Describe and explain the structures and functions of the human body at different organizational levels (e.g., systems, tissues, cells, organelles). Major Understandings 1.2a Important levels of organization for structure and function include cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and whole organisms. Organize the levels of organization above from simplest to most complex. 1.2b Humans represent a complex organism; therefore, they require multiple systems for digestion, respiration, reproduction, circulation, excretion, movement, coordination, and immunity. The systems collectively perform the life processes. Life Processes _________________-- breakdown of food to simpler molecules which can enter the cells _________________ -- the movement of materials within an organism or its cells _________________ -- (locomotion) change in position by a living thing _________________ -- removal of waste products by an organism (wastes may include carbon dioxide, water, and urea in urine and sweat) _________________ -- process which converts the energy in food to _________ (the form of energy which can be used by the cells) _________________ -- the making of more organisms of one's own kind -- not needed by an individual living thing but is needed by its ____________ _________________ -- the ability of an organism to resist disease causing organisms and foreign invaders Coordination --the control of the various activities of an organism (mostly involves the _____________ system and _____________ glands in complex animals) _________________ -- the production of more complex substances by combining two or more simpler substances 1.2c The components of the human body, from organ systems to cell organelles, interact to maintain a balanced internal environment. To successfully accomplish this, organisms possess a diversity of control mechanisms that detect deviations and make corrective actions. ___________________ -- is the maintenance of stable internal state in an organism 1.2d If there is a disruption in any human system, there will be a corresponding imbalance in homeostasis. Explain how we maintain temperature homeostasis in our bodies. ________________________________________________________________________ 1.2e The organs and systems of the body help to provide all the cells with their basic needs. The cells of the body are of different kinds and are grouped in ways that enhance how they function together. ___________________ -- are groups of cells which perform similar functions ___________________ -- are groups of tissues which perform similar functions ___________________ -- are groups of organs which work together to perform similar functions 1.2f Cells have particular structures that perform specific jobs. These structures perform the actual work of the cell. Just as systems are coordinated and work together, the cells making up those systems must also be coordinated and organized in a cooperative manner. Name three cell structures and human body structures which perform the same job and state that job. 1. 2. 3. 1.2g Each cell is covered by a membrane that performs a number of important functions for the cell. These include: separation from its outside environment, controlling which molecules enter and leave the cell, and recognition of chemical signals. The processes of diffusion and active transport are important in the movement of materials in and out of cells. ______________________ -- cell structure composed of 2 ________________ layers and __________________ which allows materials to selectively enter and leave the cell based on their _________________ List three functions of the cell or plasma membrane. a. b. c. ______________________ -- is the movement of materials from high to low concentration ___________________ -- is the movement of materials from low to high concentration requiring ______________ Explain with a labeled picture why a cell placed in distilled water may burst. Explain with a labeled picture why a cell placed in concentrated salt solution may shrivel. 1.2h Cell membranes may contain receptor molecules which play an important role in the interactions between cells. ____________________ -- molecules on the surface of cells which can attach to other molecules (like hormones) 1.2i Many organic and inorganic substances dissolved in cells allow necessary chemical reactions to take place in order to maintain life. Large organic food molecules such as proteins and starches must initially be broken down (digested to amino acids and simple sugars respectively), in order to enter cells. Why must digestion (chemical hydrolysis) break down large molecules? _________________________________________________________________________ ________________________ -- are the digestive end products of complete protein chemical digestion _______________________ -- are the digestive end products of complete carbohydrate chemical digestion Glucose is an example of a ________________ sugar or a _______________________. ___________________________ or ______________________ are complex carbohydrates 1.2j Inside the cell a variety of specialized structures, formed from many different molecules, carry out the transport of materials, energy capture and release, protein building, waste disposal, and information storage. Parts of the Cell Theory The cell is the unit of _______________ in all living things. The cell is the unit of _______________ in all living things. All cells come from _________________ cells. Some Cell Organelles _______ -- control center of the cell contains DNA _______________ -- carries on the process of cell __________________ converting glucose to ATP energy the cell can use ___________________ -- transport channels within the cell ____________________ -- found on the endoplasmic reticulum and free within the cell responsible for the synthesis of proteins for the cell _____________________ -- selectively regulates the materials moving to and from the cell ___________________ -- stores and digests food (sometimes merges with the ____________________) ____________________ -- pumps out wastes and excess water from the cell __________________ -- found in plant cells and algae carries on the process of photosynthesis __________________ -- surrounds and supports plant cells ** _______________________ and _________________________ are found in plants but not in animals 1.2k Once nutrients enter a cell, the cell will use those raw materials for energy or as building blocks in the synthesis of compounds necessary for life. Energy must be changed into a form cells can use. A type of protein called an enzyme allows for these chemical changes to occur at variable rates. The rate at which enzymes work can be influenced by environmental factors such as pH and temperature. What is the form of energy cells use? ________________ Enzymes The place where the enzyme fits with the substrate is called its ___________________. ____________________ -- substance which speeds up a chemical reaction without becoming part of the reaction itself ___________________ -- an organic catalyst made of mostly ____________________ What are two ways you can tell an enzyme in a pictured reaction? a. b. Factors Influencing Enzyme Activity 1. _______: the optimum (best) in most living things is close to 7 (neutral). 2. _________________: the best is 37 C in most living things ... heating up the enzyme causes it to _____________________ or change its shape so it no longer fits with its _____________________ 3. Concentrations of Enzyme and Substrate When there is a fixed amount of enzyme and an excess of substrate molecules the rate of reaction will ______________ to a point and then level off. This leveling off occurs because all of the enzyme is _________ up and the excess substrate has nothing to combine with. If more enzyme is available than substrate, a similar reaction rate ____________ and leveling off will occur. The excess enzyme will eventually run out of ____________ molecules to react with. Performance Indicator 1.2 1.2l The two primary methods of communication between cells are hormones and nerve cells. If nerve or hormone signals are altered, this changes cellular communication and affects the organism’s stability. ____________________ Structures and their Functions 1. _________________ -- neuron branch which detects stimuli (changes in the environment) 2. ____________ -- body of the neuron where normal metabolic activities occur 3. ______________ -- longest dendrite covered by a myelin sheath which provides electrical insulation -- carries nerve message or impulse to the end brushes 4. ______________ -- release nerve chemicals called neurotransmitters which stimulate adjacent dendrites on the next neuron or a muscle cell Neurons may communicate with other nerve cells or __________________. Performance Indicator 1.3 Explain how a one-celled organism is able to function despite lacking the levels of organization present in more complex organisms. Major Understandings 1.3a All living things are composed of one or more cells, each capable of carrying out the life functions. 1.3b The organelles present in single-celled organisms often act in the same manner as the tissues and systems found in multicellular organisms. 1.3c Single-celled organisms perform all of the life processes needed to maintain homeostasis, by using specialized organelles. 5.1c In all organisms, organic compounds can be used to assemble other molecules such as proteins, DNA, starch, and fats. The chemical energy stored in bonds can be used as a source of energy for life processes. What type of chemical reaction is needed to convert the simple organic compound glucose to more complex ones like proteins, DNA, starches, and fats? ________________________ 5.1d Stored energy is released when chemical bonds are broken during cellular respiration and new compounds with lower energy bonds are formed. Cells usually transfer this energy temporarily in phosphate bonds of a high-energy compound called ATP. ____________________ bonds releases chemical energy ATP ----- ATPase -----> __________ + P + __________________ The phosphate bonds of the ATP molecule are _________ in energy. 5.1e The energy from ATP is then used by the organism to obtain, transform, and transport materials, and to eliminate wastes. The energy from ATP can be used to perform an organism's _____________ processes. 5.1f Biochemical processes, both breakdown and synthesis, are made possible by a large set of protein catalysts called enzymes. Enzymes are ________________ catalysts made mostly of _________________. A(n) __________________ speeds up a chemical reaction without becoming part of that reaction itself. 5.1g Enzymes and other molecules, such as hormones and antibodies, have specific shapes that influence both how they function and how they interact with other molecules. List three specific examples of the "lock and key concept" we discussed in class this year. a.) ______________________________________________________________ b.) ______________________________________________________________ c.) ______________________________________________________________ Performance Indicator 5.2 Explain disease as a failure of homeostasis. Major Understandings 5.2a Homeostasis in an organism is constantly threatened. Failure to respond effectively can result in disease or death. The ability of an organism to maintain a stable internal environment which is in balance with its surroundings is called ____________________. Another name for homeostasis is ____________________. List two major things which can occur if an organism fails to maintain homeostasis. _________________________________________________________ 5.2b Viruses, bacteria, fungi, and other parasites may infect plants and animals and interfere with normal life functions. Any organism which causes disease is called a(n) ___________________. List four categories of pathogens we studied. _______________________________________________________________________ 5.2c The immune system is designed to protect against pathogens such as microscopic organisms and foreign substances that enter from outside the body; the immune system also protects against some cancer cells that arise within. Any foreign invader is called a(n) _______________________. A chemical substance made by lymphocytic white blood cells to destroy or immobilize foreign invaders is called a(n) ______________________. ___________________________ kill some cancer cells which arise within the body. 5.2d White blood cells engulf invaders or produce antibodies that attack them or mark them for killing by other white cells. The antibodies produced will remain and can fight off subsequent invaders of the same kind. ______________________ -- are white blood cells which engulf and destroy bacteria _____________________ -- are white blood cells which produce antibodies Some white blood cells simply mark invading pathogens for _____________________. 5.2e Vaccinations use weakened microbes (or parts of them) to stimulate the immune system to react. This reaction prepares the body to fight subsequent invasions by the same microbes. Vaccines use ________________ or __________________ microbes to stimulate the immune system to fight __________________. The immune system will now have a _____________________ (or secondary immune response) to destroy any antigens which again invade the body at a later time. 5.2f Some viral diseases, such as AIDS, damage the immune system, leaving the body unable to deal with multiple infectious agents and cancerous cells. Explain the chief mechanism by which AIDS destroys our immune system. __________________________________________________________ Why do people with AIDS die with things like respiratory diseases and rare cancers? _________________________________________________________ 5.2g Some allergic reactions are caused by the body’s immune responses to usually harmless environmental substances. Sometimes the immune system may attack some of the body’s own cells. _______________________ -- a disease or group of diseases where the immune system over responds to normally harmless substances _______________________ --- are diseases where the body attacks some of its own cells as in rheumatoid arthritis and lupus 5.2h Disease may also be caused by inheritance, toxic substances, poor nutrition, organ malfunction, and some personal behavior. Some effects show up right away; others may not show up for many years. Name a disease caused by inheritance. ___________________________ Name a disease caused by toxic substances. _____________________ Name a disease associated with poor nutrition. ___________________ What is an organ malfunction? ____________________________________ Give an example of a poor personal behavior resulting in a disease which exhibits itself many years later. ______________________________________________________________________ 5.2i Gene mutation in a cell can result in uncontrolled cell division, called cancer. Exposure of cells to certain chemicals and radiation increases mutations and thus increases the chance of cancer. Any change in the DNA of a cell is called a(n) ____________________. _____________________ is a group of diseases associated with uncontrolled mitotic cell division. Why are some chemicals and radiations called carcinogens? ______________________________________________________________________ Performance Indicator 5.3 Relate processes at the system level to the cellular level in order to explain dynamic equilibrium in multi-celled organisms. Major Understandings 5.3a Dynamic equilibrium results from detection of and response to stimuli. Organisms detect and respond to change in a variety of ways both at the cellular level and at the organism level. ______________________ -- is any change in the environment responded to by an organism List an example of an organism responding to a stimulus at the cellular level. _________________________________________________________________________ List an example of an organism responding to a stimulus at the organism level. _________________________________________________________________________ 5.3b Feedback mechanisms have evolved to maintain homeostasis. Examples include the changes in heart rate or respiratory rate in response to increased activity in muscle cells, the maintenance of blood sugar levels by insulin from the pancreas, and the changes in openings in the leaves of plants by guard cells to regulate water loss and gas exchange. Insulin lowers blood sugar by converting excess glucose to _________________ in the liver and muscles. Glucose also takes blood sugar directly into our ______________. As muscle cell activity increases, our heart rate and respiratory rate _______________________. As plants need to conserve water, their ___________________ change in shape to close the ____________________ and prevent water loss. ________________________ is a hormone which allows the body to respond to emergency situations with increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate.
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