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					PUBLIC OPINION
  Presented By.
  GROUP MEMBERS
    SAYLEE SALVE
   MAYUR SAFARE
   MUKANE PRATIK
     IS A STATE CAPABLE OF
    COMMITTING VIOLENCE?.....
 In the previous century "more civilians were killed by
  their own government than in any other form of armed
  violence“(Hewitt 2007)
 More Palestinians have been killed by the IDF than
  Israelis killed by Palestinian suicide bombers (Mazower
  2002).
 In Gujarat, the interrogation centres -- often torture
  chambers -- of the state police are functioning in full
  public view. The suspects are brought in, kept in illegal
  detention and tortured as part of questioning and later
  killed and declared as killed in encounter.
   STATE VIOLENCE-Violence by state and its machineries
    against its own citizens and non citizens.Known around the
    world as state terrorism
   Scholar Gus Martin describes "committed by governments
    and quasi-governmental agencies and personnel against
    perceived enemies", which can be directed against both
    domestic and external enemies.
   Nations often resort to violence to influence segments of
    their population, or rely on coercive aspects of state
    institutions to elicit fear and terror and adherence to law by
    authorities normally considered "legitimate".
   Backed by state-funded propaganda, ostensibly for "National
    Security" reasons; the state may argue that the measures are
    short-term, that the government is in state of war against
    guerrilla or terrorist groups , and that they are working to
    restore the "Constitution" and "democracy".
   In common parlance and in the media, terrorism is as a rule
    assumed to be an activity of non-state agencies ,insurgent
    groups etc. But scholars encompass interpretation of terrorism
    to include state terrorism.
   However, „State terrorism or violence‟ is distinct from „state-
    sponsored terrorism‟.
   State violence -more systematic and well organized, largely as
    a result of the institutional structures available to them and
    hence more dangerous.
   Ambigous-Suppression of a riot by law enforcement
    personnel may in fact expose some of the population (the
    rioters) to violence and fear, but with the intent to protect the
    larger civil order. On the other hand, abuse of the prerogative
    of legitimized violence by the authorities is a crime.
ANTI-STATE VOLENCE
 The population of a nation rises against it‟s own
  government.
 Anti state violence can occur in the following cases-
 Populations demanding separation from the state or
  federal states
 Sections of populations feeling suppressed of basic
  liberty and freedom
 Populations feel neglected in the overall progress of
  the nation or state
 State infringement on rights, privileges, beliefs etc.
  of a population
               STATE VIOLENCE-
   -AGAINST INDIVIDUALS or
   -DIRECTED AGAINST MASSES/POPULATIONS
   STATE VIOLENCE AGAINST INDIVIDUALS-
   Fake Encounters, Extra judicial killings,custodial torture,
    custodial killings are comman offences of state
    machineries against citizens
   Rapes by police/bureaucratic authorities also are
    instances of offence against individuals
   The 1997 Annual Report of the Special Rapporteur on
    extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions said:”The
    special Rapporteur continued to receive numerous
    reports of violation of right to life”
   Human rights violations in India have slowly been seeping
    into the mainstream media
   When a certain news of human rights violation is in the
    limelight, several similar stories are reported as a part of the
    trend and fit the news cycle.
   A flurry of media stories draws attention not only to
    particular extrajudicial killings, disappearances but also to
    the prospect that such incidents may be part of more
    systematic patterns of abuse
   Clearly, the media today has an urban, middle class bias.
   More coverage to crime and legal stories based in urban
    spaces than rural spaces
   Even though Khairlanji is in Maharashtra, we know less
    about it than we know about theJessica Lal murder
   Only one story in the Mumbai edition of The Times of India
    and The Indian Express carried the incident in its outline '
    that too, more than a month after it took place.
   The entire sequence of events ' the dispute over land, the
    attack on the Police Patil etc.came to light when the Inspector
    General's (IG's) investigation into the incident was reported.
   Often media absent from the actual site of violence and the
    time
   So accuracy of facts tough to ascertain. Have to rely on info
    by police.
   Khairlanji that was front paged was a police hand out .
   Even while the protests were on, there was no detailed
    interview with Dalit intellectuals, protestors or leaders,
    except to get their response to the allegations by
    policemen.No effort to get „their side of the story‟.
 Media reportage, campaigning on terrorism make middle
  class audiences believe that infact there is a “need for
  stricter policing norms” and vouch for the same.
 Rape Stories-Potential for sensationalisation as the
  involve women. Ex. Ruichika Gohitra
 Media sensationalises one case, turning the victim into a
  poster girl with visuals everywhere.
 Hindustan Times columnist, Vir Sanghvi, makes a
  similar argument:”The reason we are so angry about the
  Ruchika case is because we can see her father on TV and
  hear his story. But let's not forget that each year there are
  thousands of Ruchikas. India's policemen, officials and
  politician mistreat, torture, molest, rob and rape poor
  people all the time. Because the victims are not middle-
  class, we never get to hear of these cases.”
    SOHRABUDDIN SHEIKH :FAKE ENCOUNTER
   The Facts:-
   The Gujarat state police staged the killing of Sohrabuddin
    Shaikh, a known criminal and alleged terrorist, on 26-11-
    2005
   He and his wife abducted by the police while travelling on a
    bus and killed on 26th
   Thrown into a running motorcyle.Wife, kauser, burnt and
    cremated.
   The incident came to light when the Police talked to Prashant
    Dayal, from Dainik Bhaskar over casual drinks.
   The In March 2007, the Supreme court ordered the state CID
    to conduct a time-bound investigation. Police officer Geeta
    Johri was charged with conducting the investigation, and was
    to report directly to the court. Names of suprintendents , DIG
    emerged along with hints of Ministers
 Case revealed by accident. No access by the journalist to
  facts.Initially all papers call it only “allege encounter”
 Incase of involvement of police , the media always tries to hint
  involvemet of prominent names-the ministers. The media
  hinted Amit Shah and Narendra Modi,even when no direct
  evidence.
 Tries to hint a bigger political nexus- ,” the Rajasthan
  government has lodged a strong protest with Gujarat over ''one
  of its best police officers'' being arrested on Tuesday for the
  alleged fake encounter “-TOI
 Inordinate focus to dramatic events and individuals rather
  than to processes. And more of reactive spot-coverage.
  Context and analysis is rarely provided and follow-ups are
  lesser. In the coverage the follow-ups took place only when a
  new name or event was added to the list
   In the initial months, coverage focused on the police
    officials directly involved in crime.
   But political angle brought in from the month of
    December, the elections phase.Focus shifted to
    Narendra Modi, Amit Shah.
   “It seems, Modi has fallen back on the Hindutva
    card when he picked on the issue of fake encounter
    killing of Sohrabuddin Sheikh while speaking in a
    rally yesterday.” Indian Express .
   Also, once investigation unearths more prominent
    names, coverage shifts to the reactions of the
    politicians. “Sohrabuddin case touches Gujarat
    govt, CBI calls in Minister Amit Shah”-IE
    CBI closes in on Modi's closest aide-TOI
OPERATION BLUE STAR (1984)
 The facts-
 From the start of 1980‟s, demand for separate identity by Akali
  Dal in Punjab due to political rivalry
 The demand grew for a separate „Khalistan‟.The situation grew
  tense by extremists leaders
 One Jarnail Singh Bhindranwala made the holy shrine of golden
  temple as his refuge
 On 6 June‟84 Indira Gandhi launched a military operation with
  troops and tanks. The attack on the sikh holy shrine angered all
  the sikhs and created an uproar in Punjab
 Operation Blue Star was included in the Top 10 Political
  Disgraces by „India Today’ magazine.
 Official number of deaths of civilians-492; army deaths-83
   Media Black out during the entire operation throughout Punjab
   Media allowed back only after a week. Given details on a
    „guided tour‟ by the government.Foreign journalists denied
    visas.
   The government acted as obvious gate-keepers
   Historical Sikh events have thus suffered from not only biased
    media coverage, but selective coverage which projects a one
    sided perspective
   Associated Press reporter Brahma Chellaney, who managed to
    report on the operation, later faced police intimidation
   His dispatches of the event by Telex are the only non-govt.
    sources of the event. His first dispatch, front-paged by the New
    York Times, The Times of London and The Guardian,
    reported a death toll about twice the official figures.
   The Times aptly summarized the Sikh sentiment in a sentence:
    „they contribute more to India than they receive.'
   Reports gave the gravity of the event in history. , “Mrs. Gandhi
    has sown the seeds for a bitter future by ordering the
    desecration"the Daily Express
   “Future historians will almost certainly look back upon June 6,
    1984 as a turning point in the long and turbulent political life of
    Mrs. Indira Gandhi”.-Times,London
    The vernacular press in the Punjab was active from both sides
    in fomenting the religious divide between Hindus & Sikhs
   Selective info-presented an ambiguous picture of the sikhs
   The Sikhs‟ portrayal by the media not only produced
    ambiguous stereotypes, but in turn it also sparked an emerging
    uniting religious movements from sikhs
KASHMIR CRISIS 2010
   The facts-
   A Kashmiri youth-Tufail Ahmad Mattoo, 18 along with
    a group engage in anti-government protests in Srinagar
   The CRPF fire at this „stone pelting‟ mob, killing Tufail,
    on June 11
   Curfew installed. Protests erupt soon after the funeral.
   Similar clashes emerge between the citizens and CRPF
    in other cities. Soon, the situation grips the state into a
    burning unrest for the next 3 months.
   Strong protests by Kashmiri citizens, demanding a
    separate state
   The entire media has treated the issue through an episodic
    frame. Putting it under a label-Kashmir crisis.Fails to put it
    in a lager context
   „Kashmir burning’, ‘Valley on boil‟..some comman words to
    describe the situation.
   Almost all the media focus on the blame game by Omar
    Abdullah. Criticise him for the situation
   With respect to Kashmir there are three actors in the media-
    The national media, the internatrional media and the local
    media
   Local media- Coverage focus on the local issues and
    leaders. News has a local angle. Details of the funeral
    process of the youth-Taufil
   Headline carries the name of the deceased “TEENAGER
    TUFAIL LAID TO REST”(kashmirlive.com).Connects
    with the local people.
   Carry the story/facts by the police as “Police Version”
   News contains more names and quotes of local leaders and
    their perspectives. Ex.News of the bandh.
   National media-
   Most times the details are given out by the police.
   TOI found to present the police side of the story. Police said
    the 80-year-old separatist leader was detained as a
    "preventive measure" after Geelani addressed a religious
    gathering .
   Others found to present both sides of the story.
   The television media had more opportunity for visuals.
    Coverage of protests made sensational .
   International media-The media from Pakistan covered with
    anti-India bias.” In occupied Kashmir, one boy was killed
    and dozens other persons were injured when Indian troops
    and police officers resorted to brute force to disperse
    demonstrators.” Protesteres branded as „anti India
    protesters‟Kashmir referred as “India administered “ -Dawn
   News in international media most objective
    treatment.Similar treatment to other conflicted lands.
    “clashes spread across the disputed region of Kashmir”-
    Washington post
   Give historical background of the issue. Root of crisis –
    separation history of India and Pakistan-BBC
   Some even focus on the local conditions-food shortage etc.
  Godhra Train Burning
Resulting Communal Riots
      Godhra Train Burning
   On 27th of February 2002, Sabarmati Express
    train was attacked.
   59 Hindu passengers were burned alive
   Attack prompted retaliatory massacres against
    Muslims
   Post Godhra violence affected 151 towns and
    993 village
     Godhra Train Burning
   “Poison in the milk”.

 1044   People were killed in the
    violence

   Government set-up a commission

   Nanavati commission
            Media coverage
 India, television news channels set a precedent by
  identifying the community of those involved in the
  violence.
 It helped to bring about the Indian government's
  (Center) intervention in controlling the violence.
 The Gujarat government banned television news
  channels critical of the government's response.
 The Editorial Guild of India rejected the charge
  that graphic news coverage aggravated the
  situation, saying that the coverage exposed the
  "horrors" of the riots.
           Media coverage
 Received extensive news coverage until it was
  overtaken by the subsequent violence and the
  presentation of the Union budget.
 Columnist argue that news reports emphasized
  the provocative behaviour of the kar sevaks
 Some newspapers said the revelations simply
  reinforced what was common knowledge.
             Media coverage
   The riots were also the subject of a 2004
    documentary film.

   The film was denied entry to Mumbai
    International Film Festival

   Won two awards at the 54th Berlin International
    Film Festival
Naxal Movement
            Naxal Movement
   Name comes from the village of Naxalbari


   The term Naxalism was first coined in 1967

   Marx and Lenin were the sources for the
    ideological back up for the movement during the
    initial years.
    Present Context of Naxal Movement
    Several areas are badly affected by the armed
    conflict.
   Number of violent attacks against state agencies
    has increased.
   widened their geographical areas of operation.
   “the gravest internal security threat that our
    country faces.”
   More than 6,000 people have been killed as a
    direct result of the conflict
Coverage of Naxal Activities
   Attracted much media attention.
   Has been given front-page coverage in the
    print media and broadcast on prime time
    Number of private media groups –Increase
    competition
Coverage of Naxal Activities
 Private/satellite  television has politicised
    and sensitised the issue
   Growth in proportion of news.
    {In 2004 = 43} while in {2007=2287} and
    sensitised the issue
   News agencies devoted more space to
    Maoist events.
THE MEDIA TREATMENT
  OF GODHRA RIOTS
MEDIA TREATMENT -GODHRA RIOTS
    Nations image tarnished due to the biased
    coverage, the “anti-HINDU “ angle of the
    English media.
   Since the international community's medium of
    getting Indian information is English, they read
    only what the English media writes.
   In the June 16, issue of internationally known
    "The Economist" starts its write-up, which dealt
    with the Gujarat riots in Ayodhya background.
 EMPLOYMENT OF DOUBLE STANDARDS BY
    THE MEDIA FOR HINDUS AND MUSLIMS.
 Targeting the traditional “scape-goats”.
 Religious discrimination: soft words used for
  Hindu victims and strong adjectives for Muslim
  killings.
 Overstatements and repetitions used by media
  for the Ahmadabad riots, intentionally against
  the Hindus.
 Damning set of parlance used for Hindu rioters.
    Role of electronic media
   Selective use of visuals.
   Media failed to observe the unwritten code.
   Separate standards used to cover the Godhra
    carnage and thereafter.
   Repetition of promos of sting.
   AN UNBIASED APPROACH AND
    OBJECTIVITY FROM THE PART OF
    MEDIA HAS CERTAINLY GONE A FOR A
    TOSS!
NORTH-EASTERN
   STATES
           POOR COVERAGE OF THE
           NORTH-EASTERN STATES
   North-eastern issues off the media map.
   It is often Manipur that has the killings, but it is
    Kashmir that gets the coverage.
    DNA in Mumbai found space for 25 stories from
    Kashmir, three from Assam, none from Manipur.
    All the rape and murders in Kashmir got more
    coverage and time compared to the violence in
    Manipur and its neighbouring states like Assam.
Kashmir is always under the spotlight and the
 violence in the north-eastern states often was
  under the shadow under the shadow of Kashmir
 Broadcast snubbing.
   North-eastern issues off the media map.
   It is often Manipur that has the killings, but it is
    Kashmir that gets the coverage.
    DNA in Mumbai found space for 25 stories from
    Kashmir, three from Assam, none from Manipur. All the
    rape and murders in Kashmir got more coverage and time
    compared to the violence in Manipur and its neighbouring
    states like Assam.
         REASONS FOR
        LOW COVERAGE :
 Newspapers get little advertising due to the weak
  economies of the state.
 The distance and the taxes imposed by militant
  groups on trucks carrying newsprint, which
  increases the cost.
 Members of media caught between.
   ANOTHER MAJOR FACTOR HAS BEEN
    THE RESTRICTIONS IMPOSED BY THE
    GOVERNMENT ON THE MEDIA

   AGGRRESIVE AND FEARLESS
    JOURNALISM IS THE NEED OF THE HOUR
    WITHOUT AN EYE FOR PROFIT!
THE MEDIA TREATEMENT OF
  ANTI-SIKH RIOTS (1984)
 “India is ablaze with hate and anger .In city after
  city , from one corner of the city to other enraged
  mobs have gone and going about systematically
  burning and looting Sikh properties and
  assaulting Sikh without discrimination” – T.O.I
 “Around 300 Sikh officers and men in uniform
  were done to death in the presence of non-Sikh
  soldiers, who stood as silent spectators.” -
  Economic and Political Weekly
THE MEDIA TREATEMENT OF
  ANTI-SIKH RIOTS (1984)
   In the Akal Takhat built by Guru Hargobind and the
    supreme seat of the Sikhs, the Stench of death still
    lingered. It seemed inconceivable that this was the
    holiest shrine of a major religion – the equivalent to
    the Sikhs of the Vatican and Canterbury Cathedral.”
    - The Telegraph
   “Eye-witness accounts to the Amritsar massacre talk
    of women and children being shot in cold blood, and
    the Sikh prisoners being tied with their own turbans
    and then shot in the head.” - The Guardian
PUBLIC OPINION


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