building_case_study by y18a5zKA

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									Full LCA – Stadium Australia
Different approaches – Full LCA


     Stadium Australia Case Study
     Full LCA required because the high profile of
      the project and the stakeholders
      (Greenpeace, Government and IOC)
Full LCA – Goal and Scope


    Goal
     The goal of the LCA on the Stadium was to
      quantify the impacts of the building
      throughout its life in order to minimise them.
     Specifically to quantify: raw material use,
      energy use, emissions to air and water, and
      solid wastes into an inventory of results
Full LCA – Goal and Scope


    Scope 1
       Seat 110,000 (80,000 post Olympics)
       It has seven floor levels and a basement
       The areas covered by the life cycle assessment of
        the Stadium included:
        – procurement (raw material extraction, manufacture and
          transport) of the building systems;
        – construction and reconfiguration;
        – operation and maintenance for a fifty year design life; and
        – demolition. (Janssen, 1999)
Full LCA – Goal and Scope


    Scope 2
       Presents an inventory of results of environmental
        inputs (raw materials and energy) and outputs (air
        and water emissions and solid waste). These inputs
        and outputs have potential environmental impacts.

       The scope of the study is limited to reporting the
        quantities of these inputs and outputs. No life cycle
        impact assessment has been carried out on the
        results.
Full LCA – Functional Unit


    ‘The   provision of a stadium for 50 years’

      –    Total Life Cycle
      –    Procurement
      –    Construction and reconfiguration
      –    Operation and maintenance
      –    Demolition
Full LCA – System Boundary




    Depiction of the system boundary from Janssen 1999
Procurement Systems included


       Concrete systems                  Ceiling and wall systems
                                            – masonry block walls
        – insitu concrete                     cement render
          pre-cast concrete                   plasterboard, fibreboard
          bored piles                         tiling
          retaining walls.                    glasswork
                                              interior paintwork
       Steelwork systems                 Seating and roof systems
        – hand rails, barriers gates        – stadium seating
          and other steelwork                 polycarbonate roof.
          facade metal cladding           Building services systems
          structural steelwork              – hydraulics system
                                              mechanical and air conditioning
       Other systems                         system
        – lifts and escalators                electrical system
          arena track.                        fire service system
                                              stormwater system.
Procurement Systems Excluded


       Soft furnishings were excluded from the
        study. Also any systems outside the boundary
        of the Stadium such as the precinct works
        and outbuildings were excluded. In all cases,
        systems excluded were considered minor in
        relation to the overall works.
Full LCA – System Boundary




   Depiction of the system boundary from Janssen 1999
Construction systems included

      Waste management:
       – waste to landfill
       – waste to reuse or recycling.
      Energy use:
       – diesel and gas fuel for construction and demolition
         machinery electricity.
      Water use:
       – potable town water
       – recycled stormwater.
      Raw materials:
       – additional systems added in reconfiguration.
Full LCA – System Boundary




    Depiction of the system boundary from Janssen 1999
Operation and maintenance systems included


        Energy use for the following       Water use:
         systems:                            potable town water
          heating and hot water              recycled water
          cooling and air conditioning       water collected on site.
          cogeneration system
                                            Maintenance of the Stadium:
          lighting
                                             replacement of systems as
          power                                 required
          kitchen facilities                 waste produced in maintenance.
          lifts and escalators.
        Waste management:
          waste to landfill
          waste to recycling
          compostable waste.
Full LCA – System Boundary




    Depiction of the system boundary from Janssen 1999
Demolition systems considered



        Energy use for demolition machinery:
         – diesel fuel
         – electricity.
        Waste management:
         – waste to landfill
         – waste to reuse or recycling.
Full LCA - Inventory

       Quantitative questionnaire, with assistance provided
        to help in its completion.
       Building product suppliers were contacted for a
        description of their manufacturing process and
        associated raw materials, energy use, water use and
        waste products.
       Data was also collected from other studies especially
        for the operational phase.
       Invoices for electricity, water, diesel, petrol and gas
        and monthly reports.
Data sources and assumptions


    The data collected by the questionnaire was
      verified and supplemented using:

      –   computer databases of previous studies
      –   published literature and trade information
      –   previous energy or environmental audits
      –   direct contact with the manufacturer or designer
          (Janssen, 1998)
Impact Assessment


    No impact assessment was done, reporting was
     limited to the quantities of the inputs and
     outputs
      – E.g. tones of waste, steel, megalitres of water, etc.
    Allocation
      Some allocation was done to determine total
       Greenhouse gas emissions
Results
                                                                                Tota
                             Procure   Construction &    Operation &   Demoli
                                                                                  l
                              ment     Reconfiguration   Maintenance    tion
                                                                                7,60
 Primary energy use (TJ)     1,370          150             6,000       80
                                                                                 0


   Greenhouse gas             140            10             470          5      625
 emissions (‘000 tonnes
      CO2 equiv.)
                               80            50             160         385     675
Solid wastes – recycled or
 landfilled (‘000 tonnes)

 Water use (‘000 tonnes)      680            90             2250         5
                                                                                3025
Results – energy consumption
Results – water consumption
Conclusions

    Multiplex and Stadium Australia used life cycle assessment in the
      original design optimisation of the Stadium.

    Three main designs were assessed.
        o a conventional stadium design,
        o a better environmental practice and
        o a best practice design.


    Using a mixture of life cycle assessment and cost/benefit analysis,
       the better environmental design was chosen.
Streamlined Software


    LCAid
    Comparing different housing forms
    Comparing different school design forms
    Comparison of 5 housing styles
   Goal – evaluate housing construction styles to determine the most
    environmentally responsible
 Scope – see table below
 Functional Unit - 50 years, average 4 person family
Ecotect 3-D model - for modelling operational energy
operation/maintenance
Comparison of the 5 Case Studies for a Building Life Cycle of 50 Years
Energy Consumed in Operation
                                             Cooling load kWh


          3500

          3000

          2500

          2000
    kWh




                                                                                        Cooling load kWh
          1500

          1000

          500

            0
                Timber       Brickveneer      Double         Tilt-up   Tilt-up w alls
             w alls /metal       w alls/    Brick w alls    veneer      /concrete
                  roof        terracotta   / cement tile     w alls/      tile roof
                               tile roof        roof       concrete
                                                           tile roof




          COOLING ENERGY
Energy Consumed in Operation
                                            Heating load kWh


         5000

         4500

         4000

         3500

         3000
   kWh




         2500                                                                          Heating load kWh

         2000

         1500

         1000

         500

           0
               Timber       Brickveneer      Double         Tilt-up   Tilt-up w alls
            w alls /metal       w alls/    Brick w alls    veneer      /concrete
                 roof        terracotta   / cement tile     w alls/      tile roof
                              tile roof        roof       concrete
                                                          tile roof




          HEATING ENERGY
Energy Consumed in Operation
                                          Total heat/cool load kWh


         7000

         6000

         5000

         4000
   kWh




                                                                                      Total heat/cool load kWh
         3000

         2000

         1000

           0
               Timber     Brickveneer      Double         Tilt-up    Tilt-up w alls
            w alls /metal     w alls/    Brick w alls    veneer       /concrete
                 roof      terracotta   / cement tile     w alls/       tile roof
                            tile roof        roof       concrete
                                                        tile roof




  TOTAL COOLING/HEATING ENERGY
Inventory Matrix - fascia

  Types:
     Aluminium with plastic honeycomb center
     Aluminium with Aluminium honeycomb center
     Stainless steel fascias
     Wooden board with thin sheet of Stainless steel
     Wooden board painted with metallic paint
Qualitative – Life Cycle Guide


     Using a set of guiding questions to help in
      decision making.
     Can use quantitative tools to help in the
      decision making
     Example Reservoir Civic Centre
RCC Green Project
Reservoir Civic Centre


    Reservoir
     Impact of materials
     Impact of building performance
     Impact on deconstruction
RCC Green - Scope

   The goal was to produce a building which performed well in all
     environmental areas, while meeting budgetary, aesthetic,
     functional and social goals. The aims and objectives were:
       –   maximise energy efficiency - perform better than a 5 star building
       –   minimise waste - reduce construction waste by 80%
       –   maximise water efficiency
       –   optimise indoor air quality
       –   minimise embodied energy
       –   maximise the use of recycled, environmentally responsible
           materials

      The audience for the results of the life cycle input was the
      architects and the project team.
RCC Green – Functional Unit

    The functional unit was a community building encompassing a
      recording studio, Youth Resources area, Cafe, Customer
      service, Maternity and Health Centre, Function room, meeting
      rooms and UN room (area designated for the various community
      groups to write their newsletters, etc.)

    The life expectancy is 50 Years, it is 1.5 storeys, with 900 m2 of
      floor space.
RCC Green – System Boundary

   Due to the use of the qualitative life cycle questions the
     boundaries were not formally determined. For the
     LCA's carried out on materials the boundaries were:
      – Impacts of energy production were taken into account but
        not of the infrastructure (capital equipment)
      – The system analysed included the manufacture of all
        building materials from resources in the ground, building site
        activities, construction equipment, repairs/maintenance,
        periodic refurbishment and finally, decommissioning
      – Disposal of material was included and any material recycled
        was credited
      – Transportation mode and distance were included
RCC - Cladding
RCC – Insulation material
RCC - Water
Tools




    For links got to http://Buildlca.rmit.edu.au
Tools


       Detailed LCA – material (SimaPro)
       LCA Design tool (ECOit)
       LCA CAD (LCAid/EcoTect)
       Product guide and Checklists (EcoSpecifier)
       Building Assessment Schemes (Greenhouse
        rating)
       Embodied energy (Graham Treloar)
More Information

http://www.darebin.vic.gov.au/RCCgreen.htm
http://buildlca.rmit.edu.au
http://www.cfd.rmit.edu.au
http://ecospecifier.rmit.edu.au
http://onsite.rmit.edu.au

								
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