Hope you Enjoy!
Brazil’s Flag History
• Brazil's flag is a deep green banner with a yellow
diamond enclosing a night-blue, star-studded Southern
Hemisphere sky. The sky depicts 27 white, five-pointed
stars (one for each state and the Federal District); the
stars are arranged in the pattern of the night sky over Rio
de Janeiro on November 15, 1889 (this is the date when
the last Emperor of Brazil, Dom Pedro II, was deposed,
and the republic was proclaimed). The stars in view
include the constellations Southern Cross (also called
Crux), Scorpius, Canis Major and others. A banner
across the sky reads, "ORDEM E PROGRESSO," which
means "order and progress" in Portuguese. This flag was
adopted on May 11, 1992 - it was an adaptation of an
earlier Brazilian flag from November 15, 1889.
• Brazil shares a border with almost every other country in South
America--only Chile and Ecuador are untouched--and covers almost
half the continent. It is the fifth largest country in the world, behind
Russia, Canada, China, and the U.S.A., with an area of eight and a
half million square kilometers.
• Despite its vast expanse of territory, Brazil's population is
concentrated in the major cities of its coast. The urban sprawls of
Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo dominate the southern coast. Further
north, towns such as Salvador and João Pessoa retain the colonial
atmosphere of the early Portuguese settlers. The great interior,
much of which is covered by the rainforest basin of the Amazon,
remains sparsely settled.
Almost half of Brazil's territory is covered by the basin of the
Amazon River and its tributaries, a region that is one of the world's
largest rainforest ecologies. Unfortunately, a substantial proportion
of this area has suffered the effects of modernization in recent
years. From the Amazon's mouth on the Pacific to Manaus, the
region's bustling main city, the river is heavily traveled, and wildlife is
scarce. Away from the cities and the main course of the Amazon,
however, smaller tributaries lead past unspoiled habitat and
• South of the Amazon region, the country's
interior is dominated by the Brazilian Shield, an
expansive bedrock flat that is slowly falling victim
to the elements. The Mato Grosso, a smooth,
grassy plain in Brazil's center, slowly gives way
to the Planalto, a low-rise plateau that extends
across the central and western regions. In the
far west, along the border with Paraguay and
Bolivia, is the Pantanal, one of the most
extensive swamplands in the world.
• Brazil's winter lasts from June to August, with
temperatures between 13 and 18C, but it only
gets really cold south of Rio. Summer is from
December to February, a period frequently
bringing stifling humidity to the far south. Brief
rain showers are common, given Brazil's tropical
climate, but the dry interior has only a few
months of heavy rainfall a year. Of course, the
Amazon Basin is the wettest area, with damp,
moist temperatures averaging 27 C.
• The melody of the Brazilian national anthem
(from Portuguese: Hino Nacional Brasileiro)
was composed by Francisco Manuel da Silva in
1822 and had been given at least two sets of
lyrics before a decree of 1922 gave it the
definitive lyrics, by , after several changes were
made to his proposal, written in 1909. In style,
the music resembles early Romantic Italian
music such as that of Gioacchino Rossini.
• During the Imperial period (1822-1889) and in
the early years of the Republic, the national
anthem was usually performed with no lyrics.
Hail, precious banner of hope!
Hail, august symbol of peace!
Thy noble presence to our minds Beholding thy sacred shadow,
The greatness of our motherland does bring. We understand our duty,
Chorus And Brazil by its sons beloved,
Take the affection enclosed powerful and happy shall be!
in our youthful chest, (Chorus)
Dear symbol of the land, 4
Of the beloved land of Brazil! Over the great Brazilian Nation,
2 In times of happiness or grief,
In thy beauteous bosom portraits Hover always sacred flag,
This sky of purest blue, Banner of justice and love!
The impaired greeness of these forests, (Chorus)
And the splendor of the Southern Cross.
• The Portuguese were the first European settlers to arrive
in the area, led by adventurous Pedro Cabral, who
began the colonial period in 1500. The Portuguese
reportedly found native Indians numbering around seven
million. Most tribes were peripatetic, with only limited
agriculture and temporary dwellings, although villages
often had as many as 5000 inhabitants. Cultural life
appears to have been richly developed, although both
tribal warfare and cannibalism were ubiquitous. The few
remaining traces of Brazil's Indian tribes reveal little of
their lifestyle, unlike the evidence from other Andean
tribes. Today, fewer than 200,000 of Brazil's indigenous
people survive, most of whom inhabit the jungle areas.
• The Portuguese were the first European settlers to arrive in the area, led by
adventurous Pedro Cabral, who began the colonial period in 1500. The
Portuguese reportedly found native Indians numbering around seven
million. Most tribes were peripatetic, with only limited agriculture and
temporary dwellings, although villages often had as many as 5000
inhabitants. Cultural life appears to have been richly developed, although
both tribal warfare and cannibalism were ubiquitous. The few remaining
traces of Brazil's Indian tribes reveal little of their lifestyle, unlike the
evidence from other Andean tribes. Today, fewer than 200,000 of Brazil's
indigenous people survive, most of whom inhabit the jungle areas.
• Other Portuguese explorers followed Cabral, in search of valuable goods for
European trade but also for unsettled land and the opportunity to escape
poverty in Portugal itself. The only item of value they discovered was the
pau do brasil (brazil wood tree) from which they created red dye. Unlike the
colonizing philosophy of the Spanish, the Portuguese in Brazil were much
less focused at first on conquering, controlling, and developing the country.
Most were impoverished sailors, who were far more interested in profitable
trade and subsistence agriculture than in territorial expansion. The country's
interior remained unexplored.
• Brazil has the sixth largest population in
the world--about 148 million people--which
has doubled in the past 30 years. Because
of its size, there are only 15 people per
sq. km, concentrated mainly along the
coast and in the major cities, where two-
thirds of the people now live: over 19
million in greater Sao Paulo and 10 million
in greater Rio.
• The immigrant Portuguese language was greatly
influenced by the numerous Indian and African
dialects they encountered, but it remains the
dominant language in Brazil today. In fact, the
Brazilian dialect has become the dominant
influence in the development of the Portuguese
language, for the simple reason that Brazil has
15 times the population of Portugal and a much
more dynamic linguistic environment.
Please answer the following
• 1. What is the capital of Brazil? ___________________________
• 2. What ocean borders Brazil to the east? ___________________________
• 3. What is the name of the huge rainforest in northern Brazil?
• 4. What is the name of the river that runs through this rainforest?
• 5. In what country does this river begin? ___________________________
• 6. What is the name of the country that borders Brazil to the south along the ocean?
• 7. In which part of Brazil is Rio de Janeiro located (northeast, southwest, etc.)?
• 8. The Pantanal is the world's largest freshwater wetland. Is the Pantanal in the north,
south, east, or west of Brazil? ___________________________
• 9. If you wanted to travel from São Paulo to Brasilia, in which direction would you
• 10. Roughly how many kilometers is it from Rio de Janeiro to Brasilia: 5 km, 50 km,
500 km, 5,000 km, or 50,000 km? ___________________________
Please label the map of Brazil
Carnival in Brazil
Each city in Brazil celebrates its own unique Carnival. In many smaller
cities, people gather in social clubs, in the streets, and at parties.
Many cities hold parades and other community events. Each Carnival
reflects the diverse cultures of Brazil. Therefore, Carnival in the north
may be completely different from Carnival in the south. Regardless of
where you decide to put your endurance to the test, and see just how
much festivity you can possibly sustain, you are guaranteed to have
an all around unforgettable experience!
Click on the pictures to discover more about the unique Carnival
celebrated in each city.
Carnival Festivities in...
- Rio de Janeiro
- Recife and Olinda
Days of the Week
Days of the week Dias da Semana
Numbers to ten