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REMEMBERING 2O10’S FLOODS Heavy rainfall sets records and causes flooding disasters around the world Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, University of North Carolina, USA 2010 A YEAR OF ―RECORD AND NEAR-RECORD‖ NATURAL DISASTERS FLOOD HAZARDS (AKA POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS) • TOO MUCH WATER DISCHARGED WITHIN THE REGIONAL DRAINAGE SYSTEM TO BE ACCOMMODATED IN THE NORMAL WATER CYCLE • EROSION • SCOUR • MUDFLOWS CAUSES OF RISK LOSS OF FUNCTION OF STRUCTURES IN FLOODPLAIN INUNDATION INTERACTION WITH HAZARDOUS MATERIALS STRUCTURAL/CONTENTS FLOODS DAMAGE FROM WATER WATER BORNE DISEASES CASE HISTORIES (HEALTH PROBLEMS) EROSION AND MUDFLOWS CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER RISK ASSESSMENT ACCEPTABLE RISK •HAZARD MAPS •INVENTORY RISK •VULNERABILITY UNACCEPTABLE RISK •LOCATION FLOOD DISASTER RISK REDUCTION DATA BASES COMMUNITY AND INFORMATION POLICY OPTIONS HAZARDS: •PREVENTION/MITIGATION GROUND SHAKING •PREPAREDNESS GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING •EMERGENCY RESPONSE TECTONIC DEFORMATION •RECOVERY and TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS RECONSTRUCTION 2010’S ―FLOOD LABORATORIES‖ • PORTUGAL (MADEIRA) • RUSSIA (SIBERIA, KAZAKHSTAN) • USA (NORTH DAKOTA, MINNESOTA, TENNESSEE, CALIFORNIA, …) 2010’S ―FLOOD LABORATORIES‖ • BRAZIL • POLAND, HUNGARY, GERMANY, CZECH REPUBLIC, … • CHINA—NORTH KOREA • PAKISTAN • NEW SOUTH WALES (AUSTRALIA) IMPACTED NATIONS • … Madeira (Portugal), Russia, USA (North Dakota, Minnesota, Tennessee), Brazil, Poland, Hungary, Germany, Czech Republic, China , Pakistan, North Korea, New South Wales, Australia, California, … SOCIETAL IMPACTS DURING 2010 • Millions evacuated. • Lives and • Millions of homes livelihoods of inundated, left millions adversely without power, affected. damaged or • Millions at risk destroyed. from water-borne • Landslides (Rock diseases falls, Mudflows) triggered by heavy, prolonged rainfall. SOCIETAL IMPACTS DURING 2010 (Continued) • Homes and • $Tens of billions Infrastructure in insured and damaged or uninsured destroyed. economic • Health care needs losses. related to water- • Thousands killed borne diseases in flood-related increase sharply. disasters FLASH FLOODS TRIGGER MUDSLIDES IN THE MADEIRA ISLANDS, PORTUGAL AT LEAST 42 DEAD FEBRUARY 20-21, 2010 LOCATION OF MADEIRA WHAT HAPPENED? The worst storm to hit Madeira since 1993 lashed the south of the Atlantic Ocean island, including the capital, Funchal, Saturday, turning some streets into torrents of mud, water and debris. WHAT HAPPENED (continued) The flash floods were so powerful they carved paths down mountains and ripped through the city, churning under some bridges and tearing others down. FEBRUARY 21: FLASH FLOOD FEBRUARY 21 FLOODS IN RUSSIA SPRING RUNOFF AFTER A HARSH WINTER INCREASES FLOOD RISKS ACROSS RUSSIA MARCH 2010 LOCATION MAP SHOWING THE THREE GREAT SIBERIAN RIVERS The Ob River, the country's fourth longest river and the longest estuary in the world, is a major river in western Siberia. The Yenisei River, which drains a large portion of central Siberia, is the greatest river system flowing northward to the Arctic Ocean. The Lena River is the easternmost of the three great Siberian rivers that flow into the Arctic Ocean (the other two being the Ob River and the Yenisei river) is the 10th longest river in the world. Weather reports warned of "catastrophic" flooding in Siberia, where river ice was up to several meters thick, and rivers flowing northward routinely surge with melting water. FLOODING IN SIBERIA FLOODING IN KAZAKHSTAN NORTH DAKOTA-MINNESOTA EXPERIENCE A NEAR- RECORD FLOOD DISASTER AGAIN 2009’S RECORD FLOOD STAGE APPROACHED, BUT UNBROKEN MARCH 15 - 30, 2010 REASONS FOR FLOODING THE ANNUAL FLOODING THREAT TO FARGO, ND AND MOORHEAD, MN IS TRIGGERED BY: 1) The Spring melt and runoff , AFTER 2) A severe Winter. 1. Synchrony of river discharge with Spring runoff 2. Ice jams 3. Lake Agassiz, a glacial lake, is the floodplain of the Red River 4. A sharp decrease in river gradient makes the Fargo- Moorhead area act like a large lake. 2010: RAPID MELT AND RUNOFF THE ―SPIDER‖ WAS USED TO MAKE 5,000 SANDBAGS PER HOUR HALSTAD, MN: 4 FT BELOW 2009’S RECORD OF 40.5 FT FARGO, ND: THE RED RIVER CRESTS 4 FT BELOW RECORD ON MARCH 21 REGIONAL GOVERNMENTS PLAN A 10-YEAR, $1.3 BILLION FLOOD CONTROL PROJECT A 60 KM (36-MILE) – LONG NEW RIVER CHANNEL IS EXPECTED TO SOLVE THE RECURRING THREAT FLOODS AND MUDSLIDES PARALYZE BRAZIL WORST IN 50 YEARS APRIL 7, 2010 RIO DE JANEIRO: WIDE SPREAD INUNDATION 10,000 homes, mostly in the slums where one-fifth of Rio's people live in shacks that are vulnerable to heavy rains, were also severely impacted by mudslides RECORD FLOODING IN NASHVILLE, TN AREA MAY 1-4, 2010 Flooding after 2 days of intense rain left the city of Nashville and the surrounding area with a record 33 cm (13 in) of water in two days. The Cumberland River crested Monday afternoon, May 3rd, at 3 ½ m above flood stage. The flash floods caught the city off- guard, and thousands of residents and tourists were forced to flee homes and hotels as the Cumberland river rapidly spilled over its banks CUMBERLAND RIVER FLOODS INDUSTRIAL PARK INTERSTATE HIGHWAY I-24 FLOODED TEMPORARY SCHOOL BUILDING FLOATS DOWN I-24 FAILURE OF RAILROAD BRIDGE FLOODING AT OPRYLAND HOTEL EVACUATION FROM OPRYLAND RESORT HOTEL The Impacts: 150 roads impassable Opryland and other hotels evacuated Business interruption Schools and universities closed Fuel shortages Water shortages Over $1 billion economic loss . RIVERS BURST BANKS AND BREACH DAMS IN CENTRAL EUROPE AFTER WEEKS OF RAIN POLAND, HUNGARY, GERMANY, CZECH REPUBLIC, … MAY – JUNE, 2010 The heaviest rains in over a decade forced thousands along rain swollen rivers in Poland, Germany, and Hungary to evacuate from their homes, breached dikes and sand bag dams, and caused damage to homes, and infrastructure estimated at over $2.5 billion. POLAND POLAND AND VISTULA RIVER VISTULA RIVER INUNDATED VILLAGE DIKE BREACHED NEAR VILLAGE OF SWINIARY ODER RIVER: GERMANY DANUBE RIVER: SOUTHERN GERMANY; JUNE 3 MASS EVACUATION SAVING A HORSE SAVING CATTLE: MAY 17 RAIN AND FLOODING FROM A SERIES OF STORMS TESTS CHINA’S THREE GORGES DAM AGAIN TEST 1: JUNE - JULY 2007 TEST 2: APRIL - JULY 2010 IMPACTS OF 2010’S FLOODS IN CHINA • More than 1,400 people are believed to have been killed this year in unusually severe flooding in central and southern China. IMPACTS OF 2010’S FLOODS IN CHINA • An estimated 1.4 million homes were destroyed, 12 million people evacuated, and 87,600 sq km (22 million acres) of crops ruined. CHINA’S GRANDEST PROJECT SINCE THE GREAT WALL THREE GORGES DAM • The Three Gorges • After 13 years of Dam is located in work and 35 Central China's Hubei million cubic Province, 600 miles yards of concrete, southwest of Beijing. the dam reached its full height of • It replaced Brazil's 190 m (606 ft) and Itaipu Dam as the width of 2,309 m world's largest (7,575 ft) across hydroelectric and the Yangtze River flood-control on May 19, 2006. installation. 2010 • The floods hit 13 provinces, including Guangdong, Sichuan and Zhejiang, damaging more than 140,000 homes and affecting more than 10 million people. SWOLLEN RIVERS IN 2010 • Virtually all of the major rivers were swollen, while water levels in lakes along the mighty Yangtze River were higher than in 1998, when catastrophic flooding killed about 4,000 people. YANGTZE RIVER FLOODS: JUNE 10 THREE GORGES DAM HAS PASSED TWO TESTS NORTHWEST PAKISTAN (AND AFGHANISTAN) HIT BY FLASH FLOODS AFTER PROLONGED MONSOON RAINS JULY 28-AUGUST 22, 2010 [NOTE: Aug 12th is first day of Ramadan] ONE-FIFTH OF PAKISTAN AFFECTED 2010’s Summer floods from monsoon rains were typical and expected, but they were the worst in 80 years and set new records. Monsoon rains swelled rivers and streams across Pakistan and set flooding records in the province of KhyberPakhtunkhwa, parts of the Pakistan-administered Kashmir region, and the eastern province of Punjab. The United Nations announced Saturday, July 31, that they would provide $10 million dollars for immediate emergency assistance and would appeal for 460 million in international emergency assistance for food, water, health care, and shelter. The USA provided $60 million for immediate emergency assistance along with Navy and Marine helicopters, rescue boats, water filtration units, prefabricated steel bridges and thousands of packaged meals, which Pakistani soldiers tossed from helicopters LOSS OF INFRASTRUCTURE: HINDERED EVACUATION & EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE The survival of some of the poorest of the poor living in the districts of Nowshera, Charsadda, Peshawar, Swat, and Lower Dir became problematic because of the extent and catastrophic nature of the floods. Over 1,500 died (and probably many more) and more than 20 million were impacted as rains swelled rivers, inundated villages, and triggered landslides, causing entire villages, roads, and bridges to be swept away, isolating thousands, and leaving 6 million homeless. DERA ISMAIL KHAN: INUNDATED THOUSANDS OF MUD BRICK HOMES COLLAPSED SOME LIVESTOCK WAS SAVED, BUT THOUSANDS DROWNED EVACUATION: CARRYING SELECTED POSSESSIONS The people complained that their government was not meeting the urgent needs for adequate temporary shelters, toilets, and clean drinking water in order to avert a public health catastrophe. PROTESTERS: NOWSHERA TEMPORARY SHELTER 30,000 Pakistani troops used helicopters and other means to rescue 28,000 people and to distribute water and food. NOWSHERA: PAKISTANI ARMY DISTRIBUTING WATER FOOD LINE IN PUNJAB PROVINCE: AUGUST 20 FLOODS STRIKE COMMUNITIES NEAR CHINA- NORTH KOREA BORDER AUGUST 20-22, 2010 Flooding forced the evacuation of 94,000 people in the north China port city of Dandong, an area near the boundary with North Korea, after heavy rains caused China’s Yalu River to breach its banks. Near Sinuiju, the North Korean city opposite Dandong, flooding swamped houses, public buildings and farmland in more than five villages. SINUIJU, NORTH KOREA: INUNDATION BY ANNOK (YALU ) RIVER FLOODS END YEARS OF DROUGHT IN NEW SOUTH WALES, AUSTRALIA DECEMBER 10-20, 2010 45 FLOOD DISASTER ZONES THE GREAT WINTER SOLSTICE STORM OF 2010 RAIN FALLING FROM SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA TO BAKERSFIELD December 19-21, 2010 The Great Winter Solstice Storm of 2010 was one for the record books, a once in a hundred years event, marked by the most rainfall ever to fall in the month of December and the 4th heaviest daily rainfall (on Sunday) of all time. PACIFIC STORMS CAUSED HEAVY RAIN FALL, FLOODING, ROCKFALLS, AND MUD FLOWS IN CALIFORNIA, NEVADA, AND UTAH WINTER ARRIVED AT 3:38 PM ON TUESDAY, DEC. 21 • Historic rainfall brought much of California into a state of emergency with widespread flooding and mud flows that impacted many people just before Christmas. A LUNAR ECLIPSE COINCIDENT WITH SOLSTICE: 1ST SINCE 1638 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA DRENCHED WITH UP TO 20 CM Los Angeles received one- fourth of its annual rainfall (nearly 10 cm (4 in )) in 3 days. WINTER STORM HITS CA: DEC 20, 2010 ROCKSLIDE A rockslide triggered by the prolonged heavy rainfall closed the Pacific Coast Highway in both directions at the Ventura-L.A. county line. 1 m (3 ft) OF WATER IN KERN CITY, CA: DEC 20, 2010 FLOODING CREATES CHAOS: DEC 20, 2010 From Friday (17th) through midday on Monday (20th), Bakersfield was drenched with 3.79 in. of rain, which is 5 times the normal amount for an entire December and 58% of a normal year’s rainfall. San Bernardino County, an inland region of Southern California east of Los Angeles was among the hardest-hit areas, with losses expected to exceed $10 million. The flooding, mudslides, falling rocks, crested creeks and downed trees created havoc in the Bakersfield area and led to the declaration of a local emergency. In Highland. CA. people returned to their homes after evacuation to find their homes inundated with 2 m (several feet) of mud. MUDSLIDES IN HIGHLAND, CA: DEC 24, 2010 DECEMBER 29: A new winter storm packing powerful winds, heavy rain and snow moved into California, bringing a renewed threat of flooding and mud flows to areas that are already saturated.
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