Describe by J5q12k8

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									Describe and explain the structures and functions of the human body at different
organizational levels (e.g., systems, tissues, cells, organelles).

Major Understandings

1.2a Important levels of organization for structure and function include cells, tissues,
organs, organ systems, and whole organisms.

Organize the levels of organization above from simplest to most complex.




1.2b Humans represent a complex organism; therefore, they require multiple systems
for digestion, respiration, reproduction, circulation, excretion, movement,
coordination, and immunity. The systems collectively perform the life processes.

Life Processes
_________________-- breakdown of food to simpler molecules which can enter
                        the cells
_________________ -- the movement of materials within an organism or its cells
_________________ -- (locomotion) change in position by a living thing
_________________ -- removal of waste products by an organism (wastes may
                     include carbon dioxide, water, and urea in urine and sweat)
_________________ -- process which converts the energy in food to _________ (the
                     form of energy which can be used by the cells)
_________________ -- the making of more organisms of one's own kind -- not needed
                     by an individual living thing but is needed by its ____________
_________________ -- the ability of an organism to resist disease causing organisms
                          and foreign invaders
Coordination            --the control of the various activities of an organism
                            (mostly involves the _____________ system and
                            _____________ glands in complex animals)
_________________ -- the production of more complex substances by combining two
                          or more simpler substances

1.2c The components of the human body, from organ systems to cell organelles,
interact to maintain a balanced internal environment. To successfully accomplish
this, organisms possess a diversity of control mechanisms that detect deviations
and make corrective actions.



___________________ -- is the maintenance of stable internal state in an organism

1.2d If there is a disruption in any human system, there will be a corresponding
imbalance in homeostasis.
Explain how we maintain temperature homeostasis in our bodies.

________________________________________________________________________

1.2e The organs and systems of the body help to provide all the cells with their basic
needs. The cells of the body are of different kinds and are grouped in ways that
enhance how they function together.

___________________ -- are groups of cells which perform similar functions

___________________ -- are groups of tissues which perform similar functions

___________________ -- are groups of organs which work together to perform
                       similar functions

1.2f Cells have particular structures that perform specific jobs. These structures
perform the actual work of the cell. Just as systems are coordinated and work
together, the cells making up those systems must also be coordinated and organized
in a cooperative manner.




Name three cell structures and human body structures which perform the same job
and state that job.




1.




2.




3.




1.2g Each cell is covered by a membrane that performs a number of important
functions for the cell. These include: separation from its outside environment,
controlling which molecules enter and leave the cell, and recognition of chemical
signals. The processes of diffusion and active transport are important in the
movement of materials in and out of cells.
______________________ -- cell structure composed of 2 ________________ layers
                           and __________________ which allows materials to
                           selectively enter and leave the cell based on their
                           _________________

List three functions of the cell or plasma membrane.

a.




b.




c.




______________________ -- is the movement of materials from high to
                           low concentration

___________________ -- is the movement of materials from low to high
        concentration requiring ______________
Explain with a labeled picture why a cell placed in distilled water may burst.




Explain with a labeled picture why a cell placed in concentrated salt solution may
shrivel.




1.2h Cell membranes may contain receptor molecules which play an important role
in the interactions between cells.

____________________ -- molecules on the surface of cells which can attach
                        to other molecules (like hormones)




 1.2i Many organic and inorganic substances dissolved in cells allow necessary
chemical reactions to take place in order to maintain life. Large organic food
molecules such as proteins and starches must initially be broken down (digested to
amino acids and simple sugars respectively), in order to enter cells.

Why must digestion (chemical hydrolysis) break down large molecules?
_________________________________________________________________________




________________________ -- are the digestive end products of complete protein
              chemical digestion




_______________________ -- are the digestive end products of complete carbohydrate
chemical digestion




Glucose is an example of a ________________ sugar or a _______________________.




___________________________ or ______________________ are complex carbohydrates




1.2j Inside the cell a variety of specialized structures, formed from many different
molecules, carry out the transport of materials, energy capture and release, protein
building, waste disposal, and information storage.




                                        Parts of the Cell Theory
        The cell is the unit of _______________ in all living things.
        The cell is the unit of _______________ in all living things.
        All cells come from _________________ cells.




                                             Some Cell Organelles


_______ -- control center of the cell contains DNA
_______________ -- carries on the process of cell __________________ converting glucose to ATP energy the
cell can use


___________________ -- transport channels within the cell
____________________ -- found on the endoplasmic reticulum and free within the
                            cell responsible for the synthesis of proteins for the cell
_____________________ -- selectively regulates the materials moving to and from
                             the cell
___________________ -- stores and digests food (sometimes merges with the
                            ____________________)

____________________ -- pumps out wastes and excess water from the cell

__________________ -- found in plant cells and algae carries on the process
                          of photosynthesis
__________________ -- surrounds and supports plant cells




** _______________________ and _________________________ are found in plants but not in
animals

1.2k Once nutrients enter a cell, the cell will use those raw materials for energy or
as building blocks in the synthesis of compounds necessary for life. Energy must be
changed into a form cells can use. A type of protein called an enzyme allows for
these chemical changes to occur at variable rates. The rate at which enzymes work
can be influenced by environmental factors such as pH and temperature.




What is the form of energy cells use?               ________________




Enzymes
The place where the enzyme fits with the substrate is called its
___________________.
____________________ -- substance which speeds up a chemical
                           reaction without becoming part of the reaction
                           itself
___________________ --   an organic catalyst made of mostly
                            ____________________


What are two ways you can tell an enzyme in a pictured reaction?
a.
b.


Factors Influencing Enzyme Activity


1.   _______: the optimum (best) in most living things is close to 7 (neutral).




2.   _________________: the best is 37 C in most living things ... heating up the
     enzyme causes it to _____________________ or change its shape so it
     no longer fits with its _____________________




3.   Concentrations of Enzyme and Substrate

When there is a fixed amount of enzyme and an excess of substrate molecules the
rate of reaction will ______________ to a point and then level off.
This leveling off occurs because all of the enzyme is _________ up and the excess
substrate has nothing to combine with.
If more enzyme is available than substrate, a similar reaction rate ____________ and
leveling off will occur. The excess enzyme will eventually run out of ____________
molecules to react with.

Performance Indicator 1.2

1.2l The two primary methods of communication between cells are hormones and
nerve cells. If nerve or hormone signals are altered, this changes cellular
communication and affects the organism’s stability.
                             ____________________ Structures and their Functions


1. _________________ -- neuron branch which detects stimuli (changes in
                            the environment)

2. ____________ -- body of the neuron where normal metabolic activities occur

3. ______________ -- longest dendrite covered by a myelin sheath which provides electrical insulation -- carries
nerve message or impulse to the end brushes

4. ______________ -- release nerve chemicals called neurotransmitters which stimulate adjacent dendrites on the
next neuron or a muscle cell


Neurons may communicate with other nerve cells or __________________.




Performance Indicator 1.3

Explain how a one-celled organism is able to function despite lacking the levels of
organization present in more complex organisms.

Major Understandings

1.3a All living things are composed of one or more cells, each capable of carrying out
the life functions.

1.3b The organelles present in single-celled organisms often act in the same manner
as the tissues and systems found in multicellular organisms.

1.3c Single-celled organisms perform all of the life processes needed to maintain
homeostasis, by using specialized organelles.
5.1c In all organisms, organic compounds can be used to assemble other molecules
such as proteins, DNA, starch, and fats. The chemical energy stored in bonds can be
used as a source of energy for life processes.

What type of chemical reaction is needed to convert the simple organic compound
glucose to more complex ones like proteins, DNA, starches, and fats?
________________________

5.1d Stored energy is released when chemical bonds are broken during cellular
respiration and new compounds with lower energy bonds are formed. Cells usually
transfer this energy temporarily in phosphate bonds of a high-energy compound
called ATP.

____________________ bonds releases chemical energy

ATP ----- ATPase -----> __________ + P + __________________

The phosphate bonds of the ATP molecule are _________ in energy.

5.1e The energy from ATP is then used by the organism to obtain, transform, and
transport materials, and to eliminate wastes.

The energy from ATP can be used to perform an organism's
_____________ processes.

5.1f Biochemical processes, both breakdown and synthesis, are made possible by a
large set of protein catalysts called enzymes.



Enzymes are ________________ catalysts made mostly of _________________.

A(n) __________________ speeds up a chemical reaction without becoming part of that
reaction itself.

5.1g Enzymes and other molecules, such as hormones and antibodies, have specific
shapes that influence both how they function and how they interact with other
molecules.

List three specific examples of the "lock and key concept" we discussed in class
this year.

a.) ______________________________________________________________

b.) ______________________________________________________________
c.) ______________________________________________________________

Performance Indicator 5.2

Explain disease as a failure of homeostasis.

Major Understandings

5.2a Homeostasis in an organism is constantly threatened. Failure to respond
effectively can result in disease or death.

The ability of an organism to maintain a stable internal environment which is in
balance with its surroundings is called ____________________.

Another name for homeostasis is ____________________.

List two major things which can occur if an organism fails to maintain homeostasis.
_________________________________________________________

5.2b Viruses, bacteria, fungi, and other parasites may infect plants and animals and
interfere with normal life functions.

Any organism which causes disease is called a(n) ___________________.

List four categories of pathogens we studied.

_______________________________________________________________________

5.2c The immune system is designed to protect against pathogens such as
microscopic organisms and foreign substances that enter from outside the body; the
immune system also protects against some cancer cells that arise within.

Any foreign invader is called a(n) _______________________.

A chemical substance made by lymphocytic white blood cells to destroy or
immobilize foreign invaders is called a(n) ______________________.

___________________________ kill some cancer cells which arise within the body.

5.2d White blood cells engulf invaders or produce antibodies that attack them or
mark them for killing by other white cells. The antibodies produced will remain and
can fight off subsequent invaders of the same kind.

______________________ -- are white blood cells which engulf and destroy bacteria

_____________________ -- are white blood cells which produce antibodies
Some white blood cells simply mark invading pathogens for _____________________.




5.2e Vaccinations use weakened microbes (or parts of them) to stimulate the
immune system to react. This reaction prepares the body to fight subsequent
invasions by the same microbes.

Vaccines use ________________ or __________________ microbes to stimulate the immune
system to fight __________________. The immune system will now have a
_____________________ (or secondary immune response) to destroy any antigens which
again invade the body at a later time.

5.2f Some viral diseases, such as AIDS, damage the immune system, leaving the
body unable to deal with multiple infectious agents and cancerous cells.

Explain the chief mechanism by which AIDS destroys our immune system.
__________________________________________________________

Why do people with AIDS die with things like respiratory diseases and rare cancers?
_________________________________________________________

5.2g Some allergic reactions are caused by the body’s immune responses to usually
harmless environmental substances. Sometimes the immune system may attack
some of the body’s own cells.
_______________________ -- a disease or group of diseases where the immune system
over responds to normally harmless substances

_______________________ --- are diseases where the body attacks some of its own cells
as in rheumatoid arthritis and lupus

5.2h Disease may also be caused by inheritance, toxic substances, poor nutrition,
organ malfunction, and some personal behavior. Some effects show up right away;
others may not show up for many years.

Name a disease caused by inheritance. ___________________________

Name a disease caused by toxic substances.         _____________________

Name a disease associated with poor nutrition. ___________________

What is an organ malfunction? ____________________________________

Give an example of a poor personal behavior resulting in a disease which exhibits
itself many years later.
______________________________________________________________________

5.2i Gene mutation in a cell can result in uncontrolled cell division, called cancer.
Exposure of cells to certain chemicals and radiation increases mutations and thus
increases the chance of cancer.

Any change in the DNA of a cell is called a(n) ____________________.

_____________________ is a group of diseases associated with uncontrolled mitotic cell
division.

Why are some chemicals and radiations called carcinogens?

______________________________________________________________________

Performance Indicator 5.3

Relate processes at the system level to the cellular level in order to explain dynamic
equilibrium in multi-celled organisms.

Major Understandings

5.3a Dynamic equilibrium results from detection of and response to stimuli.
Organisms detect and respond to change in a variety of ways both at the cellular
level and at the organism level.
______________________ -- is any change in the environment responded to by an organism

List an example of an organism responding to a stimulus at the cellular level.

_________________________________________________________________________

List an example of an organism responding to a stimulus at the organism level.

_________________________________________________________________________

5.3b Feedback mechanisms have evolved to maintain homeostasis. Examples
include the changes in heart rate or respiratory rate in response to increased activity
in muscle cells, the maintenance of blood sugar levels by insulin from the pancreas,
and the changes in openings in the leaves of plants by guard cells to regulate water
loss and gas exchange.

Insulin lowers blood sugar by converting excess glucose to _________________ in the
liver and muscles. Glucose also takes blood sugar directly into our ______________.

As muscle cell activity increases, our heart rate and respiratory rate
_______________________.

As plants need to conserve water, their ___________________ change in shape to close
the ____________________ and prevent water loss.

________________________ is a hormone which allows the body to respond to emergency
situations with increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate.

								
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