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					Correctional Continuum

  U.S. Correctional History
• Corrections in Feudal Society?
  – Serfs vs. Freemen
• First “principalities” in 12th Century
  – From private to territorial lords
     • By 1500, gov’t “corrections” overcomes traditions
       of private restitution and/or revenge
  – Punishments very public, and brutal/bizarre
     • In part, an effort to demonstrate that the
       government has a monopoly on the “legitimate”
       use of violence
                   Review II
• Interesting stuff from reading that I forgot
  to mention last class
  – Inquisitorial vs. Accusatory system
• Eventually (1750s to 1850s), corrections
  changes into the form we recognize today
     • No more molten lead down the front of the shirt
  – Why?? Spierenburg’s explanation?
     • Transformation of sensibilities
     • State no longer needs to prove itself
               Colonial America
• Nature of Society
  – Calvinist doctrine
     • Crime not a “problem” (fact of life)
     • Control through family training/community cohesion
• Nature of Punishment
  – Borrow heavily from England, So...central features
    are same:
     • Corporal
     • Public
     • Sparse use of prisons
     Enlightenment and Change
• Population boom and shift from agrarian to
  industrial economy
• Enlightenment
• Produces alarm/dismay but also optimism
  – First “burst of enthusiasm” (deterrence)
     • Reform the legal code
     • Substitute prisons for corporal punishment
         – First wave of prison building (1790-1800)
         – “A repulsion from the gallows rather than any faith in the
           penitentiary spurred the late-18th Century construction”
    From deterrence to penance
• By 1820, the luster of the classical school
  (and associated reforms) fades
  – No crime reduction, trouble with prisons
  – Still, very optimistic (“impulse to reform”)
• The Invention of the Penitentiary
  – A “PROPER” penitentiary will reform offenders
     • PN vs. Auburn debate
  – Reflects new understanding of cause of crime
             The Great Debate
• PN
  – Reform through penance, solitude, silence,
    labor (inmates kept in cell, separate “yard”)
• Auburn
  – Reform through discipline/obedience, labor
    (inmates congregate to work, but lockstep,
       • Contract labor system
• Why did Auburn Win?
   Southern/Western Penology
• Often neglected topic in corrections texts
• Prisons develop differently
  – In South, race and the “Black codes”
     • Little $ to build prisons (civil war decimation)
     • The “LEASE SYSTEM”
     • Penal Farms
               The New Penology
• By 1860, enthusiasm for penitentiaries wanes
  – Corruption, corporal punishment, crowding...
     • Wardens give up on ideal and seek to maintain order
• 1870 National Prison Congress
  – Leads to “Declaration of Principles”
     •   Reaffirm reform over punishment
     •   Indeterminate sentences
     •   Parole
     •   Separate institutions for females and juveniles
  – The lockstep, rules of silence, isolation, etc =
    humiliating and unproductive
  – Elmira as “test case” for new “Reformatory”
               Progressive Era
• Progressives = middle/upper class
  – Great optimism + belief in government
  – Sought to eradicate all sorts of social ills
  – Crime?
     • General reform (poverty reduction, fix slums)
     • Embrace new penology
        – Indeterminate sentences + parole boards/supervision
        – Juvenile Justice System
        – Probation
        The Medical Model and
         “Rehabilitative Ideal”
• By 1940s, social sciences gain prestige
  – Psychiatry, psychology, sociology
• Rehabilitative Ideal (1940s-1960s)
     • Causes of crime are unique (social, psychological)
     • The goal of corrections is to identify and
       eliminate/correct these causes (rehabilitation)
     • Treatment must be individualized
        – Corrections workers and judges must be trusted with a
          great deal of discretion
     1960s Corrections becomes
• Rehab as unquestioned goal (in rhetoric at
  least) of Corrections system
  – American Corrections Association (from
    American Prison Association)
  – Correctional Facilities
• Standards for “correctional officers”
• All kinds of new Rx programs
  – College education, group counseling,
    therapeutic milieu, behavior modification
Progressives Radicals, Change...
• Social Context of 1960s
  – Contrast with “progressive optimism/faith”
  – Many progressives turn more radical
    • Labeling theory ascends  avoid “doing harm”
    • Martinson Report  “nothing works”
       – “JUSTICE MODEL”
       – Clear et al. “Community Corrections” era
  – Conservatives have different take on ’60s
    • Crime = symbol of all the “DISORDER”
    • Solution = go back to classical school
             Uneasy Alliance
• Conservatives and liberals agree on:
  – The need to limit sentencing discretion
     • Conservatives = liberal judges
     • Liberals = corrupt, racist judges/parole boards
     • Solution = return to determinate sentencing,
       sentencing guidelines, etc
  – Only difference is on length of sentences
     • Liberals = do less harm, be fair (justice model)
     • Conservatives = punishment WORKS!

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