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Hist 20323 20 20Carolingian 20Renaissance by PN90n70X

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									History 323
The Middle Ages


 The Carolingian Renaissance
King Charlemagne
 The most important Carolingian
  king was named Charlemagne
  (768-814), also called "Charles
  the Great“
 He was the son of Pepin the
  Short and the grandson of
  Charles Martel
 Coronated Holy Roman
  Emperor in 800 by the Pope
 Einhard, Charlemagne’s
  biographer, described him as
  pure of body and heart. Why did
                                    A contemporary and
  he emphasize both physical and    realistic statue of
  moral purity?                     Charlemagne (mid-800s)
Life Among the Carolingians




          Reconstruction of basic Frankish dwellings for
          people and animals among the Carolingians, c. 800
Above: Large, one-
roomed house,
animal, and fodder
pens, c. 800
Left: Frankish
workers are
depicted doing basic
tasks in a
manuscript showing
calendar and zodiac
Life Among the Carolingians
                 A Christian Church from the
                 Carolingian period (9th century);
                 Romanesque in style and a rather plain
                 in the interior (Western Germany)
Frankish Burial Practices
Frankish Burial Practices
Expansion and Administration
   The Carolingians ruled by military expansion. Charlemagne
    was a Germanic king who controlled warrior-aristocrats that
    survived by continually conquering new land
   Charlemagne appointed counts to supervise local
    administration within his territories. These men supervised the
    courts, collected tolls, administered crown lands, and taxed
   Dukes were appointed as military leaders. Bishops managed
    religious issues and controlled a few cities in place of counts
   Charlemagne created a new coinage system based on silver
   He administered the kingdom using written records and
    instructions called capitularies
   He sent representatives from his court (missi) on tours
    throughout the countryside to relay his instructions personally
   He lived in the capital city of Aachen (Germany) but traveled
    around too, leading armies, supervising counts and dukes, and
    listening to complaints
Social Arrangements and Feudalism
 Charlemagne had no standing
  army—power was built on the
  ability to assemble temporary
  armies each spring, win battles,
  and gain booty
 To gain support, Charlemagne
  established feudal relationships
  with local nobles—he gave
  them land or power in
  exchange for their military
  support
 This relationship was sealed
  with a formal oath, and the local
  noble became a vassal of the
                                      King Charlemagne and his
  king
                                      knights visit a duke
The Carolingian Renaissance
   The Carolingian Renewal or
    “Renaissance” was a rebirth
    of the artistic and scholarly
    activities which had been
    the crowning achievements
    of ancient Rome, but had
    been lost in the more
    primitive cultures of the
    early Middle Ages in
    Western Europe
   This “rebirth” was fuelled by
    Carolingian wealth and the
    scholarly activity of Alcuin,
    a highly educated advisor of
    King Charlemagne
                                    An illustrated copy of the Psalms
Carolingian Miniscule
   Over time, the Carolingians
    developed a new, clearer
    way of writing Latin called
    Carolingian Miniscule
   Previous texts were all
    uppercase, without
    punctuation or spaces
   The new minuscule script
    was written in upper and
    lower case letters and
    abbreviations
   Several monasteries then
    specialized in the
    production of hand copied
    texts using the new
    method—books became
    popular again                 A 9th century Carolingian text
         Carolingian Musical Notation




The Carolingians were the first to introduce musical
notation in Europe, at first just tiny squiggles without a
staff along side Gregorian Chant
                                                  Later texts featured staffs and polyphony
                                                  (harmony), such as this 12th century text
Carolingian Art
 Carolingian artists embellished
  church interiors, created statues,
  and executed wall paintings like
  late Romans artists
 They excelled especially at
  painting and decorating sacred
  manuscripts, such as this
  liturgical book for the Mass,
  created during the reign of
  Charles the Bald (d. 877),
  grandson of Charlemagne
 Note the geometric patterns
  reminiscent of Byzantine, Islamic
  or medieval Irish art
Carolingian Art

                  Ivory book covers for a
                  Psalter (Psalm
                  collection), 794 A.D.
                  near Paris


                  This carving style is
                  influenced by Roman
                  sculpture (note
                  drapery and classical
                  styling). It depicts King
                  David and his court in
                  several scenes (a
                  favorite ruler of the
                  Franks)
Carolingian Book Making
                The Lorscher Evangeliar (Gospel)
Charlemagne’s
Relics




   This later shrine was
   created to hold
   Charlemagne’s skull and
   other relics. Notice how
   idealized the famous king
   now looks! Why might
   his body be a source of
   special interest for
   medieval Europeans?
History, Literature, and Court Culture
   The importance of writing history
    and literature were restored, and
    Carolingians created their own
    literary works, as well as copying
    and preserving the writings of the
    ancient world
   Einhard’s Life of Charlemagne is
    a good example of Carolingian
    history writing (compare with
    Plutarch’s Life of Alexander)
   After the 774 invasion of Italy,
    Carolingian court culture became
    an imitation of Italian court
    culture
   Alcuin, an English scholar (York)
    who organized education and
    writing at Charlemagne’s court,
    was the primary innovator            Interior of Charlemagne’s
                                         Aachen Cathedral, 805 A.D.
Carolingian Law
 Charlemagne was the most systematic among the
  Franks in creating laws that could be consistently
  administered through his Empire
 The laws were written in Latin and carried by missi
  throughout the realm. Local courts enforced them
 For example, the Saxon Capitularies (775-790) listed
  numerous laws for a newly conquered Germanic
  (pagan) group called the Saxons in North Germany,
  including the following law:
     16. “All infants shall be baptized within a year… and if
     any one shall have despised to bring his infant to
     baptism within the course of a year, without the advice
     or permission of the priest, if he is a noble he shall pay
     120 solidi to the treasury, if a freeman 60, if a litus 30.”

								
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