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39811 39821 by PN90n70X

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									REMEMBERING 2O10’S FLOODS


 Heavy rainfall sets records and
causes flooding disasters around
           the world

   Walter Hays, Global Alliance for
   Disaster Reduction, University of
         North Carolina, USA
        2010

A YEAR OF ―RECORD AND
NEAR-RECORD‖ NATURAL
      DISASTERS
    FLOOD HAZARDS (AKA
 POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS)

• TOO MUCH WATER DISCHARGED
  WITHIN THE REGIONAL DRAINAGE
  SYSTEM TO BE ACCOMMODATED IN
  THE NORMAL WATER CYCLE
• EROSION
• SCOUR
• MUDFLOWS
                 CAUSES
                 OF RISK

                              LOSS OF FUNCTION OF
                           STRUCTURES IN FLOODPLAIN


                                 INUNDATION


                               INTERACTION WITH
                             HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

                            STRUCTURAL/CONTENTS
  FLOODS                     DAMAGE FROM WATER

                            WATER BORNE DISEASES
CASE HISTORIES
                             (HEALTH PROBLEMS)


                            EROSION AND MUDFLOWS

                           CONTAMINATION OF GROUND
                                   WATER
   RISK ASSESSMENT
                                        ACCEPTABLE RISK
 •HAZARD MAPS
 •INVENTORY               RISK
 •VULNERABILITY                       UNACCEPTABLE RISK
 •LOCATION



                                     FLOOD DISASTER RISK
                                     REDUCTION
 DATA BASES            COMMUNITY
 AND INFORMATION



                                         POLICY OPTIONS


HAZARDS:
                                   •PREVENTION/MITIGATION
GROUND SHAKING                     •PREPAREDNESS
GROUND FAILURE
SURFACE FAULTING                   •EMERGENCY RESPONSE
TECTONIC DEFORMATION               •RECOVERY and
TSUNAMI RUN UP
AFTERSHOCKS                           RECONSTRUCTION
2010’S ―FLOOD LABORATORIES‖

              • PORTUGAL
                (MADEIRA)
              • RUSSIA (SIBERIA,
                KAZAKHSTAN)
              • USA (NORTH DAKOTA,
                MINNESOTA,
                TENNESSEE,
                CALIFORNIA, …)
2010’S ―FLOOD LABORATORIES‖

              • BRAZIL
              • POLAND, HUNGARY,
                GERMANY, CZECH
                REPUBLIC, …
              • CHINA—NORTH
                KOREA
              • PAKISTAN
              • NEW SOUTH WALES
                (AUSTRALIA)
     IMPACTED NATIONS
• … Madeira (Portugal), Russia,
USA (North Dakota, Minnesota,
Tennessee), Brazil, Poland,
Hungary, Germany, Czech
Republic, China , Pakistan, North
Korea, New South Wales,
Australia, California, …
    SOCIETAL IMPACTS DURING
              2010
• Millions evacuated.   • Lives and
• Millions of homes       livelihoods of
  inundated, left         millions adversely
  without power,          affected.
  damaged or            • Millions at risk
  destroyed.              from water-borne
• Landslides (Rock        diseases
  falls, Mudflows)
  triggered by heavy,
  prolonged rainfall.
    SOCIETAL IMPACTS DURING
         2010 (Continued)
• Homes and           • $Tens of billions
  Infrastructure        in insured and
  damaged or            uninsured
  destroyed.            economic
• Health care needs     losses.
  related to water-   • Thousands killed
  borne diseases        in flood-related
  increase sharply.     disasters
FLASH FLOODS TRIGGER
   MUDSLIDES IN THE
  MADEIRA ISLANDS,
      PORTUGAL


    AT LEAST 42 DEAD
   FEBRUARY 20-21, 2010
LOCATION OF MADEIRA
    WHAT HAPPENED?

  The worst storm to hit Madeira
since 1993 lashed the south of the
 Atlantic Ocean island, including
  the capital, Funchal, Saturday,
turning some streets into torrents
    of mud, water and debris.
     WHAT HAPPENED
       (continued)

The flash floods were so powerful
      they carved paths down
mountains and ripped through the
city, churning under some bridges
      and tearing others down.
FEBRUARY 21: FLASH
     FLOOD
FEBRUARY 21
   FLOODS IN RUSSIA


SPRING RUNOFF AFTER A HARSH
WINTER INCREASES FLOOD RISKS
        ACROSS RUSSIA

        MARCH 2010
 LOCATION MAP SHOWING THE
THREE GREAT SIBERIAN RIVERS
The Ob River, the country's
fourth longest river and the
longest estuary in the world, is
a major river in western
Siberia.
The Yenisei River, which drains
a large portion of central
Siberia, is the greatest river
system flowing northward to
the Arctic Ocean.
The Lena River is the
easternmost of the three great
Siberian rivers that flow into
the Arctic Ocean (the other
two being the Ob River and the
Yenisei river) is the 10th
longest river in the world.
    Weather reports warned of
"catastrophic" flooding in Siberia,
 where river ice was up to several
 meters thick, and rivers flowing
  northward routinely surge with
          melting water.
FLOODING IN SIBERIA
FLOODING IN KAZAKHSTAN
NORTH DAKOTA-MINNESOTA
   EXPERIENCE A NEAR-
 RECORD FLOOD DISASTER
         AGAIN

  2009’S RECORD FLOOD STAGE
  APPROACHED, BUT UNBROKEN

      MARCH 15 - 30, 2010
   REASONS FOR FLOODING


THE ANNUAL FLOODING THREAT TO FARGO,
ND AND MOORHEAD, MN IS TRIGGERED BY:

 1) The Spring melt and runoff , AFTER
 2) A severe Winter.
1. Synchrony of river
   discharge with Spring
   runoff
2. Ice jams
3. Lake Agassiz, a glacial lake, is
   the floodplain of the Red River
4. A sharp decrease in river
   gradient makes the Fargo-
   Moorhead area act like a large
   lake.
2010: RAPID MELT AND
       RUNOFF
THE ―SPIDER‖ WAS USED TO MAKE
   5,000 SANDBAGS PER HOUR
HALSTAD, MN: 4 FT BELOW
2009’S RECORD OF 40.5 FT
FARGO, ND: THE RED RIVER CRESTS
4 FT BELOW RECORD ON MARCH 21
REGIONAL GOVERNMENTS
  PLAN A 10-YEAR, $1.3
BILLION FLOOD CONTROL
       PROJECT
  A 60 KM (36-MILE) – LONG NEW
  RIVER CHANNEL IS EXPECTED
   TO SOLVE THE RECURRING
             THREAT
FLOODS AND MUDSLIDES
   PARALYZE BRAZIL

    WORST IN 50 YEARS
      APRIL 7, 2010
RIO DE JANEIRO: WIDE
SPREAD INUNDATION
10,000 homes, mostly in the slums
where one-fifth of Rio's people live
 in shacks that are vulnerable to
           heavy rains,
  were also severely impacted by
            mudslides
RECORD FLOODING IN
NASHVILLE, TN AREA

     MAY 1-4, 2010
Flooding after 2 days of intense rain
  left the city of Nashville and the
  surrounding area with a record
 33 cm (13 in) of water in two days.
  The Cumberland River crested
Monday afternoon, May 3rd, at 3 ½ m
       above flood stage.
The flash floods caught the city off-
guard, and thousands of residents
  and tourists were forced to flee
      homes and hotels as the
 Cumberland river rapidly spilled
           over its banks
CUMBERLAND RIVER FLOODS
    INDUSTRIAL PARK
INTERSTATE HIGHWAY I-24
       FLOODED
   TEMPORARY SCHOOL
BUILDING FLOATS DOWN I-24
FAILURE OF RAILROAD
      BRIDGE
FLOODING AT OPRYLAND
       HOTEL
   EVACUATION FROM
OPRYLAND RESORT HOTEL
         The Impacts:

    150 roads impassable
  Opryland and other hotels
          evacuated
    Business interruption
Schools and universities closed
        Fuel shortages
       Water shortages
 Over $1 billion economic loss
                .
RIVERS BURST BANKS AND
BREACH DAMS IN CENTRAL
EUROPE AFTER WEEKS OF
         RAIN

POLAND, HUNGARY, GERMANY, CZECH
          REPUBLIC, …
         MAY – JUNE, 2010
The heaviest rains in over a decade
   forced thousands along rain
swollen rivers in Poland, Germany,
and Hungary to evacuate from their
 homes, breached dikes and sand
 bag dams, and caused damage to
     homes, and infrastructure
   estimated at over $2.5 billion.
POLAND
POLAND AND VISTULA
      RIVER
VISTULA RIVER
INUNDATED VILLAGE
DIKE BREACHED NEAR
VILLAGE OF SWINIARY
ODER RIVER: GERMANY
DANUBE RIVER: SOUTHERN
   GERMANY; JUNE 3
MASS EVACUATION
SAVING A HORSE
SAVING CATTLE:
    MAY 17
RAIN AND FLOODING FROM
  A SERIES OF STORMS
 TESTS CHINA’S THREE
   GORGES DAM AGAIN

   TEST 1: JUNE - JULY 2007
   TEST 2: APRIL - JULY 2010
 IMPACTS OF 2010’S FLOODS IN
           CHINA
• More than 1,400 people are
  believed to have been killed this
  year in unusually severe flooding
  in central and southern China.
 IMPACTS OF 2010’S FLOODS IN
           CHINA
• An estimated 1.4 million homes
  were destroyed, 12 million people
  evacuated, and 87,600 sq km (22
  million acres) of crops ruined.
CHINA’S GRANDEST PROJECT
  SINCE THE GREAT WALL
       THREE GORGES DAM
• The Three Gorges        • After 13 years of
  Dam is located in         work and 35
  Central China's Hubei     million cubic
  Province, 600 miles       yards of concrete,
  southwest of Beijing.
                            the dam reached
                            its full height of
• It replaced Brazil's      190 m (606 ft) and
  Itaipu Dam as the         width of 2,309 m
  world's largest           (7,575 ft) across
  hydroelectric and         the Yangtze River
  flood-control             on May 19, 2006.
  installation.
            2010

• The floods hit 13 provinces,
  including Guangdong,
  Sichuan and Zhejiang,
  damaging more than 140,000
  homes and affecting more
  than 10 million people.
 SWOLLEN RIVERS IN 2010
• Virtually all of the major rivers
  were swollen, while water
  levels in lakes along the mighty
  Yangtze River were higher than
  in 1998, when catastrophic
  flooding killed about 4,000
  people.
YANGTZE RIVER FLOODS:
      JUNE 10
THREE GORGES DAM HAS
  PASSED TWO TESTS
NORTHWEST PAKISTAN (AND
AFGHANISTAN) HIT BY FLASH
FLOODS AFTER PROLONGED
    MONSOON RAINS


      JULY 28-AUGUST 22, 2010
[NOTE: Aug 12th is first day of Ramadan]
ONE-FIFTH OF PAKISTAN
      AFFECTED
    2010’s Summer floods from
  monsoon rains were typical and
expected, but they were the worst in
   80 years and set new records.
 Monsoon rains swelled rivers and
  streams across Pakistan and set
flooding records in the province of
 KhyberPakhtunkhwa, parts of the
   Pakistan-administered Kashmir
region, and the eastern province of
              Punjab.
    The United Nations announced
 Saturday, July 31, that they would
    provide $10 million dollars for
  immediate emergency assistance
 and would appeal for 460 million in
international emergency assistance
   for food, water, health care, and
               shelter.
  The USA provided $60 million for
 immediate emergency assistance
      along with Navy and Marine
  helicopters, rescue boats, water
 filtration units, prefabricated steel
bridges and thousands of packaged
   meals, which Pakistani soldiers
        tossed from helicopters
 LOSS OF INFRASTRUCTURE: HINDERED
EVACUATION & EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE
The survival of some of the poorest
of the poor living in the districts of
 Nowshera, Charsadda, Peshawar,
    Swat, and Lower Dir became
 problematic because of the extent
   and catastrophic nature of the
               floods.
Over 1,500 died (and probably many
   more) and more than 20 million
   were impacted as rains swelled
    rivers, inundated villages, and
triggered landslides, causing entire
 villages, roads, and bridges to be
 swept away, isolating thousands,
   and leaving 6 million homeless.
DERA ISMAIL KHAN:
   INUNDATED
THOUSANDS OF MUD BRICK
   HOMES COLLAPSED
SOME LIVESTOCK WAS SAVED,
 BUT THOUSANDS DROWNED
EVACUATION: CARRYING
SELECTED POSSESSIONS
The people complained that their
government was not meeting the
         urgent needs for
  adequate temporary shelters,
            toilets, and
 clean drinking water in order to
avert a public health catastrophe.
PROTESTERS: NOWSHERA
TEMPORARY SHELTER
 30,000 Pakistani troops used
helicopters and other means to
 rescue 28,000 people and to
   distribute water and food.
  NOWSHERA: PAKISTANI
ARMY DISTRIBUTING WATER
FOOD LINE IN PUNJAB
PROVINCE: AUGUST 20
    FLOODS STRIKE
COMMUNITIES NEAR CHINA-
 NORTH KOREA BORDER
     AUGUST 20-22, 2010
Flooding forced the evacuation of
 94,000 people in the north China
port city of Dandong, an area near
  the boundary with North Korea,
 after heavy rains caused China’s
   Yalu River to breach its banks.
Near Sinuiju, the North Korean city
   opposite Dandong, flooding
swamped houses, public buildings
  and farmland in more than five
              villages.
SINUIJU, NORTH KOREA: INUNDATION
      BY ANNOK (YALU ) RIVER
 FLOODS END YEARS OF
DROUGHT IN NEW SOUTH
   WALES, AUSTRALIA
   DECEMBER 10-20, 2010
45 FLOOD DISASTER ZONES
  THE GREAT WINTER
SOLSTICE STORM OF 2010



 RAIN FALLING FROM SOUTHERN
  CALIFORNIA TO BAKERSFIELD
      December 19-21, 2010
The Great Winter Solstice Storm
of 2010 was one for the record
books, a once in a hundred years
event, marked by the most rainfall
ever to fall in the month of
December and the 4th heaviest
daily rainfall (on Sunday) of all
time.
PACIFIC STORMS CAUSED
   HEAVY RAIN FALL,
 FLOODING, ROCKFALLS,
   AND MUD FLOWS IN
CALIFORNIA, NEVADA, AND
         UTAH
WINTER ARRIVED AT 3:38 PM
   ON TUESDAY, DEC. 21

• Historic rainfall brought much
  of California into a state of
  emergency with widespread
  flooding and mud flows that
  impacted many people just
  before Christmas.
A LUNAR ECLIPSE COINCIDENT
WITH SOLSTICE: 1ST SINCE 1638
  SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
DRENCHED WITH UP TO 20 CM


Los Angeles received one-
fourth of its annual rainfall
(nearly 10 cm (4 in )) in 3 days.
WINTER STORM HITS CA:
     DEC 20, 2010
ROCKSLIDE


A rockslide triggered by the
prolonged heavy rainfall closed the
Pacific Coast Highway in both
directions at the Ventura-L.A. county
line.
1 m (3 ft) OF WATER IN KERN
   CITY, CA: DEC 20, 2010
FLOODING CREATES
CHAOS: DEC 20, 2010
 From Friday (17th) through
midday on Monday (20th),
Bakersfield was drenched with
3.79 in. of rain, which is 5 times
the normal amount for an entire
December and 58% of a normal
year’s rainfall.
San Bernardino County, an inland
region of Southern California east
of Los Angeles was among the
hardest-hit areas, with losses
expected to exceed $10 million.
The flooding, mudslides, falling
rocks, crested creeks and
downed trees created havoc in
the Bakersfield area and led to
the declaration of a local
emergency.
In Highland. CA. people returned
to their homes after evacuation to
find their homes inundated with
2 m (several feet) of mud.
MUDSLIDES IN HIGHLAND,
   CA: DEC 24, 2010
DECEMBER 29: A new winter
storm packing powerful winds,
heavy rain and snow moved into
California, bringing a renewed
threat of flooding and mud flows
to areas that are already
saturated.

								
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