societal by iLAuWWT


									CIS 451:
Internet Societal Issues

     Dr. Ralph D. Westfall
     August, 2011
Internet is "New Territory"
   universal communications never existed
    before the Internet
   old rules may not fit new technologies
   how make new/revised rules?
   who makes the rules? two options:
       self regulation by Internet community
       governmental: Federal and state laws
Social Networking Security
   people post all kinds of information
    about themseleves on Facebook, etc.
       some of it could be used to harm them
 gets your travel
    plans and puts them on the Internet so
    thieves can know you're not home
       Source: KTLA News
Job Search Internet Effects
   Potential employers Google your name
       "Would I want my mom … to see this?"
       Use privacy settings on social sites
       Untag your name from problem images
       Consider an alias for some things you do
       Post positive stuff with your real name
        e.g., helpful answers in forums
            Source: Undo … Damage Your Facebook Profile
The Dialectical Internet
   "For every action, there is an equal and
    opposite reaction."
       Newton's Third Law of Motion
   the Internet often works the same way
       if some person or group uses the Internet
        to promote an agenda, others may use it
        to work against that agenda or promote a
        conflicting agenda
       in other words, self regulation
The Internet and Juries
   Internet use by jurors for research may
    cause convictions to be overturned
       Social networking among jurors is trying
        judges' patience
       Social Networking Threatens Another Jury
   Courts finally catching up to texting
    jurors (“Twitter instructions” by judges)
Phony Degrees
   get any degree—bachelors, masters or
    doctorate—for a few $1000
       email ad for a phony degree
       wife's former boss bought BA, MA & EdD
       based on "life experience," not classes
   Wired News article
   Degree Mills book
   Novelty Degrees at
Phony Degrees - 2
   high ranking Federal government
    employees with phony degrees (CBS)
   use of phony degrees is illegal in only
    four states
       Oregon, North Dakota, New Jersey and
       Oregon list of invalid degrees (scroll)
            California warning (scroll down on right)
   spam that looks like it's from a bank
    some people deal with
       has an image with text on it, rather than
        text that can be evaluated by spam filters
       clicking on link leads to a web site that
        looks like a bank website (but IP address
        doesn't contain bank name)
       example (click on link too)
Bob, You've Been Phished
   video by Cal Poly students
       won $1000 prize in a national contest
            but had to pay the source of the background
             music around $200 for unauthorized use
       transcript
Phishing Gets Cleverer
   recent eBay Phishing email
       mouseovering the learn more link on right
        shows a valid eBay URL
       mouseover Respond Now button (image)
        to see URL of a non-eBay web site
Social Network Hacking
   Facebook hack service smells fishy
       $100 charge may be a ripoff
   “Fusking” PhotoBucket and Other
    Pictures Sharing Sites
       viewing private pictures with common
Miss (archived)
   virtual fashion game/community about
    a female character
       "Become the most famous and beautiful
        bimbo in the world."
   Controversies
       option to buy breast implants for Miss B
       over-emphasis on attractiveness
       negative impacts on players self esteem?
Denial of Service Attacks
   "attempt to make a computer resource
    unavailable to its intended users"
   "saturating the target (victim) machine
    with external communications requests"
       Cal Poly attacked January 2009
   against the law in many countries
   unsolicited e-mail
       not SPAM lunchmeat > Home
   millions of e-mail addresses on CDs
   anti-spam websites
       Spam domain blacklist
       Fight Spam on the Internet
       Spam Cop
Technological Spam Solutions
   filters
   blacklists and whitelists
       block banned vs. block all except friends
   challenge/response
       non-whitelist senders must solve a captcha
   eStamps
       increase the resource requirements for
        sending each email
       send eStamp charges to charities
Spam and DOS Attacks
   DOS against spammers
       Spammers targeted with DDoS attack
       Spam Slayer: Bringing Spammers to Their
       SpamItBack
       criticism of DOS attack approach
   Spammers launch denial of service
    attacks against antispam sites
   products to prevent invasions of your
    privacy when surfing website
       Anonymous Surfing
       used to have a SCAN YOUR PC NOW
        button on left side of page that printed a
        lot of information from your machine as a
Anonymity - 2
   web sites for sending anonymous e-mail
       Advicebox (out of business now)
       Where to Send Anonymous Email (sites)
            note warning on top left of page
   anonymity helps people who want to
    engage in "sanctioned behavior"
   not all anonymous use is antisocial
       e.g., people seeking suicide counseling
Location Privacy
   "Cell phone companies know where you
    are every time you make a call. GPS
    devices keep a record of the routes you
    take around town. Social networking
    services alert friends when you’re
    nearby. "
       Source: Will your cell phone give you
Location Privacy - 2
   "no clear standard for how law
    enforcement agencies should get access
    to these records"
   "combined with … tools like Google
    Maps, it’s not some vast technical feat
    to … follow you around on the map.”
   Source: Will your cell phone give you ...
   offshore gambling not subject to US
   implications for:
       compulsive gamblers?
       "point shaving" by college athletes?
            Cal State Fullerton
   Pay-Pal & credit card companies
    stopped working with online casinos
   laws vary by country, and by US
   hard to prosecute offshore vendors
       make it illegal to receive it?
   freedom of speech? censorship?
   market for child and violent
    pornography leads to exploitation
   believed to cause harmful behavior
Pornography Statistics
 spending/second = $3,075.64
 25% of total search engine requests

 20% of men, 13% of women admit
  accessing pornography at work
 28% of porn site visitors are women

Source: TopTenREVIEWS
Spyware, Adware, Etc. (Malware)
   in software installed on the computer
       usually with consent of user (disclosure
        often hidden in EULA)
   adware runs ads in exchange for free
   spyware tracks surfing to target ads
   adware and spyware definitions
   Spybot Search and Destroy freeware
More Malware
   Google searches web's dark side
       Google found that 10% of sample of 4.5
        MM pages could do "drive by downloads"
       Another 700,000 had other security risks
       Malware often based on ads on owner's
        pages rather than owner-created content
       Bad Bunny! Energizer USB battery charger
        blamed for "backdoor" Trojan virus
Porn Sites and "Malware"
   98% of porn sites downloaded spyware
    or adware [dead link]
   15% installed software that dialed
    "premium rate" porn phone numbers
   5% installed browser hijackers e.g.,
    click CWS link
       can change home page, add porn links to
StopBadware Coalition
   Operated by Harvard Law School and
    Oxford University
       Consumer Reports is an advisor
   Sponsors include Google, Verisign, Sun
    Microsystems, AOL
   Identified RealPlayer as badware
    because of "inadequate disclosure of
    advertising behavior"
Bounties on Malware Authors
   Microsoft offers $250,000 for the head
    of Conficker's author
       counterattack on people who exploit
        security flaws in Microsoft software
       Microsoft has offered rewards before and
        paid off on one
       another software company also offered a
Bomb Making Sites
   freedom of speech?
       or yelling "Fire!" in crowded theater?
   courts have upheld right to sell bomb
    books such as "Anarchist's Cookbook"
       author changed his mind later
   do sites lead to more Unabombers,
    more violence like bombing of
    Oklahoma City Federal Building?
Hate Groups
   Internet makes it easier for people at
    extreme fringes to find like-minded
   Internet is a convenient tool for
    spreading lies and propaganda
   other sites created to counter lies
       problem: harder to stop a lie than to
        spread it
Spoofing Email Addresses
   sending email as from someone else's
    email address
   extremely easy for anyone who has a
   most spam has spoofed addresses
   students from class taught by author
    elsewhere spoofed an email from an
    attractive woman in the class to him
Spoofing Caller ID
   calling cards and devices make this
    easy e.g., calls from:
       traditional fake phone # 555-555-5555
       mathematical pi 314-159-2653
       "mark of the beast" 666-666-6666
Rumors, Half-Truths, Etc.
   urban legends
     Urban Legends
   computer virus hoaxes
"Truth" Sites
   Investigate and evaluate things on the
    Internet and in other media
     "Internet reference source for
        urban legends, folklore, myths, rumors,
        and misinformation"
            25 Hottest Urban Legends
     (political issues)
Commercial Product Slander
   "Aspartame causes multiple sclerosis"
       Nancy Markle letter, another letter, victim?
       response from Multiple Sclerosis
        Foundation doctor
   Harvard Law school paper
       Internet Hoaxes: Public Regulation and
        Private Remedies
   possible with on-line auction sites (E-Bay)
       know anybody who has lost money? how
   very low capital requirements to start an e-
    business, legitimate or otherwise
       out-of-area fraud hard to deal with
       not much different from mail order?
       Internet ScamBusters
Bad Business Bureau Sites
   different from the Better Business
       publicly report complaints and horror
        stories to force action
   sample sites
       Rip-off
            concerns about its founder
       Google search on "bad business bureau"
Financial Fraud
   Internet Fraud (web page from the
    Securities and Exchange Commission)
       stock tips publicized by spam, bulletin
        boards/chat rooms, online newsletters
       scroll down on above link to see "pump
        and dump," pyramid, "risk free," off-shore
Religious Proselytizing
   person searching for "religion A," gets
    an ad about how great "religion B" is
       actual case
       search engine stopped selling ads to
        "religion B"
       issues:
            freedom of speech and religion?
            right of a business to determine its own
             marketing policies?
Domestic Political Issues
   Yahoo cancelled labor union
    "cyberpicketing" ads
   Google refused
       anti-war ads (subsequently reinstated)
       guns and ammunition ads
       other "anti" ads opposing people,
        organizations or issues
More Domestic Political
   "Google bombing" uses drives traffic to
    other pages by links and keywords
   US president examples
       previous Google search on failure
       more recent at Google and Yahoo
   after media attention, search algorithms
    get changed
Election Campaigns
   A New Campaign Tactic: Manipulating
    Google Data
International Political Issues
   Yahoo helped Chinese government
    prosecute a journalist?
       Shi Tao sentenced to 10 years in prison
       information claimed to be a "state secret,"
        but others say it was widely known
       Yahoo's role in this has not been revealed
   Chinese government blocked Wikipedia
    three times
International Political - 2
   MSN helps censors
       human rights, democracy, and freedom of
        speech considered to be profanity?
   Google censors itself for China
       news service doesn't display results from
        Web sites blocked by Chinese authorities
   Cisco wanted to help 'Great Firewall' of
       also sells Policenet to track dissidents
"Google Fraud"
   How The Google AdWords Scam Was
Fake Sites on Search Engines
   Security researcher Jim Stickley created
    a phony site for a real credit union
       redirected visitors to real site
   phony site got #2 ranking on Yahoo
    and #1 on Bing
       ahead of even the credit union's real site
Commercial Advertising
   pharmacists want to ban ads for
    unlicensed pharmaceutical dealers
Intellectual Property
   material can be copyrighted, but so
    very easy to steal (1 mouse click)
       images, text, software
       Software and Information Industry
        Association prosecutes owners of servers
        or BBSs that distribute pirated software
            also has a CORPORATE ANTI-PIRACY
             REWARD PROGRAM (up to $50,000)
Personal Computer Security
   DSL and cable connections make
    personal computers vulnerable
   Zone Alarm is a free personal computer
       I used to have it installed at home
       numerous hits from unrelated addresses
       unfortunately Zone Alarm itself can cause
        problems on some computers
Web Site or Viewer Hijacking
   copy site with high search engine rank
       email from business that hijacked my page
   use it as a front end to a completely
    different kind of site
       often pornographic
   recycling abandoned domain names for
    "stealth porn sites"
Web Site Vandalism
   hack in to a commercial website and
    add different content
       frequently politically motivated
   Greatest Hacks of All Time
Domain Name Abuses
   register
       demand that somebigcompany pay you for
        its own name
       courts usually rule for the companies
   unofficial websites for politicians (put
    up by opponents), movie stars, etc.
       e.g., (candidate in '96)
       pro or con?
Internet Sales Taxes?
   web vendors claim need to be exempt
       "don't kill goose that is laying golden egg"
   states are losing revenues
       national politicians have endorsed
        temporary tax free status for e-commerce
       but revenue loss projected at $45 billion
        by 2006 (another study says $3.2 billion)
        [dead links]
   with the Internet, can continue working
    at home, after work and on weekends
       handling e-mail, writing reports, financial
        analysis, etc.
   impacts on family life?
   Internet makes it possible to work at
    home instead of driving to work
   benefits
       child care? elder care?
       commuting cost savings
   disadvantages
       isolation, reduced chances for promotion
The "Digital Divide"
   Internet offers many benefits, but what
    about people who:
       can't afford a computer
       don't have the skills to use a computer
   will these people be left behind in the
    "new economy?"
       should the government take a more active
        role in helping these people?
Internet Impacts on Users
   Internet addiction
       test yourself
   loneliness increases with Internet use?
   Internet helps social ties?
   free greeting cards (increase social
Other Issues?
   can you think of any other societal
    issues recently created by the Internet?
   outline a debate position on one of the
    following propositions (pro or con):
    1.       "The Internet is making this a better
    2.       "Self-regulation is not enough: the
             government needs to take a more active
             role in regulating spam.“
         •     or some other kind of abuse
Exercise - 2
   find a web site spreading rumors, lies,
    half truths, propaganda, or etc.
   find another site designed to counter
    the content of this type of site
   evaluate the effectiveness of the 2nd
    site in countering sites such as the 1st
       write a one page outline summarizing
Exercise 3
   whois sometimes shows domain name
    owners for politicians, celebrities, etc.
       privacy services now hold most of them
       check information that is available for
       write a one page outline summarizing the
        ethical questions raised by people using
        other person's names in a domain
       THE END
           THE END
               THE END
                   THE END

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