.28
Leptomastix dactylopii      A parasitoid                       Hymenoptera    Elateridae       Leptomastix     dactylopii         13.15
Leucoptera malifoliella     Pear leaf miner                    Lepidoptera    Lyonetiidae      Leucoptera      malifoliella        5.27
Lipaphis erysimi            Turnip aphid                       Hemiptera      Aphididae        Lipaphis        erysimi             5.70
Liposcelis entomophila      Grain psocid                       Psocoptera     Liposcelididae   Liposcelis      entomophila        15.70
Liriomyza chinensis         Onion leaf miner                   Diptera        Agromyzidae      Liriomyza       chinensis           9.05
Liriomyza huidobrensis      Pea leaf miner                     Diptera        Agromyzidae      Liriomyza       huidobrensis        8.10
Liriomyza sativae           Vegetable leaf miner               Diptera        Agromyzidae      Liriomyza       sativae             8.77
Liriomyza trifolii          American serpentine leafminer Diptera             Agromyzidae      Liriomyza       trifolii            9.70        35.00
Listronotus oregonensis     Carrot weevil                      Coleoptera     Curculionidae    Listronotus     oregonensis         7.00
Listronotus texanus         Carrot weevil                      Coleoptera     Curculionidae    Listronotus     texanus            13.30        30.00
Lobesia botrana             Grape berry moth                   Lepidoptera    Tortricidae      Lobesia         botrana            10.00        34.00
Lucilia cuprina             Australian sheep blowfly           Diptera        Calliphoridae    Lucilia         cuprina             8.20
Lydella thompsoni           A parasitoid of Ostrinia nubilalis Diptera        Tachinidae       Lydella         thompsoni
Lygus hesperus              Lygus bug                          Hemiptera      Miridae          Lygus           hesperus           12.20
Lygus lineolaris            Tarnished plant bug                Hemiptera      Miridae          Lygus           lineolaris                      34.00
Lymantria dispar            Gypsy moth                         Lepidoptera    Lymantriidae     Lymantria       dispar              7.60        41.00
Lysiphlebia japonica        A parasitoid                       Hymenoptera    Braconidae       Lysiphlebia     japonica            2.90
Lysiphlebia mirzai          A cereal aphid parasitoid          Hymenoptera    Braconidae       Lysiphlebia     mirzai              6.20
Lysiphlebus testaceipes     An endoparasitoid of aphids        Hemiptera      Aphididae        Lysiphlebus     testaceipes         7.50
Macrolophus caliginosus                                        Hemiptera
                            Predatory mirid for Trialeurodes vaporariorum     Miridae          Macrolophus     caliginosus         8.40
Macrolophus pygmaeus        A predator                         Hemiptera      Miridae          Macrolophus     pygmaeus            8.68
Macrosteles fascifrons      Aster leafhopper                   Hemiptera      Cicadellidae     Macrosteles     fascifrons         10.55
Malacosoma americanum       Eastern tent caterpillar           Lepidoptera    Lasiocampidae    Malacosoma      americanum
INSECT NAME AND CLASS                                                                                                                     INSECT THRESHOLDS AND
                                                                                                                                 Base Devel.    Upper Devel.
        Scientific name              Common Name                    Order          Family          Genus            Species       temp (C)        temp (C)
Malacosoma californicum     Western tent caterpillar           Lepidoptera    Lasiocampidae   Malacosoma       californicum          5.50
Maladera matrida            A scarab beetle                    Coleoptera     Scarabaeidae    Maladera         matrida              15.40           29.00
Mallada basalis             A green lacewing                   Neuroptera     Chrysopidae     Mallada          basalis
Mamestra brassicae          Cabbage Moth                       Lepidoptera    Noctuidae       Mamestra         brassicae
Mamestra configurata        Bertha armyworm                    Lepidoptera    Noctuidae       Mamestra         configurata          7.00         34.00
Manduca quinquemaculata     Tomato hornworm                    Lepidoptera    Sphingidae      Manduca          quinquemaculata     10.00
Manduca sexta               Carolina Sphinx                    Lepidoptera    Sphingidae      Manduca          sexta               10.00
Maruca vitrata              Lima bean pod borer                Lepidoptera    Pyralidae       Maruca           vitrata             10.30
Mayetiola destructor        Hessian fly                        Diptera        Cecidomyiidae   Mayetiola        destructor           1.60         26.70
Megalurothrips sjostedti    Legume flower thrips               Thysanoptera   Thripidae       Megalurothrips   sjostedti           12.60         29.00
Melanaspis obscura          Obscure scale                      Hemiptera      Diaspididae     Melanaspis       obscura              4.44
Melangyna viridiceps        Common hoover fly                  Diptera        Syrphidae       Melangyna        viridiceps
Melanoplus sanguinipes      Lesser migratory grasshopper       Orthoptera     Acaridae        Melanoplus       sanguinipes         10.00
Meligethes aeneus           Pollen beetle                      Coleoptera     Nitidulidae     Meligethes       aeneus
Mesopolobus bruchophagi                                        Hymenoptera
                            A parasitoid of Bruchophagus platypterus          Pteromalidae    Mesopolobus      bruchophagi         15.30
Metaphycus helvolu          A parasitoid of Coccus hesperidum  Hymenoptera    Elateridae      Metaphycus       helvolu             12.30
Metaseiulus occidentalis    Western predatory mite             Mesostigmata   Phytoseiidae    Metaseiulus      occidentalis         8.90         32.00
Meteorus communis           A parasitoid of Peridroma saucia Hymenoptera      Braconidae      Meteorus         communis             9.50
Meteorus trachynotus        A parasitoid                       Hymenoptera    Braconidae      Meteorus         trachynotus          5.90
Microctonus hyperodae                                          Hymenoptera
                            A parasitoid of Listronotus bonariensis           Braconidae      Microctonus      hyperodae           10.20
Micromus angulatus          A brown lacewing                   Neuroptera     Hemerobiidae    Micromus         angulatus
Micromus variegatus         A brown lacewing                   Neuroptera     Hemerobiidae    Micromus         variegatus
Microplitis mediator        A parasitoid                       Hymenoptera    Braconidae      Microplitis      mediator            10.30
Monochamus alternatus       Japanese pine sawyer               Coleoptera     Cerambycidae    Monochamus       alternatus
Mononychellus progresivus   Cassava green mite                 Acari          Tetranychidae   Mononychellus    progresivus         13.00
Mononychellus tanajoa       Cassava mite                       Acari          Tetranychidae   Mononychellus    tanajoa             14.40
Musca autumnalis            Face fly                           Diptera        Muscidae        Musca            autumnalis           9.80
Musca domestica             House fly                          Diptera        Muscidae        Musca            domestica
Muscidifurax raptor         A parasitoid of filth fly          Hymenoptera    Pteromalidae    Muscidifurax     raptor              11.05
Mythimna unipuncta          American wainscot                  Lepidoptera    Noctuidae       Mythimna         unipuncta           10.00         29.00
Myzocallis coryli           Filbert aphid                      Hemiptera      Aphididae       Myzocallis       coryli
Myzus persicae              Green peach aphid                  Hemiptera      Aphididae       Myzus            persicae             4.00         30.00
Nabis americoferus          Common damsel bug                  Hemiptera      Nabidae         Nabis            americoferus        11.30         36.00
Nabis roseipennis           A damsel bug                       Hemiptera      Nabidae         Nabis            roseipennis         11.00         36.00
Nezara viridula             Green shield bug                   Hemiptera      Pentatomidae    Nezara           viridula            15.00
Nilaparvata lugens          Brown planthopper                  Hemiptera      Delphacidae     Nilaparvata      lugens
Nomophila nearctica         False webworm                      Lepidoptera    Pyralidae       Nomophila        nearctica           10.85
Nysius huttoni              New Zealand wheat bug              Hemiptera      Lygaeidae       Nysius           huttoni             11.90
Nysius vinitor              Rutherglen bug                     Hemiptera      Lygaeidae       Nysius           vinitor             15.00
Oligonychus coffeae         Red spider mite                    Acari          Tetranychidae   Oligonychus      coffeae             10.00
Oligonychus gossypii        Cotton red mite                    Acari          Tetranychidae   Oligonychus      gossypii            11.00
Oligonychus milleri         Pine mite                          Acari          Tetranychidae   Oligonychus      milleri
Oligonychus perseae         Persea mite                        Acari          Tetranychidae   Oligonychus      perseae              8.93
INSECT NAME AND CLASS                                                                                                                        INSECT THRESHOLDS AND
                                                                                                                                    Base Devel.    Upper Devel.
         Scientific name               Common Name                     Order         Family            Genus            Species      temp (C)        temp (C)
Oligonychus subnudus          Spider mite                         Acari         Tetranychidae    Oligonychus      subnudus              6.40
Omocestus haemorrhoidalis     A grasshopper                       Orthoptera    Acaridae         Omocestus        haemorrhoidalis       4.10
Onitis caffer                 A dung beetle                       Coleoptera    Scarabaeidae     Onitis           caffer               10.10
Oomyzus sokolowskii           A parasitoid of Plutella xylostella Hymenoptera   Eulophidae       Oomyzus          sokolowskii          11.60
Orius albidipennis            A predatory bug                     Hemiptera     Anthocoridae     Orius            albidipennis         13.17
Orius insidiosus              A predatory bug                     Hemiptera     Anthocoridae     Orius            insidiosus
Orius laevigatus              A predatory bug                     Hemiptera     Anthocoridae     Orius            laevigatus
Orius sauteri                 A predatory bug                     Hemiptera     Anthocoridae     Orius            sauteri
Orius tantillus               A predatory bug                     Hemiptera     Anthocoridae     Orius            tantillus
Orius tristicolor             Minute Pirate Bug                   Hemiptera     Anthocoridae     Orius            tristicolor
Orthosia hibisci              Speckled green fruitworm            Lepidoptera   Noctuidae        Orthosia         hibisci              3.00
Oscinella frit                Frit fly                            Diptera       Chloropidae      Oscinella        frit                10.00
Ostrinia furnacalis           Asian corn borer                    Lepidoptera   Pyralidae        Ostrinia         furnacalis          10.35         32.00
Ostrinia nubilalis            European corn borer                 Lepidoptera   Pyralidae        Ostrinia         nubilalis           10.00         35.00
Otiorhynchus ovatus           Strawberry root weevil              Coleoptera    Curculionidae    Otiorhynchus     ovatus
Oulema melanopus              Cereal leaf beetle                  Coleoptera    Chrysomelidae    Oulema           melanopus            9.00         32.00
Pandemis pyrusana             Pandemis leafroller                 Lepidoptera   Tortricidae      Pandemis         pyrusana             5.00         29.40
Panonychus citri              Citrus red mite                     Acari         Tetranychidae    Panonychus       citri                7.90
Panonychus ulmi               European red mite                   Acari         Tetranychidae    Panonychus       ulmi                10.60
Pantomorus cervinus           Fuller's rose beetle                Coleoptera    Curculionidae    Pantomorus       cervinus
Papaipema nebris              Stalk borer                         Lepidoptera   Noctuidae        Papaipema        nebris               5.10
Parabemisia myricae           Bayberry whitefly                   Hemiptera     Aleyrodidae      Parabemisia      myricae             12.80         30.60
Parasarcophaga ruficornis     -                                   Diptera       Sarcophagidae    Parasarcophaga   ruficornis
Parlatoria oleae              Olive scale                         Hemiptera     Diaspididae      Parlatoria       oleae               10.00
Pectinophora gossypiella      Pink bollworm                       Lepidoptera   Gelechiidae      Pectinophora     gossypiella         13.90         32.80
Pectinophora scutigera        Pink spotted bollworm               Lepidoptera   Gelechiidae      Pectinophora     scutigera           12.26
Pediasia trisecta             Sod webworm                         Lepidoptera   Pyralidae        Pediasia         trisecta            10.00
Peleteria robusta             A larval endoparasitoid             Diptera       Tachinidae       Peleteria        robusta              9.30
Peridroma saucia              Variegated cutworm                  Lepidoptera   Noctuidae        Peridroma        saucia               7.20         26.70
Perilitus coccinellae         A parasitoid                        Hymenoptera   Braconidae       Perilitus        coccinellae          9.80
Periphyllus koelreuteriae     -                                   Hemiptera     Aphididae        Periphyllus      koelreuteriae        1.46         30.00
Philaenus spumarius           Meadow spittlebug                   Hemiptera     Cercopidae       Philaenus        spumarius
Phlogophora meticulosa        Angle shades moth                   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae        Phlogophora      meticulosa           5.00
Pholester ornigis                                                 Hymenoptera
                              A parasitoid of Phyllonorycter blancardella       Braconidae       Pholester        ornigis              9.50
Phoracantha semipunctata      Eucalyptus longhorned borer         Coleoptera    Cerambycidae     Phoracantha      semipunctata
Phthorimaea operculella       Potato tuber moth                   Lepidoptera   Gelechiidae      Phthorimaea      operculella         10.00
Phyllonorycter blancardella   Spotted tentiform leafminer         Lepidoptera   Gracilariidae    Phyllonorycter   blancardella         6.70
Phyllotreta cruciferae        Crucifer flea beetle                Coleoptera    Chrysomelidae    Phyllotreta      cruciferae          11.00
Pieris rapae                  Cabbage butterfly                   Lepidoptera   Pieridae         Pieris           rapae               10.00
Pieris rapae crucivora        -                                   Lepidoptera   Pieridae         Pieris           rapae crucivora
Piezodorus guildinii          Stink bug                           Hemiptera     Pentatomidae     Piezodorus       guildinii
Planococcus citri             Citrus mealybug                     Hemiptera     Pseudococcidae   Planococcus      citri                             30.00
Planococcus kraunhiae         Japanese mealybug                   Hemiptera     Pseudococcidae   Planococcus      kraunhiae                         30.00
INSECT NAME AND CLASS                                                                                                                         INSECT THRESHOLDS AND
                                                                                                                                     Base Devel.    Upper Devel.
         Scientific name                  Common Name                     Order          Family           Genus          Species      temp (C)        temp (C)
Plathypena scabra               Green cloverworm                     Lepidoptera   Noctuidae        Plathypena      scabra               8.00
Platynota flavedana             Rusty brown tortricid                Lepidoptera   Tortricidae      Platynota       flavedana            9.10           30.00
Platynota idaeusalis            Tufted apple bud moth                Lepidoptera   Tortricidae      Platynota       idaeusalis           7.50           32.20
Platynota stultana              Omnivorous leafroller                Lepidoptera   Tortricidae      Platynota       stultana             8.90
Platyptilia carduidactyla       Artichoke plume moth                 Lepidoptera   Pterophoridae    Platyptilia     carduidactyla        7.00           25.00
Plodia interpunctella           Indian meal moth                     Lepidoptera   Pyralidae        Plodia          interpunctella      17.50           35.00
Plutella xylostella             Diamondback moth                     Lepidoptera   Plutellidae      Plutella        xylostella           7.40           39.00
Podisus maculiventris           Spined soldier bug                   Hemiptera     Pentatomidae     Podisus         maculiventris       11.50           31.50
Podisus sagitta                 A predatory stink bug                Hemiptera     Pentatomidae     Podisus         sagitta             12.50           34.00
Podosesia syringae              Lilac borer                          Lepidoptera   Sesiidae         Podosesia       syringae            10.00
Polychrosis viteana             Grape berry moth                     Lepidoptera   Tortricidae      Polychrosis     viteana              8.41
Polygonia c-album               Comma butterfly                      Lepidoptera   Nymphalidae      Polygonia       c-album              6.70
Polyphagotarsonemus latus       Broad mite                           Acari         Tarsonemidae                     latus
                                                                                                    Polyphagotarsonemus
Popillia japonica               Japanese beetle                      Coleoptera    Scarabaeidae     Popillia        japonica               10.00     34.00
Praon pequodorum                A parasitoid                         Hymenoptera   Braconidae       Praon           pequodorum              6.90
Propylea dissecta               A lady beetle                        Coleoptera    Coccinellidae    Propylea        dissecta               10.39
Propylea japonica               A lady beetle                        Coleoptera    Coccinellidae    Propylea        japonica
Propylea quatuordecimpunctata   A lady beetle                        Coleoptera    Coccinellidae    Propylea        quatuordecimpunctata
Prorops nasuta                  A parasitoid of Hypothenemus hampei  Hymenoptera   Bethylidae       Prorops         nasuta                 11.40
Prostephanus truncatus          Large grain borer                    Coleoptera    Bostrichidae     Prostephanus    truncatus              15.05     31.67
Protophormia terraenovae        Northern blowfly                     Diptera       Calliphoridae    Protophormia    terraenovae             8.95
Pseudaletia sequax              -                                    Lepidoptera   Noctuidae        Pseudaletia     sequax
Pseudatomoscelis seriatus       Cotton leafhopper                    Hemiptera     Miridae          Pseudatomoscelisseriatus               6.45
Pseudococcus citriculus         Citriculus mealybug                  Hemiptera     Pseudococcidae   Pseudococcus citriculus                          30.00
Pseudococcus comstocki          Comstock mealybug                    Hemiptera     Pseudococcidae   Pseudococcus comstocki                 10.10
Pseudogonatopus fulgori         A parasitoid of Hemiptera            Hymenoptera   Dryinidae        Pseudogonatopus fulgori                13.80
Psila rosae                     Carrot rust fly                      Diptera       Psilidae         Psila           rosae                   1.20
Psyttalia fletcheri             A parasitoid of Bactrocera cucurbitaeHymenoptera   Braconidae       Psyttalia       fletcheri              11.02
Pteromalus puparum              A parasitoid                         Hymenoptera   Pteromalidae     Pteromalus      puparum
Pygostolus falcatus             A parasitoid of Sitona cylindricollisHymenoptera   Braconidae       Pygostolus      falcatus                7.90
Pyrausta panopealis             Perilla leaf pyralid moth            Lepidoptera   Pyralidae        Pyrausta        panopealis             13.10
Pyrrhalta luteola               Elm leaf beetle                      Coleoptera    Chrysomelidae    Pyrrhalta       luteola                11.23     36.10
Quadraspidiotus perniciosus     San Jose scale                       Hemiptera     Diaspididae      Quadraspidiotus perniciosus            10.60     32.20
Rhaconotus roslinensis          A parasitoid                         Hymenoptera   Braconidae       Rhaconotus      roslinensis            14.30
Rhagoletis cerasi               European cherry fly                  Diptera       Tephritidae      Rhagoletis      cerasi                  5.00
Rhagoletis indifferens          Western cherry fruit fly             Diptera       Tephritidae      Rhagoletis      indifferens             5.00
Rhagoletis mendax               Blueberry maggot                     Diptera       Tephritidae      Rhagoletis      mendax                  4.70     31.00
Rhagoletis pomonella            Apple maggot                         Diptera       Tephritidae      Rhagoletis      pomonella               6.40
Rhinocyllus conicus             Thistle head weevil                  Coleoptera    Curculionidae    Rhinocyllus     conicus
Rhopalosiphum maidis            Green corn aphid                     Hemiptera     Aphididae        Rhopalosiphum maidis                   6.10      26.30
Rhopalosiphum padi              Grain aphid                          Hemiptera     Aphididae        Rhopalosiphum padi                     5.78      25.09
Rhyacionia buoliana             European pine shoot moth             Lepidoptera   Tortricidae      Rhyacionia      buoliana               8.00
Rhyacionia frustrana            Nantucket pine tip moth              Lepidoptera   Tortricidae      Rhyacionia      frustrana              9.40
INSECT NAME AND CLASS                                                                                                                     INSECT THRESHOLDS AND
                                                                                                                                 Base Devel.    Upper Devel.
        Scientific name               Common Name                    Order          Family          Genus            Species      temp (C)        temp (C)
Saissetia coffeae           Hemispherical scale                 Hemiptera      Coccidae        Saissetia       coffeae               6.05
Sarcophaga bullata          Flesh fly                           Diptera        Sarcophagidae   Sarcophaga      bullata              12.00
Scaeva pyrastri             A hover fly                         Diptera        Syrphidae       Scaeva          pyrastri
Schizaphis graminum         Green bug                           Hemiptera      Aphididae       Schizaphis      graminum             5.86
Scirpophaga incertulas      Yellow borer                        Lepidoptera    Pyralidae       Scirpophaga     incertulas          11.80
Scirpophaga innotata        White rice stem borer               Lepidoptera    Pyralidae       Scirpophaga     innotata            10.80
Scirtothrips citri          Citrus thrips                       Thysanoptera   Thripidae       Scirtothrips    citri               14.59
Scirtothrips dorsalis       Chillie thrips                      Thysanoptera   Thripidae       Scirtothrips    dorsalis             9.70         33.00
Scleroderma sichuanensis    A parasitoid                        Hymenoptera    Bethylidae      Scleroderma     sichuanensis
Sclerodermus guani          A parasitoid                        Hymenoptera    Bethylidae      Sclerodermus    guani               13.60
Scutellista cyanea          A parasitoid                        Hymenoptera    Pteromalidae    Scutellista     cyanea              15.60
Scymnus frontalis           A predator of Diuraphis noxia       Coleoptera     Coccinellidae   Scymnus         frontalis           11.70
Scymnus hoffmani            A predator of Aphis gossypii        Coleoptera     Coccinellidae   Scymnus         hoffmani
Semiadalia undecimnotata    A lady beetle                       Coleoptera     Coccinellidae   Semiadalia      undecimnotata
Sesamia calamistis          African pink stem borer             Lepidoptera    Noctuidae       Sesamia         calamistis          10.54
Sesamia inferens            Asiatic pink stem borer             Lepidoptera    Noctuidae       Sesamia         inferens             9.70
Sesamia nonagrioides        Mediterranean corn stalk borer      Lepidoptera    Noctuidae       Sesamia         nonagrioides         7.71
Simulium arcticum           Black fly                           Diptera        Simuliidae      Simulium        arcticum
Sitobion avenae             English grain aphid                 Hemiptera      Aphididae       Sitobion        avenae               3.90
Sitophilus oryzae           Rice weevil                         Coleoptera     Curculionidae   Sitophilus      oryzae              15.00
Somaticus angulatus         False wireworm                      Coleoptera     Tenebrionidae   Somaticus       angulatus
Spalangia cameroni          A parasitoid                        Hymenoptera    Pteromalidae    Spalangia       cameroni            12.85
Spalangia gemina            A parasitoid                        Hymenoptera    Pteromalidae    Spalangia       gemina              13.00
Sphaerophoria scripta       A hover fly                         Diptera        Syrphidae       Sphaerophoria   scripta
Spodoptera cosmioides       -                                   Lepidoptera    Noctuidae       Spodoptera      cosmioides          11.23
Spodoptera eridania         Southerm armyworm                   Lepidoptera    Noctuidae       Spodoptera      eridania            10.75
Spodoptera exigua           Beet armyworm                       Lepidoptera    Noctuidae       Spodoptera      exigua              12.20
Spodoptera frugiperda       Fall armyworm                       Lepidoptera    Noctuidae       Spodoptera      frugiperda
Spodoptera littoralis       Cotton leafworm                     Lepidoptera    Noctuidae       Spodoptera      littoralis          12.60
Spodoptera litura           Armyworm                            Lepidoptera    Noctuidae       Spodoptera      litura              10.50         37.00
Stethorus punctum punctum   A lady beetle                       Coleoptera     Coccinellidae   Stethorus       punctum punctum      5.00
Symosyrphus grandicornis    -                                   Diptera        Syrphidae       Symosyrphus     grandicornis         4.65
Sympiesis marylandensis     A parasitoid                        Hymenoptera    Eulophidae      Sympiesis       marylandensis        8.30
Synanthedon exitiosa        Peachtree borer                     Lepidoptera    Sesiidae        Synanthedon     exitiosa            10.00         31.00
Syngrapha falcifera         Celery looper                       Lepidoptera    Noctuidae       Syngrapha       falcifera            8.30         32.60
Tecia solanivora            Guatemalan potato moth              Lepidoptera    Gelechiidae     Tecia           solanivora           7.93
Telenomus podisi            A parasitoid                        Hymenoptera    Scelionidae     Telenomus       podisi              13.10
Tetranychus cinnabarinus    Carmine spider mite                 Acari          Tetranychidae   Tetranychus     cinnabarinus        10.00
Tetranychus kanzawai        Kanzawa spider mite                 Acari          Tetranychidae   Tetranychus     kanzawai            13.04
Tetranychus pacificus       Pacific spider mite                 Acari          Tetranychidae   Tetranychus     pacificus           11.10
Tetranychus turkestani      Strawberry Spider Mite              Acari          Tetranychidae   Tetranychus     turkestani          12.00
Tetranychus urticae         Twospotted spider mite              Acari          Tetranychidae   Tetranychus     urticae             10.00
Tetrastichus gallerucae     A parasitoid of Pyrrhalta luteola   Hymenoptera    Eulophidae      Tetrastichus    gallerucae          13.70
INSECT NAME AND CLASS                                                                                                                   INSECT THRESHOLDS AND
                                                                                                                               Base Devel.    Upper Devel.
        Scientific name              Common Name                     Order           Family         Genus            Species    temp (C)        temp (C)
Tetrastichus howardi        A pupal parasitoid                  Hymenoptera    Eulophidae      Tetrastichus    howardi            12.80           33.00
Thrips palmi                Melon thrips                        Thysanoptera   Thripidae       Thrips          palmi              10.10
Thrips tabaci               Cotton seedling thrips              Thysanoptera   Thripidae       Thrips          tabaci             11.50
Tomicus piniperda           Pine shoot beetle                   Coleoptera     Scolytidae      Tomicus         piniperda           7.26
Toxoptera citricidus        Black citrus aphid                  Hemiptera      Aphididae       Toxoptera       citricidus
Trialeurodes vaporariorum   Greenhouse whitefly                 Hemiptera      Aleyrodidae     Trialeurodes    vaporariorum       8.30
Tribolium castaneum         Red flour beetle                    Coleoptera     Tenebrionidae   Tribolium       castaneum          9.10
Trichogramma australicum    A parasitoid                        Hymenoptera                    Trichogramma
                                                                               Trichogrammatidae               australicum       11.00
Trichogramma chilonis       A parasitoid                        Hymenoptera                    Trichogramma
                                                                               Trichogrammatidae               chilonis          10.11         34.33
Trichogramma dendrolimi     A parasitoid                        Hymenoptera                    Trichogramma
                                                                               Trichogrammatidae               dendrolimi        10.30
Trichogramma evanescens     A parasitoid                        Hymenoptera                    Trichogramma
                                                                               Trichogrammatidae               evanescens         8.00
Trichogramma funiculatum    A parasitoid                        Hymenoptera                    Trichogramma
                                                                               Trichogrammatidae               funiculatum        9.09
Trichogramma japonicum      A parasitoid                        Hymenoptera                    Trichogramma
                                                                               Trichogrammatidae               japonicum         11.10
Trichogramma maidis         A parasitoid                        Hymenoptera                    Trichogramma
                                                                               Trichogrammatidae               maidis            11.90         32.00
Trichogramma minutum        A parasitoid                        Hymenoptera                    Trichogramma
                                                                               Trichogrammatidae               minutum           10.20
Trichogramma nubilale       A parasitoid                        Hymenoptera                    Trichogramma
                                                                               Trichogrammatidae               nubilale          11.30         34.00
Trichogramma nubilalis      A parasitoid                        Hymenoptera                    Trichogramma
                                                                               Trichogrammatidae               nubilalis         11.02
Trichogramma ostriniae      A parasitoid                        Hymenoptera                    Trichogramma
                                                                               Trichogrammatidae               ostriniae         11.00
Trichogramma pretiosum      A parasitoid                        Hymenoptera                    Trichogramma
                                                                               Trichogrammatidae               pretiosum         11.90
Trichogramma rhenana        A parasitoid                        Hymenoptera                    Trichogramma
                                                                               Trichogrammatidae               rhenana           10.45         34.00
Trichogramma schuberti      A parasitoid                        Hymenoptera                    Trichogramma
                                                                               Trichogrammatidae               schuberti         10.45         33.00
Trichoplusia ni             Cabbage looper                      Lepidoptera    Noctuidae       Trichoplusia    ni                10.90
Trissolcus brochymenae      An egg parasitoid                   Hymenoptera    Scelionidae     Trissolcus      brochymenae        9.50
Tuberolachnus salignus      Giant willow aphid                  Hemiptera      Aphididae       Tuberolachnus   salignus           5.50
Tuta absoluta               Tomato leafminer                    Lepidoptera    Gelechiidae     Tuta            absoluta           8.14
Tyria jacobaeae             Cinnabar moth                       Lepidoptera    Arctiidae       Tyria           jacobaeae
Tyrophagus putrescentiae    Cereal mite                         Acari          Acaridae        Tyrophagus      putrescentiae      5.00         36.10
Udea ferrugalis             Rusty Dot Pearl                     Lepidoptera    Pyralidae       Udea            ferrugalis        12.52
Unaspis citri               Citrus snow scale                   Hemiptera      Diaspididae     Unaspis         citri             12.00
Unaspis euonymi             Euonymus scale                      Hemiptera      Diaspididae     Unaspis         euonymi
Uraba lugens                Eucalypt leaf skeletonizer          Lepidoptera    Noctuidae       Uraba           lugens
Vanessa atalanta            Red admiral                         Lepidoptera    Nymphalidae     Vanessa         atalanta           7.30
Varroa jacobsoni            Varroa mite                         Mesostigmata   Varroidae       Varroa          jacobsoni
Vitacea polistiformis       Grape root borer                    Lepidoptera    Sesiidae        Vitacea         polistiformis
Viteus vitifoliae           Phylloxera                          Hemiptera      Phylloxeridae   Viteus          vitifoliae        18.00
Voria ruralis                                                   ni
                            A larval parasitoid of Trichoplusia Diptera        Tachinidae      Voria           ruralis            7.50
Xanthopimpla stemmator      A pupal endoparasitoid              Hymenoptera    Ichneumonidae Xanthopimpla      stemmator         11.44
Zaprionus indiana           A drosophilid fly                   Diptera        Drosophilidae   Zaprionus       indiana           10.15
Zeiraphera canadensis       Spruce bud moth                     Lepidoptera    Tortricidae     Zeiraphera      canadensis         5.32
Zonosemata electa           Pepper maggot                       Diptera        Tephritidae     Zonosemata      electa             9.50
DS AND DEGREE-DAYS                         STAGE THRESHOLDS                    DEGREE-DAYS (above the base development temp.)
   Egg to Adult Egg to Egg   Egg       Larvae/Nymph    Pupae   Mature adult    Egg     Larvae/Nymph       Pupae      Mature adult
     DD (C)       DD (C)     (C)            (C)         (C)        (C)         (C)          (C)            (C)            (C)
     541.70
                             11.20

     630.00                  8.17           4.75       6.15                   117.00            317.00    196.00
     147.10       169.70       -                                                 -              147.10       -           22.60
     150.40                    -             2.40                                -              150.40       -
     262.80                  9.20           12.63      10.20                   43.80            148.00     71.00
                                                        8.40
                                            3.90
                             8.20
     501.70                          6.20              6.50                            380.65             121.06

     302.80

                                            10.00
     643.00                  13.94           9.83      9.75                   52.00             353.00    238.00
     987.00                  14.30             -
     542.80                  12.60           8.54      9.40                   159.00            227.00    156.80
     142.90
      85.50
      54.00                  14.30          11.63        -                    21.45             32.55        -
                             11.80          12.00
     168.92       196.50     11.42          11.51        -        11.12       73.12             95.80        -           27.58
     425.50
     244.50       270.00                                                               244.50                -           25.50
     172.60
     193.59

     510.00       538.00                                                       92.00            258.00    160.00         28.00
     414.92                  14.39          14.11         -                   107.30            307.62      -
     430.58                   9.25          10.27      10.78
     607.15                   9.70            -         7.80
     609.30                                                                   72.80             262.80    273.70
     431.00                  10.30          9.70       10.90                  79.00             244.00    108.00
     391.00

     274.60                  8.59           14.20      11.62                  46.00             166.00     62.60


     607.50                  12.80          12.90        -                    121.00            486.50       -
                  636.40
                                            8.10        9.60
     205.00                          8.90              10.90                           80.00              125.00
DS AND DEGREE-DAYS                         STAGE THRESHOLDS                    DEGREE-DAYS (above the base development temp.)
   Egg to Adult Egg to Egg   Egg       Larvae/Nymph    Pupae   Mature adult    Egg     Larvae/Nymph       Pupae      Mature adult
     DD (C)       DD (C)     (C)            (C)         (C)        (C)         (C)          (C)            (C)            (C)
     248.80
     312.50
     212.77                          6.59              8.03
     294.10

     238.09
     196.80
     187.90
     185.00
     273.10
     178.60
     108.90                    -            6.20                                -           108.90           -
     133.16                    -            6.50         -                      -           133.16           -
     166.70
     229.50                  12.39           9.44      10.82                  39.50          97.00         93.00
     414.80       546.80     12.40          11.30      14.70       3.00       61.30         263.70         89.80        132.00

                              8.00
                              5.00
     480.00                  11.50          9.70       9.50
     646.10                                                                   135.00        363.30        147.80
     473.30                  10.80          10.90      10.00                  107.20        255.00        111.10
                  909.00      6.20           8.00       9.30       6.70
                             13.50          13.10         -
     233.10
     399.25                  13.80          10.20      11.80                  40.73         204.90        153.61
     545.00                  10.50          16.70      17.00                  51.00         403.00         91.00
     149.68                    -             2.69                               -           149.68           -
                                            16.30
                              9.40          11.50      11.50
                              8.60           5.90       8.90
     282.38                  10.10           6.60       9.40                  20.51         103.61        158.26
     339.84                  11.80           5.60       9.30                  28.64         127.90        183.30
     393.82                  10.90           6.00       9.40                  49.19         147.00        197.63

                             9.13           2.39       10.25

     301.10                  10.00          10.00      11.75                  49.39         111.01        140.70
                  537.20
     319.70                  12.50
     317.30       337.50     10.10          11.60        -                    98.50         218.70           -           20.20

                             14.60
DS AND DEGREE-DAYS                         STAGE THRESHOLDS                       DEGREE-DAYS (above the base development temp.)
   Egg to Adult Egg to Egg   Egg       Larvae/Nymph    Pupae       Mature adult    Egg    Larvae/Nymph       Pupae      Mature adult
     DD (C)       DD (C)     (C)            (C)         (C)            (C)         (C)         (C)            (C)            (C)
     190.87                    -            3.60                      8.20          -         190.87           -
     472.64                  3.80           1.20        3.10                      85.50       304.56         82.59
     126.00       142.00       -            6.70          -                         -         126.00           -            16.00

     336.00                                                                       84.00             252.00              -
                                            11.41          12.39
                             10.90
     517.09

     418.00
     274.10                  7.10           8.30           9.10                   45.10             160.00            69.00

     260.40                  15.90          14.50          14.90
     297.60                  15.20          16.00          14.60
     320.00                  15.70          14.00          14.50
     711.28                  11.00           9.40          10.30                  129.06            350.68            231.55
     446.80
     192.30                  12.00          11.50           9.50      12.07
     386.30                          9.34                  10.65                           140.21                     246.09
      251.7                  11.60          10.20          11.20                  29.30              81.05            141.35
     340.67                   9.90           8.90           9.20                  37.22             116.89            186.57
     410.65                   9.80           3.10          11.00                  42.94             166.31            201.40
                              8.10
     489.00                  13.60                  8.30                          144.00                     345.00
                              4.90
     214.59                  16.20          7.24           14.40
                             10.00                         12.50
     588.34                  15.27          12.52          17.69                   67.00            436.00             85.34
     652.60                  10.34           6.93           8.44                  113.80            414.20            124.60
     604.50                   7.15          13.44          11.09                   75.50            429.00            100.00
     324.80                  14.30          16.14          13.40                   60.80            212.50             51.50
                             10.80

                  689.90     10.00          10.80          9.50       11.90
                             10.50
                              8.00                         10.00
                              8.30
                             11.50                         12.90
                                                           10.40
                              9.90
                             10.00
                              9.70
DS AND DEGREE-DAYS                          STAGE THRESHOLDS                    DEGREE-DAYS (above the base development temp.)
   Egg to Adult Egg to Egg    Egg       Larvae/Nymph    Pupae   Mature adult    Egg     Larvae/Nymph       Pupae      Mature adult
     DD (C)       DD (C)      (C)            (C)         (C)        (C)         (C)          (C)            (C)            (C)
                              9.90
     400.00                   8.60              -       8.10
                              0.55              -       5.41
     955.50                   9.40            6.80      9.80                   110.30            412.10    433.10
                              8.84           14.23        -        19.67
     361.10                  13.65           14.83        -                    111.10            250.00       -
     182.00                   6.85            8.68      8.88                    18.00             66.00     98.00
     275.10                   7.35           10.14      7.66                    34.30            106.80    134.00
     212.00                   1.69            6.40      9.19                    30.50             78.50    103.00
                                             18.50
                             11.40                      11.00
     244.30       380.43     11.50           13.70      12.90      10.90       39.45             131.53     73.32        136.13
     218.20                  10.80           11.88      12.40                  38.00             127.20     53.00
     373.00

     235.80                  10.20                      11.60

     263.00       273.00                                                       23.00             114.00    126.00         10.00
                             12.90           13.90
                                     10.70              11.40
     238.09
                                      9.90              12.10
     183.10                          12.30              12.40                           117.70              65.40
                                     11.50               9.50
     317.00                   7.90           7.10        9.30                  58.00             167.00     92.00
                              3.50
     460.40       481.00     10.57           9.31       10.93                  60.10             258.10    142.20         26.50
     405.00       433.00                                                       69.00             156.00    180.00         28.00
     344.00
     840.56                  7.80            5.20       7.20                   133.54            491.00    216.02
     129.30
                                             7.50       11.70
     359.81                  9.38            8.50        8.32                  31.33             297.81     30.67

                             9.40
     588.90       621.10                                                       87.80             261.70    239.40         32.20

     359.05

     643.00       746.00                                                       50.00             287.00    306.00        103.00
     376.00                  2.42            5.85       3.17                   30.00             204.00    142.00
                  653.30
                                             10.60      10.80
DS AND DEGREE-DAYS                         STAGE THRESHOLDS                    DEGREE-DAYS (above the base development temp.)
   Egg to Adult Egg to Egg   Egg       Larvae/Nymph    Pupae   Mature adult    Egg     Larvae/Nymph       Pupae      Mature adult
     DD (C)       DD (C)     (C)            (C)         (C)        (C)         (C)          (C)            (C)            (C)
     184.10
                                            6.10
                             9.70


     322.60
     225.10
     292.29                          2.47              3.89                            189.20             113.40
     285.00
                  641.51
     294.10                  13.70          12.00      14.90                  49.10             149.00     96.00
     379.63                  13.00          10.50      12.00                  53.93             191.69    134.00
     237.44                   9.22           7.63        -                    66.54             170.90       -
                                            15.00      15.00

     714.00                   9.40          10.40      10.20                  103.00            520.00     91.00
     868.00                  12.50           7.90      10.40                  105.80            562.90    199.20
     173.62                          9.46               7.80                           89.74               83.88
     452.90       594.30                                                      200.60            252.30       -          141.40

                             11.00          13.00      13.00
     148.00                     -            3.80        -                      -               148.00       -
                              9.00
                                     7.90              10.70
                                              -         7.10
     419.66                  10.46          12.70         -                   77.51             342.15       -
                                            12.80         -
                  436.80
                             11.40                                             56.60
     1054.48                  9.10          5.50       10.80                  144.80            742.35    167.33
      435.00
      188.90

     349.60       529.10     16.33          15.89        -        15.42       91.70             257.90       -          179.50
     317.50                   6.62           0.82        -                    99.60             217.80       -

                             12.00          14.00      12.00
     358.10                  11.10            -        12.40                   68.10            200.60     89.40
     609.00       639.00                                                      133.70            345.90    129.10         29.90
                             12.80
     261.00       374.00      5.40          5.80       8.10                   37.00             115.00    109.00
     162.90       189.50      5.50          5.00         -                    83.00              79.90      -            26.60
     366.80
DS AND DEGREE-DAYS                          STAGE THRESHOLDS                    DEGREE-DAYS (above the base development temp.)
   Egg to Adult Egg to Egg   Egg        Larvae/Nymph    Pupae   Mature adult     Egg    Larvae/Nymph       Pupae      Mature adult
     DD (C)       DD (C)     (C)             (C)         (C)        (C)          (C)         (C)            (C)            (C)
     259.10                  9.50            9.90        5.90                   57.00       151.10         51.00
     267.63                    -             5.19          -                      -         267.63           -
     497.00       580.00                                                       208.00       289.00           -            83.00
     544.40


                             5.60                        4.30
     118.84                          14.55              16.90                           78.65               40.20
     832.62                  14.23           10.20       9.54
     275.26
     525.30                  10.50           13.12        -                    83.53             441.78       -
     572.00
     359.00
     234.10                   9.10           12.80      10.90                  114.10             74.00     46.00
     194.00                   9.20            8.90      10.40                   49.00             87.00     58.00
     304.60       403.90      8.10            7.00       6.10                   71.00            164.00     69.60         99.30
                             10.80
     397.40                          8.90               11.10                           284.03             129.11
     853.96       890.31       -             7.46       -0.13      10.95         -               511.94    342.02         36.35


     165.40       289.70     7.50            12.60      12.70      11.90       25.90              67.60     71.90        124.30
     410.00       420.00                                                       75.00             175.00    160.00         10.00
     507.20       535.00                                                       79.40             215.00    212.80         27.80
                              8.50
                             14.90           17.30        -        23.40
     333.30
     245.00
     286.00
     267.30                  11.00           11.10      11.40                   41.30            159.00     67.00
     808.00                                                                    145.00            385.00    278.00
     402.00       430.00                                                        30.00            225.00    147.00         28.00
     422.30       484.90                                                        40.50            202.30    179.50         62.60
                             10.10           13.10      13.60      10.60
     413.30                  10.30           10.70      12.20                  41.20             190.00    182.10
     547.80                   0.40            4.10       0.60
     882.00                                                        10.30
     228.60                  10.30           12.70      12.00                  37.30             136.90     54.40
                              9.60
     485.00                  11.10           9.60       13.00                  70.00             280.00    135.00
                             11.90

     470.52                  9.60            9.90       9.90                   104.79            263.32    102.41
DS AND DEGREE-DAYS                       STAGE THRESHOLDS                    DEGREE-DAYS (above the base development temp.)
   Egg to Adult Egg to Egg   Egg     Larvae/Nymph    Pupae   Mature adult    Egg     Larvae/Nymph       Pupae      Mature adult
     DD (C)       DD (C)     (C)          (C)         (C)        (C)         (C)          (C)            (C)            (C)

                  1756.80
                             9.10        6.80        10.10
     482.10       637.10                                                    117.20        207.00        157.90        155.00
     389.00                  11.00      10.56        11.24                  109.00        205.00         75.00
     205.00       267.00     10.70      10.02           -        8.13        51.00        154.00           -           62.00
     615.80                   8.66       9.09         7.74                   73.00        351.30        191.50
     210.60
     420.60
                  457.00
     243.30                  10.90      10.80        12.90                  47.50         150.20         45.60
     334.20                  10.60       8.20         9.90                  65.00         207.20         62.00
                              6.00      11.00
     454.30                  11.19      10.76        6.43                   90.90         230.30        133.10

     735.42                  6.60        6.70        4.90                   56.03         350.20        329.20

     666.70                  5.40        3.20        3.10                   82.70         389.50        194.50
     470.20                  8.30        8.90        9.20       17.20       81.60         284.40        104.20
     374.01
     205.71
     616.00                   6.50       1.50         7.50                  166.90        232.70        216.40
     111.40                     -        5.70           -                     -           111.40          -
     460.70                  14.85      14.71           -
     404.50                  13.00      11.00         7.20                   45.10        108.60        250.80
     280.30                   8.10       7.70         7.30                   38.60         97.30        144.40
     295.70                   7.76       7.95         8.89                   36.85        114.65        144.20
     313.70                   9.83       9.10        10.18                   45.50        129.80        138.40
     630.00                   9.50       6.70         7.20      14.80       130.00        370.00        130.00
     435.30                  11.60      11.20        13.00                   66.50        292.50         76.30
     430.00       458.00                                                     75.00        225.00        130.00         28.00

                                                     2.70
     346.10       443.90                                                    140.00        206.10           -           97.80
                                        10.00          -

     223.46
     181.20                    -         3.70        4.80                     -           105.20         76.00
     212.80
     472.00                  9.50        8.10          -                    199.00        273.00           -
     439.00       532.00     7.61        8.74          -         7.58       165.00        274.00           -           93.00
     356.10                                                                 110.00        246.10           -
                             8.70        9.10
DS AND DEGREE-DAYS                          STAGE THRESHOLDS                    DEGREE-DAYS (above the base development temp.)
   Egg to Adult Egg to Egg   Egg        Larvae/Nymph    Pupae   Mature adult    Egg     Larvae/Nymph       Pupae      Mature adult
     DD (C)       DD (C)     (C)             (C)         (C)        (C)         (C)          (C)            (C)            (C)

     829.00
                             7.40                       7.90
                             8.60            5.40       7.50        5.00
     790.00                  6.87            4.94       4.96                   82.00             356.00    352.00


     373.90                  10.50           10.00      10.90                  41.30             219.60    113.10
     389.00                  12.20            1.60       1.60
     163.90                   8.20            9.10      10.40                  33.00             62.90      68.00

                             4.05                       2.85

                             4.22              -

     198.20
                  239.10
     274.00
                  348.00

                             9.20
                             6.10
     251.30                          9.90               10.80                           150.30             101.00
                                             12.90      13.20
     129.90       171.30     14.53           10.97                 21.25       62.10             67.80        -           41.40
     137.20       151.20     15.43           13.71        -        16.30       66.80              70.5        -           14.00

                                     12.70

     505.00       575.00     10.32           8.71       9.63                   63.00             277.00    165.00         70.00
                              3.20
                  129.80
     405.70                  11.95           10.73        -                    122.20            283.50       -
     473.90                  11.24           11.69        -                    160.00            313.90       -

                             14.12           14.76        -        15.95
     528.30                   8.90           11.50      9.20                   46.70             325.50    156.10
     625.00       703.00     11.46           10.00        -        12.30       92.00             533.00      -            77.98

     212.80       232.60     12.30           6.37         -                    112.00            100.80       -
     161.40       205.60     14.65           3.86         -        13.91        75.20             86.30       -           44.10
                              8.90
     205.10                   8.11           9.21         -                    79.80             125.40       -
DS AND DEGREE-DAYS                         STAGE THRESHOLDS                    DEGREE-DAYS (above the base development temp.)
   Egg to Adult Egg to Egg   Egg       Larvae/Nymph    Pupae   Mature adult    Egg     Larvae/Nymph       Pupae      Mature adult
     DD (C)       DD (C)     (C)            (C)         (C)        (C)         (C)          (C)            (C)            (C)
     322.70                  6.33
                             9.90

     211.80
     228.40                  13.40          13.09        -                    48.60             179.80       -
                             11.20          13.80
                              9.30          10.50
                             11.60          11.90
                             13.70          12.70
                              8.60          15.30

     470.46                  10.32          10.36      10.78                  50.30             301.30    118.86
     539.91                  10.38          10.06      11.07                  83.00             318.00    139.00

                             4.00
     458.00       478.00                                                      87.00             137.00    234.00         20.00

     347.50                   7.40           8.20        -                    120.20            227.40       -
     140.20       157.10     10.28          10.53        -                     69.40             70.80       -           16.90
                             11.70
     1946.70                  8.40          3.70       6.10                   260.50            1253.50   432.70
      265.00
                                            6.30       8.80

                  492.00
     556.80                  13.74          11.30      13.22                  75.50             328.40    152.90

     457.70                          6.70              9.70                            222.44             251.16
     675.80       770.30     5.60           6.20       8.50        3.50       73.30             362.30    240.20         94.50
     395.00
     248.60
                                            2.80

     322.60
                             14.90                     14.90
     322.40       353.00                                                      54.30             189.50     78.60         30.50
                  505.00
     455.90                  17.00                                            81.20             255.70    119.00
      319.7
                                            5.80
                             14.40
                                            7.70                   8.00
                                            8.00                  11.70
DS AND DEGREE-DAYS                          STAGE THRESHOLDS                    DEGREE-DAYS (above the base development temp.)
   Egg to Adult Egg to Egg    Egg       Larvae/Nymph    Pupae   Mature adult     Egg    Larvae/Nymph       Pupae      Mature adult
     DD (C)       DD (C)      (C)            (C)         (C)        (C)          (C)         (C)            (C)            (C)
     599.50                  10.60           6.00       10.00                   84.30       345.30         169.90
     607.20                  10.60           8.60        9.00                  121.00       361.40         124.80
     699.20                   9.70           7.00        8.50                  129.83       425.00         144.33
     649.00
     476.20                  7.90            7.00       7.80                   79.00         267.90        129.30
     344.00
     268.20                   7.30            7.40      7.85                   51.00         143.20         74.00
     353.50                  10.70           11.70        -                    73.30         280.20           -
     326.50                  13.30           12.20        -                    66.00         260.50           -

     494.57                  8.83            7.89       8.45                   72.00         220.00        202.57
     411.80
                             13.01             -
     1305.00      1422.00                                                      140.00       1041.00        124.00        117.00
      199.60
      465.11                  8.29           9.97       10.54
                             12.10                       8.70
                             11.00                      12.20
     297.00                  10.20            8.60      11.80                  29.00         128.00        140.00
     403.88                  11.36           14.61      13.05
     240.20                  12.96
                             11.00            8.40      10.10
     507.30                   3.00           16.50        -                    228.90        278.40           -
                                             11.70                 10.00
      655.57      840.17     14.50           10.77        -        11.80       155.42        500.15           -          184.60
      264.60
     1121.10                         2.00               3.00
      231.44
                                     11.00
     363.00
     315.20                  11.70           12.70      13.50
     431.93                  11.30           11.00      11.10                   78.49        266.36         87.08
     555.10       583.30                                                       300.60        250.50                       32.20
     263.20                  13.50
     430.00



                             11.00             -        19.00
      97.70       112.00                                                         -           97.70            -           14.25
      86.00        97.00

     656.00                  9.53            14.90      10.84                  119.00        354.00        183.00
DS AND DEGREE-DAYS                       STAGE THRESHOLDS                    DEGREE-DAYS (above the base development temp.)
   Egg to Adult Egg to Egg   Egg     Larvae/Nymph    Pupae   Mature adult    Egg     Larvae/Nymph       Pupae      Mature adult
     DD (C)       DD (C)     (C)          (C)         (C)        (C)         (C)          (C)            (C)            (C)
     848.35                  7.11          -           -                    291.67       556.68           -
                  355.00                             12.00
                              5.40
      93.19                     -        5.86          -         7.52          -           93.19           -
     516.00                  12.52       9.88        8.17                    91.30        329.10         95.60
     594.60                  11.27       8.72        5.92                   108.40        373.30        112.90
                  156.00
     265.00       281.00     10.10       9.00        9.50                   147.00        75.00          43.00         16.00
                             14.40
     320.07       366.40     14.64      12.02        14.63      14.97       51.00         68.70         200.40         46.30
     264.00
     312.20                  10.90      11.90        11.80                  71.00         151.00         90.20
                              2.60                   12.70                  90.20
                             10.90                   11.10
     868.17                   9.70      10.70        11.30                  113.23        565.39        189.55
     755.20                   8.79       7.16         7.79                  124.80        488.30        142.00
     954.19                  10.57       8.89        10.75                  147.43        592.16        214.60
                              1.60
     150.80                     -        3.90          -                      -           150.80           -
     715.20
                             11.50        -          14.80


                                                      5.60
     525.11                   9.34      11.65        11.08                  53.00         296.00        176.00
     639.99                  10.97       9.87        12.37                  59.00         412.00        169.00
     516.70                                                                  52.2         280.60        183.90
                                                     10.00
                             11.81      12.50        11.33
     522.70       551.20      8.20      10.00        10.20      10.80       53.50         314.20        155.00         28.50

     318.09                  5.80        5.94        1.68                   26.73         153.21        138.15
     158.70

                  377.00
     635.30                  7.56        9.40        8.18                   107.70        283.00        244.60
     167.00
     163.25
     103.68                  13.90      12.24          -                    45.79         57.89            -
     121.00                                                                 52.10         68.90            -
     112.10       125.90                                                    49.70         62.40            -           13.80
     144.50       169.80     10.45      10.01          -        10.45       56.00         88.50            -           25.30
     152.00       186.00                                        13.70                                                  34.00
DS AND DEGREE-DAYS                          STAGE THRESHOLDS                         DEGREE-DAYS (above the base development temp.)
   Egg to Adult Egg to Egg   Egg        Larvae/Nymph    Pupae        Mature adult    Egg     Larvae/Nymph       Pupae      Mature adult
     DD (C)       DD (C)     (C)             (C)         (C)             (C)         (C)          (C)            (C)            (C)
     239.80
     194.00                   9.43           11.50           10.10                  76.00             76.00             42.00
     178.03       201.09     12.90                   10.20              15.70       77.95                      100.08            23.06
     651.00                   8.23           7.20            7.85
                                                                         8.00
      380.70                                                   -                    122.90            257.80              -
     1011.10                 19.35                           16.18                   88.40            768.60            154.10
      156.00
      169.49
      161.00

     157.80
     134.00

     128.00

     153.29
     152.60
     134.00


     342.70                  10.74           8.57            13.08                  49.50             183.90            109.30
     214.70
     196.40                    -              5.50                                    -               196.40              -
     453.60                  6.90             7.60           9.20
                                             11.00
     291.40                  4.40             9.68             -                    105.30            186.10              -
     305.00       329.90     9.50             9.60           11.90                   60.30            137.40            107.30   24.90

                                              9.13           15.40
                             6.50            12.20            9.10
     413.40
                             28.10
                                                             10.00

     235.70                          11.59                   5.86                            126.40                     109.30
     248.20
     215.10                  7.72            11.73           8.11                    31.00            103.00             81.10
     734.60                  3.82             6.37           6.32                   197.70            291.20            245.70
                                                             9.33
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                                                                1988 Predicting development of mealybug parasitoids Anagyrus pseudococci, abnormis, which are primary parasitoids
                                                                                       Entomologia Experimentalis et19-28 United Kingdom
                                                                                                               46         Applicata
                                The development rates of the and M. J. W. Copland pseudococci, Leptomastix dactylopii and Leptomastidea Leptomastix dactylopii and Leptomastide
                                                occurrence of 1995species of egg parasitoids of Lygus lineolaris was plant bug, in three different habitats: Beauvois) (Hemiptera: Miri
                                                                four R. K. Stewart Canadian Entomologist      127       457-472 Quebec; Canada
                                The seasonalAl-Ghamdi, K. M. andSynchrony between populations of the tarnisheddeterminedLygus lineolaris (Palisot defields of mixed weeds, lucer
                                               Brunner, J. F. and thresholds for Anarsia lineatella Zell. based (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), development in Washington and California
                                                                1984 Peach             Environmental Entomology egg duration and adult Cal.; USA (field and lab studies)
                                                                                                               13
                                Lower and upper developmental R. E. Ricetwig borer, Anarsia lineatella Zelleron 607-610 Wash. State, flight were 10 and 31.1°C, respectively. Gener
                                               Fargo, W. S., tristis was observed 12 constant temperatures 926-929 (Heteroptera: USA (lab andconstant Times required
                                                                1988 Developmental rate of the squash bug, Anasa tristis Oklahoma; Coreidae), at LD
                                                                                                               17
                                The development of Anasa and E. L. Bonjour at Environmental Entomologybetween 20.0 and 40.0 degrees Cstudies) 16:8.temperatures. for deve
                                               Machado, A. E., L. A. Thermal requirements ofSociedade Entomológica do Brasil estimation of number of generations in Pelotas, RS.
                                                                1995 B. Salles, et al.Anais da Anastrepha 24   fraterculus (Wied.) and
                                                                                                                       573-578 Brazil
Data only taken from abstact Experiments were carried out in a climatic chamber to determine the thermal requirements for the development of Anastrepha fraterculus at different
                                  1 = 12.0C, instar 2 = 14.1C, instarTemperature threshold and heatabstact. diets for the Chapingo;(17.7, of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Te
                                               Leyva-Vazquez, J. L. 3 = 9.3C. DataFolia taken from artificial
                                                                1988                     were reared on units74 required
                                                                                                                       189-196 immature Mexico (lab studies)
Larval stage thresholds- instarImmature stages of the tephritid Anastrepha ludensonly Entomológica Mexicana at 5 temperatures stages23.7, 26.7 and 29.7 deg C) in order to estim
                                -                               1946 Development of the immature stages 72 Anastrepha serpentina in relation to temperature
                                               Shaw, J. G., and D. F. Starr                                    of
                                                                                       Journal of Agricultural Research265-276 Mexico City; Mexico (lab studies)
                                               Gabriel, A. D. and J. J. larval, requirements for preimaginal developmentpest Ancylis comptana were determined at 6 constant tempera
                                                                1990 Thermal            and egg to adult) for the strawberry of the strawberry leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
                                                                                                               19
                                Preimaginal development rates (egg,Obryckipupal,Environmental Entomology 339-344 Iowa; USA
                                               Tauber, M.J. et al
                                                                1990 Life history, studied in the laboratory 68 24°C, using the endameic Hawaiian Anomalochrysa maclachlani (Neurop
                                                                                       Canadian Journal of Zoology
                                                                                                               at     songs of a New York; USA
                                The biology of Anomalochrysa maclachlani wasmating behavior and courtship 1020-1026 population which originated from a female collected from wo
                                               Smith, and et2004 Dispersal and Spatiotemporal Entomology 435-442 China Beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in China
                                                                 al                    Environmental Dynamics beetle, Anoplophora
                                                                                                               33
                                We studied dispersalM.T., spatiotemporal dynamics of the Asian longhorned of Asian Longhornedglabripennis, in Gansu Province of north central Chi
                                               of Anthonomus grandis using temperature and foodcollected in 243-248 Arizona boll weevil in Arizona.
                                                                D. Bergman, et al.     Southwestern on developmental in of the in 1983
                                                                                                               11
                                Development Watson, T. F., 1986 Effect of the progeny of adultsEntomologistthe fieldtime Arizonia; USA was studied on an artifical diet in the laborat
                                               Toepfer, S., G.2002 Phenological analysis of spring colonisation et Applicataand outside
                                                                 Anthonomus            Entomologia Experimentalis of apple trees by Anthonomus pomorum
                                                                                                              103       151-159
                                Adult apple blossom weevils, HaiNan, et al. pomorum, leave their overwintering sites withinSwitzerland orchards to colonize apple trees in early spring
                                               Johnson, laboratory and field-collected populations Entomology 1657-1663 Louisiana; caterpillar (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
                                                                1983 Barfield and G. E. Allen
                                                                                       Environmental of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hb. in the USA
                                                                                                               12
                                Developmental data on D. W., C. S.Temperature-dependent developmental model for the velvetbeanUSA allowed computation of parameters depicti
                                               Kohno, K.        2003 Development and reproduction of Antilochus coqueberti (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae), the specific predator of lab
                                                                                       Applied pyrrhocorid and  coqueberti,
                                                                                                                       103-108 Japan
                                The developmental and reproductive characteristics of the Entomology A.38 Zoology a specific predator of Dysdercus spp., were examined in theDys
                                               rates S. and R. F. Luck
                                                                1988 Temperature-dependent size and development of California red scale (labwere field studies) the laboratory at 17,
                                                                                       Environmental Entomology 154-161 California; melinus and determined in
                                                                                                               17
                                Development Yu, D.of individual stages of the citrus pest Aonidiella aurantii and its parasitoid Aphytis USA (Homoptera: Diaspididae) and its effect on h
                                               Nealis, V.G. and Fraser, S.
                                                                rate development of the post-diapause and mass-rearing of Apanteles fumiferanae Vier. a parasitoid of the forest pes
                                                                                       Canadian Entomologist  120      197-204 Ontario; Canada
                                The temperature-dependant 1988ofRate of development, reproduction larval and pupal stages of Apanteles fumiferanae,(Hymenoptera: Braconidae) u
                                Temperature Lee, J.,on developmental.
                                               effects N. C. Elliott, et of
                                                                1998 Temperature effects Lakes Entomologist 173-179 China (Hymenoptera: 18, 22 and from LD geographic reg
                                                                                       albipodus from two geographic regions were
                                                                                                               in
Egg+larvae = 8.9C threshold, 80.0 DD. Data for Pingluo, China strain Aphelinus Great on development 31 Aphelinus albipodus measured at 14,Aphelinidae)26°C, two 16:8 and 55±5%
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Data is for France biotype                     6 constant temperatures (7.2, 10.0, 15.5, 21.1, 26.6 and 29.4*C) 173-182 California;rates and times ofnoxia
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                                              Tang, Y. can be serious pests when Environmental Entomology 1736-1740 Florida; USA
                                                               1995 Yokomi            they transmit severe strains of hymenopterous parasitoids of part of (Homoptera: Aphididae) attac
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                              Aphids attacking citrus Q. and R. K. Temperature-dependent development of threecitrus tristeza closterovirus. As aphids an environmental assessmen
                              The thermal requirements, lower Plessis, et al. requirements of Aphelinus
                                              Prinsloo, G.      U. d. Temperature African (t) and thermal constant, (K) forAfrica
                                                                                                                      75-79       (Foerster) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) a parasitoid of the
Egg+larvae = 6.59C threshold. Data from abstract only J.,2000developmental threshold Entomology 8 sp. nr. varipes three developmental stages of an Aphelinus sp. nr. varipes
                                              Tang, Y. can be serious pests when Environmental Entomology 1736-1740 Florida; USA
                                                               1995 Yokomi            they transmit severe strains of hymenopterous parasitoids of part of (Homoptera: Aphididae) attac
                                                                                                               24
                              Aphids attacking citrus Q. and R. K. Temperature-dependent development of threecitrus tristeza closterovirus. As aphids an environmental assessmen
                                               photoperiod and temperature on theCanadian Entomologist varipes from Kazakhstan and Aphelinus sp. near varipes from Alberta, whic
                              The effects ofYu, D. S.                                  diapause of Aphelinus  124     853-860 two Aphelinus spp. Kazakhstan
                                                               1992 Effects of photoperiod and temperature on diapause ofAlberta; Canada and(Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) parasitizin
                                Sao GotardoSampaio, M. V., V. playsBueno, et al. role of three populations of85-88gossypii. The optimum(Hym.: Aphidiidae) development is appr
                                                Aphidius colemani P. an important    Proc. of the IOBC\WPRS of Aphis
                                                                                                               26       AphidiusBrazil
                                                                                                                                  colemani Viereck temperature for its
Data taken from the biotype ofThe parasitoidcounty (Brazil)2003H.Thermal requirementsas a natural enemyWorking Group 'Integrated Control in Protected Crops, Mediterranean Cl
                                              Campbell, A. and M. Mackauerconstants for development of the pea aphid (Homoptera: pisum (Harris)(lab studies) parasites
                                                               1975 Thermal          Canadian Entomologist    107    419-423 British Columbia; Canada some of its
                              The relation between temperature and rate of development of the Kamloops biotype of Acyrthosiphon Aphididae) andon lucerne in south-western Briti
                                              Campbell, A. and M. Mackauerconstants for development of the pea aphid (Homoptera: pisum (Harris)(lab studies) parasites
                                                               1975 Thermal          Canadian Entomologist    107    419-423 British Columbia; Canada some of its
                              The relation between temperature and rate of development of the Kamloops biotype of Acyrthosiphon Aphididae) andon lucerne in south-western Briti
                                              Ohta, the efficiency al.an history parameters during immatureZoology Aphidius gifuensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: (reared on radish cv
                                                               2001                    aphid parasitoid A. and stage of biological control agent against M. persicae Braconidae) on gree
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                              In order to evaluate I., K. Miura, etofLife indigenousApplied Entomologygifuensis103-109 Japan
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                                                               1994 Gerth            Environmental Entomology parasitoid Oregon; USA
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Data when host was DiuraphisTemperature-dependent development of a Czechoslovakian development of Aphidius matricariae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae),at 8a parasitoid of the R
                                              Campbell, A. and M. Mackauerconstants for development of the pea aphid (Homoptera: pisum (Harris)(lab studies) parasites
                                                               1975 Thermal          Canadian Entomologist    107    419-423 British Columbia; Canada some of its
                              The relation between temperature and rate of development of the Kamloops biotype of Acyrthosiphon Aphididae) andon lucerne in south-western Briti
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                               nymph to adult Wang, K., J. H. Tsai, Influence of temperature the development, survivorship, and reproduction of buckthorn aphid (Homoptera: Aphidid
                                                               1997 reproduction of Aphis nasturtii were evaluated at 7 constant temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 27, 30 and 35 degrees
Egg to adult generation time =The development, survivorship andet al.                                          90     62-68      Florida;
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                                              Abdelrahman, I.  1974 Growth, development andJournal of Zoology
                                                                                     Australian Aphytis chrysomphali (Merc.) and A. chrysomphali Mercet and A. Aonidiella aurantii (
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                              In laboratory investigations in Australia on the effectiveness ofinnate capacity for increase Australia melinus DeBach in controllingmelinus DeBach, pa
                              Development 9.44C, S. and R. Larvae + Prepupae. Environmental and development of California red scale (labwere field studies) the laboratory at 17,
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                                                               1988 Temperature-dependent size Entomology 154-161 California; melinus and determined in
                                                                                                               17
Larvae stage theshold includes prepupae = Yu, D.of individual stages of the citrus pest Aonidiella aurantii and its parasitoid Aphytis USA (Homoptera: Diaspididae) and its effect on h
                                              Shanower, growth rates andof temperaturedevelopment times Research
                                                               1993 Effect physiological on development rates, fecundity India the egg, the groundnut leaf miner, Aproaerema modic
                              Threshold temperatures, T. G., A. P. Gutierrez, et al.                           83    413-419 & for
                                                                                     Bulletin of Entomological were calculated longevity of larval and pupal stages of Aproaerema modi
                                              Peterson, S. S., J. L. Wedberg, et al.Environmental Entomology of Lotus corniculatus, USA
                                                               1991 Postdiapause development and fodder plant the trefoil seed chalcid (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) and its parasito
                                                                                                               20
                              Parasitoids associated with Bruchophagus platypterus, a pest of thephenology 1606-1611 Wisconsin;were collected in 1988 and 1989 in Wisconsin. In
                                               noctuid P. F. 1981 Experimental study on the role of temperature intachinid Lydella
                                                                                     Annales de la Societe 17  Entomologique France
                                                                                                                     the embyronic diapause in Archanara a parasite of (Lep. Noctuidae)
                              In France, theGalichet,Archanara geminipuncta (Haw.) is an alternative host for 207-212 de France thompsoni Herting,geminipuncta Ostrinia nubilalis
                              Thermal responses G. J.temperature-dependent development of laboratory- and945-956 of hatchColumbia; Archips argyrospilus are described using d
                                              Judd, and R., 1993 Temperature-dependent development and prediction British ofeggs of Canada
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50% egg hatch = 154 DD, upper development for egg is 27.5C T. Gardiner, et al.       Canadian Entomologist    125      field-overwintered overwintered eggs of the fruit tree leafroller, Arch
                                               years,          2001 Ecology of a subtropical fritillary, Argyreus hyperbius, inthe most common butterfly species near Nagoya City, cent
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                              During recentItô, Y. a nympharid subtropical fritillary, Argyreus hyperbius, became one of Japan     an urban area near Nagoya City, Honshû, Japan.
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                                               is often Coimbra, S., M.Diospyros kaki fruits in Entomology region of Brazil. The duration and viability sphaleropa (Meyrick) (Lepidopte
                                                               attacking S. Garcia, et al.
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                                              Hawthorne, D. 1988 C. Rock, et al. Environmental and pupae of 40-46 North Carolina; for development and10, 15, 20, 25,within-se
                                                               J., G. Redbanded leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): thermal velutinana were determined at 5, simulation of 30, 32,
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                              Developmental rates and survival of non-diapausing eggs, larvae Entomology Argyrotaeniarequirements USA
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                                                               1994 Russia on the Zoologicheskii Zhurnalstages in Arma custos (Pentatomidae, Hemiptera)
                                                                                                                       43-53 Russia
Data only taken from abstract In studies in the Belgorod regionT. A. Volkovich reactions ofexerted by constant and varying temperatures on preimaginal stages of Arma custos, the
                                              Campbell, A. and M. Mackauerconstants for development of the pea aphid (Homoptera: pisum (Harris)(lab studies) parasites
                                                               1975 Thermal          Canadian Entomologist    107    419-423 British Columbia; Canada some of its
                              The relation between temperature and rate of development of the Kamloops biotype of Acyrthosiphon Aphididae) andon lucerne in south-western Briti
                                              Delobel, temperature-velocity equations are given for egg, larval and pupal stages of Atherigona soccatasurvival based sorghum shootfl
                              Temperature-time andA. G. L.                           Insect Science and its Application
                                                                                                                4    327-335 Kenya
                                                               1983 Influence of temperature and host plant condition on preimaginal development and Rond., in the on stduies in Ka
                                              Marco, V., conducted DevelopmentalAnnals of the Entomologicaldevelopment rate and
                                                               1997 to assess          and of temperature on the 169-176of Spain
                                                                                                               90    Society     mariaefranciscae of a new sugarbeet pest, Aubeonymus m
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                                                                                       Aulacorthum solani the   soyabean fields in foxglove aphid, Crop Protection Kaltenbach (Homopt
                                                                                                                         Development Administration,
Egg to adult generation time =Seasonal fluctuations H.,the H. Lee,Occurrence aspects and ecological characteristics of the Korea Republic were investigated on different varieties, i
                                              Kemp, W.P examine Development of between development rate and constant temperatures (14, 21, 24, 27, 33, 36, 40revisited. for th
                                                               1989 the relationship two rangeland grasshoppers at constant temperatures: development thresholds and 45°C)
                              A study was conducted to and Dennis, B                 Canadian Entomologist    121    363-371 Montana; USA
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                              The developmental thresholdJ. West, et al.unit requirements from Entomologyto adult emergence were determined for Autographa californica (Speyer
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                                              Dochkova, B. 1972 Some biological and Science studies on AutographaBulgaria L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
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                              The development and R. I., W. of eggs, larvae and Annals of Bactrocera cucurbitae, B. dorsalis, B. USA flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) reared at five const
                                              Vargas, survival A. Walsh, et al. development of Entomological Society of Hawaiianlatifrons and Ceratitis capitata were compared at 5
                                                               1996 Survival and pupae of the immature stages of four America fruit
                                                                                                               89     64-69      Hawaii;
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                                              Vargas, survival A. Walsh, et al. development of Entomological Society of Hawaiianlatifrons and Ceratitis capitata were compared at 5
                                                               1996 Survival and pupae of the immature stages of four America fruit
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                                              Fletcher, B. S. of Dacus oleae (Gmel.) were measured at different fruits on the year. Females provided with sugar, at different times of
                                                               and T. Kapatos        Entomologia Experimentalis 244-252 the
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                              Rates of ovarian maturation 1983E. The influence of temperature, diet and olive et Applicata maturation rates of female olive flieswater, protein hydroly
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Data was only taken from abstract morphological characters of different stagesdevelopment, longevity and mating behavior of Bactrocera tau (Diptera: Tephritidae)developmental tim
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                              An account isMeats,of laboratory tests carried out of Australia onEntomology oocyte resorption in the Queensland fruit fly, Dacus tryoni, the balance be
                                              Mohamed, A. M.   2000 Effect of constant temperatures on the development 15 to 35
                                                                                     Assiut Journal of Agricultural range of the peach C. The developmental periods of the (Diptera: T
                                                                                                               31     Sciences
                              The immature stages of B. zonata developed successfully within a temperature 329-339 ofEgypt degfruitfly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) fly from eg
                                              Eklund, L. R. and R. G. Bathyplectes curculionis (Thoms.) in Colorado demonstrated that the withstudies)height and these insects can
                                                               1977 Correlation      Environmental Entomology   6       69-71 Colorado; USA (field alfalfa
                              A study of Hypera postica (Gylh.) and Simpson of activities of the alfalfa weevil and Bathyplectes curculionis population dynamics ofdegree-day accum
                                               temperature on insect Legaspi, were studiedlife history of29
                                                               M., B. Temperature-dependent for Entomology 851-860 Texas; (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) and the greenhouse (H
                                                                                      et al.                    Eretmocerus eremicus USA
                              The effects ofGreenberg, S. 2000 C.life historyJr., Environmentaltwo whitefly hosts, the silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii) on two whitefly hostswh
                                              and K., K. Lee, et al. Effect of potatoKorean Journal plant on development Korean Republicof the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci
                                                               2001                    whitefly, B. tabaci (B biotype) were investigated under
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                              Development Ahn, reproduction of the sweet temperature and host of Applied Entomologyand reproductiondifferent temperatures (15, 20, 25 and 30*C
                                              Schultz, P. B. 1990 Forecasting flight activity Entomological Science for lecanium USA oak Coccidae)
                                                                                     Journal querciflex parasitoids of
                                                                                                               25     622-627 years on willow
                              Flight activity of the major parasitoids of Parthenolecaniumof of native was monitoredoak 6 Virginia; (Homoptera:(Quercus phellos) in Virginia to establis
                                              on the population biology of
                                                               1981 Population biology of the the Entomological Societyleucopterus hirtus, Montandon: Hemiptera: Festuca rubra, pop
                                                                                     Annals of hairy chinch 26 (Blissus of Quebec; Canada
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                              From studies Mailloux G. and Streu, H.T. Blissus leucopterus hirtus Montd. on turf in NewQuebec composed of Poa pratensis and Lygaeidae)
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                                Abstract          Author       Year        Title            Journal         Vol.      Pages                     Study Loction
                               nymph to adult Bueno, V. H. P. and L. V. Foureaux Proc. of theat 16,on the -biology degrees C, 70 +or- 10% relative humidity and 14and thermal requi
                                                               1998 Effect of different studied 5th 21, 23 and 133-137 Aphids in (Appelia) schwartzi (Aphididae) h photophase. 15
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                                                               1998                  Korean Journal of Appliedsciarid fly, Bradysia sp were examined. Sciaridae)
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                                                                                     Canadian Entomologist    13,     and 23 British Columbia; Canada (lab studies)
Egg to adult generation time =The development time of Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) was of the cabbage 116 18Brevicoryne brassicae kale in the laboratory on British Columbia. The C
                                              Peterson, S. S., J. L. Wedberg, et al.Environmental Entomology of Lotus corniculatus, USA
                                                               1991 Postdiapause development and fodder plant the trefoil seed chalcid (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) and its parasito
                                                                                                             20
                              Parasitoids associated with Bruchophagus platypterus, a pest of thephenology 1606-1611 Wisconsin;were collected in 1988 and 1989 in Wisconsin. In
                                              Brunner, J. F. 1984 in all the main pear-growing areas sampling for the and is widely controlled by
                                                                                     Bulletin SROP            7         81-96 Washington State; USA
                              Psylla pyricola is an important pest The development, distribution and of North Americapear psyllid, Psylla pyricola chemical treatments applied to coi
                                              McWhorter, R.1984 Life history of aJournal of Calleida decora, and the influence of temperature (lab studies)
                                                               E., J. Calleida et al. (F.) was Agricultural Entomology
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                                                                                      six constant temperatures (15,  embryonic development and the hatching post-diapause embryonic d
                              A study was conducted to determine the effects of Journal on Applied Entomology 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 degrees C) on the time in three grasshopper s
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                                                                                                             19
                              A day-degree Purcell,for Calocoris norvegicus was Environmental Entomology 848-853 California; nymph as and fieldand predictsmanagement strat
                                              McClay, A. S. and R. B. Hughesand establishment of the 5 rate, distribution, andand North been introduced into North America for N
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                                              Judd, G. J. R. and H. Modeling temperature-dependent development apple pest of overwinteredverbasci was described verbasci (Hetero
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                                                                                     Environmental Entomology the and hatch Campylomma eggs
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                                                               2000 Development (F.) and Carpophilus mutilatus180-184 developed at constant temperatures from 20-37.5°C, while
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                              Eggs of the orchard pests Carpophilus humeralis and survivorship of CarpophilusErichson AustraliaCarpophilus mutilatus Erichson and Carpophilus hu
                                              James, D. G. and B. Vogele
                                                               2000 Development (F.) and Carpophilus mutilatus180-184 developed at constant temperatures from 20-37.5°C, while
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                              Eggs of the orchard pests Carpophilus humeralis and survivorship of CarpophilusErichson AustraliaCarpophilus mutilatus Erichson and Carpophilus hu
                                              James, D. G. and B. Vogele
                                                               2000 Development (F.) and Carpophilus mutilatus180-184 developed at constant temperatures from 20-37.5°C, while
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                              Eggs of the orchard pests Carpophilus humeralis and survivorship of CarpophilusErichson AustraliaCarpophilus mutilatus Erichson and Carpophilus hu
                                              Kim, Dong-Soon, Lee, Joon-Ho, Yiem, Myong-SoonEntomologyCarposina its stageRepublic
                                                               2001 Temperature-Dependent Development of 298-305 Korean emergence models were and Its Stage Emergenc
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                              Temperature-dependent development of Carposina sasakii Matsumura was studied, andsasakii (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae)developed. The developm
                                              Ma, is Y., J. W. Peng, et of the population pine pest Dendrolimus punctatus. It attacks 1st- to 4th-instar larvae, resulting in total para
                                                               1989 Biology          Acta Ecologica Sinica Casinaria nigripes Gravenhorst
Data only taken from abstact Casinaria nigripesW. the main parasitoidal. andlasiocampidfluctuations of 9              27-35      China
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                                                                                                              highly effective Texas; control agent the ectoparasitoid Catolaccus grandi
                              The low temperature threshold for A. Morales-Ramos, et al. ongrandis, a 31 Science
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Egg+larvae = 9.34C threshold, 140.21 DD. Data response Japanese strainof aCeranisus menes strains 79 Ceranisus menes (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) reared on Thrips palmi (Th
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                                                               2002 Survival and developmentEntomological stages of
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                              Fruit flies are Duyck, P.damaging pests on fruit crops on Reunion Island, 92 Research threeSurvival and development of the Mediterranean fruit fly, C
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                                                               2002 Survival and developmentEntomological stages of
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                              Fruit flies are Duyck, P.damaging pests on fruit crops on Reunion Island, 92 Research threeSurvival and development of the Mediterranean fruit fly, C
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                                                               2002 Survival and developmentEntomological stages of
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                                              Honek, A. and 1988 Thermal requirements for development (LDT) were established for eggs and/or pupae of central European popula
                                                               F. Kocourek           Oecologia               76       455-460 Europe
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                                                               R. and M. T. AliNiazee                        14                  Oregon; USA
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                               A study was conducted to determine the effects of Journal on Applied Entomology 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 degrees C) on the time in three grasshopper s
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                                            Honek, A. and 1988 Thermal requirements for development (LDT) were established for eggs and/or pupae of central European popula
                                                           F. Kocourek           Oecologia             76    455-460 Europe
                               The sum of effective temperatures (SET) and lower development threshold of aphidophagous Coccinellidae(Coleoptera), Chrysopidae, Hemerobiidae
                                            Honek, A. and 1988 Thermal requirements for development (LDT) were established for eggs and/or pupae of central European popula
                                                           F. Kocourek           Oecologia             76    455-460 Europe
                               The sum of effective temperatures (SET) and lower development threshold of aphidophagous Coccinellidae(Coleoptera), Chrysopidae, Hemerobiidae
                                            Honek, A. and 1988 Thermal requirements for development (LDT) were established for eggs and/or pupae of central European popula
                                                           F. Kocourek           Oecologia             76    455-460 Europe
                               The sum of effective temperatures (SET) and lower development threshold of aphidophagous Coccinellidae(Coleoptera), Chrysopidae, Hemerobiidae
                                            Honek, A. and 1988 Thermal requirements for development (LDT) were established for eggs and/or pupae of central European popula
                                                           F. Kocourek           Oecologia             76    455-460 Europe
                               The sum of effective temperatures (SET) and lower development threshold of aphidophagous Coccinellidae(Coleoptera), Chrysopidae, Hemerobiidae
                                            Honek, A. and 1988 Thermal requirements for development (LDT) were established for eggs and/or pupae of central European popula
                                                           F. Kocourek           Oecologia             76    455-460 Europe
                               The sum of effective temperatures (SET) and lower development threshold of aphidophagous Coccinellidae(Coleoptera), Chrysopidae, Hemerobiidae
                                            Honek, A. and 1988 Thermal requirements for development (LDT) were established for eggs and/or pupae of central European popula
                                                           F. Kocourek           Oecologia             76    455-460 Europe
                               The sum of effective temperatures (SET) and lower development threshold of aphidophagous Coccinellidae(Coleoptera), Chrysopidae, Hemerobiidae
                                            Honek, A. and 1988 Thermal requirements for development (LDT) were established for eggs and/or pupae of central European popula
                                                           F. Kocourek           Oecologia             76    455-460 Europe
                               The sum of effective temperatures (SET) and lower development threshold of aphidophagous Coccinellidae(Coleoptera), Chrysopidae, Hemerobiidae
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                               The effect of temperature on2003 A. development and survival of the immaturesurvival of a subtropical population of the black jezebel, Delias nigrina,
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                                               Campbell, A. and M. Mackauerconstants for development of the pea aphid (Homoptera: pisum (Harris)(lab studies) parasites
                                                                1975 Thermal            Canadian Entomologist   107     419-423 British Columbia; Canada some of its
                               The relation between temperature and rate of development of the Kamloops biotype of Acyrthosiphon Aphididae) andon lucerne in south-western Briti
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                                                temp: on eggs   1983 W. N. Yule         Canadian Entomologist   maize fields in southern Quebec in the autumn of
Data is for "median egg hatch"In laboratory studies 5-10cm) of Diabrotica longicornis (Say) collected inconstant for egg development of Northernstudies) 1979, it was estimated that
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                                                                1996 Temperature dependent models to pest in regional differences states rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) phe
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                               Diabrotica virgifera virgifera has only recently become a serious maize predict New York and other in cornin the north-eastern USA. Because soil cond
                                               Hurtrel, study were toPreimaginal preimaginal development21 instars of D. tryoni (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: of the mediterranean fruit
                                                                2001 identify the developmental biologyits Application
                               The objectives of this B., S. Quilici, et al.            Insect Science and of of          81-88    France
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                                                                1998 parasitoid Diadromus collaris Hangzhou, China. This paper reports on the observations of several aspects of
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Data only taken from abstact Diadromus collaris is a major pupalBionomics of Plutella xylostella in(Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), a major pupal parasitoid of Plutella xylostella. i
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Egg+larvae = 2.47C threshold, 189.2 DD. Bioytpe isJ. andChina Thermal requirements of Diaeretiella119 and to estimate the thermal requirements (t and K) and upper developm
                                               Shepherd, R. 1992 The B. Morley Proceedings Salagou 2 Weedof the Paterson's curse leaf Portugal) was studied 2
                                                                of Dialectica scalariella (from Lake the establishment Control Congress, Melbourne, Australia Dialectica scalariella (Ze
                                                                                                                  Int. 474-480 Australia
Data only taken from abstact The biology of three strainsC. H. and T. effect of temperature onof the 1stand Gallicien, France, and from Evora,mining moth, 1992, Vol.on potted Pate
                                               Ulu, O.          caused by Dialeurodes theÜniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi on citrus in the field in Turkey in 1977-83. The morphology
                                                                                        Ege were studied in the laboratory and
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Data only taken from abstract The biology of, and damage 1985 Investigations of citri taxonomic characters, damage, biology, ecology and control of the citrus whitefly Dialeurodes
                                               Kinjo, K. and N.the Effect of temperature on development indica, a seriousJapanparticularlyof Diaphania indica (Saunders) (Lepidopte
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                               The durationsElsey, K.D. pupal andPickleworm: Effect of temperature on development, fecundity, 8 temperatures. Survival at all stages declined at te
                                                light, Y. B. 1989 Effects of on the development, reproduction and survival of Diaphorina citri were examined. Regression
                                                                                         temperature and humidity 348-354 China
                               The effects ofYang, temperature and humiditylight, Acta Ecologica Sinica 9 on the development, production and survival of citrus psylla. equation
                                               Lapointe, S. L. 2000 reared on artificial diet under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity. The lower thermal threshold for d
                                                                                        Environmental Entomology 150-156 United Kingdom
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                               The root weevil D. abbreviatus was Thermal requirements for development of Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).
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                                                                                                                 34      161-170 States. This study
Data only taken from abstract Grape scale, Diaspidiotus T., B. A. a pest of grapes, Vitis spp., in the south-central and management USA compared Julian days and cumulative de
                                               Whitworth, R.J.system was developed and validated for Diatraea grandiosella Dyar on maize. Individuals reared on maize required signi
                                                                 and A thermal unit accumulation system for the Southwestern Corn USA
                               A thermal-unit accumulation 1979 Poston, F.L.                                     72     253-255 Kansas;
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                                                                1989 Development and life-fertility tables for Diatraea lineolata (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at constant temperatures.
                                                                                        Annals Diatraea          82     Society Texas; USA
                               Development,Rodríguez-del-Bosque, L. A., theW. Smith, Jr. , theal. lineolata were characterized in the laboratory at constant temperatures of 22, 25,
                               The effect of temperature on1989life history and reproductiveApplied Biology the eulophid wasp isaea, an ectoparasite of the agromyzid tomato (Lirio
                                               Minkenberg, O. the trifolii
                                                                 P.    Temperature effects on capacity of115 381-397 Netherlands
                                                                                                                 the
Egg+larvae = 9.46C threshold, 89.74 DD, Data when LiriomyzaJ. M. is the host Annals ofthe life history of eulophid DiglyphusDiglyphus isaea, an ectoparasitoid of leafminers pests
                                               Williams, D. W.  1984 Ecology of the blackberry-leafhopper-parasite system and its relevance (Rubusfield grape agroecosystems
                                                                                        Hilgardia                52         32p    California; USA (lab and ursinus and
                               The ecology was investigated of Dikrella californica (Lawson) on native and imported species of blackberry to California studies) R. procerus) in 2 ripar
                                               Kiyindou, A., G. life cycle of Diomus Revue de Zoologie biomass on the development studies)
                                                                1992 et al.             hennesseyi, a predator of Phenacoccus manihoti, was investigated. Temperatures of approximatel
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Data only taken from abstract In laboratory experiments, theIperti,Influence of temperature and food Africaine 479-488 Africa (labof a coccinellid, Diomus hennesseyi (Coleoptera:
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                                                                1987 Threshold          Journal and degree-day diet at 6
                                                                                                                 80        62-64 Georgia; USA
                               First- and 4th-instar larvae of Dioryctria amatella were rearedEconomic Entomology constant temperatures in the laboratory pine outdoors in Georgia
                                nymph to of 6  Michels, G. J. and R. W. Behle
                                                                1988 Reproduction and development of Diuraphis noxia
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Egg to adult generation time =The effect adultconstant temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 degreesEntomology (Homoptera: Aphididae) at constant noxia on wheat was investi
                               Laboratory = Quesada-Moraga, E. Temperature related of temperature on the development of the Mediterranean locust, maroccanus (Thunberg) (Ort
                                               31C              2000 to assess the effect effects on embryonic 191-195 Spain eggs of Dociostaurus Dociostaurus maroccanus
Upper development temperature for eggsstudies were conducted and C. Santiago-Alvarez    Physiological Entomology 25
                                               Allen, G. R. and M. A.Uraba lugens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): temperature, host size, Co
                                                                1991 Keller             Environmental Entomology 458-469 Australia
                                                                                                                 20
Egg+larvae = 7.9C threshold The relationships between temperature and development of Uraba lugens and between temperature, host size and development of its parasitoids, an
                                1 = 7.9C, instar 2 = 7.8C, Dryocoetes autographus were ofin Dryocoetes autographus (Ratz.) (Col., Scolytidae): a keysandwich' rearing chamber) at
                                               schedules L.,1994 Flexible generation time Applied Entomology21-30 Norway
                                                                A. C. = 7.1C
Larval stage thresholds- instarDevelopment Johansson,of instar 3Nilssen, et al. Journal obtained from 117       laboratory rearing in a 'compressarium' ('bark to its success as colonist in su
                                               Milano, P., stainer, Dysdercus peruvianus, da the cotton stainer temperatures (18,
                                                                1999 Thermal            Anais was studied at seven Dysdercus Brazil
                                                                                                                 28      233-238 peruvianus Guerin-Meneville 32oC) in order to determine
                               The biology of the cotton F. L. Consoli, et al. requirements ofSociedade Entomologica do Brasil 20, 22, 25, 28, 30 and (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae)t
                                               Colen, K. G. F.,Dysmicoccus of different temperatures upon studied at of the mealybug Dysmicoccus brevipes aiming at the determina
                                                                 L. C. Effects brevipes et al. Brasileira de Fruticultura
                                                                                        Revista                  22     248-252 Brazil
Data only taken from abstract The biology of the mealybug2000 V. Santa Cecilia, (Cockerell, 1893) wasthe biology four temperatures: 20, 25, 30 and 35*C, (Cockerell, 1893) (Hem
                                               Amin, A. A. H.,1999 Field-based, degree-daycotton in Fayoumbollworm EarisEgypt, to analyse 3-7 January, size Vol. 2
                                                                 throughout et al.        1997 in model for spiny Governorate, insulana development
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                               Field studies were conductedM. E. Foda, 1996 andProceedings Beltwide Cotton923-925 Egypt Florida, USA,the population1999:of spiny bollworm, Ea
                                               Grafton Cardwell, E. E., G.the developmentalof Agriculturaland 5Urban Entomology larval emergence of citrus cutworm, Egira curialis (G
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                               The lower developmental threshold LowerH. Montez, et al.thresholdeggs degree-day prediction citrus cutworm E. curialis were calculated using five tem
                               The developmental rates T. G., F. Schulthess, et al. AfricanEntomological calamistis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Eldana saccharina (Lepidoptera:
                                               Shanower,        1993 Development and    Bulletin of maize pests, Research
                                                                                                                 83      237-243 Benin
Data from Eldana saccharina being fed on maize stemsand fecundity of 2 important fecundity of Sesamia Sesamia calamistis and Eldana saccharina, were studied under constant t
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                                                                1966 The effect of temperaturethe the rate 59 development America
                                                                                        Annals of over a 3-year period both in Illinois; USA (lab studies)
                                                                                                                 of     292-298 temperature-controlled Empoasca fabae (Homoptera: con
                               The potato leafhopper, Empoascaand G. (Harris), was reared on Entomological Society of of the potato leafhopper,cabinets and under known field Cica
                                               Osborne, L. S. 1982 Temperature-dependent development of greenhouse C, and and its parasite, Encarsia formosa.
                               The thermal threshold for the aleyrodid Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westw.) was 8.3 deg whiteflythe developmental time in day-degrees above 8.3 de
                                                                                                                 11
                                                                                        Environmental Entomology 483-485 California; USA (lab studies)
                                               Schultz, P. B. 1990 Forecasting flight activity Entomological Science for lecanium USA oak Coccidae)
                                                                                        Journal querciflex parasitoids of
                                                                                                                 25      622-627 years on willow
                               Flight activity of the major parasitoids of Parthenolecaniumof of native was monitoredoak 6 Virginia; (Homoptera:(Quercus phellos) in Virginia to establis
                                               Chu, Y. I. and C. M. Chu history andPlant Protection Bulletin, Taiwan growth of predator of larvae of Pieris rapae
                                                                1975 Life                 the effect of temperature on 99-114 Taiwan
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                               The biology of the Pentatomid Cantheconidia (Eocanthecona) furcellata (Wolff), the important Eocanthecona furcellata (Wolff). (L.), Spodoptera litura
                                                temperature on developmental duration andof development and demographic parameters of Tetranychus urticae and Eotetranychus ca
                                                                2001 Effect of temperature on the Entomological Society of Americaand Eotetranychus carpini borealis were investigate
                               The effects ofBounfour, M. and L. K. Tanigoshi           Annals demographic 94            400-404 urticae
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                               A forecasting Ahmad, to monitor M. A. Ali                                        some 611-614 Iraq
                                                                                        Journal of Applied of 119 Ephestia spp. calidella], E. figulilella on pheromone elutella and deg
                                               Tsvetkov, of the pyralid
                                                                1987 Bioecological studies on the dried fruit mothi102-107 Bulgaria cautella Wilk.): Bulgaria, was studied
                                                                                        Pochvoznanie, Agrokhimiya (Ephestia (Cadra)
                                                                                                                 22      Rastitelna Zashchita
Data only taken from abstract The biology and ecologyD. and M. Latifstored products pest Ephestia cautella, which was until recently unknown inLepidoptera: Pyralidae.in 1983-85. T
                                1 = 11.8C, instar in 9.7C, instar 3 = 10.1C, instarR. Robles
                                               Cardenas, S. A., H. Bioecological studies on Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, Chapingo; Mexico (lab andwere studies)
                                                                 on Epilachna and R. Agrocienca
                                                                                             = 12.1C             34     133-145 under field and laboratory field 11.1
Larval stage thresholds- instarLaboratory studies 2 =Mexico1978 B. Mojicavarivestis4Muls. showed that the threshold temperatures for development conditions. deg C for the eggs, 11
                                               Danthanarayana, W. (Wlk.) is described from Journal of Zoology laboratory and in apple and pear orchards at two places in(Tortricidae
                                                                1975                      distribution and host range of the light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walk.) Victoria in
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                               The biology of Epiphyas postvittanaThe bionomics,Australian observations in the419-437 Australia
                               Episomus in Chinese
                                               Wanneng, an important insect pest Acta Seriologica Sinicaof
                                                                                        occurence trees, was studied in 1983-85 in Sichuan, China. The adults fed on mulberry leaves and
                                                                                                                           6-11
Data only taken from abstact as paper is kwanhsiensis,Z. 1988 Studies on the of mulberry and control14 Episomus kwanhsiensis HellerChina
                                               Hart, A. J., J. dominant syrphid predator of of Applied Biology
                                                                1997 et al.              threshold, day-degree requirements and of populations aphid predator Episyrphus balteatus (Dipt
                                                                                                                130      427-437 United Kingdom
                               Episyrphus balteatus is the S. Bale, DevelopmentalAnnalsaphids in the UK; re-establishment voltinism of theeach season is mainly by migration from w
                                               Easterbrook, M.A.1978 trees of the cultivar bionomicsBon Chretien in 13-22 south-eastern England, where
                                                                                         and Williams' of Biology88        Kent, United Kingdom
                               During field studies on mature pear The life-history Annals of Applied Epitrimerus piri (Acarina: Eriophyidae) on pear leaf browning caused by the fe
                                               Tullett, A. G., parasitoid et al. the Physiological temperature biological United Kingdom in Britain of the and has recently been rel
                                                                2004 Assessing          not native to Entomology is      the establishment potential
                               Eretmocerus eremicus is a A. J. Hart, wasp that is effects of low Britain. It 29a on363-371control agent of glasshouse whitefly non-native biological contr
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                              -                               1982 Grape LeafhopperGrape Pest Management. 95-110 California; USA#4105
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                              Associations between key features Phenology and Journal of Economic Entomologytortricid Eucosma sonomanathe western pine shoot borer obvious
                                              Schultz, P. B. 1990 Forecasting flight activity Entomological Science for lecanium USA oak Coccidae)
                                                                                     Journal querciflex parasitoids of
                                                                                                             25       622-627 years on willow
                              Flight activity of the major parasitoids of Parthenolecaniumof of native was monitoredoak 6 Virginia; (Homoptera:(Quercus phellos) in Virginia to establis
                                              Honek, A. and 1988 Thermal requirements for development (LDT) were established for eggs and/or pupae of central European popula
                                                              F. Kocourek            Oecologia               76       455-460 Europe
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                                              Ai, H., S. Zhao, et al. effective thermal constants were determined151-157tea pest Euproctis pseudoconspersa. For the egg stage the d
                                                              1998                   Wuyi Science developmentalfor the tea caterpillar, Euproctis pseudoconspersa
Data only taken from abstact The developmental thresholds and The effects of temperature onJournal 14                   rate of China
                                              Iranipour, S., A. developmental. immature and temperature-dependent development of immature stages of sunn pest (Eurygaster integ
                                                              2003 Age et of         Applied Entomology and pest, E. integriceps, were studied at 22, 25, 27 and 30 deg C in a 14:10 h
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                                              Cullen, E. M. and F. Phenology-based field monitoring Euschistus conspersus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in processing tomatoescons
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                              Egg incubation and nymphal2000 G. Zalom the consperse stink bug for 29         consperse stink California; USA
                                              Meyer, J. A. and B. A. were reared of12, 15, 18, Fannia spp.30, 33165-171 California; USA Development from oviposition to adult requi
                                                              1988 Mullens             immature 21, 24, 27,25   (Diptera: 36°C and LD 14:10.
                                                                                                                       and
Data only taken from abstract Fannia canicularis and F. femoralis DevelopmentatJournal of Medical Entomology Muscidae) at constant laboratory temperatures
                                              Meyer, J. A. and B. A. were reared of12, 15, 18, Fannia spp.30, 33165-171 California; USA Development from oviposition to adult requi
                                                              1988 Mullens             immature 21, 24, 27,25   (Diptera: 36°C and LD 14:10.
                                                                                                                       and
Data only taken from abstract Fannia canicularis and F. femoralis DevelopmentatJournal of Medical Entomology Muscidae) at constant laboratory temperatures
                                10.9C, 46 DD = PrepupaeJ.1992 Life-fertility al. Annals offusca and F. 85
                                              Lowry, V. K., + W. Smith, Jr. , of Frankliniella the Entomological 744-754 F.Texas
                                                                pupae,                                       occidentalis were occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on pean
                                                                                                                     Society
Prepupae + pupae threshold =The survival, reproduction and development et tables for Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) andof America    characterized on Arachis hypogaea var. Florunner [ground
                                10.4C, 58 DD = Prepupae + the Effect of temperature on of Frankliniella occidentalis waswestern flower thrips experiments at constant (Pergande
                                              Katayama, H. pupae,                     fecundity Journal of Applied 225-231 Japan
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Prepupae + pupae threshold =The effect of temperature on1997development andJapanese development and oviposition of and Zoology rearing Frankliniella occidentalis temperatur
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                                                                                                            100 295-300 Czech temperatures and a long day photoperiod. At 18,
                              The duration of development, reproduction and longevity of G. viridula was measured at constantRepublic viridula (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). 21
                                              Steinbauer, M.1997 Seasonal phenology and developmental
                                                               J.                    Australian Journal of Zoology 49-63 Amorbus obscuricornis tasmanicus were undertaken during 19
                                                                                                              Amorbus of         Australia (field studies)
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                              The developmental time A.,1999 R. F. Avanci, et Anais da Sociedade armywormprogeny production of Glyptapanteles muesebecki (Blanchard) (Hy
                                                               M. d. Effect of temperature on the development and Pseudaletia
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                                              Lobinske, Richard J., Laboratory Estimation were hatched and 608–611 Requirements of Glyptotendipes paripes constant temperatu
                                                              2002 Ali, Arshad, Frouz, Jan
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                                              Fatzinger, C. W. and W. N. Dixon models for predictingattack by attack by slash pineUSA female strobili (flowers) Phlaeothripidae) the
                                                              1996 Degree-day        different levels of levels of 727-735 Florida; on
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                              Degree-day models were developed for predicting Environmental Entomology Gnophothrips fuscusflower thrips (Thysanoptera:and for predicting and a
                                              Dreistadt, S. Ulmus spp. at each of scale (Homoptera: northern California in 1987-89.USA (field was more California
                                                              1994 European          Pan-Pacific Entomologist70      240-252 California; G. spuria studies)
                              Gossyparia spuria infestedH. and K.S. Hagen elm 12 sites sampled inEriococcidae) abundance and parasitism in northernabundant on U. procera tha
                               Prepupae (8.7 DD). Larvae 2002 theshold thermal al. was adopted; utilizing daily mean temperature. The threshold rates of development of citrus
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                                               with developing a Vallier and S. Tagini-Rosset la funebrana Tr.): study of the life
                                                              1979 Plum fruit mothBulletin funebrana (Treitschke)19-33 Switzerland (lab and field studies)
                                                                                       Cydia de              52          (Grapholita funebrana) in orchards (especially of plum) in and cons
                              In connection Charmillot, P-J. R. warning system for (Grapholitha Societe Entomologique Suisse cycle in relation to the sums of temperature Switzerlan
                                               an extension timing Validation of E. PETE timing model for the extension timing estimator) for Cydia molesta (Busck) (Grapholita mole
                                                               F. Michels, (given a Great
                                                                                       acronym PETE, predictive 211-217 moth in Michigan and central
                              The output of Croft, B. A., M.1980 model and R. theRice Lakes Entomol. 13 oriental fruit California; USA (field studies) California (Lepidoptera: Oleth
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                                                                                     Environmental Entomology Israel. The ability
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                                                                                                              and 139-145 Nigeria
                               The effect of temperature Nakamura, et al. temperature onof the legume39 Zoology M. vitrata was examined byMaruca vitrata (Fabricius) (Lepidopted
                                              Foster, J.E andMayetiola destructor (Say) was reared at 5 constant temperaturesfly under
                                                                 Taylor, P.L.        Environmental development of the hessian (about 15.6, 18.3, conditions
                                                                                                              4
                               When the Great Plains race 1975 Thermal-unit requirements for Entomology 195-202 Indiana; USA controlled21.1, 23.9, and 26.7 deg C), optimu
                               Megalurothrips sjostedti is an economic pest temperature tropical Africa.93
                                              Ekesi, S.,      1999 Effects of        Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata
                                                                                                              There 149-155 Kenya the effect of the legume on the development of the
                                                                                                                     are no reports of
Pupae threshold = 10.4C, 68 DD = Prepupae + pupaeN. K. Maniania, et al. of cowpea in and photoperiod on development and oviposition of temperatureflower thrips, Megalurothrip
                                               phenology of Melanaspis obscura was monitoredrelationshipson Quercus palustris in Lexington, Kentucky, and emergence of adult mal
                                                              1989 Phenology          degree-day for 4 years of the obscure scale (Homoptera: Diaspididae) and associated parasites
                                                                                                             82
                               The seasonalPotter, D. A., M. P. Jensen, et al.and Journal of Economic Entomology    551-555 Kentucky; USA (field studies)
                                listed as raw data was variable
                                              Soleyman-Nezhadiyan, E. and R.larvae, rate of Journal of Entomology Macrosiphum and flight seasons at 10, 15 or 20°C. Over the
                                                              1998 viridiceps LaughlinSymosyrphus grandicornis fed on
                                                                                                             37     243-248 and pupae,
Threshold value for larvae not The voracity of larvae of MelangynaVoracity of and Australian development in eggs, larvae Australia rosae, was measuredof adults of the hoverflies Me
                                              Olfert, O. and M. A. sanguinipes consumption sanguinipes entomopoxvirus consumed 25% lesswith Melanoplus sanguinipes days (7
                                                              1991 Wheat foliage Environmental grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) infected
                                                                                                             20
Data only taken from abstract First-instar nymphs of MelanoplusErlandson infected with M. byEntomology 1720-1724 Saskatchewan; Canada food (wheat leaves) within 5 entom
                                 1 = investigations = P. carried out in Denmark inJournal ofthe duration105immature stages ofeggspollen beetle (Meligetheslarvae of F.) under natura
                                              Nielsen, 3.98C1988 Developmental time and mortality Entomology
Larval stage thresholds- instarField4.08C, instar 2were S. and J. Axelsen                                    of    198-204 Denmark
                                                                                      1985 on Applied of thedevelopment of the the and 1st- and 2nd-instar aeneus Meligethes aen
                                              Peterson, S. S., J. L. Wedberg, et al.Environmental Entomology of Lotus corniculatus, USA
                                                              1991 Postdiapause development and fodder plant the trefoil seed chalcid (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) and its parasito
                                                                                                             20
                               Parasitoids associated with Bruchophagus platypterus, a pest of thephenology 1606-1611 Wisconsin;were collected in 1988 and 1989 in Wisconsin. In
                                               different and 1998 Islam
                                                               K. S. Effects of (18,Bangladesh30*C) and cycling temperatures helvolus (Compere), an encyrtid parasitoid of brown so
                                                                                      22, 26 on Journal of 8  Entomology
                               The effects ofJahan, M.constant temperaturestemperature andthe development of89-96             Bangladesh
                                                                                                                      Metaphycus (18/32*C) on the development of M. helvolus (a parasi
                                              Tanigoshi, L. K., S. onHoyt, R. of Browne, the on A. Logan
                                                              1975       the development of and J. Entomological Society of America
                                                                                     Annals of Phytoseiid predator, Metaseiulus occidentalis (Nesbitt), provided the data necessary to c
                                                                                                             68     979-986 Washington State; USA (lab studies)
                               Studies at constant temperatures C.Influence W.temperature the population increase of Metaseiulus occidentalis (Acarina: Phytoseiidae)
                                              Miller, the braconid Meteorus communis wasof development of Meteorus communis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of saucia f
                               The development of J. C.                              Journal Economic Entomology temperatures, while reared on a noctuid host, Peridroma the vari
                                                              1996 Temperature-dependentcompared at 89              877-880 Oregon; USA
                                                                                                             8 constant
                                               variability C. and J. Regniere
                                                              1995 Development, Entomologia voltinism 76 were measured for the braconid
                                                                                      development responses hostApplicata of Meteorus trachynotus trachynotus, Choristoneura fum
                                                                                                             and        synchrony
                               The form andThireau, J.of temperature-dependentreproduction, Experimentalis et67-82 Quebec; Canada Meteorus with its hosts developing in Cho
                                              Goldson, is one of Proffitt, et al. and pasture peststhe parasitoid Microctonus Zealand
                                                               J. R. Establishment Environmental of causing 1386-1392 New hyperodae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in New Zealan
                                                                                                             27
                               Listronotus bonariensisS. L.,1998New Zealand's worst phenology Entomologybetween NZ$78-251 million damage per year. Accordingly, the South Am
                                              Honek, A. and 1988 Thermal requirements for development (LDT) were established for eggs and/or pupae of central European popula
                                                               F. Kocourek           Oecologia               76     455-460 Europe
                               The sum of effective temperatures (SET) and lower development threshold of aphidophagous Coccinellidae(Coleoptera), Chrysopidae, Hemerobiidae
                                              Honek, A. and 1988 Thermal requirements for development (LDT) were established for eggs and/or pupae of central European popula
                                                               F. Kocourek           Oecologia               76     455-460 Europe
                               The sum of effective temperatures (SET) and lower development threshold of aphidophagous Coccinellidae(Coleoptera), Chrysopidae, Hemerobiidae
                               The larval     Foerster, L. MicroplitisK. Doetzeris described for the Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)parasitizing the wheat armyworm Mythimna (Ps
                                                               and
Egg+larvae = 9.9C threshold, 150.30 DDendoparasitoid A. 2003A. Biology of Microplitis mediator first time in the81-84
                                                                        mediator     Neotropical Entomology  32               Brazil
                                                                                                                      Neotropical Region, parasitizing the wheat armyworm Mythimna (P
                                              Park, N. C., Y. 1992 in order to evaluate the effects of different temperatures on larval and pupal (Coleoptera: of Monochamus
                                                               S. Moon, et al.       Research the development 151-156 Korean RepublicHope
                                                                                                             44    of Monochamus alternatus
                               Laboratory studies were conducted Effects of temperature onReports of the Forestry Research Institute Seoul development Cerambycidae) alterna
                                              Bonato, O., J. Baumgärtner, 22, 26, 31 and 36 and demographic 119-125 Congo duration of developmental Oligonychus gossypii
                                                              1995 Comparison biological degrees C) 75 biological (survival and
                                                                                                             on    et Applicata
                               The effect of 5 constant temperatures (16, et al. of Entomologia Experimentalis parameters for Mononychellus progresivus and stages, fecundity and lo
                                              Yaninek, season (wet versus dry), Mononychellusleaf age on development time, in Africa: survivorship and intrinsic temperature and h
                                                               A. P. Dynamics of plant age and tanajoa (Acari: 633-640 Nigeria
                                                                                                             18
                               Effects of temperature,J. S., 1989 Gutierrez, et al. Environmental Entomology Tetranychidae)fecundity, Experimental evidence ofrate of increase (rm
                                              Moon, R. D. and E. used to measure pterin quantities in the head673-684 Minnesota; USA
                                                               were Krafsur          Journal of Medical Entomology
                                                                                                              as     capsules of adults of M. autumnalis. Quantities at eclosion were grea
                               Spectrofluorimetric methods 1995 S.Pterin quantity and gonotrophic stage32 indicators of age in Musca autumnalis (Diptera: Muscidae)
Egg+Larvae = 12.7C threshold                  Lysyk, T. J. and Axtell, R.C.
                                                              1987 A simulation model of house fly (Diptera: (prepupal) North Carolina; USA manure
                                                                                      temperatures for egg-larval 427-437 and egg-larval-adult
                                                                                                            119
                               Developmental times were determined at constantCanadian Entomologist Muscidae) development in poultry(preadult) flies (Musca domestica) in p
                                              Geden, C. J. 1997 S. cameroni models for the filth were studied in Musca gemina, S. cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenop
                                                                                     Biological Control       9     185-192 Florida; USA
                               Muscidifurax raptor, S. gemina and Developmentdevelopmental ratesfly parasitoids Spalangiadomestica under constant and varying temperatures from
                                              Guppy, J. C. 1969 Some effects of temperature on the immature stages of the eggs hatched studies) unipuncta (Lepidoptera: Noctu
                                                                                     Canadian Entomologist  101 1320-1327 Ontario; Canada Pseudaletia
                               Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haworth) was reared at eight constant temperatures from 5 to 31C. Thearmyworm, (labat all temperatures except 5C. Develop
                                               of eggs R. H. aphid Myzocallis coryli, a seriousegg development of laboratory rearing over
                                                               and Thermal requirements of pest of hazelnuts,391-396 Oregon; Myzocallis coryli (Goetze)
                                                                                                            111      to
                               The responseMessing,of the 1991 M. T. Aliniazee Journal for Applied Entomology the filbert aphid, USA a range of constant temperatures was use
                                              Whalon, M. model Z.Temperature-dependent Entomologist
                                                               and      predicting    development of for predicting field populations of green peach and field studies)
                                                                                                            111 of Myzus Pennsylvania; in potato fields Myzus persicae tested in Pe
                               A temperature-dependentE.,1979for Smilowitz the Canadian model populations1025-1032persicae (Sulz.)USA (lab aphid, was devised and(Homoptera
                                              Braman, S. K.,1984 americoferus and
                                                               P. E. Effects of temperature of the Entomological and survival of Nabis USA
                                                                                     Annals on the development Society of America temperatures. N. americoferus developed moreNa
                               The developmental rates of Nabis Sloderbeck, et al. N. roseipennis were77            592-596 constant
                                                                                                              determined at 8 Kentucky; americoferus and N. roseipennis (Hemiptera: ra
                                              Braman, S. K.,1984 americoferus and
                                                               P. E. Effects of temperature of the Entomological and survival of Nabis USA
                                                                                     Annals on the development Society of America temperatures. N. americoferus developed moreNa
                               The developmental rates of Nabis Sloderbeck, et al. N. roseipennis were77            592-596 constant
                                                                                                              determined at 8 Kentucky; americoferus and N. roseipennis (Hemiptera: ra
                                              Egwuatu, R. I. 1986 Some aspects of there was a direct relationship between temperature sources on the biology of Nezara the penta
                                                              and A. C. Ant          Beiträge zur of temperature, rearing density, and food and
                                                                                                             24      71-83     und Veterinärmedizin
                               A laboratory study carried out in Nigeria showed that the effectsTropischen LandwirtschaftNigeria (lab studies) the speed of development of viridula L.
                                              Bae, S. D., on1987growth and temperature conditions on the Entomology in the Republic planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål.
                                                                the Effects          Korean Nilaparvata lugens was and oviposition of brown
                                                                                                             26      13-23
                               The effect of temperatureY. H. Song, et al. ofoviposition of Journal of AppliedgrowthstudiedKoreanlaboratory with a view to predicting the timing of cont
                                              Miller, Nomophila nearctica, originally collected as adult females from lawnsIllinois; USA nearctica in Champaign, Illinois, in
                                                              1991 V. Maddox Great on development rate 281-286 of Nomophila
                                                                                                             24
                               The development of F. D., Jr. and J.Effect of temperature Lakes Entomologist and survivaland grassy field borders (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) the summ
                                              He, X., Q. Wang, et Thermal of wheat and for Economic Entomologyreproduction of Nysius huttoni presence in export Lygaeidae).
                                                                important            Journal of the development1119-1125 Because of its
                                                                                                             in    and
                               N. huttoni is an economically2003 al. pest requirements brassica crops 96 New Zealand. New Zealand frequent white (Heteroptera: fruit packages, i
                                              Kehat, M. on the Wyndham
                                                              1974 The effect of temperature and RAE/A 13 107, etc.], exposure of eggs, nymphs and adults bug a laboratory (Hem
                                                                                     Journal of [cf. relative61,
                                                                                                              humidity extremes on the
                                                                                                                     81-84     Society
                               In further investigations and M. biology of Nysius vinitor Bergr.the Australian EntomologicalAustralia survival of the Rutherglen from Nysius vinitorcolon
                               The red spider mite, O. and T. Nagata
Data is for female Oligonychus coffeae.                       2001 Development as reproduction of Oligonychus coffeaeJapan Tetranychidae) on tea.
                                                                                     International Journal oftea, 293-298 (Acari:
                                                                                                               Acarology
                                              Gotoh, T. coffeae, has been known andan important pest of27 coffee, mango, cotton and jute in the tropical and subtropical regions. O
                                              Bonato, O., J. Baumgärtner, 22, 26, 31 and 36 and demographic 119-125 Congo duration of developmental Oligonychus gossypii
                                                              1995 Comparison biological degrees C) 75 biological (survival and
                                                                                                             on    et Applicata
                               The effect of 5 constant temperatures (16, et al. of Entomologia Experimentalis parameters for Mononychellus progresivus and stages, fecundity and lo
                                              Landwehr, V. R. and W. W. Allenof Oligonychus subnudus 75 O. milleri (Acari: Tetranychidae) studies) 20.2 days at 22 deg C. Betwe
                                                              1982 Life history      Annals of the Entomological 340-345of America USA adult stage in
                                                                                                             and Society California;
                               In laboratory studies in the USA, females of Oligonychus subnudus (McG.) developed from the egg to the (lab and influence of temperature on develo
                                              Aponte, O. and J. A. McMurtrylife table and mating temperatures 199-207 perseae (Acari: leaves (Persea americana). The time requir
                                                              1997 Biology,          International Journal of of Oligonychus California; USA Tetranychidae).
                                                                                                             23
                               The biology of Oligonychus perseae was studied at four different behavior Acarology on excised Hass avocado
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                                                Landwehr, V. R. and W. W. Allenof Oligonychus subnudus 75 O. milleri (Acari: Tetranychidae) studies) 20.2 days at 22 deg C. Betwe
                                                                 1982 Life history       Annals of the Entomological 340-345of America USA adult stage in
                                                                                                                   and Society California;
                                 In laboratory studies in the USA, females of Oligonychus subnudus (McG.) developed from the egg to the (lab and influence of temperature on develo
                                                                                          six constant temperatures (15,    embryonic development and the hatching post-diapause embryonic d
                                 A study was conducted to determine the effects of Journal on Applied Entomology 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 degrees C) on the time in three grasshopper s
                                                                 2004 Effects of temperature of the post-diapause 95-101 China
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                                 The development of Onitis caffer cattle dung was studied in the laboratory. The larvae feed onAfrica
                                                Edwards, (WR) area                       Bulletin of Entomological Research
                                                                                                                   76      109-117 South the dung in which the eggs are laid. Egg to adult dev
Data listed for Onitis caffer strain from a winter rainfallP. B.1986in Development and larval diapause in the southern African dung beetle Onitis caffer Boheman (Coleoptera: Scaraba
                                                 was carried out toR. Thermalthe thermal requirements ofsokolowskii (Kurdjumov) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Plutella xylostella, a
                                                                  J., determine requirements of Oomyzus O.         32     407-411 Brazil
                                 This researchFerreira, S. W.2003 Barros, et al. Neotropical Entomology sokolowskii reared on the diamond back moth (DBM),estimation of the num
                                                 temperature on the Effect of temperature Science rearedApplication M. Kenya Reuter, a predator of the African legume flower thr
                                                                  B. Lohr, et al.        Insect on the development of prey, albidipennis
                                                                                                                    on      Orius
                                 The effects ofGitonga, L. M.,2002 development of O. albidipennis,and its 22 its 215-220 sjostedti, were studied in the laboratory. Nymphal mortality w
                                                Nakashima, Y.1997Y. using Orius tantillus on development 42 Orius Thrips Japan Anthocoridae), in Japan during the palmi months, th
                                                                  and Hirose             Entomophaga               of      337-342 (Het.:
                                 In order to explore the possibility of Temperature effects as a control agent againsttantillus palmi in greenhouses a predator of Thrips winter (Thys.: Thr
                                                Nakashima, Y.1997Y. using Orius tantillus on development 42 Orius Thrips Japan Anthocoridae), in Japan during the palmi months, th
                                                                  and Hirose             Entomophaga               of      337-342 (Het.:
                                 In order to explore the possibility of Temperature effects as a control agent againsttantillus palmi in greenhouses a predator of Thrips winter (Thys.: Thr
                                                Nakashima, Y.1997Y. using Orius tantillus on development 42 Orius Thrips Japan Anthocoridae), in Japan during the palmi months, th
                                                                  and Hirose             Entomophaga               of      337-342 (Het.:
                                 In order to explore the possibility of Temperature effects as a control agent againsttantillus palmi in greenhouses a predator of Thrips winter (Thys.: Thr
                                                Nakashima, Y.1997Y. using Orius tantillus on development 42 Orius Thrips Japan Anthocoridae), in Japan during the palmi months, th
                                                                  and Hirose             Entomophaga               of      337-342 (Het.:
                                 In order to explore the possibility of Temperature effects as a control agent againsttantillus palmi in greenhouses a predator of Thrips winter (Thys.: Thr
                                                Nakashima, Y.1997Y. using Orius tantillus on development 42 Orius Thrips Japan Anthocoridae), in Japan during the palmi months, th
                                                                  and Hirose             Entomophaga               of      337-342 (Het.:
                                 In order to explore the possibility of Temperature effects as a control agent againsttantillus palmi in greenhouses a predator of Thrips winter (Thys.: Thr
                                                Judd, G. J. R. 1997 G. T. Gardiner Canadian of Orthosia129 Gueneemonitored during 1991Canada in a mixed block ofsex-attracta
                                                                  seasonal flight activity of adults Orthosia hibisci were (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in British Columbia using McIntosh a
Data only taken from abstract Emergence, oviposition, andand M. Forecasting phenology ofEntomologist               hibisci 815-825 British Columbia; and 1992
                                                Tolley, M. P. and H. D. Niemczyklower was studied at several and degree-day estimates for from 15 to 35°C in the laboratory. Chlorop
                                                                 1988 Upper and          Journal of Economic Entomology
                                                                                                                   81 1346-1351 Kentucky (lab studies)
                                 The development of Oscinella frit on Lolium perennethreshold temperatures constant temperatures rangingdevelopment of the frit fly (Diptera: The low
                                 for egg = 28 C, larvae = development in = furnacalis was determined at19 constant temperatures of 10, 12, 14,
                                                Li, Z., M. Lu, Cal.and Temperature-dependent Research of                   389-396 China
Upper development threshold Temperature-dependent 32et1998 pupae O.31 C Zoologicaldevelopment theAsian corn borer Ostrinia furnacalis 16, 18, 22, 26, 30 and 34°C. Excep
                                                Boivin, G., C. Ritchot, Evidence for regional differences in the sites978-980 Quebec; Canada of corn borer each region, Pyralidae) in
                                                                 1986 et al.             Journal of Economic Entomology
                                                                                                                    7       in the pattern of the region
                                 Flight of Ostrinia nubilalis adults was observed using pheromone traps at79emergence maize-growingEuropean Quebec. In(Lepidoptera: flight period p
Data only from abstract                         Fisher, J. R. and D. L.Temperature-dependent Agricultural 19 cold storage of eggs Otiorhynchus ovatus (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionida
                                                                 2002 Edwards            Journal of (L.) was and at constant Oregon;
                                                                                                                   and 109-116 temperature intervals from 6 to 36 deg C. Storage of eggs f
                                 Egg hatch of the strawberry root weevil, Otiorhynchus ovatusegg hatchstudiedUrban Entomology of USA
                                                                                         Canadian development      Oulema melanopus (L.) atof the cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus for eg
                                                                                                                           257-263 Ontario; 12 constant temperatures. Rates of survival (Cole
                                 Survival ratesGuppy, J.C. and D.G. Effects of temperature onEntomologist of the immature stages Canada
                                                                 1978 Harcourt.
                                                 and development rates were obtained in the laboratory for110
                                 -              Brunner, J.                                                                State
                                                                                           of fruit Directions in Tree Fruit Pest Washington State; USA
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                                                Yasuda, M.        reared in the laboratory in Japan at constant temperatures ofJapan Zoology 28, red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor)
                                                                                         Japanese Journal of the life cycle parameters of studies)
                                                                                                                   26       52-57      12, 16, 20, 24,
                                 Panonychus citri (McG.) was1982 Influence of temperature on someof Applied Entomology and (labthe citrus 30 or 32 deg C. At 32 deg C, the egg st
                                                Herbert, H. J. 1981 Biology, life tables and on applerate of at 3 constant European red Canada (lab studies)
                                                                                         studied intrinsic leaves 113       65-71 Nova Scotia; mite, Panonychus ulmi Scotia to construct a l
                                 The development of Panonychus ulmi (Koch) was Canadian Entomologistincrease of thetemperatures in the laboratory in Nova (Acarina: Tetranychida
                                  = connection Lakin, K. R. and J. G. A degree-dayinJournal of Applied Entomology
Upper threshold for egg hatch In 27.4C                           1989 Morse               California for export, egg
                                                                                                                   beetle, 102-106 California; cervinus studies)
                                                                                                                           Pantomorus cervinus (Boheman) studied in 11 constant temperature
                                                 with disinfesting grapefruits grown model for Fuller's rose 107 hatching in Pantomorus USA (lab was(Col., Curculionidae) egg hatch
                                                thresholds        thermal requirementsAnnals of the Entomological 892-895 America determined under controlled conditions. The dev
                                                                                          for development of Papaipema the of Iowa; USA
                                                                                                                           of nebris (Gn.) were
                                 Temperature Levine, E. and1983 Temperature requirements for developmentSocietyStalk Borer, Papaipema nebris (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
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                                                Amoudi, Parasarcophaga et al.
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                                                Pinhassi, onset and rate al.
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                                                                                         Environmental olive scale 25         1-6      Diaspididae) crawlers: regional degree-day forecasting mo
                                 The temperature-drivenN., D. Nestel, etof oviposition and egg hatch of the spring generation of Parlatoria oleae was studied in northern Israel. Pheno
                                                Beasley, C. A. 1996 J. Adams thresholds ofofmodel for pink were determined for the USA (field development
                                                                 and temperature         Journal Economic Entomology
                                                                                                                   89      881-890 California; gelechiid Pectinophora gossypiella using 21 occ
                                 Lower and upper developmental C. Field-based, degree-day13.9 and 32.8°Cbollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) studies)
                                                Vickers, R. A. 1982 Rates for the combined the immature stages69-70 Australiascutigera (Holdaway) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) w
                                                                                         Journal of the Australian Entomological Society
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                                                Tolley, M. P. 1986 H. Robinson Journal pests of turf were collected from May toUSA (field studies) in 1981-82. emergence in Virg
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                                                                                                                           400-404 Virginia; October in Virginia
                                 Fourteen species of multi- and univoltine species of pyralidof Economic Entomology of sod webworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) adultCalendar date was
                                 The effect     Foerster, L. A. 2002A. Host instar
                                                                 and K. development of the larval endoparasitoid 405-409 Brazil
                                                                                         Neotropical Entomology    31       Peleteria (Diptera: Tachinidae) and development in relation to tempe
Egg+larvae = 6.7C threshold, 222.44 DD of four temperatures on the Doetzer preference of Peleteria robusta (Wiedman)robusta as well as its preference for different instars of the h
                                                 temperature on development W. oviposition Entomologist
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                                                                                                                  113       Peridroma saucia (Hb.) under controlled conditions in the laboratory i
                                 The effects ofSimonet, D. E., S. L. Clement, and L. Canadianwere investigated in891-897 Ohio; of Peridroma saucia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
                                                Obrycki, J. J. and M. J. Tauber
                                                                 1978 the predacious coccinellid Coleomegilla maculata (Deg.) as a biological
                                                                                         Canadian development     110      407-412 New York; (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and its parasite Peri
Data only taken from abstract In investigations on the suitability ofThermal requirements forEntomologist of Coleomegilla maculata USA control agent, the optimum temperature r
                                                Lin, Y., Y. Liu, et al. Effects of temperatures onreproduction
                                                                  the                    Formosan the development,147-157 form of Periphyllus of the sexual form of Periphyllus koelreute
                                                                                                                   21
Data only taken from abstract The effect of temperature on2001development, longevity, and Entomologist of thelongevity Taiwansexual and reproduction koelreuteriae in Taiwan was studied. The
                                                Zajac, M. A., F. R. Hall, and M. model Wilson. development18 Philaenus spumarius was Ohio; USA strawberries in
                                                                 1989 and unit Curtis for the
                                                                                         Environmental Entomology 347-350 Indiana and studied on (field on strawberry
                                                                                                                    of
                                 The relationship between heat unitsHeat nymphal and adultdevelopment of meadow spittlebug (Homoptera: Ceropidae)studies) Indiana and Ohio du
                                                Bues, R. carried out in
                                                                 1980 Study of on larval and of a range of constant and alternating temperatures and of short-day and long-day conditio
                                                                                         Acta Oecologica, Oecologia Applicata France
                                                                                                                    1     127-138
                                 A laboratory study was and S. PoitoutFrance the the effectspupal development of Phlogophora meticulosa L. (Lep. Noctuidae) under different controlle
Data is for females                             Ridgway, N. M. on D. L. Mahr
                                                                 1990 Reproduction, development, longevity, and 790-794of America
                                                                                         Annals laboratory to study its reproductive potentialornigis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoi
                                                                                                                   83     Society      Pholetesor as parasitoid of
                                 Pholetesor ornigis was rearedand potted apple trees in theof the Entomological longevity ofWisconsin; USAa(lab studies) the apple pest Phyllonorycte
                                                Helal, H. and Y. El-Sebay
                                                                 1982 in Egypt on the effect of humidity effects on
                                                                                         Agricultural Research 58 relative humidity on Phoracantha the eucalyptus borer Phoracantha sem
                                                                                                                    and 277-285 Egypt
                                 Laboratory studies were carried outTemperature and relativetemperatureReview eucalyptus borer the biology of semipunctata F., in Egypt (Cerambyc
                                 Further laboratory DD)field 1979 Bionomics of the potato NewJournalPhthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), at (Zell.) on
                                                Foot, M.                                 New Zealand moth, of Zoology      623-626 New Zealand (lab studies)
189.5 DD = Larvae (157.3 DD) + Prepupae (32.2and A. investigations are reported from tuber Zealand6on the biology and control of Phthorimaea operculellaPukekohe potato. In s
                                                Johnson, E. F., R. Trottier, et al. relationships Entomologist
                                                                 1979 Degree-day Canadian to the development (F.) (LithocolletisCanada (lab and field studies)ornigis Weed, its maj
                                                                                                                  111 1177-1184 Ontario; blancardella) and Apanteles
                                 Temperature-sum relationships in the development of Phyllonorycter blancardellaof Lithocolletis blancardella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) and its para
                                  Prepupae (45.7 B. Kinoshita, H. J. Svec, C. is described flea beetle, 111 in cruciferae (Coleoptera:in (lab and field studies)
                                                G. DD)           1979 Biology of the crucifer from investigations 1395-1407 Ontario; field Chrysomelidae), in are also described where
                                                                                         Canadian Entomologist
255.7DD = Larvae (210 DD) +The biology of Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze)R. Harris, F. L. McEwen Phyllotreta the laboratory and CanadaOntario; methods southwestern Ontario
                                                Godin, C. of Plutella xylostella and Artogeiaof lepidopterous pests 173-185 Quebec; CanadaBrussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. c
                                                                 1998 Seasonal occurrence rapae were monitoredof cruciferous broccoli and
                                 Eggs, larvae and adults and G. Boivin                   Canadian Entomologist    130       on cabbage, crops in southwestern Quebec in relation to degree-da
                                                Chen, C. N. and W. Y.in Taiwan to determine on development and leaf consumption of three caterpillars on cauliflower.
                                                                 1982 Su                 Plant Protection Bulletin, Taiwan
                                                                                                                   24     131-141 Taiwan
                                 Laboratory studies were carried outInfluence of temperaturethe effect of temperature on the development and leaf consumption of larvae of Artogeia r
                                                Cividanes, F. J. the D. R. Carvalho Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil
                                                                   and Degree-day model for predicting the occurrence of SP, during adults of Piezodorus guildinii (West.) (Heteroptera
                                                                                                                   29      269-275 Brazil
                                 This study was carried out at2000Universidade Estadual Paulista, Jaboticabal Campus,nymphs andthe 1995/96 and 1996/97 growing seasons, aiming
                                 Three          Arai, T.         1996 Temperature-dependent Journal of Appliedof 25-34 mealybug species,
                                                                                           Planococcus citri and40   rate Entomology and were reared on Citrus leaves to determine the lower
                                                                                                                             three    Japan
Data is for female Planococcus ciri mealybug species, Pseudococcus citriculus,Japanese developmentPlanococcus kraunhiaeZoology Pseudococcus citriculus Green, Planococc
                                 Three mealybug species, Pseudococcus citriculus,Japanese developmentPlanococcus kraunhiaeZoology Pseudococcus citriculus Green, Planococc
Data is for female Planococcus kraunhiae Arai, T.                                          Planococcus citri and40   rate Entomology and were reared on Citrus leaves to determine the lower
                                                                                                                             three    Japan
                                                                 1996 Temperature-dependent Journal of Appliedof 25-34 mealybug species,
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                                                               1979 Poston was green at various and a thermal-unit system USA
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                                                               1989 Development ofP. idaeusalis (Walker)18 a 15-18
                                                                                          Platynota                 on                 was observed
                               Development David, P. J. ,flavedana ClemensHoltzman, G. I. flavedana and P.meridic diet(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) at constant temperatures in the la
                                               of Platynota Horsburgh, R. L. , and Environmental Entomology idaeusalis Virginia; USA at constant temperatures in the laboratory. L
                                                               1989 Development ofP. idaeusalis (Walker)18 a 15-18
                                                                                          Platynota                 on                 was observed
                               Development David, P. J. ,flavedana ClemensHoltzman, G. I. flavedana and P.meridic diet(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) at constant temperatures in the la
                               -                               1982 Omnivorous Leafroller Pest Management. U.C. Div. California; USA#4105studies)
                                                                                       IN: Grape
                                              Kido, H., D. L. Flaherty, W. W. Barnett and H. L. Andris                    126-136 Agr. Sci. Publ. (field
                                               of Platyptilia carduidactyla (Ril.), pest of globe artichoke, was studied at several longevity of the artichoke plume moth.
                                                               1980 Lange              Environmental Entomology 673-676 California; USA (lab studies)
                                                                                                                   9
                               Development Bari, M. A., and W. H.Influence ofatemperature on the development, fecundity and constant laboratory temperatures ranging from 7 to 31
Data from when host was almonds                rates, egg hatch, survival, adult weight temperature on development rates, California; USA (lab studies)the Indianmeal moth (Lepidopte
                                                                 P. L. Effect of diet and and of Economic Entomology determined and reproduction of
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                               Development Johnson, J. A.,1992 Wofford, and L. Journalreproductive potential 561-566 survival,for Plodia interpunctella reared on wheat bran diet, a
                                              Liu, S., F. Chen, from egg to adult and survival of the diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) at constant 19 alternating tempera
                                                               2002                    Environmental Entomology 221-231 China
                                                                                                                  31
                               Survival and development timeet al.Development emergence of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, were determined atand constant and 14 alt
                                              De and survival Degheele, et al. and survival of Podisus maculiventris P. Belgiumfed on larvae of the pyralid Galleria Pentatomidae)
                                                               1992 Development Canadian Entomologist            124 125-133 sagitta,
                               The developmentClercq, P., D. of the predatory pentatomids Podisus maculiventris and (Say) and Podisus sagitta (Fab.) (Heteroptera:mellonella, was
                                              De and survival Degheele, et al. and survival of Podisus maculiventris P. Belgiumfed on larvae of the pyralid Galleria Pentatomidae)
                                                               1992 Development Canadian Entomologist            124 125-133 sagitta,
                               The developmentClercq, P., D. of the predatory pentatomids Podisus maculiventris and (Say) and Podisus sagitta (Fab.) (Heteroptera:mellonella, was
                                               flight of Podosesia M. Timmons emergence and flight of and lilac borer (Lepidoptera: USA (field studies) pheromone trapping in 2 cit
                                                               1983 Forecasting         (a pest of lilac, privet the ash in towns Kentucky; Sessiidae) based on
                                                                                                                  12
                               The seasonalPotter, D. A. and G.syringae (Harris) Environmental Entomology 400-403 and nurseries) was monitored with pheromone traps and de
                                              Tobin, P. C., in al grape berry moth, Endopiza viteana Entomology which exploits wild and cultivated
                                                                                       Environmental (Clemens), (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
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                               We modeled development et2001 Modeling Development in Grape Berry Moth629-699 Pennsylvania; USA Vitis. Laboratory experiments were us
                                              Bryant, S. R., C. D. Nettle-feeding Ecological Entomology and Vanessa atalanta, share distribution
                                                                Aglais urticae, Inachis io, Polygonia c-album22           390-398 United Kingdom
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                               The influenceLi, L. 13.43C, 1985 al.
                                               of temperature and humidity on of abstractand development of the growth and development of the broad of tea and vegetables such l
                                                               data The effect the growth
                                                                                       Acta Entomologica Sinica 181-187 China
                                                                                                                  28
Stage thresholds for larva = 10.12C and nymph =S., Y. R. Li, et only taken fromtemperature and humidity on Polyphagotarsonemus latus, a major pest mite, Polyphagotarsonemusa
                                              Regniere, J., R. L. temperature-dependent development of 10 immature stages of Popillia of the
                                                                the Rabb, and R. E. Stinner
                                                                                       Environmental temperature 290-296 development japonica Newm., and prediction of adult eme
                                                                                                                  the
                               In studies in North Carolina, 1981 Popillia japonica: simulation ofEntomology dependentNorth Carolina; USA immatures, a pest of pasture and turf, i
                                              Campbell, A. and M. Mackauerconstants for development of the pea aphid (Homoptera: pisum (Harris)(lab studies) parasites
                                                               1975 Thermal            Canadian Entomologist     107      419-423 British Columbia; Canada some of its
                               The relation between temperature and rate of development of the Kamloops biotype of Acyrthosiphon Aphididae) andon lucerne in south-western Briti
                                               and survival of2004 Temperature-dependent development and 510-514 India
                                                                                       Journal of Applied Entomology Propylea dissecta aphidophagous ladybeetle, Propylea dissecta
                               Development Omkar, A. Pervez immature stages of an aphidophagous 128 immature survival of an (Mulsant) was investigated at five constant tem
                                                                 the                                             ladybeetle,
                                              Honek, A. and 1988 Thermal requirements for development (LDT) were established for eggs and/or pupae of central European popula
                                                                F. Kocourek            Oecologia                  76      455-460 Europe
                               The sum of effective temperatures (SET) and lower development threshold of aphidophagous Coccinellidae(Coleoptera), Chrysopidae, Hemerobiidae
                                              Honek, A. and 1988 Thermal requirements for development (LDT) were established for eggs and/or pupae of central European popula
                                                                F. Kocourek            Oecologia                  76      455-460 Europe
                               The sum of effective temperatures (SET) and lower development threshold of aphidophagous Coccinellidae(Coleoptera), Chrysopidae, Hemerobiidae
                               The effect of temperature on2000 Development and population 128 the 124 of + Prorops nasuta was investigated at constant temperatures. Hypo
                                              Infante, F.        development and population of Applied DD rates 343-348 nasuta (Hym., Bethylidae) in the laboratory on its host
                                                                                       only = 11.6C. of Entomology= larva Prorops Chiapas; Mexico
Larvae stage theshold not including prepupae = 8.6C, prepupae stage threshold Journal growthgrowth parasitoid prepupae
                                              Subramanyam, on the developmentTropical temperature, 37
                                                               1991 Quantitative analysisof Prostephanus truncatus 195-202 USA diet influencing development of the larger grain borer,
                                                                                                                  relative humidity, and
                               Data from 3 published studiesB. H. and D. W. Hagstrum of Pest Management reared at constant temperature and RH were reanalysed to provide new
                                              Grassberger, M. and C. Reiter Protophormia terraenovae [Phormiaforensically important holarctic blow fly Protophormia terraenovae (R
                                                               2002 blow of            Forensic development of the 177-182 Austria
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                               Immature development times of theEffect fly temperature onScience International terraenovae] (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830) were studied in the laborat
                                              Foerster, L. A. 1996 Effect of temperature da the development of the immature
                                                                                       Anais on was studied 25 temperatures Brazil from Pseudaletia sequax Franclemont (Lepidopter
                                                                                                                   at       27-32 ranging
Data only taken from abstract The development of Pseudaletia sequax [Mythimna sequax]Sociedade Entomologica do Brasilstages of14 to 30°C using quicuio grass, Pennisetum c
                                              Gaylor, M. J. and W. L. Sterling temperature on the development, 487-490 15.0, and 26.7, 29.4, 35.0 or 40.6 deg C in the laboratory.
                                                               1975 Effects of         Environmental Entomology egg 12.8, Texas; USA
                                                                                                                   4
                               Newly hatched nymphs of Psallus (Pseudatomoscelis) seriatus (Reut.) were kept at production, 23.9,survival of the cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomosce
                               Three          Arai, T.         1996 Temperature-dependent Journal of Appliedof 25-34 mealybug species,
                                                                                         Planococcus citri and40    rate Entomology and were reared on Citrus leaves to determine the lower
                                                                                                                            three    Japan
Data is for female Planococcus citri mealybug species, Pseudococcus citriculus,Japanese developmentPlanococcus kraunhiaeZoology Pseudococcus citriculus Green, Planococc
                                              Jeon, H.Y., K. DongSoon, etforecasting model development of Pseudococcus comstocki (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) and its stage tr
                                                                 develop the al.       Korean Journal of Applied Entomology Korean phenology
                                                                                                                  42        43-51
                               This study was carried out to2003 Temperature-dependent of P. comstocki for spray timing. FieldRepublic and temperature-dependent developme
                                              Kitamura, K. 1989 Comparative studies on the biology averageKenkyu inof developmentthe Pseudogonatopus fulgoriUni.)fulgorito pup
                                                                                       Shimane Japan, Nogakuba 60-63 Hokoku (Bull. of of Faculty of Ag., Shimane from egg (Hym
Data only taken from abstact In investigations on parasitoids of Hemiptera infesting rice inDaigakutheof23                  wasps Japan.
                                                                                                                    dryinid duration Japan (10) Development Pseudogonatopus
                                Egg = 4.1C threshold.
                                               with predicting1981 Development of of carrot rust carrot in Ontario for use in a pest management programme, the effect of
                                                                 the                   Canadian Entomologist     113      569-574 Ontario; Canada
Egg+Larvae = 2.0C threshold,In connection Stevenson, A. B. time of occurrence thethe psilid onfly, Psila rosae (Diptera: Psilidae), relative to temperature in the laboratorytempera
                                              Hurtrel, B. and 1997 Influence of temperature on fletcheri]20
                                                                  stages of            Bulletin OILB/SROP parasitizing Bactrocera cucurbitae were studied (Hymenoptera: Braconidae
                                                                                                                             7-13    France
Data only taken from abstact The successive developmentS. Quilici Psyttalia fletcheri [Opiusthe preimaginal development of Psyttalia fletcheri Silvestri at an average temperature
                               The effects ofNealis,
                                                temperature on growth and W.G. Wellington
                                                               1984 Temperature and development in host-parasite relationships Columbia; Canada rubecula, A.
                                                                                       Oecologia                  61      224-229 British
Egg+larvae = 11.0C threshold. Data from Canada V.G., R.E. Jonesand development of Pieris rapae [Artogeia rapae] and the parasites Apanteles and Australiaglomeratus and Pte
                                              Milbrath, L. R. and M. Development, survival and phenology31 in 129-136 North Dakota; The Pygostolus of the sweetclover weevil, S
                                                               1998 J. Weiss           Great Lakes Entomologist sweetclover weevil parasitoid,
                                                                                                                   of
                               Biennial sweetclovers were widely used for soil improvement and as foragesthethe first half of the 1900s.USA introduction falcatus (Hymenoptera: Bra
                                              Yanagida, K., frutescens were al. Bulletin of the Kagoshima Prefecture,Kagoshima UniversityTwenty-seven species
                                                               1996 Biological studies of sites in Faculty of Agriculture, frutescens Britt., in
                                                                                                                   -       15-30     Japan
Data only taken from abstract Insects occurring on Perilla H. Kamiwada, et studied at 6insects feeding on perilla, PerillaJapan, during 1994. Kagoshima prefecture. were recorded fo
                                              King, J. E., R. G. Price, et al. of temperature on development and survival Oklahoma; The optimum the elm leaf beetle, Pyrrhalta lute
                                                               1985 Influence          Environmental Entomology 272-274 of the immature
                                                                                                                  14
                               Pyrrhalta luteola [Xanthogaleruca luteola] was reared at 5 constant temperatures from 15.6 to 36.1°C.USA stages of temperatures for egg and larval s
                               Phenological events associated R. E.controlfemales San Jose Scale (Homoptera: Diaspididae)
                                              Jorgensen, C. D., with Rice, of of the
                                                               1981 Phenology Quadraspidiotus Westigard
                                                                                       Canadian Entomologist     113      149-159 California; USA (field studies)
300.6 DD = Pre-larvisposition females = 300.6 DDC, 32.2 DD = Tight cap S. C. Hoyt, and P. H.perniciosus (Comst.) in deciduous tree-fruit orchards in the western USA were model
                                              Hawkins, external J. Rhaconotus roslinensis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), aAmerica for biological control of Diatraea saccharalis and
                                                                 and W. Smith, Jr. Annals of the Entomological 905-911of Texas; USA
                                                                                                                  79      Society     candidate
                               Biological studies of theB. A.1986gregarious braconid Rhaconotus roslinensis were conducted using Texas sugarcane pests stalkboring sugarcane pe
                                              Boller, E. F. and U. have enabled sums of effective temperatures209-212 Switzerland for forecasting of Rhagoletis cerasicerasi (L.)
                                                               1983 Ten years of using data on the sums of daily to be used successfully
Data only taken from abstact Studies carried out in SwitzerlandRemund                  Bulletin OEPP              13       temperatures for forecasting the flight flight of Rhagoletis and Eupo
                                              Jones, V. P., D. indifferens was of the western cherry fruit 84 (Diptera: Tephritidae) during and Washington
                                                               1991 Phenology          Annals of Utah on tart cherry, Prunus America Utah 1983-89 and in Washington
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                               The flight period of RhagoletisG. Alston, et al. investigated inthe Entomological Society of cerasus,in Wash. State; USA (field studies) on sweet cherry
                                              Teixeira, developed to forecast Sridhar
                                                               2001 Postdiapause emergence of female blueberry maggotNew Jersey; USA
                                                                                       Environmental Entomology 925-931 flies Female Blueberry Maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae)
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                               Predictive models wereLuís A. F., Polavarapu, the Development and Prediction of Emergence of(Rhagoletis mendax) in highbush blueberries (Vacciniu
                                                temperature threshold for the development of pupae of Rhagoletis51-54 New accumulation and field studies)
                                                                 et al                 Environmental emergence     8        pomonella (Walsh) was (lab
                               The minimumReissig, W. H.,1979 Prediction of apple maggot fly Entomology from thermal unitYork; USA 6.4 deg C. From 1951 to 1975, the first flies
                                 1 = 18.0C, instar 2 = 20.0C, and 3 =Kok
                                              Smith, L. M., II development and mortality of immature stages of Rhinocyllus Virginia; USA has been introduced into USA from Europe
                                                                  instar T. 16.0C, temperature on Entomology 629-633 conicus, which
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Larval stage thresholds- instarInfluence of temperature on 1985 L.Influence ofinstar 4 = 17.0C the development and mortality of immature Rhinocyllus conicus (Coleoptera: Curculio
                                nymph to adult between temperatureEffects of constant rate of apteroustemperatures on developmental rates and demographic statisticslaboratory at le
                                                               1988 and development and fluctuating Entomology    81 1383-1389 South Dakota; USA (lab were studied in the for the corn c
Egg to adult generation time =Relationships Elliott, N. C., R. W. Kieckhefer, et al. Journal of Economicand alate nymphs of Rhopalosiphum maidisstudies)
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Data is an average of R.padi apterate and R. padi alataeand R. W.and immature Canadian Entomologist apterae and alatae of Dakota; USA and age-specific life tables of Rhopalo
                                              Bogenschutz, H.  1976 Studies the German FederalPflanzenkrankheiten und Germany (lab studies)
                                                                                       influence fur Republic on the22-39 of Pflanzenschutz the buoliana Den. the pine pest Rhyacioni
                                                                                                                  83        effect temperature on
Data only taken from abstract In laboratory and field studies carried out in on the Zeitschriftof temperature on the development of Rhyacioniadevelopment ofu. Schiff. (Lep., Tortricid
                                              Haughen, D. A. & F. Development rates in Arkansas, the mean development times ofUSA and pupae of Rhyacionia frustrana (Coms
                                                               loblolly pines (Pinus Environmental Entomology 56-60 Arkansas; eggs
                                                                                                                   Tip
                               Using material derived from 1984 M. Stephen taeda)of Nantucket Pine13 Moth, Ryhacionia frustrana (Comstock) (Lepidoptera: Torticidae), life sta
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                               The secondary instars Su, et the = 4.11C of temperature on Entomologist of the 65-74 Taiwan
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                                                                al.                  Formosan development    22        hemispherical scale, Saissetia coffeae (Walker) (Homoptera: Cocci
Crawler stage threshold = 11.93C, effect of temperature on2002development of the hemispherical scale, Saissetia coffeae, was studied. Insects were reared on potato sprouts (Sola
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                                                               1991 Seasonal al. Ecological Entomology       16      155-162 Ohio; examined central Ohio population of the flesh centra
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                                              Honek, A. and 1988 Thermal requirements for development (LDT) were established for eggs and/or pupae of central European popula
                                                               F. Kocourek           Oecologia               76      455-460 Europe
                               The sum of effective temperatures (SET) and lower development threshold of aphidophagous Coccinellidae(Coleoptera), Chrysopidae, Hemerobiidae
                                nymph to adultWalgenbach, D. D., N. C. and development rate, age-specific survival,developmental rates USAlife table statistics offor the aphid Schiza
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                                                                                     Journal of Economic Entomology and age-specific fecundity were determined the green bug (Hom
                                              Rahman, temperatures (10, 15, 20, Entomologiafor the development and survival of rice the eggs, larvae and pupae of rice stemborers
                                                                and Temperature requirements Sinica 11
                                                                                     25,                              on the Bangledesh
                               The effect of 7 constantM. T.2004 M. Khalequzzaman 30, 35 and 40 degrees C) 47-60 development of stemborers in laboratory conditions.
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                                                                and Temperature requirements Sinica 11
                                                                                     25,                              on the Bangledesh
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                                                               al                    Journal of San Joaquin phenology
                                                                                                             79 1516-1523 sampling USA compare population
                               Scirtothrips citri was T.G., et 1986 navel orange groves in the Economic Entomology and California;in the (fieldJoaquin Valley trends observed using
                                              Tatara, A.       1994 Effect of temperature and host plant of the development, fertility determined under constant dorsalis Hood (Thys
                                                                                     Applied Entomology on Zoology
                                                                                                             29        31-37 Japan
                               The thermal requirements and temperature thresholds for developmentandScirtothrips dorsalis were and longevity of Scirtothripstemperature regimes
                                              Zhou, Z., W. Sclerodermus sichuanensis (a the bionomics of Scleroderma sichuanensis (Hymenoptera, which is a
                                                               1997 al.              Scientia Silvae Sinicae        longhorn China
Data only taken from abstact The biology of the bethylid Yang, et A preliminary study on natural enemy 33 the 475-480 beetle Semanotus sinoauster Bethylidae)destructive insect pe
                                                6 constant temperatures (20, 22, 24, 26, 28 and 30*C) on the developmental and parasitic rates reared with Tenebrio molitor
                                                                et al.               Entomological Knowledge 356-359 China
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                               The effects ofTian, S., Z. Xu,2003 Effects of different temperatures on the development of Scleroderma guani of a population of Scleroderma guani [
                                              Basova, T. was imported from control of soft scales.
                                                               1984 A. Kravchenko Zashchita was tested 10 its effectiveness in controlling the Japanese wax scale [Ceroplastes japon
Data only taken from abstact Scutellista cyanea, whichV. and M. Biological France in 1977,Rastenii           for      40-41    USSR
Larvae values includes prepuae                  survival and reproduction of Scymnus frontalis were studied in the laboratory at 4 temperature regimes with means ranging predator o
                                                               R. L. Development, Annals and Entomological 527-532of America
                                                                                                             83     Society South Dakota; USA
                               Development,Naranjo, S. E.,1990 Gibson, et al. survival,of thereproduction of Scymnus frontalis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), an importedfrom 15 to
                                              Honek, A. and 1988 Thermal requirements for development (LDT) were established for eggs and/or pupae of central European popula
                                                               F. Kocourek           Oecologia               76      455-460 Europe
                               The sum of effective temperatures (SET) and lower development threshold of aphidophagous Coccinellidae(Coleoptera), Chrysopidae, Hemerobiidae
                                              Honek, A. and 1988 Thermal requirements for development (LDT) were established for eggs and/or pupae of central European popula
                                                               F. Kocourek           Oecologia               76      455-460 Europe
                               The sum of effective temperatures (SET) and lower development threshold of aphidophagous Coccinellidae(Coleoptera), Chrysopidae, Hemerobiidae
                               The developmental rates T. G.,
                                              Shanower, and fecundity of 2 important AfricanEntomological calamistis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Eldana saccharina (Lepidoptera:
                                                               1993 Development and  Bulletin of maize pests, Research
                                                                                                             83      237-243 Benin
Data from when Sesamia calamistis was fed on maize stems F. Schulthess, et al. fecundity of Sesamia Sesamia calamistis and Eldana saccharina, were studied under constant t
                                              Rahman, temperatures (10, 15, 20, Entomologiafor the development and survival of rice the eggs, larvae and pupae of rice stemborers
                                                                and Temperature requirements Sinica 11
                                                                                     25,                              on the Bangledesh
                               The effect of 7 constantM. T.2004 M. Khalequzzaman 30, 35 and 40 degrees C) 47-60 development of stemborers in laboratory conditions.
                                              Fantinou, A. A., D. C. Development of immature stages of Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae) under constant temperature
                                                               2003 Perdikis, et al. development of Sesamia nonagrioides Greece
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                               Laboratory studies on the temperature-dependent Environmental Entomology 1337-1342 (Lefebvre) were performed under five alternating and consta
                                               of temperatureWhitfield, G. H.
                                                                 on the development and hatching ofEntomology 683-686 and cytotype IIS-10.11 from the Athabasca River, Alberta, w
                                                                                     Environmental eggs of development Alberta; Canada
                                                                                                             16
                               The influenceShipp, J.L and 1987 Infulence of temperature on embryonic Simulium arcticumegg hatching of Simulium arcticum Mallock IIS-10.11 (Di
                                ecolsion = 150.8 DDC,temperatureC. Elliott, et al.for larvaefluctuating temperatures on of America
                                               between upper development temp Annals the Entomological Society developmental rates and demographic statistics of the English
                                                               W., N. and the constant and apterae
Time from birth to adult alataeRelationships Kieckhefer, R. 1989 Effects ofdevelopment of= 24.5C and 82              of Macrosiphum avenae [Sitobion studies)
                                                                                                              alatae 701-706 South Dakota; USA (lab avenae] were studied in the labora
                                              Ryoo, M. I., K. 1988 Lifeal.
                                                               J. Cho, et table curculionid the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae Korean Republic Curculionidae) temperature, with rice gra
                                                                                     Korean Journal oryzae in Entomology at (Coleoptera:
                                                                                                             27        14-20
                               Life-table parameters were estimated for the statistics of Sitophilusof Applied the laboratory(L.)20, 25, 28 or 30°C or at roomon the degree-day scale
                               Eggs, larvae and pupae of Somaticus angulatus were reared at various temperatures. The relationship between temperature and duration of all deve
                                              Drinkwater, T. 1996 Development rates of Entomology 4
                                                               W.,                   al.                               21-24 South Africa
Larval stage thresholds for instars ranged from 11.0C-15.4C J. H. Giliomee, et Africanthe false wireworm, Somaticus angulatus (Fahraeus) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), at differe
                                              Geden, C. J. 1997 S. cameroni models for the filth were studied in Musca gemina, S. cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenop
                                                                                     Biological Control       9      185-192 Florida; USA
                               Muscidifurax raptor, S. gemina and Developmentdevelopmental ratesfly parasitoids Spalangiadomestica under constant and varying temperatures from
                                              Geden, C. J. 1997 S. cameroni models for the filth were studied in Musca gemina, S. cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenop
                                                                                     Biological Control       9      185-192 Florida; USA
                               Muscidifurax raptor, S. gemina and Developmentdevelopmental ratesfly parasitoids Spalangiadomestica under constant and varying temperatures from
                                              Honek, A. and 1988 Thermal requirements for development (LDT) were established for eggs and/or pupae of central European popula
                                                               F. Kocourek           Oecologia               76      455-460 Europe
                               The sum of effective temperatures (SET) and lower development threshold of aphidophagous Coccinellidae(Coleoptera), Chrysopidae, Hemerobiidae
                               The biology of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk.) was studiedprepupae of Spodoptera cosmioides thermal requirements Noctuidae)
                                              Bavaresco, A.,2002 Garcia, et not including under different temperatures Brazil (Walk.) (Lepidoptera:
                                                               M. S. Biology and Neotropical Entomology      31        49-54 stage
296 DD = Larvae (267.0 DD) + Prepupae (29.0 DD). Larvae stage theshold al.thermal requirements= 11.65C, prepupaeand its threshold only = 9.65Cwere determined, aiming to aid
                                              Foerster, L. A. and 20, 25 and 30 requirements for the C)18 the development
                                                                (17, L. M. Dionizio Anais da Sociedade Entomológica Spodoptera eridania (Cramer, was (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
                                                                                                              on 145-154 Brazil
                               The effect of 4 temperatures1989A. Temperatureplus or minus 0.5 deg development ofdo Brasilof Spodoptera eridania1782)studied in the laboratory ato
                               -                               1980 A model of       flight phenology of the48 armyworm, California; USA (field studies)
                                              Hogg, D. B., and A. P. Gutierrez the Hilgardia                  beet      35     Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), in central Cal
                                              Wood, J. R., the Poe, et al. survival Environmental EntomologyFlorida
                                                               1979 Winter            of fall armyworm pupae in 249-252 Florida; USA
                                                                                                              8
                               Winter survival of pupae ofS. L.fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae), was studied in relation to temperature and rainfall at 4
                                              El-Malki, K. G. of immature cotton leafworm stages and generation of cotton- Antonio, USA, 4-8 January, 2000: Vol. range of 17.5 to 3
                                                                                     Proceedings Beltwide models times at 4 constant temperature regimes over the
                                                                                                              2 1019-1021
Data only taken from abstract The mean development rate2000 Thermal requirements and prediction Cotton Conf., Sanleafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd). 2.
                                               thresholds and1989 Threshold temperatures andstages ofrequirementslitura fed on groundnut studies)
                               Development Rao, G. V. R., J. A. Wightman, et al. Environmentalthermal 18      Spodoptera for the development of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuid
                                                                thermal requirements for different Entomology 548-551 India (lab and field leaves were determined under constant
                                              Felland, C. M.,1995 Biddinger, et al.emergence and from overwintering sitesPennsylvania; USA
                                                               D. J. Overwintering Environmental trapping of 110-115 in punctum punctum examined for 3 years (1991-93) in A
                                                                                                             24
                               Emergence of adults of the predator Stethorus punctum punctum Entomology adult Stethorusapple orchards was(Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Penns
                                              Soleyman-Nezhadiyan, E. and R.larvae, rate of Journal of Entomology Macrosiphum and flight seasons at 10, 15 or 20°C. Over the
                                                               1998 viridiceps Laughlin
                                                                                      Symosyrphus grandicornis fed on
                                                                                                             37      243-248 and pupae,
                               The voracity of larvae of MelangynaVoracity of and Australian development in eggs, larvae Australia rosae, was measuredof adults of the hoverflies Me
Data is for females                           Ridgway, N. M. and D. L. Mahr
                                                               1990 Reproduction, Annals of the longevity, and 795-799of laboratory. USA (lab studies) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)
                                                                                      pest Phyllonorycter blancardella mortality of Sympiesis degrees C, a
                                                                                                             83     Society Wisconsin;
                               Sympiesis marylandensis was reared on the appledevelopment, Entomological host in the America At 23 marylandensisphotoperiod of LD 16:8 and w
                                              Johnson, of the peachL. Mayes
                                                                and      pest Synanthedon exitiosa (Say) adult flight of andSociety
                                                                                     Journal of the and was   Entomological the cumulative Synanthedon exitiosa (Say), in Arkansas
                                                                                                                     216-223 Arkansas; USA (field studies)
                               The larval developmentD. T.1984R.Studies of larval developmentGeorgia19recordedthe peachtree borer, percentage pheromone-trap capture of the se
                                              Peterson, R. K. D., of G. Higley, of the pestBailey Entomology were falcifera the field with Noctuidae), in Iowa: evidence for migration
                                                               1988 the polyphagous adultSyngrapha falcifera 679- 684 Iowa; USA (field blacklight
                                                                                     W. C. celery            17
                               The adult phenology and biology L. Phenology and Environmental looper, Syngraphastudied in(Lepidoptera: studies) traps in Iowa in 1984-86. On the
                               The development and Larvae stage theshold of temperature on the biologyVenezolana and threshold only = 7.38C Gelechiidae) on potato Solanu
                                              Notz, A.         1996 Influence not includingde Entomología10, 15, 20, 25 Venezula
                                                                                     Boletín prepupae = at of Tecia solanivora (Povolny) (Lepidoptera;
                                                                                                             11       49-54
283 DD = Larvae (220.9 DD) + Prepupae (62.1 DD). oviposition rate of Tecia solanivora were studied 9.4C, prepupae stage30 deg C. The development time for each stage decreas
                                                8 constant temperatures, ranging from 15.5 on 32.2 deg C,73 the339-342 Kentucky; (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae)
                                                                                     Annals to developmental ratedevelopment ofpodisi
                                                                                                              on       of Telenomus Telenomus podisi Ashm., were determined using egg
                               The effects ofYeargan, K.V 1980 Effects of temperature of the Entomological Society of America USA
                               The biology and population 1988 Biology tetranychid Tetranychus of Tetranychus pest China
                                              Qui,             S. Li                 Insect Knowledge        25      333-338 of cotton in Henan, on cotton
Paper in Chinese, data only taken from abstract F. and Q.dynamics of theand population dynamics cinnabarinus, a cinnabarinus (Boisduval) China, are reported. Ten generations w
                                              Kim, S. S., C. H. Paik, kanzawai on tea in Korea peaked in 23 April, decreased in summer and
                                                               1993 Some             Korean Journal of Applied spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acarina, Tetranychidae).
                                                                                                             late 261-266
                               Population densities of Tetranychus et al. ecological characteristics of tea redEntomology Korean Republic increased again in early September. Un
                                              Carey, J. R., and J. W. Bradley
                                                               1982 DevelopmentalAcarologia schedules,23
                                                                                      rates, vital             and T. pacificusCalifornia; USA (lab studies)
                                                                                                                     333-345 McG. were studied in the laboratory in California on pacifi
                               The life-histories of Tetranychus urticae Koch, T. turkestani (Ugar. & Nik.)sex ratios, and life tables for Tetranychus urticae, T. turkestani and T.cotton
                                              Carey, J. R., and J. W. Bradley
                                                               1982 DevelopmentalAcarologia schedules,23
                                                                                      rates, vital             and T. pacificusCalifornia; USA (lab studies)
                                                                                                                     333-345 McG. were studied in the laboratory in California on pacifi
                               The life-histories of Tetranychus urticae Koch, T. turkestani (Ugar. & Nik.)sex ratios, and life tables for Tetranychus urticae, T. turkestani and T.cotton
                                               with the infestation apple in Nova Scotia by Tetranychus urticae Koch, of Nova Scotia; Canada (lab development, life-table and innat
                                                                                     Canadian Entomologist  113      371-378 the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acarina: T
                               In connection Herbert, H. J. 1981ofBiology, life tables, and innate capacity for increase the threshold temperature of studies)
                                              Dreistadt, an egg parasitoid of the and overwintering of Xanthogaleruca luteola [Pyrrhalta
                                                               1991 Establishment Environmental pest Tetrastichus gallerucae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an egg parasitoid of the e
                                                                                                             20
                               Tetrastichus gallerucae,S. H. and D. L. Dahlsten chrysomelid elm Entomology 1711-1719 California; USAluteola], has apparently failed to become est
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                                                               2003 Overwintering Environmental Entomology Carver Australia
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                                                               1974 The control of of rice pests, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee by Trichogrammatid egg parasites
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                               The release of adults of TrichogrammaBiol. Cont. rice leafroller, Kwangtung Province over large areas of rice-fields in 62 hsians of Kwangtung Provi
                                              Russo, J. and J. out in France on the development of Trichogramma nubilale Ertle & Davis, T. maidis Pintureau & Voegele, European
                                                               1982 Effect             Agronomie                 2       509-516 France
                               A laboratory study was carried Voegele of temperature on four species of trichogrammatids (Hym. Trichogrammatidae), parasites of theT. rhenana
                                              Yu, D. S. K., E.1984 Biology of al. Environmental Entomology 1324-1329 Ontario; in southern its potential as a biological control agen
                                                                A. C. collected Trichogramma minutum Riley collected from apples Canada
                                                                                                                13
                               A strain of Trichogramma minutum Hagley, etfrom Cydia pomonella in southern Ontario was studied to assess Ontario.
                                              Russo, J. and J. out in France on the development of Trichogramma nubilale Ertle & Davis, T. maidis Pintureau & Voegele, European
                                                               1982 Effect             Agronomie                 2       509-516 France
                               A laboratory study was carried Voegele of temperature on four species of trichogrammatids (Hym. Trichogrammatidae), parasites of theT. rhenana
                                              Li, L. Y., W. H. introduced into China Colloques of Trichogramma501-511 China Davis in China.
                                                                Liu, al.                from the USA in March              subsequent and
Data only taken from abstact Trichogramma nubilalis was 1988et Introduction and utilizationde l'INRA -1983,nubilale Ertlestudies of its biology are summarized. In the laboratory a
                                              carried C. in and H. C. Chiang
                                                               1982 Temperature relationshipsstrain of Ier-Symposium International, & Chen from avril 1982
                                                                                       Les with a of development of Trichogramma ostriniae. (lab studies)
                                                                                                                          97-100 Minnesota; USA
Data only taken from abstact Studies were Volden,out S. the laboratory in Minnesota trichogrammes.Trichogramma ostriniae Pang Antibes 20-23central China, where the parasite a
                               virescens      Goodenough, J. L., methods were used in studies in the Entomology the development rate of the parasite Trichogramma pretiosum
                                                               1983 W. Hartstack, et al.models for Trichogramma model
                                                                                                                76 1095-1102 Texas; USA
Data when host was Heliothis The poikilotherm and day-degree A.DevelopmentalJournal of EconomicUSA topretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) reared on four hosts R
                                              Russo, J. and J. out in France on the development of Trichogramma nubilale Ertle & Davis, T. maidis Pintureau & Voegele, European
                                                               1982 Effect             Agronomie                 2       509-516 France
                               A laboratory study was carried Voegele of temperature on four species of trichogrammatids (Hym. Trichogrammatidae), parasites of theT. rhenana
                                              Russo, J. and J. out in France on the development of Trichogramma nubilale Ertle & Davis, T. maidis Pintureau & Voegele, European
                                                               1982 Effect             Agronomie                 2       509-516 France
                               A laboratory study was carried Voegele of temperature on four species of trichogrammatids (Hym. Trichogrammatidae), parasites of theT. rhenana
                                              Butler, G. D., Jr., A. G. Hamilton required dark strain of cabbage (but less than 1 to USA (lab studies)
                                                               1975 Development ofA. C. slightly longer to hatch 619-620 Arizona; longer) than
                                                                                          the Bartlett           4
                               Eggs of the Dark strain of Trichoplusia ni (Hb.)and Environmental Entomology looper in relationdaytemperature eggs of the normal strain. Larval and
                                              and viability D. Pratissoli, et al. TelenomusSociedade Entomologica do Brasil
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                                                                                                                26       445-453 Brazil
Data only taken from abstact Development Torres, J. B.,of 1997 Thermal requirements and development of the brochymenae were studied at five constant temperatures ranging f
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                                                               2001 requirements, nymphal development 98 and the fecundity Kingdom aphid, apterous adults of the giant willow a
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                                                                                                                25       133-137 Chile
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                                                               1990 Temperature mortality of cinnabar moth, moth, Tyria jacobaeae Biological Control Senecio
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Data only taken from abstact The effect of temp. on theM., J. J. Dymock, et and Proceedings of the cinnabarTyria jacobaeae (an agent for the control ofof Weeds jacobaea), was inv
                                              Sánchez-Ramos, I. Development stages of mouldEntomology 1082-1089 were examined at at constant temperatures.
                                                               survival P. Castañera   Environmental mite, T. putrescentiae, Spain
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                               The developmental rate and 2001 andof immature and survival of Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Acaridae)seven constant temperatures, ranging fro
                                               temperature (at 10, 15, 18, of 23, 25, 27 and 30*C) on the development and reproduction of
                                                               2002                    Korean on reproduction and 205-209
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                                                                J. M. Development and Mortality 9 the citrus snow scale (Homoptera: Diaspididae) under constant temperature and rel
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                               Development Arias-Reveron,1995 and H.W.was studied under of combinations1189-1195 Florida; USA and relative humidity. An effect of temperatur
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                                                               1997 M.                 Journal of Economic Entomology
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                                                               1991 Keller             Environmental Entomology 458-469 Australia
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                                               adult longevity F. M. Diab,influence of low temperature on development, adult longevity and productivity temperature in the laboratory.
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                               The relationships between temperature (226.5 development of Experimentalis et pupae of the tortricid Zeiraphera canadensis were
                                              6.37C. 291.2 DD J. Turgeon
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                                                                                       Entomologia (64.7 DD)    50        185-193 Quebec; Canada
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                               Emergence and development ratesTemperature-dependent development and phenology of pepper maggots (Diptera: Tephritidae) associated and ho
Database Notes

Definitions
Base development temperature: temperature below which an insect stops development
Upper development temperature: temperature above which an insect stops development or development is adversely affected
Egg to adult degree-days: DD units accumulated above the base development temperature, from the beginning of the oviposition stage to the beginning of the adult (i.e. eclosion
Egg to egg degree-days: DD units accumulated above the base development temperature, from the beginning of the oviposition stage to the end of the adult (i.e. beginning of o

Egg base threshold: lower developmental temperature for the oviposition stage
Larval/nymph base threshold: lower developmental temperature for the larvae/nymph stage
Pupae base threshold: lower developmental temperature for the pupae stage
Mature adult base threshold: lower developmental temperature for the mature adult stage

Egg degree-days: DD units accumulated above the base development temperature, from the beginning of the oviposition stage to the egg hatch stage
Larvae/nymph degree-days: DD units accumulated above the base development temperature, from the egg hatch stage to the end of the larvae/nymph stage
Pupae degree-days: DD units accumulated above the base development temperature, from the beginning of the pupae stage to the beginning of the adult stage
Mature adult degree-days: DD units accumulated above the base development temperature, from the beginning of the adult stage to the end of the adult (i.e. beginning of ovipo

Footnotes
Data highlighted in red has been calculated from experimental data within the paper
Data cells filled in green requires clarification and is explained in the comments section
References highlighted in blue contain data sourced from the University of California Statewide IPM program (http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/MODELS)
he adult (i.e. eclosion from pupae) stage
t (i.e. beginning of oviposition) stage




. beginning of oviposition) stage

								
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