islam by 87rC547

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									      Welcome to
         Hajri
       Year 1427
Muslims follow a lunar calendar which started with the
 hegira, a 300 mile trek in 622 CE when Mohammed
           relocated from Mecca to Medina.
In the name of Allah,
the Compassionate,
     the Merciful
                What is Islam?
Islam is not a new religion, but
   the same truth that God
   revealed through all His
   prophets to every people. For a
   fifth of the world's population,
   Islam is both a religion and a
   complete way of life. Muslims
   follow a religion of peace,
   mercy, and forgiveness, and
   the majority have nothing to do
   with the extremely grave events
   which have come to be
   associated with their faith.
      Who are the Muslims?

One billion people from a vast range of races,
 nationalities and cultures across the globe - from
 the southern Philippines to Nigeria - are united
 by their common Islamic faith. About 18% live in
 the Arab world; the world's largest Muslim
 community is in Indonesia; substantial parts of
 Asia and most of Africa are Muslim, while
 significant minorities are to be found in the
 Soviet Union, China, North and South America,
 and Europe.
        What do Muslims believe?
Muslims believe in One, Unique, Incomparable God;
       in the Angels created by Him;
       in the prophets through whom His revelations were
                brought to mankind;
       in the Day of Judgement and individual accountability for
                actions;
       in God's complete authority over human destiny and in life
                after death.
Muslims believe in a chain of prophets starting with Adam and including
  Noah, Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Job, Moses, Aaron,
  David, Solomon, Elias, Jonah, John the Baptist, and Jesus, peace be
  upon them.
But God's final message to man, a reconfirmation of the eternal message
  and a summing-up of all that has gone before was revealed to the
  Prophet Muhammad through Gabriel.
  How does someone become a
           Muslim?
Simply by saying the
  Shahadah: ‘There is
  no god apart from
  God, and Muhammad
  is His Messenger.'
By this declaration the
  believer announces
  his or her faith in all
  God, his messenger
  Muhammad, and the
  scriptures he brought.
       What does 'Islam' mean?

• The Arabic word 'Islam' (slm) simply means
  'submission' and derives from a word meaning 'peace'.
• In a religious context it means complete submission to
  the will of God. 'Mohammedanism' is thus a misnomer
  because it suggests that Muslims worship Muhammad
  rather than God. 'Allah' is the Arabic name for God,
  which is used by Arab Muslims and Christians alike.
• Slm (salom) means “peace” and “submission” for the
  Christians and Jews also, since “Jeru-salem” means
  “city of peace.” In Hebrew, the same word is spelled,
  “shalom.’
    Why does Islam often seem
            strange?

Islam may seem exotic or even extreme in the
   modern world. Perhaps this is because religion
   does not dominate everyday life in the West
   today, whereas Muslims have religion always
   uppermost in their minds, and make no division
   between secular and sacred.
They believe that the Divine Law, the Shari'a,
   should be taken very seriously, which is why
   issues related to religion are still so important.
 Do Islam and Christianity have
        different origins?

• No. Together with Judaism, they go back to the
  prophet and patriarch Abraham, and their three
  prophets are directly descended from his sons
  Muhammad from the eldest, Ishmael, and
  Moses and Jesus from Isaac.
• Abraham established the settlement which today
  is the city of Makkah (Mecca), and built the
  Ka'ba (Kaba/Kabaa) towards which all Muslims
  turn when they pray.
               What is the Ka'ba?
The Ka'ba is the place of worship which
  God commanded Abraham and
  Ishmael to build over four thousand
  years ago.
The building was constructed of stone on
  what many believe was the original
  site of a sanctuary established by
  Adam.
God commanded Abraham to summon
  all mankind to visit this place, and
  when pilgrims go there today they say
  'At Thy service, O Lord', in response
  to Abraham's summons.
              Who is Muhammad?
Muhammad, was born in Makkah in the year 570, at a time when
  Christianity was not yet fully established in Europe. Since his
  father died before his birth, and his mother shortly afterwards, he
  was raised by his uncle from the respected tribe of Quraysh. As he
  grew up, he became known for his truthfulness, generosity and
  sincerity, so that he was sought after for his ability to arbitrate in
  disputes. The historians describe him as calm and meditative.
As a youth, he was employed as a camel driver on the trade routes
  between Syria and Arabia. Mohammed later managed caravans
  on behalf of merchants. He met people of different religious beliefs
  on his travels, and was able to observe and learn about Judaism,
  Christianity and the indigenous Pagan religions.
     How did Muhammad become a
   prophet and a messenger of God?

At the age of 40, while engaged
   in a meditative retreat,
   Muhammad received his first
   revelation from God through
   the Angel Gabriel. This
   revelation, which continued for
   twenty-three years, is known
   as the Quran.                     The Mountain of Light
                                     where Gabriel came to
                                     Prophet Muhammad.
As soon as he began to recite the words he heard
   from Gabriel, and to preach the truth which God
   had revealed to him, he and his.  small group of
   followers suffered bitter persecution, which grew
   so fierce that in the year 622 God gave them the
   command to emigrate. This event, the Hijra,
   'migration', in which they left Makkah (Mecca) for
   the city of Madinah (Medina) some 260 miles to
   the north, marks the beginning of the Muslim
   calendar.
After several years, the Prophet and his followers       The Prophet's
                                                           Mosque in
   were able to return to Makkah, where they              Madinah: the
   forgave their enemies and established Islam           dome indicates
                                                            the place
   definitively. Before the Prophet died at the age of     where his
   63, the greater part of Arabia was Muslim, and         house stood
   within a century of his death Islam had spread to       and where
                                                          he is buried.
   Spain in the West and as far East as China.
Until the moment that Muhammad
     .
  began spreading the message he
  heard from the angel Gabriel 13
  centuries ago, the Arabs were mostly
  polytheists, worshiping tribal deities.
  They had no sacred history linking
  them to one universal god, like other
  Middle Eastern peoples. They had
  no sacred text to live by, like the
  Bible; no sacred language, as
  Hebrew is to Jews and Sanskrit is to
  Hindus. Above all, they had no
  prophet sent to them by God, as
  Jews and Christians could boast.
    How did the spread of Islam
        affect the world?




Among the reasons for the rapid and peaceful spread of Islam
  was the simplicity of its doctrine - Islam calls for faith in only
  One God worthy of worship. It also repeatedly instructs
  man to use his powers of intelligence and observation.
Within a few years, great civilizations and universities were
  flourishing, for according to the .Prophet, 'seeking knowledge is an
  obligation for every Muslim man and woman.'
The synthesis of Eastern and Western ideas and of new thought with
  old, brought about great advances in medicine, mathematics,
  physics, astronomy, geography, architecture, art, literature, and
  history. Many crucial systems such as algebra, the Arabic
  numerals, and also the concept of the zero (vital to the
  advancement of mathematics), were transmitted to medieval
  Europe from Islam.
Sophisticated instruments which were to make possible the
  European voyages of discovery were developed, including the
  astrolabe, the quadrant and good navigational maps.
The Spread of Islam
By 750 C.E., Islam had spread from Madinah to all of Arabia, then
Mesopotamia, Egypt, most of the coastal regions of North Africa,
and into Iberia.
                                 .
The major ruling groups of the Middle East at the time, the Christian
  Byzantines and the Persian Sasanids, had exhausted themselves
  after years of warfare, weakening their empires and enabling the
  Muslims to fill a power vacuum.
The ease with which Islam spread eastward and westward in the 200
  years after the death of Muhammad is further explained by
  theological divisions and intra-religious persecution within the
  Christian world.
Many Christians in these lands, particularly those from persecuted
  sects, welcomed the arrival of the Muslims, and converted freely to
  Islam over the years.
The Crusades: 1096 to 1289
Beginning in 1096, some Christian Europeans heeded the call of the
papacy to launch a series of ―holy wars‖ aimed at gaining control of
Jerusalem from the Muslim Arabs and Seljuk Turks.
In all, eight crusades were carried out. Jerusalem fell to the
   Christians in 1099, partly due to the disarray among Muslims. It
                                    .
   took Muslims nearly half a century to respond effectively with their
   own call for defensive jihad, which required fighting against the
   Crusaders.
Under the leadership of Salah al-Din, the Muslims effectively ended
   the Christian hold on the Holy Land in 1187, shortly after which
   Jerusalem was restored to Muslim control.
It would be another 100 years, however, before the last Christian
   strongholds (Tripoli and Acre) fell to the Muslims.
In general, the Muslims considered the Crusades to be an invasion
   by European outsiders, and history indicates that the Europeans
   treated Muslims and Jews much more harshly in comparison to
   Muslim treatment of Christians.
The Christian sacking of Jerusalem and the massacre of its Muslim
   and Jewish residents during the first Crusade are often
   remembered as tragic historical examples of religious intolerance.
The Ottoman Empire: 1350 to 1918
This greatest of the Muslim states in terms of duration was founded
in the late 13th century by the Ottoman Turks.
It lasted until its dissolution after . I in 1918. Its early phase
                                      WW
    challenged the Byzantine Empire, Bulgaria, and Serbia.
In 1389, much of the Balkan Peninsula came under Ottoman rule.
    The Ottomans conquered Constantinople in 1453, bringing to
    an end the 1100-year-rule of the Byzantine Empire/ Next the
    Ottomans gained control of Mamluk Egypt in 1517, followed by
    Algiers and most of present-day Hungary by 1529, all of Persia
    in 1638, and most of the region between the Black and
    Caspian Seas by the 1650s. These so-called Ottoman wars of
    conquest fixed in the imagination of the Europeans the image
    of the Muslim Turks as ferocious and religiously inspired
    warriors.
Beginning in the 1780s, the Ottoman Empire began to
                                 . gained strength and began
   weaken, as European powers
   to vie with each other for access to resources and markets
   in the Middle East.
Most of the northern coast of the Black Sea had slipped away
   by 1812. The Ottoman Empire lost Greece, Egypt, and
   Serbia to European-inspired independence movements
   over the next 60 years.
By 1900, Turkey was known as the ―Sick Man of Europe,‖ And
   by 1912, it had lost nearly all of its European territories.
Siding with Germany and the losing Central Powers in World
   War I doomed the Empire. With the signing of the armistice
   ending WWI, the Ottoman Empire was dismantled by the
   Allied Powers, paving the way for the creation of new
   individual states in the modern Middle East.
                 Sacred Texts
• There are two texts:
  the Qur'an are the words of
  God. This was originally in
  oral and written form; they
  were later assembled
  together into a single book,
  the Qur'an. Its name is often
  spelled "Koran" in English.
  This is not recommended,
  as some Muslims find it
  offensive. The Hadith, which
  are collections of the
  sayings of Mohammed.
        What is the Qur’an?

The Qur’an is a record of the exact words revealed
  by God through the Angel Gabriel to the Prophet
  Muhammad. It was memorized by Muhammad
  and then dictated to his Companions, and
  written down by scribes, who cross-checked it
  during his lifetime. Not one word of its 114
  chapters, suras, has been changed over the
  centuries, so that the Quran is in every detail the
  unique and miraculous text which was revealed
  to Muhammad fourteen centuries ago.
                        Fatiha
Surah 1. The Opening
1. In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.
2. Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the
   worlds;
3. Most Gracious, Most Merciful;
4. Master of the Day of Judgment.
5. Thee do we worship, and Thine aid we seek.
6. Show us the straight way,
7. The way of those on whom Thou hast bestowed Thy Grace,
   those whose (portion) is not wrath, and who go not astray.
   This opening
  chapter of The
Quran, the Fatiah,
    is central in
 Islamic prayer. It
    contains the
  essence of The
   Quran and is
   recited during
   every prayer.
Fatiha Audio
Boys studying the Qur’an
            What is the Quran about?
The Quran, the last revealed Word of God, is the prime source of
  every Muslim's faith and practice. It deals with all the subjects
  which concern us as human beings: wisdom, doctrine, worship,
  and law, but its basic theme is the relationship between God and
  His creatures. At the same time it provides guidelines for a just
  society, proper human conduct and an equitable economic
  system.


     Are there any other sacred sources?
Yes, the sunna, the practice and example of the Prophet, is the
  second authority for Muslims. A hadith is a reliably transmitted
  report of what the Prophet said, did, or approved. Belief in the
  sunna is part of the Islamic faith.
       How do Muslims Worship?
In Islam, the term ‘ibadah (service, worship) does not merely signify
   the ritualistic activities such as Salah (ritual Prayer), fasting, Zakah
   (obligatory alms) or Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah). It includes all the
   activities of a believer that are in accordance with the laws of Allah
   (God). When a Muslim performs all the activities of his life for the
   pleasure of Allah, then all his deeds become ‘ibadah or worship.
   Naturally this includes his ritualistic worship, such as prayer, as
   well.
Islam requires a person to submit himself whole-heartedly and fully to
   Allah. Thus, surrendering all the areas of one’s activity to Allah,
   leaving nothing to the whims and fancies of anyone else, is in fact
   the true meaning of Islam.
                                      .
The Qur’an shows that there are only two ways laid out before Man:
   one is the way of Allah and the other is the way of the Devil. A
   person cannot stand with one foot in Allah’s way and the other in
   the Devil’s way.
Islam does not value rituals for the sake of ceremony.
A Muslim is one who has willfully submitted his whole self to Allah,
   and his duty then is just to obey Him. A Muslim cannot split his life
   into compartments and say, ―This is the area of my religion where I
   will obey Allah and these are the areas where I will follow others.‖
   For service and worship are one in Islam. By following or obeying
   others than Allah, one is, in effect, worshiping them, which is a
   contradiction of the first item of Muslim belief: there is none worthy
   of worship but Allah.
The officials of the Mosque are, the
                                 .
   "iman" (leader), the "preacher",
   and the "muezzin" (who calls to
   prayer from the minaret). No
   priests.
Over time, many rooms were
   added to the mosque, rooms
   used by people of different social
   classes, people performing their
   professions in the mosque,
   travelers, sick, and old. Devout
   and ascetics lived often in the
   mosque, and even in the
   minaret.
In most mosques, men and women
   worship separately.
 All mosques have an interior wall
. with a empty arch that faces
    Mecca. This directs the
    worshipper as he bows to
    pray.
 The interpreters of the Scriptures
    are the "mullahs" or "ulemas,"
    who serve as religious
    teachers and judges in the
    courts.
 Prayer is a cardinal tenet in
    Islamic religiosity, the second
    foremost duty after profession
    of faith, the shahadah.
Prayer is a distinctive component of a Muslim’s personality and
                                    .
  routine; his day begins and ends with a prayer. According to a
  famous hadith (the tradition of the Prophet), a Muslim who
  deliberately fails to observe his/her prayers ceases to be one in
  practice.10 Prayer is a testament of genuine obedience to God.
The five obligatory prayers are the early morning prayer (salat al-fajr),
  the noon prayer (salat al-zuhr), the mid-afternoon prayer (salat al-
  ’asr), the sunset prayer (salat al-maghrib) and the evening prayer
  (salat al-’isha’). On Fridays, the noon congregational prayer (salat
  al-Jum’a) substitutes for the regular noon prayer.
As prayer penetrates the entire fiber of the worshipper’s being the
  whole world becomes like a mosque (masjid) to him — ever
  conscious of the pervasive presence of God around him. His
  action becomes the replica of the godliness that constitutes his
  inner self. This is because he prostrates himself before God, not
  as a matter of routine, but in sincere spirit of obeisance.
Performance of prayer

                                      .adhan can be heard from the top
  The arrival of a prayer time is announced by ―the call to prayer‖
  (adhan). In Muslim societies the
  of minarets, on loudspeakers, radio and television. The caller,
  mu’adhin, in a melodious voice, intones the greatness of God and
  invites the faithful to prayer in the following phrases (repeated at
  least twice):

  God is most great. I bear witness that there is no god but the One
  God. I bear witness that Muhammad is the messenger of God.
  Hasten to prayer! Hasten to success! God is most great. There is
  no god but the true One God.

  The phrase ―prayer is better than sleep‖ is added immediately after
  ―hasten to success‖ when the call is proclaimed for the early
  morning prayer to remind Muslims of the bliss that prayer affords
  them in the hereafter.
Before the worshipper approaches this sacred duty, he is first and
   foremost enjoined to enter in a state of ―sacral purity‖by performing
                                     .
   ablution or ritual washing (wudu’). Prayer is worthless without
   ablution.
Ablution consists of washing with pure water one’s hands, mouth,
   nostrils, face, and the arms to the elbows, wiping the head and the
   ears, and washing the feet to the ankle. Ablution also symbolizes a
   sense of hygiene as well as purification for the soul.
Like all other Islamic ritual observances, ablution must be preceded
   by niyyah, a solemn declaration of intention for which the act is for,
   i.e. worship. By this act the worshipper consciously summons the
   resolve to enter into a meeting with his Lord.
When the ablution is complete, then the worshipper is ready to
   commence the prayer. He makes sure his garment and prayer
   ground are free of any pollution. A prayer rug or any material
   chosen for that matter usually delineates the prayer ground.
    What are the 'Five Pillars' of
              Islam ?
They are the framework of the Muslim life: faith,
  prayer, concern for the needy, self-purification,
  and the pilgrimage to Makkah (Mecca) for those
  who are able.
A Muslim's duties as described in the FIVE PILLARS of
  Islam are:                 .
  – 1) to recite at least once during their lifetime the shahadah (the
    creed: "There is no God but God and Mohammed is his
    Prophet"). Most Muslims repeat it at least daily.
  – 2) to perform the salat (prayer) 5 times a day. This is recited
    while orienting one's body towards Mecca. It is done in the
    morning, at noon, midafternoon, after sunset and just before
    sleeping.
  – 3) to donate regularly to charity through zakat, a 2.5% charity
    tax, and through additional donations to the needy as the
    individual believer feels moved.
  – 4) to fast during the month of Ramadan. This is believed to be
    the month that Mohammed received the Qur'an from God.
  – 5) if economically and physically, to make at least one hajj
    (pilgrimage) to Mecca
Five Pillars of Faith movie
1) FAITH
                                   .
There is no god worthy of worship except God and Muhammad is
   His messenger. This declaration of faith is called the
   Shahada, a simple formula which all the faithful pronounce. In
   Arabic, the first part is la ilaha illa Llah - 'there is no god
   except God'; ilaha (god) can refer to anything which we may
   be tempted to put in place of God - wealth, power, and the
   like. Then comes illa Llah: 'except God', the source of all
   Creation. The second part of the Shahada is Muhammadun
   rasulu'Llah: 'Muhammad is the messenger of God.' A
   message of guidance has come through a man like ourselves.
2) PRAYER                  .
Salat is the name for the obligatory prayers which are
performed five times a day, and are a direct link between
the worshipper and God. There is no hierarchical authority
in Islam, and no priests, so the prayers are led by a
learned person who knows the Quran, chosen by the
congregation. These five prayers contain verses from the
Quran, and are said in Arabic, the language of the
Revelation, but personal supplication can be offered in
one's own language.
Prayers are said at dawn,    .
 noon, mid-afternoon,
 sunset and nightfall,
 and thus determine the
 rhythm of the entire
 day. Although it is
 preferable to worship
 together in a mosque, a
 Muslim may pray
 almost anywhere, such
 as in fields, offices,
 factories and
 universities. Visitors to
 the Muslim world are
 struck by the centrality
 of prayers in daily life.
A translation of the Call to
  Prayer is:
                                 .
 God is most great. God is most great.
  God is most great. God is most great.
  I testify that there is no god except
  God.
  I testify that there is no god except
  God.
  I testify that Muhammad is the
  messenger of God.
  I testify that Muhammad is the
  messenger of God.
  Come to prayer! Come to prayer!
  Come to success (in this life and the
  Hereafter)!
  Come to success!
  God is most great. God is most great.
  There is no god except God.
3) THE 'ZAKAT'               .
     One of the most important principles of Islam is that all
things belong to God, and that wealth is therefore held by
human beings in trust. The word zakat means both
'purification' and 'growth'. Our possessions are purified by
setting aside a proportion for those in need, and, like the
pruning of plants, this cutting back balances and
encourages new growth.
     Each Muslim calculates his or her own zakat
individually. For most purposes this involves the payment
each year of two and a half percent of one's capital.
4) THE FAST
                                  .
Every year in the month of Ramadan, all Muslims fast from first
  light until sundown, abstaining from food, drink, and sexual
  relations. Those who are sick, elderly, or on a journey, and
  women who are pregnant or nursing are permitted to break the
  fast and make up an equal number of days later in the year. If
  they are physically unable to do this, they must feed a needy
  person for every day missed. Children begin to fast (and to
  observe the prayer) from puberty, although many start earlier.
Although the fast is most beneficial to the health, it is regarded
  principally as a method of self purification. By cutting oneself off
  from worldly comforts, even for a short time, a fasting person
  gains true sympathy with those who go hungry as well as
  growth in one's spiritual life.
5) PILGRIMAGE (Hajj) .
The annual pilgrimage to Makkah (Mecca) - the Hajj - is an
  obligation only for those who are physically and financially able to
  perform it. Nevertheless, about two million people go to Makkah
  each year from every corner of the globe providing a unique
  opportunity for those of different nations to meet one another.
  Although Makkah is always filled with visitors, the annual Hajj
  begins in the twelfth month of the Islamic year (which is lunar, not
  solar, so that Hajj and Ramadan fall sometimes in summer,
  sometimes in winter). Pilgrims wear special clothes: simple
  garments which strip away distinctions of class and culture, so
  that all stand equal before God.
 Hajj
certificate


Pilgrim 
in hajj
clothes
Road sign in Mecca
The Kaba
Pilgrims praying at the mosque in Mecca
A new covering for the Ka’ba is
made every year, and it takes
about a full year to hand-stitch
the covering – much of which is
sewn with gold thread
The rites of the Hajj, which are of Abrahamic origin, include
                                .
   circling the Ka'ba seven times, and going seven times
   between the mountains of Safa and Marwa as did Hagar
   during her search for water. Then the pilgrims stand
   together on the wide plain of Arafa and join in prayers for
   God's forgiveness, in what is often thought of as a preview
   of the Last Judgment.
In previous centuries the Hajj was an arduous undertaking.
   Today, however, Saudi Arabia provides millions of people
   with water, modern transport, and the most up-to-date
   health facilities.
The close of the Hajj is marked by a festival, the Eid al-Adha,
   which is celebrated with prayers and the exchange of gifts
   in Muslim communities everywhere. This, and the Eid al-
   Fitr, a feast-day commemorating the end of Ramadan, are
   the main festivals of the Muslim calendar.
-------------------- The Great Mosque --------------------------------------
Hajj Movie
Stampede Kills 345 At Hajj Ritual
         MINA, Saudi Arabia, Jan. 12, 2006

                    At least 345 Muslim pilgrims were
                       trampled to death and almost 300
                       injured Thursday as they tripped
                       over luggage in a scramble to hurl
                       pebbles at symbols of Satan during
                       the annual pilgrimage, Saudi
                       officials said.
                    It was the latest in a succession of
                       stampede tragedies to hit the hajj
                       pilgrimage despite efforts of the
                       Saudi authorities to avoid a repeat
                       of disasters like the one that killed
                       1,426 people in 1990.
           Does Islam tolerate other
                   beliefs?

The Quran says: God forbids you not, with regards to those who fight
  you not for [your] faith nor drive you out of your homes, from
  dealing kindly and justly with them; for God loveth those who are
  just. (Quran, 60:8)

Of course, saying that God does not forbid you from dealing kindly
  and justly is NOT the same as saying that God commands you to
  deal kindly and justly. We will return to this idea is a few minutes.
It is one function of Islamic law to protect the privileged status of
    minorities, and this is why non-Muslim places of worship have
                                      . History provides many
    flourished all over the Islamic world.
    examples of Muslim tolerance towards other faiths: when the
    caliph Omar entered Jerusalem in the year 634, Islam granted
    freedom of worship to all religious communities in the city.
Islamic law also permits non-Muslim minorities to set up their own
    courts, which implement family laws drawn up by the minorities
    themselves.
When the caliph Omar took Jerusalem from the Byzantines, he
    insisted on entering the city with only a small number of his
    companions. Proclaiming to the inhabitants that their lives and
    property were safe, and that their places of worship would never
    be taken from them, he asked the Christian patriarch Sophronius
    to accompany him on a visit to all the holy places.
The Patriarch invited him to pray in the Church of the Holy
                                 .
  Sepulchre, but he preferred to pray outside its gates,
  saying that if he accepted, later generations of Muslims
  might use his action as an excuse to turn it into a mosque.
  Above is the mosque built on the spot where Omar did
  pray.
According to Islam, man is not born in 'original sin'. He is
  God's viceregent on earth. Every child is born with the fitra,
  an innate disposition towards virtue, knowledge, and
  beauty. Islam considers itself to be the 'primordial religion',
  din al-hanif, it seeks to return man to his original, true
  nature in which he is in harmony with creation, inspired to
  do good, and confirming the Oneness of God.
     Black Muslim Movement (BMM)
Muslims cannot totally deny that there has
  been some intolerance of other faiths
  and of other races.
The BMM is largely a black urban
  movement in the US. One driving force
  was a rejection of Christianity as the
  religion of the historically oppressing
  white race. It was started by Wallace
  Fard who built the first temple in
  Detroit. Elijah Muhammad (born Elijah
  Poole) established a second temple in
  Chicago and later supervised the           Elijah Muhammad
  creation of temples in most large cities
  with significant black populations.
                            They.taught that blacks were racially
                               superior to whites and that a racial
                               war is inevitable. The charismatic
                               Malcolm X was perhaps their most
                               famous spokesperson; he played
                               an important role in reversing the
                               BMM's anti-white beliefs. In its
                               earlier years, the movement
                               deviated significantly from
                               traditional Islamic beliefs
(particularly over matters of racial tolerance and the status of the
BMM leaders as prophets). This deviation is being reversed.
         Common Islamic Beliefs
• strict monotheism. God is the    • belief in Paradise, a place of
  creator, is just, omnipotent       physical and spiritual
  and merciful                       pleasure where the sinless
• respect for earlier prophets       go after death
  and belief in their teachings:   • abstinence from alcohol and
  Abraham, Moses and Jesus           gambling
• that Mohammed is the last of     • rejection of racism
  the prophets                     • avoid the use of alcohol,
• belief in the existence of         other drugs, eating of pork,
  Satan who drives people to         etc.
  sin                              • avoid gambling
• that Muslims who sincerely       • that Jesus is a prophet. They
  repent and submit to God           regard the Christian concept
  return to a state of               of the deity of Jesus to be
  sinlessness                        blasphemous
• belief in Hell where             • that Jesus was not executed
  unbelievers and sinners            on the cross
  spend eternity
            Divisions Within Islam
Because of Islam's great growth geographically in the first two
  centuries of its inception, there needed to be a larger set of Islamic
  laws capable of handling the different needs of Muslims
  throughout the Empire. The Qur'an and the Hadith were not
  detailed enough to provide all the answers. Therefore, in the 8th
  century A.D., there arose a school of legal experts who interpreted
  and applied Islamic principles to different situations throughout the
  Empire. However, different scholars disagreed with these experts
  in various areas. This led to a variety of legal schools of thought
  within Islam.
These different schools became different sects within Islam. The
  largest of the sects is the Sunni which comprises about 90% of all
  Muslims. The next two largest are the Shi'i and Sufi. After these,
  there are numerous splinter groups which are often named after
  the individual scholars who began them: Hanifa, Maliki, Shafi'i,
  Zaydi, the Nusayri, Ismaili, Murji'ah, etc.
                                  .
1) Followers of the Hanafi, Shafi, Hanibal, and Malik legal schools
   are called Sunni Muslims and constitute a 90% majority of the
   believers. They are considered to be main stream traditionalists.
   Because they are comfortable pursuing their faith within secular
   societies, they have been able to adapt to a variety of national
   cultures, while following their three sources of law: the Qur'an,
   Hadith, and consensus of Muslims.
The Sunni emphasize the power and sovereignty of Allah and his
   right to do whatever he wants with his creation. Strict determinism
   is taught. Its rulership is through the Caliphate, the office of
   Muslim ruler who is considered the successor to
   Muhammad. This successor is not through hereditary lineage.
2) Followers of the Jafri school are called Shi'ite Muslims (or Shi’a)
   and constitute a small minority of Islam. They split from the Sunnis
                                    .of the fourth caliph in 661. Shi'ites
   over a dispute about the successor to Mohammed. This split
   occured after the assassination
   believe that the successor to Muhammad should have been Ali,
   his son in law, and that subsequent successors should have been
   through his lineage through his wife Fatima.
Shi'ism is broken into three main sects: the Twelve-Imam, the Zaydis,
   and the Ismailis. Each group, of course, has differences of
   doctrine.
Shi'ite theology includes a doctrine known as the five supports: these
   are Divine Unity (tawhid), prophecy (nubuwwah), resurrection of
   the soul and body at the Judgment (ma'ad), the Imamate
   (imamah), and justice ('adl). The first three are found in Sunni
   Islam, albeit with some differences of emphasis; the Imamate,
   however , is the essence of Shi'ism, and the last, justice, is an
   inheritance from the Mu'tazilites, or rationalists, whose system is in
   many ways perpetuated in Shi'ite theology.
The Imamate, fom the word "Imam", in the Shi'ite traditions is the
                                     .
  political and religious leader of the Shi'ite sect. This person
  possess great power and influence. According to Shi'ite doctrine,
  the Imam must be a biological successor of Ali. The Imam is also
  sinless and infallible on all matters of Islamic doctrine and will
  intercede for Muslims in the afterlife. The Shi'i and the Sunni differ
  in some interpretations of the Qur'an and Hadith and even have a
  different canon of Hadith and the Sunni.

3) The Sufi are a mystical tradition where the followers seek inner
   mystical knowledge of God. This sect "officially" developed around
   the 10th century and has since fragmented into different
   orders: Ahmadiyya, Qadariyya, Tijaniyya, etc. Of course, the Sufi
   believe their roots can be traced back to the inception of Islam in
   the early 7th century.
The Sufi mystic must follow a path.of deprivation and
   meditation. There are various forms of abstinence and
   poverty. Worldly things are renounced and a complete trust in
   God's will is taught. The goal is to attain to a higher knowledge
   and experience of Allah. The mystical focus meant that the Qur'an
   could be interpreted in different ways and so Sufism taught that
   the Qur'an had mystical meanings hidden within its pages. Out of
   this mysticism a type of pantheism developed among some Sufi
   believers. Pantheism is the teaching that God and the universe
   are one. Of course, the orthodox Muslims, called the Sunni, reject
   this idea since they claim that Allah is the creator of the universe
   and distinct from it.
In part, Sufism arose as a reaction to the growing Islamic materialism
   that had developed in the Empire at that time. Islam had achieved
   great power and geographical scope and with it, the material gain
   was great.
The Sufi "Whirling Derisshes":
  The greatest of the Sufi poets is."Meluana
  Celadin Rumi" (1207-73), from Turkey, whose
  work, "Masvani," is considered second only to
  the Koran, and it was Rumi who advocated and
  influenced the development of the "whirling
  dervishes," twirl dancing around the master, as a
  means of achieving oneness with God... it
  requires 1,001 hours to master the dance, once
  secret, now performed openly.
  They used to retreat to the desert where they live
  as wandering ascetics, abstaining from all
  worldly pleasures and dressing in woolen robes,
  "sufis"... and there are several "orders," like the
  Christian monastic orders.
• 4) An interesting minor division . the Ahmadis: Followers of the
                                    is
  Ahmadiyya Movement believe that God sent Ahmad as a Messiah,
  "a messenger of His in this age who has claimed to have come in
  the spirit and power of Jesus Christ. He has come to call all people
  around one Faith, i.e. Islam..." The movement's founder was
  Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835-1908). He was born in
  Qadian, India. He felt that he had a mandate from God to correct a
  serious error within Christianity. Most Christians believe that Jesus
  is a member of the Godhead. "...because Jesus, whom God sent
  as a Messiah to the Israelites was taken for a God, Divine jealousy
  ordained that another man [Ahmad] should be sent as Messiah so
  that the world may know that the first Messiah was nothing more
  than a weak mortal."
Islamic Sects   Sunni
                         Hanafi
                                    Barelvi
                                    Deobandi
                         Hanbali
                                    Wahhabi
                         Maliki
                         Shafii
                Shiia
                         Twelver - Ithna-Ashari
                         Sevener – Ismaili (Hashashin)
                                              Alawi
                                              Bohra
                                              Druze
                                              Khoja
                         Fiver - Zaydi
                         Kharijite / Ibadite
                Ahmadi
                         Qadiani
                         Lahorite
                Sufi
                     Islamic Law
Within the Islamic vision of this world, there are rules that govern
  the lives of the Moslems themselves, and these rules are very
  strict. In fundamentals, there are no differences between
  schools of law.
However, there are four streams of factions within Islam with
  differences between them concerning the minutiae of the laws.
  All over the Islamic world, countries have favored one or
  another of these schools of laws.
The strictest school of law is called Hanbali, mainly coming out of
  Saudi Arabia.
There are no games there, no playing around with the meanings
  of words.
                                 .
There are various perspectives in Islam with different
  interpretations over the centuries. There were good people that
  were very enlightened in Islam that tried to understand things
  differently. They even brought traditions from the mouth of the
  prophet that women and children should not be killed in war.
  These more liberal streams do exist, but there is one thing that
  is very important for us to remember.
The Hanbali school of law is extremely strict, and today this is the
  school that is behind most of the terrorist powers. Even if we
  talk about the existence of other schools of Islamic law, when
  we're talking about fighting against the Jews, or fighting against
  the Christian world led by America, it is the Hanbali school of
  law that is being followed.
          2. Islamic Law - Shari`ah
The Arabic word shari`ah refers to the laws and way of life prescribed
  by Allah (SWT) for his servants. The shari`ah deals with the
  ideology and faith; behavior and manners; and practical daily
  matters. "To each among you, we have prescribed a law and a
  clear way. (Qur 'an 5:48) Shari`ah includes the Qur'an and the
  sunnah of the Prophet (saas). The Qur'an is the direct word of
  Allah (SWT), and is the first most important source of guidance
  and rulings. The Sunnah of the Prophet (saas) is the second
  source of guidance and rulings. The sunnah is an inspiration from
  Allah (SWT), but relayed to us through the words and actions of
  the Prophet (saas), and his concurrence with others' actions. The
  sunnah confirmed the rulings of the Qur'an; detailed some of the
  concepts, laws and practical matters which are briefly stated in the
  Qur'an (e.g. definition of Islam, Iman, and Ihsan, details of salah,
  types of usury); and gave some rulings regarding matters not
  explicitly stated in the Qur'an (e.g. wearing silk clothes for men).
                              Shari`ah
1-Qur'an                       2-Sunnah of the prophet (saas)
Ideology and faith             Sayings
Behavior and manners           Actions
Practical manners              Concurrence with others' actions
Articles of worship
Day-to-day activities
Pertaining to family, business, Characteristics of the Prophet (saas)
penal code, government,
international law, economy.
              3. Islamic Law - Fiqh
The Arabic word fiqh means knowledge, understanding and
  comprehension. It refers to the legal rulings of the Muslim
  scholars, based on their knowledge of the shari`ah; and as such is
  the third source of rulings. The science of fiqh started in the
  second century after Hijrah, when the Islamic state expanded and
  faced several issues which were not explicitly covered in the
  Qur'an and Sunnah of the Prophet (saas). Rulings based on the
  unanimity of Muslim scholars and direct analogy are binding. The
  four Sunni schools of thought, Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i and Hanbali,
  are identical in approximately 75% of their legal conclusions.
  Variances in the remaining questions are traceable to
  methodological differences in understanding or authentication of
  the primary textual evidence. Differing viewpoints sometimes exist
  even within a single school of thought.
3-Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence)
Basis of Rulings
Unanimity of Muslim scholars
Direct and indirect analogy
Benefit for community
Custom
Associated rules
Original rules
Opinion of a companion of the
Prophet
      Mohammed Held That All the
     Biblical Prophets Were Muslims
Mohammed did accept the existence of all the Biblical prophets
  before him. However, he also said that all these prophets were
  Muslims. Abraham was a Muslim. In fact, Adam himself was the
  first Muslim. Isaac and Jacob and David and Solomon and Moses
  and Jesus were all Muslims, and all of them had writings similar to
  the Koran. Therefore, world history is Islamic history because all
  the heroes of history were Muslims.
Furthermore, Muslims accept the fact that each of these prophets
  brought with him some kind of a revelation. Moses, brought the
  Taurat, which is the Torah, and Jesus brought the Ingeel, which is
  the Evangelion or Gospel — namely the New Testament.
Thus, there is a kinship between Muslims and Jews and Christians,
  since they are all ―followers of the Book.‖
       What do Muslims think about
                Jesus?
Muslims respect and revere Jesus, and
  await his Second Coming. They
  consider him one of the greatest of
  God's messengers to mankind. A
  Muslim never refers to him simply as
  'Jesus', but always adds the phrase
  'upon him be peace'. The Quran
  confirms his virgin birth (a chapter of
  the Quran is entitled 'Mary'), and
  Mary is considered the purest
  woman in all creation. The Quran
  describes the Annunciation as
  follows:
'Behold!' the Angel said, 'God has chosen you, and purified you, and
   chosen you above the women of all nations. O Mary, God gives
                                   . whose name shall be the
   you good news of a word from Him,
   Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, honored in this world and the
   Hereafter, and one of those brought near to God. He shall speak
   to the people from his cradle and in maturity, and shall be of the
   righteous.'
She said: 'O my Lord! How shall I have a son when no man has
   touched me?' He said: 'Even so; God creates what He will. When
   He decrees a thing, He says to it, "Be!" and it is.' (Quran, 3:42-7)
Jesus was born miraculously through the same power which had
   brought Adam into being without a father:
―Truly, the likeness of Jesus with God is as the likeness of Adam. He
   created him of dust, and then said to him, 'Be!' and he was.‖
   (Quran, 3:59)
During his prophetic mission Jesus performed many miracles. The
    Quran tells us that he said:       .
―I have come to you with a sign from your Lord: I make for you out of
    clay, as it were, the figure of a bird, and breathe into it and it
    becomes a bird by God's leave. And I heal the blind, and the
    lepers and I raise the dead by God's leave.‖ (Quran, 3:49)
Neither Muhammad nor Jesus came to change the basic doctrine of
    the belief in One God, brought by earlier prophets, but to confirm
    and renew it. In the Quran Jesus is reported as saying that he
    came:
―To attest the law which was before me. And to make lawful to you
    part of what was forbidden you; I have come to you with a sign
    from your Lord, so fear God and obey Me.‖ (Quran, 3:5O)
                      .
                          The Prophet Muhammad said:
                          Whoever believes there is no
                            god but God, alone without
                            partner, that Muhammad is
                            His messenger, that Jesus is
                            the servant and messenger of
                            God, His word breathed into
                            Mary and a spirit emanating
                            from Him, and that Paradise
                            and Hell are true, shall be
                            received by God into Heaven.
The Perfect Servant         (Hadith from Bukhari)
        Muslims, Jews, & Christians
Like Judaism and Christianity, every Muslim has to acknowledge the
   fact that there is only one God.
But it's not enough to say that there is only one God. A Muslim has to
   acknowledge the fact that there is one God and Mohammed is his
   prophet. These are the fundamentals of the religion that without
   them, one cannot be a Muslim.
But beyond that, Islam is a civilization. It is a religion that gave first
   and foremost a wide and unique legal system that engulfs the
   individual, society and nations with rules of behavior. If you are
   Muslim, you have to behave according to the rules of Islam which
   are set down in the Koran and which are very different than the
   teachings of the Bible.
But there are more differences…..
                                 .
The Bible is the creation of the spirit of a nation over a very,
   very long period, if we talk from the point of view of the
   scholar, and let me remain scholarly. But there is one thing
   that is important in the Bible. It leads to salvation. It leads to
   salvation in two ways.
In Judaism, it leads to national salvation — not just a nation
   that wants to have a state, but a nation that wants to serve
   God. That's the idea behind the Hebrew text of the Bible.
The New Testament that took the Hebrew Bible moves us
   toward personal salvation. So we have got these two kinds
   of salvation, which, from time to time, meet each other.
But the key word is salvation. Personal salvation means that each
  individual is looked after by God, Himself, who leads a person
                                   .
  through His word to salvation. This is the idea in the Bible, whether
  we are talking about the Old or the New Testament. All of the laws
  in the Bible, even to the minutest ones, are, in fact directed toward
  this fact of salvation.

Secondly, there is another point in the Bible, which is highly
  important. This is the idea that man was created in the image of
  God. Therefore, you don't just walk around and obliterate the
  image of God. Many people, of course, used Biblical rules and
  turned them upside down. History has seen a lot of massacres in
  the name of God and in the name of Jesus. But as religions, both
  Judaism and Christianity in their fundamentals speak about
  honouring the image of God and the hope of salvation. These are
  the two basic fundamentals.
Now let's move to the essence of Islam. Islam was born with the idea
  that it should rule the world. There is a difference between these
  three religions. Judaism speaks.about national salvation —
  namely that at the end of the story, when the world becomes a
  better place, Israel will be in its own land, ruled by its own king and
  serving God. Christianity speaks about the idea that every single
  person in the world can be saved from his sins, while Islam speaks
  about ruling the world.
The Qur’an says that "Allah sent Mohammed with the true religion so
  that it should rule over all the religions."    The idea, then, is not
  that the whole world would become a Moslem world at this time,
  but that the whole world would be subdued under the rule of Islam.
When the Islamic empire was established in 634 AD, within seven
  years — 640 AD — the core of the empire was created. The rules
  that were taken from the Koran and from the tradition that was
  ascribed to the prophet Mohammed, were translated into a real
  legal system. Jews and Christians could live under Islam provided
  they paid poll tax and accepted Islamic superiority.
     What about Muslim women?

Islam sees a woman, whether single or married, as an individual in
   her own right, with the right to own and dispose of her property
   and earnings. A marriage dowry is given by the groom to the bride
   for her own personal use, and she keeps her own family name
   rather than taking her husband's.
Both men and women are expected to dress in a way which is
   modest and dignified; the traditions of female dress found in some
   Muslim countries are often the expression of local customs.

The Messenger of God said:
    'The most perfect in faith amongst believers is he who is best in
    manner and kindest to his wife.'
Can a Muslim have more than
         one wife?
       The religion of Islam was revealed for all
         societies and all times and so
         accommodates widely differing social
         requirements. Circumstances may warrant
         the taking of another wife but the right is
         granted, according to the Quran, only on
         condition that the husband is scrupulously
         fair. And Muhammed himself believed that it
         would be difficult for most men (including
         himself) to be fair to more than four wives;
         thus four wives is the acceptable limit
         (assuming he can provide for them and treat
         them all fairly).
                   Hijab - veiling
The practice of hijab among Muslim women is one based on
  religious doctrine, although the Qur'an does not mandate it.
  Instead, it comes from the Hadith of Sahih Bukhari. The
  Hadith, the "tradition of Mohammed," reveals the teachings of
  the Prophet to believers.
According to the Hadith,
  "My Lord agreed with me ('Umar) in three things... (2) And as
  regards the veiling of women, I said 'O Allah's Apostle! I wish
  you ordered your wives to cover themselves from the men
  because good and bad ones talk to them.' So the verse of the
  veiling of the women was revealled" (Bukhari, v1, bk 8,
  sunnah 395).
Surah XXXIII, Verse 59 of the Qur'an is most often cited in support of
  veiling. It states:
                                    .
  "O Prophet! Tell thy wives and thy daughters and the women of
  the believers to draw their cloaks close around them. that will be
  better, so that they may be recognized and not annoyed. Allah is
  ever forgiving, merciful....―(other versions translate the original
  Arabic as "veils" ).

Among Muslim women, the debate about hijab takes many forms.
  Many believe that the veil is a way to secure personal liberty in a
  world that objectifies women. Several women have argued that
  hijab allows them freedom of movement and control of their
  bodies. Understood in such terms, hijab protects women from the
  male gaze and allows them to become autonomous subjects.
  Others have argued that the veil only provides the illusion of
  protection and serves to absolve men of the responsibility for
  controlling their behavior.
Both positions assert that Islam is not responsible for sexism. In fact,
  the Qur'an supports the notion of gender equality.
                   Just in case you’re wondering…

There are similar, yet less obvious requirements for a Muslim male's
  attire.

1) A Muslim man must always be covered from the navel to the
   knees.
2) A Muslim man should similarly not wear tight, sheer, revealing, or
   eye-catching clothing.
3) In addition, a Muslim man is prohibited from wearing silk clothing
   (except for medical reasons) or gold jewelry. A Muslim woman,
   however, may wear silk or gold.
Is Islamic marriage like Christian
            marriage?

A Muslim marriage is not a 'sacrament', but a simple, legal
  agreement in which either partner is free to include
  conditions. Marriage customs thus vary widely from country
  to country. As a result, divorce is not common, although it is
  not forbidden as a last resort. According to Islam, no
  Muslim girl can be forced to marry against her will: her
  parents will simply suggest young men they think may be
  suitable.
             How do Muslims treat the
                    elderly?
In the Islamic world there are no old people's homes. The strain of caring for
    one's parents in this most difficult time of their lives is considered an honor
    and blessing, and an opportunity for great spiritual growth. God asks that we
    not only pray for our parents, but act with limitless compassion, remembering
    that when we were helpless children they preferred us to themselves.
    Mothers are particularly honored: the Prophet taught that 'Paradise lies at the
    feet of mothers'. When they reach old age, Muslim parents are treated
    mercifully, with the same kindness and selflessness.
In Islam, serving one's parents is a duty second only to prayer, and it is their
    right to expect it. It is considered despicable to express any irritation when,
    through no fault of their own, the old become difficult.
The Quran says: Your Lord has commanded that you worship none but Him,
    and be kind to parents. If either or both of them reach old age with you, do
    not say 'uff to them or chide them, but speak to them in terms of honor and
    kindness. Treat them with humility, and say, 'My Lord! Have mercy on them,
    for they did care for me when I was little'. (17:23-4)
    How do Muslims view death?
Like Jews and Christians, Muslims believe that the present life is only
   a trial preparation for the next realm of existence. Basic articles of
   faith include: the Day of Judgment, resurrection, Heaven and Hell.
   When a Muslim dies, he or she is washed, usually by a family
   member, wrapped in a clean white cloth, and buried with a simple
   prayer preferably the same day. Muslims consider this one of the
   final services they can do for their relatives, and an opportunity to
   remember their own brief existence here on earth. The Prophet
   taught that three things can continue to help a person even after
   death; charity which he had given, knowledge which he had taught
   and prayers on their behalf by a righteous child.
             What about food?
Although much simpler than the dietary law followed by Jews
   and the early Christians, the code which Muslims observe
   forbids the consumption of pig meat or any kind of
   intoxicating drink. The Prophet taught that 'your body has
   rights over you', and the consumption of wholesome food
   and the leading of a healthy lifestyle are seen as religious
   obligations.
The Prophet said: 'Ask God for certainty [of faith] and well-
   being; for after certainty, no one is given any gift better than
   health!'
                 Zillij – Islamic Art
Muslim mosques are rich with geometric ornamentation called Zillij.
   These patterns reflect basic Islamic beliefs as well as
   mathematical truths. Muslims see these patterns as being
   "discovered rather than created."
When you study the patterns of the tiles in wall and floor mosaics,
   what do you notice about these arrangements? The designs are
   endlessly repeating in elaborate complexity. Looking at the whole,
   you see no center but rather an even, total, and unending
   aesthetic.
Islamic designs convey spirituality without religious iconography
   (drawings and statues). Although they are intense and brilliant in
   color and design, they are impersonal and anonymous. Nowhere
   do you see the artist’s hand, only the pure form and color. These
   profound concepts reflect the Muslim understanding of God.
   Muslims believe it is a sin to reproduce the likeness of God or his
   image in man,
Islamic artwork is not made using random, free-choice designs, but
is drawn within the constraints of symmetry and the laws of
proportion. The basic component is a simple shape, repeated in
patterns following bilateral or radial symmetry.
     How does Islam guarantee
          human rights?
Freedom of conscience is laid down by the Quran itself:
  'There is no compulsion in religion'. (2:256)
The life and property of all citizens in an Islamic state are
  considered sacred whether a person is Muslim or not.
Racism is incomprehensible to Muslims, for the Quran speaks
  of human equality in the following terms:
O mankind! We created you from a single soul, male and
  female, and made you into nations and tribes, so that you
  may come to know one another. Truly, the most honored of
  you in God's sight is the greatest of you in piety. God is All-
  Knowing, All Aware (49:13)
 University
Mosque of Al
Azhar - a center
of learning
since 969 AD.



Left: Mosque in
Iran.

Right: Mosque
in Mali.
  What does Islam say about war?
                          (Version 1)
Like Christianity, Islam permits fighting in self-defense, in defense
    of religion, or on the part of those who have been expelled
    forcibly from their homes. It lays down strict rules of combat
    which include prohibitions against harming civilians and
    against destroying crops, trees and livestock. As Muslims see
    it, injustice would be triumphant in the world if good men were
    not prepared to risk their lives in a righteous cause. The Quran
    says:
Fight in the cause of God against those who fight you, but do not
    transgress limits. God does not love transgressors. (2:190)
If they seek peace, then seek you peace. And trust in God for He
    is the One that heareth and knoweth all things. (8:61)
. War, therefore, is the last resort,
    and is subject to the rigorous
    conditions laid down by the
    sacred law. The term jihad
    literally means 'struggle', and
    Muslims believe that there are
    two kinds of jihad. The other
    'jihad' is the inner struggle
    which everyone wages
    against egotistic desires, for
    the sake of attaining inner
    peace.
                    Personal Jihad
This is the most important form. This type of jihad, called the
    Jihadun-Nafs, is the intimate struggle to purify one's soul of evil
    influences -- both subtle and overt. It is the struggle to cleanse
    one's spirit of sin. Both the Qur'an and the Hadith use the word
    "jihad" to refer to personal struggles:
Putting "Allah ahead of our loved ones, our wealth, our worldly
    ambitions and our own lives."
Resisting pressure of parents, peers and society; strive against "the
    rejecters of faith..." (Quran 25:52)
"...strive and struggle to live as true Muslims..."
"Striving for righteous deeds."
Spreading the message of Islam. "The (true) believers are only those
    who believe in Allah and his messenger and afterward doubt not,
    but strive with their wealth and their selves for the cause of Allah.
    Such are the truthful." (Quran, 49:15)
       Non-personal (Outer) Jihad
Jihad is "holy war." Or, more precisely: It means the legal,
   compulsory, communal effort to expand the territories ruled by
   Muslims at the expense of territories ruled by non-Muslims.
The purpose of jihad, in other words, is not directly to spread the
   Islamic faith but to extend sovereign Muslim power (faith, of
   course, often follows the flag). Jihad is thus unabashedly offensive
   in nature, with the eventual goal of achieving Muslim dominion
   over the entire globe.
Jihad did have two variant meanings through the centuries, one more
   radical, one less so. The first holds that Muslims who interpret
   their faith differently are infidels and therefore legitimate targets of
   jihad.
The second meaning (previously described) rejects the legal
   definition of jihad as armed conflict and tells Muslims to withdraw
   from the worldly concerns to achieve spiritual depth.
A small percentage of Muslims who are from the extreme, radical and
  violent wing of Islamic Fundamentalism, and who are passionate,
                                   .
  [deeply] religious and anti-Western might dwell on passages or
  verses dealing with conflict, war, and resistance to oppression.
  Many conclude that the Qur'an expects them to engage in acts of
  terrorism, assassinations, suicide bombings, armed aggression
  against persons of other religions, oppression of women,
  executing innocent persons, etc.
The best known of these fundamentalist groups are the PLO, Hamas,
  ANO, and PIJ (in Palestine) and Al-Quaida (in Afghanistan) and
  the Hezbollah (in Lebanon).
Those Muslim Fundamentalists who are not extreme, violent and
  radical, and those Muslims from mainline or liberal wings of the
  religion might concentrate on passages and themes of spirituality,
  justice, personal struggle, peace, freedom, etc. and focus on self-
  defense rather than aggression.
  What does Islam say about war?
               (Version 2) - End of Days
It is highly important to understand how a civilization sees the end
    of days. In Christianity and in Judaism, we know exactly what
    is the vision of the end of days.
In Judaism, it is going to be as in Isaiah — peace between
    nations, not just one nation, but between all nations. People
    will not have any more need for weapons and nature will be
    changed — a beautiful end of days and the kingdom of God on
    earth.
Christianity goes as far as Revelation to see a day that Satan
    himself is obliterated. There are no more powers of evil. That's
    the vision. In the end of days, Islam sees a world that is totally
    Muslim, completely Muslim under the rule of Islam. Complete
    and final victory.
Christians will not exist, because according to many Islamic
                                  .
  traditions, the Muslims who are in hell will have to be replaced
  by somebody and they'll be replaced by the Christians.

The Jews will no longer exist, because before the coming of the
  end of days, there is going to be a war against the Jews where
  all Jews should be killed. I'm quoting now from the heart of
  Islamic tradition, from the books that are read by every child in
  school. The Jews will all be killed. They'll be running away and
  they'll be hiding behind trees and rocks, and on that day Allah
  will give mouths to the rocks and trees and they will say, "Oh
  Muslim come here, there is a Jew behind me, kill him." Without
  this, the end of days cannot come. This is a fundamental of
  Islam.
     Islam in the United States
It is almost impossible to generalize about American Muslims:
    converts, immigrants, factory workers, doctors; all are
    making their own contribution to America's future. This
    complex community is unified by a common faith,
    underpinned by a countrywide network of a thousand
    mosques.
Muslims were early arrivals in North America. By the
    eighteenth century there were many thousands of them,
    working as slaves on plantations. These early communities,
    cut off from their heritage and families, inevitably lost their
    Islamic identity as time went by. Today many Afro-
    American Muslims play an important role in the Islamic
    community.
The nineteenth century, however, saw the beginnings of an influx of
                                    .
   Arab Muslims, most of whom settled in the major industrial centers
   where they worshipped in hired rooms. The early twentieth century
   witnessed the arrival of several hundred thousand Muslims from
   Eastern Europe: the first Albanian mosque was opened in Maine
   in 1915; others soon followed, and a group of Polish Muslims
   opened a mosque in Brooklyn in 1928.
In 1947 the Washington Islamic Center was founded during the term
   of President Truman, and several nationwide organizations were
   set up in the fifties. The same period saw the establishment of
   other communities whose lives were in many ways modeled after
   Islam. More recently, numerous members of these groups have
   entered the fold of Muslim orthodoxy. Today there are about five
   million Muslims in America.
The Islamic Cultural Center, Washington DC.
United States: Muslim Population Circa 2000
  Because the U. S. Census does.not collect information on
  religious affiliation of residents in the nation, there are no exact
  figures on the number of Muslims in the country.
According to a national poll conducted in 2001, known as the
  American Religious Identity Survey, approximately 1,104,000 adult
  Muslims reside in the United States.
National Muslim organizations put the total number of all Muslims in
  the nation at about seven million, based on a survey that
  determined that two million Muslims regularly attend weekly Friday
  prayer services, and stipulated that the majority of Muslims do not
  attend such services.
Whatever the exact number, the Muslim population in North America
  is characterized by its diversity.
Approximately 24 percent of American Muslims are African
  Americans according to the American Muslim Council’s Zogby poll
  conducted in 2000.
            The Muslim World

The Muslim population of the world is around one billion. 30%
  of Muslims live in the Indian subcontinent, 20% in Sub-
  Saharan Africa, 17% in Southeast Asia, 18% in the Arab
  World, 10% in the Soviet Union and China. Turkey, Iran
  and Afghanistan comprise 10% of the non-Arab Middle
  East. Although there are Muslim minorities in almost every
  area, including Latin America and Australia, they are most
  numerous in the Soviet Union, India, and central Africa.
  There are 5 million Muslims in the United States.
                               .
Western Europe: Muslim Population Circa 2000
It is estimated that 35 to 50 million Muslims live currently in
    Western and Eastern Europe, although no reliable statistics
    are available.
The majority lives in the Balkans and southeastern Europe,
    areas once part of the Ottoman Empire.
In Western Europe, the largest numbers are in France,
    Germany, and the United Kingdom—ranging from around
    four to five million people in each country.
Many of these Western European Muslims are immigrants or
    children of immigrants from areas formerly colonized by
    European powers.
Muslim Countries of Africa/Asia/Middle East/South East Asia
                                      .
  Today there are nearly 65 states or countries with significant or
  majority populations who are Muslim. They include some of the
  largest nations in the world in terms of population, such as
  Indonesia, Nigeria, and Pakistan. Others are small countries like
  Qatar and Djibouti. Many are secular republics such as Indonesia,
  or monarchies such as Saudi Arabia, or so-called ―Islamic states‖
  such as Iran. Some are democracies, such as Malaysia. No
  majority Muslim state exists in Europe or the Americas. In almost
  all of those states where a majority of the population is Muslim, a
  belief in Islam serves as a common bonding among diverse
  inhabitants in politics and life. It is a source of faith and a
  significant foundation of social identity and community relations.
  Almost all of these Muslim states are also developing nations that
  have only recently emerged from European colonialism.
South America: Muslim Population Circa 2000
  Although thousands of enslaved Muslims from Africa were carried
                                  .
  to South and Central America from 1450 to the 1830s, few South
  American Muslims today are the descendants of the formerly
  enslaved.
Today, most South American Muslims are immigrants, or the
  descendants of immigrants, who came from India, present-day
  Pakistan, Java, and other parts of South and South East Asia.
Beginning in 1838, Asian and South East Asian Muslims arrived in
  South America to work as indentured laborers, merchants, and
  farm workers.
New waves of Muslim immigrants continued to sweep into Brazil,
  Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Argentina, Peru, and Trinidad
  throughout the 19th century, including people from Lebanon and
  Palestine.
Taj Mahal stands on the bank of
  River Yamuna, which otherwise The Taj Mahal
  serves as a wide moat defending
  the Great Red Fort of Agra, the
  center of the Mughal (Muslim)
  emperors until they moved their
  capital to Delhi in 1637. It was
  built by the fifth Mughal emperor,
  Shah Jahan in 1631 in memory
  of his second wife, Mumtaz
  Mahal, a Muslim Persian
  princess.
 She died while accompanying her husband in Burhanpur in a
 campaign to crush a rebellion after giving birth to their 14th child. The
 death so crushed the emperor that all his hair and beard were said to
 have grown snow white in a few months.
When Mumtaz Mahal was still alive, she extracted four promises from
  the emperor:                       .
       first, that he build the Taj;
       second, that he should marry again;
       third, that he be kind to their children;
       and fourth, that he visit the tomb on her death anniversary.
He kept the first and second promises. Construction began in 1631
  and was completed in 22 years. Twenty thousand people were
  deployed to work on it. The material was brought in from all over
  India and central Asia and it took a fleet of 1000 elephants to
  transport it to the site. It was designed by the Iranian architect
  Ustad Isa and it is best appreciated when the architecture and its
  adornments are linked to the passion that inspired it. It is a
  "symbol of eternal love."
 O mankind! We created you
    . from a single soul,
        male and female,
       and made you into
       nations and tribes,
     so that you may come
     to know one another.
    Truly, the most honored
      of you in God's sight
is the greatest of you in piety.
God is All-Knowing, All-Aware.
          (Quran, 49:13)
REVIEW
                            Objectives
The discussion of Islam in Chapter 10 includes information on the prophet
   Muhammad, the Qur'an, the central teachings, the Sunni-Shi'a split, Sufism,
   the Five Pillars and jihad, the spread of Islam, relationships with the West,
   and Muslim resurgence.
After reading this chapter, you should be able to:
• Explain the background and importance of the prophet Muhammad to Islam.
• Discuss the role of the Qur'an in the religion.
• Describe the basic teachings and practices of Islam.
• Recognize the religion's major divisions.
• Discuss current issues in Islam and the relationship of Islam with the West.
• Define important Islamic terms, names, and places including Abraham,
   Ishma'il, Ka'bah, Muhammad, Mecca, Medina, Qur'an, Allah, Hadith, Sunnah,
   Gabriel, hijrah, caliph, suras, Fatiha, Paraclete, Shahadah, shirk, kufr, angels,
   archangels, Satan, jinn, the Last Judgment, Hell, Sunni, Shi'a, ummah,
   Shari'ah, Imams, 'Ali, Twelvers, Seveners, Sufism, dervishes, Jalal al-Din
   Rumi, Five Pillars of Islam, Islamists, zakat, fasting, hajj, jihad, mujahid,
   dhimmis, ulama, and hijab.
In Islam, the supreme central focus and authority is

      Allah.
      Imam.
      Muhammad.
      Caliph.




 The word "Islam" means
      those who follow Muhammad.
      sons of Allah.
      surrender to God.
      recitations.
When Muhammad was _____ years old, he began receiving
revelations from God.
      30
      40
      60
      25



 Muslims calculate time from the migration of Muslims to Medina,
 called the hijrah, which took place in _______ CE.

     612
     266
     587
     622
The Qur'an acknowledges prophets from Judaism and
Christianity, including

        Adam.
        Jesus.
        Abraham.
        any of these.


The Shi'a faction of Islam claims ______, Muhammad's cousin
and husband to his daughter Fatima, as the legitimate Islamic
leader after Muhammad's death.
        'Ali
        Abu Bakr
        Umar
        Husayn
The largest group within Islam is the _______, making up about
80 percent of all Muslims.

     Shi'a
     Sufi
     Imams
     Sunni


Shi'ites seek leadership from
      Sufis.
      Any of these.
      caliphs.
      Imams.
The mystic tradition within Islam is called

      Sunni.
      Fana.
      Shi'a.
      Sufism.


 The Mevlevi Dervish Order in Turkey famous for its ecstatic
 dancing was founded by the poet
        Abu Yazid al-Bistami.
        Junayd.
        Rabi'a.
        Jalal al-Din Rumi.
The specific patterns for Muslim worship set forth in the
Shari'ah are commonly known as

        the Teachings of Muhammad.
        The Qur'an.
        The Five Pillars of Islam.
        any of these.


 The Five Pillars of Islam consist of the profession of belief
 in God and messengership of Muhammad, prayer five times
 a day, tithing, fasting, and
        submission to God.
        mosque sacrifice.
        pilgrimage to Mecca.
        memorization of the Qur'an.
Although fasting is strongly recommended as an Islamic
practice, it is only required during the month of ___________,
a celebration that commemorates the beginning of the
revelations to Muhammad.
       Rajab
       Muharram
       Safar
       Ramadan

The Muslim community has often been particularly tolerant of
other monotheistic religions, especially

        Jainism and Sikhism.
        Sikhism and Hinduism.
        Judaism and Christianity.
        Hinduism and Buddhism.
  In the United States, the movement started by Elijah
  Muhammad and now led by his son, Warith Deen
  Muhammad, is called the

          Twelvers.
          American Muslim Mission.
          Nation of Islam.
          American Muslim Society.


Ka'bah                      the angel who brought God's words to Muhammad
Allah                       the One God
Hadith                      Muhammad's sayings and actions
Sunni                       Adam's place of worship, Islam's holiest sanctuary
Gabriel                     Muhammad's life and sayings
Hijrah         the migration from Mecca to Medina
Caliph         the Qur'an's opening sura
Qur'an         successor to the Prophet Muhammad
Suras          chapters within the Qur'an
Fatiha         advocate, helper
Paraclete      "reciting" which comes directly from Allah, Islam's holy book

Shahadah     "There is no god but God"
shirk        the sin of associating things other than God with God
Kufr         atheism or ungratefulness to God
Angels       nonphysical beings of light who serve and praise God continuously
Archangels highest form of angelic beings
jinn         immaterial beings of fire between human and angel
Last Judgment   the Muslim community
Hell            poor mendicant mystics
Ummah           Shi'ite leaders or guides
Shari'ah        the final accounting for one's deeds
Imams           destiny of unrepentant non-believers
dervishes       sacred law of Islam

Zakat           "striving"
Hajj            protected people
Jihad           veiling of women for modesty
Mujahid         spiritual tithing or almsgiving
Dhimmis         fighter in the path of God
hijab           pilgrimage to Mecca
                  QUESTIONS

Describe the factors contributing to the rapid spread of Islam.
Examine the role and status of women in Islam. Visit this site,
  Women in Islam, for information.
What misconceptions concerning Islam and Muhammad have
  been common in the West?
Explain the concept of jihad. Read this Religious Tolerance
  website’s commentary on the word jihad.
                     .
What are the obligations of
 the Muslim faithful?
                                   . of all the prophets: __________
Muslims consider this man the greatest

Through the angel Gabriel, Muhammad received God's message. This
  message, the holy book of the Islam faith, is called the __________.

Muslims trace their ancestry back to _________ by the Egyptian slave
  Hagar.

The Muslim name for God is ____________.

The holy city of Islam is ___________.
Any Questions?

								
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