eisenhower and the cold war ppt by 7tQSOI


									■Essential Question:
 –To what extent did American
  foreign & domestic policy
  change in the 1950s?

■Chapter 27 pg 969-993
President Eisenhower’s
Modern Republicanism
    Eisenhower’s Modern Republicanism
   ■Frustration with the stalemate in
     Korea & the Red Scare led to a
     Republican presidential Gov’t
   Korean War Communism takeover
     in the 1952
   ■WW2 hero Dwight Eisenhower
Onceprovided an antidote for “K1C2”
      elected, Ike did go to Korea, overturned
      –VP Richard Nixon attacked
the U.N. battle plan, & threatened China with
nuclear war to get an armistice signed in 1953
       communism & corruption
      –Eisenhower vowed to go to
       Korea & personally end the war
    Eisenhower’s Modern Republicanism
 “I‟m conservative when it comes to money
  ■Eisenhower comes to human beings”
and liberal when itlabeled his politics
    “Modern Republicanism”:
     –“Ike” believed in conservative
      gov’t spending & a balanced
      budget but he had no desire to
      end the New Deal programs
     –The affluent, postwar “good life”
      at home was dependent upon a
      strong Cold War foreign policy
   Eisenhower’s Modern Republicanism
During the Eisenhower era, the U.S. economy
  ■In his 8 years inflation & brought
    avoided spiraling as president, Ike
 middle-class prosperity to more Americans
     had a modest domestic record:
     –Instead of ending New Deal
      programs, Eisenhower added to
      social security & minimum wage
     –Used FDR’s Federal Housing
      Admin to help finance building &
      purchasing suburban homes
     –Created the Depts of Health,
      Education, & Welfare
Eisenhower’s Modern Republicanism
■Interstate Highway System:
  –Highway Act of 1956 created
   41,000 miles of divided highway
   to connect major U.S. cities
  –These highways helped promote
   national defense, interstate
   trade, & vacation travel
  –All funds were raised exclusively
   through gas, tire, & car taxes
“Have you no decency,
        The Republicans in   Power
  Mr. McCarthy?”
  ■Regarding McCarthyism, Ike
   provided McCarthy “just enough
   rope to hang himself” in 1954
            “I am not going to hearings,”
    –In the televised “Armyget into a
           [peeing] contest with a skunk”
     the nation saw McCarthy’s style
     & fact-less attacks
    –The Senate censured McCarthy
     & his “communist” attacks
     quickly died
Postwar American
             An Affluent Society Plan
                      The Marshall
  ■The postwar boom The Korean War
                              was caused by
     –A desire for consumer goods
 Hi-fi (suppressed during Depression)
     American economy grew from crippling
     –Gov’t spending during Cold War
depression to the highest standard of living in
   all of world history in just 1 generation
     –Baby boom & movement to the
     Cars with                   Filter
       suburbs increasedcigarettes
                    TVs         the demand
       for consumer goods
  ■But, this affluence led to a shift
    from individualism to conformity
                         “The Milton
         “Twenty One” Game Show
    “I Love Lucy” in the 1950s
              TV         Berle Show”

   ■$64,000 Question
   ■21 Questions
   ■The Untouchables
   ■I Love Lucy
   ■1950s TV networks
TV replaced radio & magazines as the primary
  conveyer of American consumer culture
Birthrate, 1940-1970

  The late 1940s & 1950s
experienced the “baby boom”
        Life in the Suburbs
■The rapid growth of suburbs
 altered American life:
 –“Blue” & “white collar” workers
   lived in the same neighborhoods
 –Suburbs depended upon cars,
   grocery stores, & shopping malls
 –Suburbs allowed for the nuclear-
   family, not the extended family
 –“White-flight” to the suburbs left
   behind largely black urban cores
A Suburban Case Study: Levittown, New York

     Grew to with 4,000 rental homes to veterans
 Begin in 1947 17,000 sold homes in 1951
  Southdale Shopping Center, Minnesota—
the 1st enclosed, air-conditioned shopping mall
     Areas of Greatest Growth
■The rapid growth of suburbs led to
 –Increased church membership;
  Religious preference became
  the primary identifying feature of
  the suburbs
 –Public schools grew & a college
  education was a goal for middle
  class children
New Students Taking Advantage of the G.I. Bill
      The Music of the 1950s
■The music of the early 50s was
 dominated by doo-wop
■But, rock n’ roll quickly struck a
 chord with young listeners:
 –Black artists: Ray Charles,
   Chuck Berry, Fats Domino, &
   Little Richard
 –White artists: Jerry Lee Lewis,
   Roy Orbison, Buddy Holly, &
   Elvis Presley
  Critics of the Consumer Society
■Some criticized suburban culture:
 – William Whyte’s Organized Man
           Gave rise to counter-culture
   & David Riesman’s Lonely
              reactionaries of 1960s
   Crowd criticized American
        Inspired by Zen Buddhist state of
          inner to social pressures
   conformity grace called “beatitude”
 –Jack Kerouac & the Beats
   (Beatniks) emerged as a new
   counter-culture by refusing to
   conform to 1950s culture
        Beat Artists (Beatniks)
             City Lights in San Francisco
■ Find imageswas a hotbed for Beat artists
     Jackson Pollock
Abstract Expressionism
■Essential Question:
 –How do the domestic & foreign
  policies of Truman &
  Eisenhower compare?
Eisenhower Wages
   the Cold War
       Eisenhower & the Cold War
   ■Ike was unusually well-prepared
     to be a Cold War president
   ■Ike’s foreign policy goals were to:
      –Take a
 WW2 military strong stand against
  experience in
       Communism by using massive
 Europe & Asia          Excellent diplomat
       retaliation with nuclear weapons
                           & politician
 Pragmatic &     CIA hard-liner John
       & covert Choseoperations Foster
well organized
      –To reduce Dulles to be Sec of State
                   defense spending &
       relax Cold War tensions
        Massive Retaliation
■Eisenhower wanted “more bang
 for the buck”:
  –Nuclear weapons & long-range
   delivery missiles were cheaper
 Ike relied heavily on “brinksmanship”
   than conventional armed forces
   in which he used veiled threats of
  –“Massive to accomplish tactic of
  nuclear war retaliation” his goals
   targeting enemy cities made
   using nuclear weapons unlikely
  –But massive retaliation offered
   no intermediate course of action
   if diplomacy failed
Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs)
What are the stakes of war?
   Massive Retaliation?
Mutual Assured Destruction?
      Chinese Massive Retaliation
              did not know if Ike was bluffing so
    ■In 1954, Eisenhower used a
      China backed off this territorial expansion
        hard-line approach to stop
        Chinese expansion in Asia:
        the refusal of attempts aid China added
 …and –Chinese the USSR to to take over a
rift between Russia & China by the end of the 1950s
          islands near Taiwan led
          Eisenhower to threaten nuclear
          war if China did not stop
        –Eisenhower hoped this pressure
          would drive a wedge between
          the USSR & communist China
         Massive Retaliation
■In 1956, Egyptian leader Nasser
    “If those fellows Suez Canal:
 nationalized the start something, we
  may have to hit „em—and, if necessary,
  –England & France invaded Egypt
       with everything in the bucket”
   to take back the canal but the
   USSR opposed this intervention
  –Eisenhower did not want the
   USSR to attack so he threatened
   Russia with nuclear war
  –England, France, & the USSR
   left Egypt & the U.S. became the
   leader in Middle East
               Covert Actions
   ■Ike’s administration used covert
      CIA acts to expand U.S. control:
       –In 1953, the justifies the means”
               “The end CIA overthrew
         Mohammed Mossadegh in Iran
         in favor of a U.S.-friendly shah
       –In 1954, the CIA anti-American
  These interventions led tooverthrew a
         leftist regime East & Latin America
hostilities in the Middle in Guatemala
       –In 1959, the CIA took a hard-
         line against new Cuban dictator
         Fidel Castro after his coup
         The Effects of Sputnik
  ■The “space race” intensified the
    Cold War between USA & USSR
     –In 1957, the launch of the Soviet
      satellite Sputnik led to fears that
      the USSR was leading the race
Khrushchev used Sputnik to put the U.S. on
       defensive: intercontinental ballistic
   theto create “We will bury you. Your
grandchildren will live under Communism.”
      missiles (ICBMs)
     –The U.S. sped up it plans to
      build ICBMs & IRBM submarines
      The Effects of Sputnik
■Sputnik led to fears that America
 was growing soft & was losing its
 competitive edge & work ethic
      The advanced placement with:
■The U.S. gov’t responded(AP)
  program is a byproduct of theSpace
 – National Aeronautics &
   Administration in 1958
 –National Defense Education Act
   was created to promote math,
   science, & technology education
               Sputnik in 1957
The Original Seven—Mercury Astronauts
           Waging Peace
■Ike tried to end the nuclear arms
 race as both sides tested
 hydrogen bombs & ICBMs
  –In 1953, Eisenhower called for
   disarmament & presented his
   “Atoms for Peace” plan to the
   United Nations
  –In 1955, Khrushchev rejected
   Eisenhower’s “open skies” plan
   for weapons disarmament
    Military-Industrial Complex
■In his farewell address in 1960,
 Eisenhower warned against the
 Military-Industrial Complex:
  –The massive military spending
   & foreign
Restoring National
■By 1960, the American people
 were more optimistic than in 1950
 –Americans were no longer
  afraid of a return of another
  Great Depression
 –Anxiety over the Cold War
  continued but was not as severe
 –But, American values & race
  relations were areas of concern
■Compare Truman & Eisenhower’s
 approaches to the Cold War
■Compare how Truman &
 Eisenhower attempted to serve
 the domestic needs of Americans
■What domestic policy & foreign
 policy advice would Truman & Ike
 pass on to Kennedy in 1960?
 (provide 4 specific pieces of

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