Jared 20Lewis The 20Not So Easy 20Life 20of 20a 20Japanese 20Samurai

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Jared 20Lewis The 20Not So Easy 20Life 20of 20a 20Japanese 20Samurai Powered By Docstoc
					 Name – Jared Lewis


 Lesson Title – The Not-So-Easy Life of a Japanese Samurai


 Class and Grade level(s) – World History 7th
1.


 Goals and Objectives
    student will be able to:
2.The
3.     - Write a letter from the perspective of a Samurai warrior
       - Effectively define and apply 5 terms that are consistent with a Samurai’s
         life




 Curriculum standards addressed Missouri Standards 2004
 Social Studies Standard #2 – Continuity and change in the history of the world
 Social Studies Standard #6 - Relationships of individuals and groups to institutions
 and cultural traditions
 Social Studies Standard #7 – The use of tools of social science inquiry




 Time required/class periods needed – 2 Class Period - 96 Min



 Primary source bibliography
       - Hagakure: The Book of the Samurai by Yamamoto Tsunetomo
             o written by a young warrior in the Eighteenth Century



 Other resources used
       - Student Info Packet Japanese Samurai created from a combination of
          various web articles
       - Videos on Samurai from Unitedstreaming.org




 Required materials/supplies
       - Student Packet Japanese Samurai
       - Japanese Samurai Student Guide
       - CPS Interactive Testing System
Vocabulary
     - Bushido – a strict code of conduct, honor, loyalty, and truthfulness that
        made up the principles by which a samurai lived
     - Samurai – the warrior class of Ancient Japan
     - Shogun – the military leaders and real rulers of Ancient Japan
     - Daimyo – feudal lords that the govern the land holdings of Japan, also
        who the samurai pledged allegiance to
     - Hatamoto – elite class of samurai that formed the shogun’s personal
        guard


Procedure
     1. Students will start class with the following focus question. “What do you
        think life would be like as a samurai warrior?” When students finish
        discuss answers and hand out Japanese samurai reading and student
        guide.
     2. Students work independently to read the selection and complete the
        student guide.
     3. Pass out copies of the primary source document “The Kagakure: The
        book of the samurai”. Read together as a class and discuss.
     4. Explain Samurai Letter Writing Assignment and provide students time in
        class to work on.
     5. Interactive CPS quiz to check for understanding at end of class.


Assessment/evaluation
     Samurai Letter Writing
     - Students will write their own letter from the view point of a Japanese
       Samurai based on the informational reading and the letter from the young
       samurai
     - This letter must be written using at least 5 terms the samurai used
     - Students must choose a family member to write their letter to
     - The letter should describe the training and general life of a samurai
     - Students will be assessed on creativity, correct use of terms, and style

      - Japanese Samurai Interactive CPS Quiz
                      Japanese Samurai



One of the key characters in the study of Medieval Japan is the Samurai. On the
surface these noble warriors would appear to be full of contradictions. The
Samurai were brave and fierce warriors, yet also wrote poetry and engaged in
floral arranging.

They contracted themselves out to provide loyal service to the daimyo (DY-
mee-ohs), feudal landowner. The daimyo used the samurai to protect and
expand his land holdings. In return for their loyal service, the samurai would be
rewarded with land, status, and power. The samurai provided the equivalent of
a military and police force.

Samurai – Warrior class of ancient Japan
        Samurai is the word for a Japanese warrior class and for a member of this
class. Samurai warriors have been glorified in numerous films, books, comic
series, TV shows and theater plays. The Samurai history is a source of fascination
for adults and children all over the world.

The Japanese samurai warriors came into existence in the 12th century when
two powerful Japanese clans fought bitter wars against each other. At that time
the Japanese shogun, a system of a military ruler, was formed by Minamoto
Yoritomo. Under the shogun the next hierarchy were the daimyo, local rulers
comparable to dukes in Europe. The Japanese samurai were the military
strength of a daimyo.

Bushido – Way of the Warrior


                       武士は食わねど高楊枝
      "Even when he has not eaten, a samurai wields his toothpick (like a
      lord)."

(a samurai is required to behave properly regardless of his personal
circumstances)
      The essence of the samurai code of bushido was total loyalty to the
feudal lord; a willingness to give their lives in the defense of their lord , his honor,
and their own; a strict regimen of martial training; and a sternly refined etiquette
that governed their actions and behavior in all things.

Seppuku – A ritual suicide committed as an honorable death

       Seppuku was part of bushido. Hara-kiri means literally "stomach-cutting"
and was the practiced form of seppuku. When done outside a battle, it was
performed in a formal ceremony. Spectators attended the event. The act was a
painful one. The person doing hara-kiri had to slice up his abdomen. When
finished he stretched out his neck. An assistant was waiting behind him and had
to behead the suicide with one stroke of his sword.

Reasons for committing seppuku were connected to honor and disgrace. One
occasion for committing seppuku was the death of the lord. It was an expression
of grief at one's master's death and was the utmost form of loyalty to the lord.
Other reasons were punishment. Seppuku could also be a way of showing a
disagreement with one's master. A frequent reason for committing hara-kiri was
in a lost battle to avoid the disgrace of falling into the hands of an enemy.

The ritual suicide was actually not supported by all high-ranking Japanese. In
1603 and again in 1663 the practice was largely forbidden. But it continued
nevertheless.

The idea that an honorable death is better than a life of disgrace continues in
modern Japan. Japan has the highest rate of suicides in the world. Some
Japanese kill themselves for failing in business or disgrace to their family.
War
       War played a central part in the history of Japan. Warring clans controlled
much of the country. A chief headed each clan; made up of related families.
The chiefs were the decendents of Japan's imperial family. The wars were
usually about "land." Only 20% of the land was fit for farming. The struggle for
control of that land eventually gave rise to the Samurai.

Getting Ready for Battle
      Fighting in battle was more than a job to a samurai – it was a way of life.
Before battle a samurai took a bath so he would smell good if he was killed. He
took awhile getting dressed. He would carefully examine his armor, swords, bow,
arrows, and helmet before putting them on.

In Battle
Ancient war tales go into detail about the "order of battle" that generally, but
very infrequently followed this pattern:
         - meet at agreed upon place, date, time
         - exchange messengers to officially announce declaration of war
         - name & lineage announcing
         - exchange of arrows
         - pairing off into one-on-one battle
                 o It is said that on the battlefield, samurai warriors would call out their years of
                      experience in order to find a worthy adversary to fight.
Weapons
        Ancient warriors developed weapons, armor and a code during the
ensuing centuries that became the centerpiece for the Japanese Samurai. Early
weapons included bows, arrows and swords. Armor included a helmet that
protected head and neck, a breastplate that protected the chest, arm and
shoulder protectors, and a belly wrap. Later armor included protection for the
legs and thighs. Armor changed as the type of battles changed. A big change
occurred in the 5th century when horses were introduced to Japan. Another
change occurred in the 15th century because of the constancy of war and the
introduction of guns into battle.
       Though the katana (medium length curved sword) was definitely the
symbol of the warrior class in the age of the shogunal restoration under the
Tokugawa, mounted warriors on horseback, with the bow and arrow as their
weapon of choice, were considered the elite warriors in early medival times.
Sword
The Samurai became expert in fighting from horseback and on the ground. They
practiced armed and un-armed combat. The early Samurai emphasized
fighting with the bow and arrow. They used swords for close-in fighting and
beheading their enemies. Battles with the Mongols in the late 13th century led to
a change in the Samurai's fighting style. They began to use their sword more and
also made more use of spears and naginata. The Samurai slowly changed from
fighting on horseback to fighting on foot.

In the late 16th century, it became common for the Samurai to wear two
swords. One was long; the other short. The long sword (katana) was more than
24 inches. The short sword (shoto) was between 12 and 24 inches. The Samurai
often gave names to their swords and believed it was the "soul" of their
warriorship. The oldest swords were straight and had their early design in Korea
and China. The Samurai's desire for tougher, sharper swords for battle gave rise
to the curved blade we still have today.




The swordsmith used fire, water, anvil and hammer to shape the world's best
swords.. Next, the sword tester took the new blade and cut through the bodies
of corpses or condemned criminals.

Privilege
       Samurai warriors had several privileges. They were allowed to wear two
swords - a long one and a short one. Commoners were not allowed to wear any
weapons at all. At a certain period samurai warriors were even allowed to
behead a commoner who had offended them.

Special Class of Samurai
      One special category of samurai were the Hatamoto (hah-tah-moe-toe),
the higher ranking warriors who were the shogun's personal guard. Their annual
revenue was fixed at a minimum of 10,000 bushels of rice.

Still Respected
Even today, in some rural areas of Japan, the descendants of samurai feudal
lords are treated with special respect reminiscent of the Tokugawa Shogunate,
which officially ended in 1867.

The samurai sword is considered by many to be the spirit of old Japan. The history of
Japan in many ways reflects the history of the Samurai Sword. In the Samurai Sword, we
can trace the lineage, the history and the countless wars. In the sword, we see the
craftmanship, the quality, the heart and soul of the people of Japan that would later
go on to become a technological world leader. The sword was a predecessor to
Modern Japan.
                           Japanese Samurai
                                   Student Guide

Samurai were fierce warriors who wrote _____________ and _________________
_________________.

The _____________________ used the samurai to protect and expand his land
holdings. In return for their loyal service, the samurai would be rewarded with
      1.
      2.
      3.

Samurai –
       The Japanese samurai warriors came into existence in the _________
century when two powerful Japanese clans fought bitter wars against each
other.

Shogun –

Yoritomo –

The Japanese samurai were the ____________________ ____________________ of a
daimyo.

Bushido – Way of the Warrior


                         武士は食わねど高楊枝
      "Even when he has not eaten, a samurai wields his toothpick (like a
      lord)."

What does the above mean?


The essence of the samurai code of bushido was ________________ ____________
to the feudal lord; a willingness to give their lives in the defense of their lord , his
honor, and their own; a strict regimen of martial training; and a sternly refined
etiquette that governed their actions and behavior in all things.

Seppuku –
      What does Hara-kiri mean?
What was seppuku like when done outside a battle?


What are 3 reasons Japanese might commit seppuku?
     1.
      2.
      3.
Was the ritual suicide supported by the governmental leaders?

War
What were wars normally fought over in Japan?


Only _________% of the land was fit for farming.

The struggle for control of that land eventually gave rise to the Samurai.

Getting Ready for Battle
What did a samurai do before battle?

In Battle
How were opponents chosen in battle?

Weapons
What two things changed the samurai battle techniques the most?

Sword
Why would the samurai use a sword as their choice weapon?



Katana –


Shoto –

How were sword blades tested?

Privilege
      What privileges did Samurai have?
Special Class of Samurai
     What was the special class of Samurai called? What was their job?

				
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