Welcome to Hajri Year 1427 Muslims follow a lunar calendar which started with the hegira, a 300 mile trek in 622 CE when Mohammed relocated from Mecca to Medina. In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful What is Islam? Islam is not a new religion, but the same truth that God revealed through all His prophets to every people. For a fifth of the world's population, Islam is both a religion and a complete way of life. Muslims follow a religion of peace, mercy, and forgiveness, and the majority have nothing to do with the extremely grave events which have come to be associated with their faith. Who are the Muslims? One billion people from a vast range of races, nationalities and cultures across the globe - from the southern Philippines to Nigeria - are united by their common Islamic faith. About 18% live in the Arab world; the world's largest Muslim community is in Indonesia; substantial parts of Asia and most of Africa are Muslim, while significant minorities are to be found in the Soviet Union, China, North and South America, and Europe. What do Muslims believe? Muslims believe in One, Unique, Incomparable God; in the Angels created by Him; in the prophets through whom His revelations were brought to mankind; in the Day of Judgement and individual accountability for actions; in God's complete authority over human destiny and in life after death. Muslims believe in a chain of prophets starting with Adam and including Noah, Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Job, Moses, Aaron, David, Solomon, Elias, Jonah, John the Baptist, and Jesus, peace be upon them. But God's final message to man, a reconfirmation of the eternal message and a summing-up of all that has gone before was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad through Gabriel. How does someone become a Muslim? Simply by saying the Shahadah: ‘There is no god apart from God, and Muhammad is His Messenger.' By this declaration the believer announces his or her faith in all God, his messenger Muhammad, and the scriptures he brought. What does 'Islam' mean? • The Arabic word 'Islam' (slm) simply means 'submission' and derives from a word meaning 'peace'. • In a religious context it means complete submission to the will of God. 'Mohammedanism' is thus a misnomer because it suggests that Muslims worship Muhammad rather than God. 'Allah' is the Arabic name for God, which is used by Arab Muslims and Christians alike. • Slm (salom) means “peace” and “submission” for the Christians and Jews also, since “Jeru-salem” means “city of peace.” In Hebrew, the same word is spelled, “shalom.’ Why does Islam often seem strange? Islam may seem exotic or even extreme in the modern world. Perhaps this is because religion does not dominate everyday life in the West today, whereas Muslims have religion always uppermost in their minds, and make no division between secular and sacred. They believe that the Divine Law, the Shari'a, should be taken very seriously, which is why issues related to religion are still so important. Do Islam and Christianity have different origins? • No. Together with Judaism, they go back to the prophet and patriarch Abraham, and their three prophets are directly descended from his sons Muhammad from the eldest, Ishmael, and Moses and Jesus from Isaac. • Abraham established the settlement which today is the city of Makkah (Mecca), and built the Ka'ba (Kaba/Kabaa) towards which all Muslims turn when they pray. What is the Ka'ba? The Ka'ba is the place of worship which God commanded Abraham and Ishmael to build over four thousand years ago. The building was constructed of stone on what many believe was the original site of a sanctuary established by Adam. God commanded Abraham to summon all mankind to visit this place, and when pilgrims go there today they say 'At Thy service, O Lord', in response to Abraham's summons. Who is Muhammad? Muhammad, was born in Makkah in the year 570, at a time when Christianity was not yet fully established in Europe. Since his father died before his birth, and his mother shortly afterwards, he was raised by his uncle from the respected tribe of Quraysh. As he grew up, he became known for his truthfulness, generosity and sincerity, so that he was sought after for his ability to arbitrate in disputes. The historians describe him as calm and meditative. As a youth, he was employed as a camel driver on the trade routes between Syria and Arabia. Mohammed later managed caravans on behalf of merchants. He met people of different religious beliefs on his travels, and was able to observe and learn about Judaism, Christianity and the indigenous Pagan religions. How did Muhammad become a prophet and a messenger of God? At the age of 40, while engaged in a meditative retreat, Muhammad received his first revelation from God through the Angel Gabriel. This revelation, which continued for twenty-three years, is known as the Quran. The Mountain of Light where Gabriel came to Prophet Muhammad. As soon as he began to recite the words he heard from Gabriel, and to preach the truth which God had revealed to him, he and his. small group of followers suffered bitter persecution, which grew so fierce that in the year 622 God gave them the command to emigrate. This event, the Hijra, 'migration', in which they left Makkah (Mecca) for the city of Madinah (Medina) some 260 miles to the north, marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar. After several years, the Prophet and his followers The Prophet's Mosque in were able to return to Makkah, where they Madinah: the forgave their enemies and established Islam dome indicates the place definitively. Before the Prophet died at the age of where his 63, the greater part of Arabia was Muslim, and house stood within a century of his death Islam had spread to and where he is buried. Spain in the West and as far East as China. Until the moment that Muhammad . began spreading the message he heard from the angel Gabriel 13 centuries ago, the Arabs were mostly polytheists, worshiping tribal deities. They had no sacred history linking them to one universal god, like other Middle Eastern peoples. They had no sacred text to live by, like the Bible; no sacred language, as Hebrew is to Jews and Sanskrit is to Hindus. Above all, they had no prophet sent to them by God, as Jews and Christians could boast. How did the spread of Islam affect the world? Among the reasons for the rapid and peaceful spread of Islam was the simplicity of its doctrine - Islam calls for faith in only One God worthy of worship. It also repeatedly instructs man to use his powers of intelligence and observation. Within a few years, great civilizations and universities were flourishing, for according to the .Prophet, 'seeking knowledge is an obligation for every Muslim man and woman.' The synthesis of Eastern and Western ideas and of new thought with old, brought about great advances in medicine, mathematics, physics, astronomy, geography, architecture, art, literature, and history. Many crucial systems such as algebra, the Arabic numerals, and also the concept of the zero (vital to the advancement of mathematics), were transmitted to medieval Europe from Islam. Sophisticated instruments which were to make possible the European voyages of discovery were developed, including the astrolabe, the quadrant and good navigational maps. The Spread of Islam By 750 C.E., Islam had spread from Madinah to all of Arabia, then Mesopotamia, Egypt, most of the coastal regions of North Africa, and into Iberia. . The major ruling groups of the Middle East at the time, the Christian Byzantines and the Persian Sasanids, had exhausted themselves after years of warfare, weakening their empires and enabling the Muslims to fill a power vacuum. The ease with which Islam spread eastward and westward in the 200 years after the death of Muhammad is further explained by theological divisions and intra-religious persecution within the Christian world. Many Christians in these lands, particularly those from persecuted sects, welcomed the arrival of the Muslims, and converted freely to Islam over the years. The Crusades: 1096 to 1289 Beginning in 1096, some Christian Europeans heeded the call of the papacy to launch a series of ―holy wars‖ aimed at gaining control of Jerusalem from the Muslim Arabs and Seljuk Turks. In all, eight crusades were carried out. Jerusalem fell to the Christians in 1099, partly due to the disarray among Muslims. It . took Muslims nearly half a century to respond effectively with their own call for defensive jihad, which required fighting against the Crusaders. Under the leadership of Salah al-Din, the Muslims effectively ended the Christian hold on the Holy Land in 1187, shortly after which Jerusalem was restored to Muslim control. It would be another 100 years, however, before the last Christian strongholds (Tripoli and Acre) fell to the Muslims. In general, the Muslims considered the Crusades to be an invasion by European outsiders, and history indicates that the Europeans treated Muslims and Jews much more harshly in comparison to Muslim treatment of Christians. The Christian sacking of Jerusalem and the massacre of its Muslim and Jewish residents during the first Crusade are often remembered as tragic historical examples of religious intolerance. The Ottoman Empire: 1350 to 1918 This greatest of the Muslim states in terms of duration was founded in the late 13th century by the Ottoman Turks. It lasted until its dissolution after . I in 1918. Its early phase WW challenged the Byzantine Empire, Bulgaria, and Serbia. In 1389, much of the Balkan Peninsula came under Ottoman rule. The Ottomans conquered Constantinople in 1453, bringing to an end the 1100-year-rule of the Byzantine Empire/ Next the Ottomans gained control of Mamluk Egypt in 1517, followed by Algiers and most of present-day Hungary by 1529, all of Persia in 1638, and most of the region between the Black and Caspian Seas by the 1650s. These so-called Ottoman wars of conquest fixed in the imagination of the Europeans the image of the Muslim Turks as ferocious and religiously inspired warriors. Beginning in the 1780s, the Ottoman Empire began to . gained strength and began weaken, as European powers to vie with each other for access to resources and markets in the Middle East. Most of the northern coast of the Black Sea had slipped away by 1812. The Ottoman Empire lost Greece, Egypt, and Serbia to European-inspired independence movements over the next 60 years. By 1900, Turkey was known as the ―Sick Man of Europe,‖ And by 1912, it had lost nearly all of its European territories. Siding with Germany and the losing Central Powers in World War I doomed the Empire. With the signing of the armistice ending WWI, the Ottoman Empire was dismantled by the Allied Powers, paving the way for the creation of new individual states in the modern Middle East. Sacred Texts • There are two texts: the Qur'an are the words of God. This was originally in oral and written form; they were later assembled together into a single book, the Qur'an. Its name is often spelled "Koran" in English. This is not recommended, as some Muslims find it offensive. The Hadith, which are collections of the sayings of Mohammed. What is the Qur’an? The Qur’an is a record of the exact words revealed by God through the Angel Gabriel to the Prophet Muhammad. It was memorized by Muhammad and then dictated to his Companions, and written down by scribes, who cross-checked it during his lifetime. Not one word of its 114 chapters, suras, has been changed over the centuries, so that the Quran is in every detail the unique and miraculous text which was revealed to Muhammad fourteen centuries ago. Fatiha Surah 1. The Opening 1. In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. 2. Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the worlds; 3. Most Gracious, Most Merciful; 4. Master of the Day of Judgment. 5. Thee do we worship, and Thine aid we seek. 6. Show us the straight way, 7. The way of those on whom Thou hast bestowed Thy Grace, those whose (portion) is not wrath, and who go not astray. This opening chapter of The Quran, the Fatiah, is central in Islamic prayer. It contains the essence of The Quran and is recited during every prayer. Fatiha Audio Boys studying the Qur’an What is the Quran about? The Quran, the last revealed Word of God, is the prime source of every Muslim's faith and practice. It deals with all the subjects which concern us as human beings: wisdom, doctrine, worship, and law, but its basic theme is the relationship between God and His creatures. At the same time it provides guidelines for a just society, proper human conduct and an equitable economic system. Are there any other sacred sources? Yes, the sunna, the practice and example of the Prophet, is the second authority for Muslims. A hadith is a reliably transmitted report of what the Prophet said, did, or approved. Belief in the sunna is part of the Islamic faith. How do Muslims Worship? In Islam, the term ‘ibadah (service, worship) does not merely signify the ritualistic activities such as Salah (ritual Prayer), fasting, Zakah (obligatory alms) or Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah). It includes all the activities of a believer that are in accordance with the laws of Allah (God). When a Muslim performs all the activities of his life for the pleasure of Allah, then all his deeds become ‘ibadah or worship. Naturally this includes his ritualistic worship, such as prayer, as well. Islam requires a person to submit himself whole-heartedly and fully to Allah. Thus, surrendering all the areas of one’s activity to Allah, leaving nothing to the whims and fancies of anyone else, is in fact the true meaning of Islam. . The Qur’an shows that there are only two ways laid out before Man: one is the way of Allah and the other is the way of the Devil. A person cannot stand with one foot in Allah’s way and the other in the Devil’s way. Islam does not value rituals for the sake of ceremony. A Muslim is one who has willfully submitted his whole self to Allah, and his duty then is just to obey Him. A Muslim cannot split his life into compartments and say, ―This is the area of my religion where I will obey Allah and these are the areas where I will follow others.‖ For service and worship are one in Islam. By following or obeying others than Allah, one is, in effect, worshiping them, which is a contradiction of the first item of Muslim belief: there is none worthy of worship but Allah. The officials of the Mosque are, the . "iman" (leader), the "preacher", and the "muezzin" (who calls to prayer from the minaret). No priests. Over time, many rooms were added to the mosque, rooms used by people of different social classes, people performing their professions in the mosque, travelers, sick, and old. Devout and ascetics lived often in the mosque, and even in the minaret. In most mosques, men and women worship separately. All mosques have an interior wall . with a empty arch that faces Mecca. This directs the worshipper as he bows to pray. The interpreters of the Scriptures are the "mullahs" or "ulemas," who serve as religious teachers and judges in the courts. Prayer is a cardinal tenet in Islamic religiosity, the second foremost duty after profession of faith, the shahadah. Prayer is a distinctive component of a Muslim’s personality and . routine; his day begins and ends with a prayer. According to a famous hadith (the tradition of the Prophet), a Muslim who deliberately fails to observe his/her prayers ceases to be one in practice.10 Prayer is a testament of genuine obedience to God. The five obligatory prayers are the early morning prayer (salat al-fajr), the noon prayer (salat al-zuhr), the mid-afternoon prayer (salat al- ’asr), the sunset prayer (salat al-maghrib) and the evening prayer (salat al-’isha’). On Fridays, the noon congregational prayer (salat al-Jum’a) substitutes for the regular noon prayer. As prayer penetrates the entire fiber of the worshipper’s being the whole world becomes like a mosque (masjid) to him — ever conscious of the pervasive presence of God around him. His action becomes the replica of the godliness that constitutes his inner self. This is because he prostrates himself before God, not as a matter of routine, but in sincere spirit of obeisance. Performance of prayer .adhan can be heard from the top The arrival of a prayer time is announced by ―the call to prayer‖ (adhan). In Muslim societies the of minarets, on loudspeakers, radio and television. The caller, mu’adhin, in a melodious voice, intones the greatness of God and invites the faithful to prayer in the following phrases (repeated at least twice): God is most great. I bear witness that there is no god but the One God. I bear witness that Muhammad is the messenger of God. Hasten to prayer! Hasten to success! God is most great. There is no god but the true One God. The phrase ―prayer is better than sleep‖ is added immediately after ―hasten to success‖ when the call is proclaimed for the early morning prayer to remind Muslims of the bliss that prayer affords them in the hereafter. Before the worshipper approaches this sacred duty, he is first and foremost enjoined to enter in a state of ―sacral purity‖by performing . ablution or ritual washing (wudu’). Prayer is worthless without ablution. Ablution consists of washing with pure water one’s hands, mouth, nostrils, face, and the arms to the elbows, wiping the head and the ears, and washing the feet to the ankle. Ablution also symbolizes a sense of hygiene as well as purification for the soul. Like all other Islamic ritual observances, ablution must be preceded by niyyah, a solemn declaration of intention for which the act is for, i.e. worship. By this act the worshipper consciously summons the resolve to enter into a meeting with his Lord. When the ablution is complete, then the worshipper is ready to commence the prayer. He makes sure his garment and prayer ground are free of any pollution. A prayer rug or any material chosen for that matter usually delineates the prayer ground. What are the 'Five Pillars' of Islam ? They are the framework of the Muslim life: faith, prayer, concern for the needy, self-purification, and the pilgrimage to Makkah (Mecca) for those who are able. A Muslim's duties as described in the FIVE PILLARS of Islam are: . – 1) to recite at least once during their lifetime the shahadah (the creed: "There is no God but God and Mohammed is his Prophet"). Most Muslims repeat it at least daily. – 2) to perform the salat (prayer) 5 times a day. This is recited while orienting one's body towards Mecca. It is done in the morning, at noon, midafternoon, after sunset and just before sleeping. – 3) to donate regularly to charity through zakat, a 2.5% charity tax, and through additional donations to the needy as the individual believer feels moved. – 4) to fast during the month of Ramadan. This is believed to be the month that Mohammed received the Qur'an from God. – 5) if economically and physically, to make at least one hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca Five Pillars of Faith movie 1) FAITH . There is no god worthy of worship except God and Muhammad is His messenger. This declaration of faith is called the Shahada, a simple formula which all the faithful pronounce. In Arabic, the first part is la ilaha illa Llah - 'there is no god except God'; ilaha (god) can refer to anything which we may be tempted to put in place of God - wealth, power, and the like. Then comes illa Llah: 'except God', the source of all Creation. The second part of the Shahada is Muhammadun rasulu'Llah: 'Muhammad is the messenger of God.' A message of guidance has come through a man like ourselves. 2) PRAYER . Salat is the name for the obligatory prayers which are performed five times a day, and are a direct link between the worshipper and God. There is no hierarchical authority in Islam, and no priests, so the prayers are led by a learned person who knows the Quran, chosen by the congregation. These five prayers contain verses from the Quran, and are said in Arabic, the language of the Revelation, but personal supplication can be offered in one's own language. Prayers are said at dawn, . noon, mid-afternoon, sunset and nightfall, and thus determine the rhythm of the entire day. Although it is preferable to worship together in a mosque, a Muslim may pray almost anywhere, such as in fields, offices, factories and universities. Visitors to the Muslim world are struck by the centrality of prayers in daily life. A translation of the Call to Prayer is: . God is most great. God is most great. God is most great. God is most great. I testify that there is no god except God. I testify that there is no god except God. I testify that Muhammad is the messenger of God. I testify that Muhammad is the messenger of God. Come to prayer! Come to prayer! Come to success (in this life and the Hereafter)! Come to success! God is most great. God is most great. There is no god except God. 3) THE 'ZAKAT' . One of the most important principles of Islam is that all things belong to God, and that wealth is therefore held by human beings in trust. The word zakat means both 'purification' and 'growth'. Our possessions are purified by setting aside a proportion for those in need, and, like the pruning of plants, this cutting back balances and encourages new growth. Each Muslim calculates his or her own zakat individually. For most purposes this involves the payment each year of two and a half percent of one's capital. 4) THE FAST . Every year in the month of Ramadan, all Muslims fast from first light until sundown, abstaining from food, drink, and sexual relations. Those who are sick, elderly, or on a journey, and women who are pregnant or nursing are permitted to break the fast and make up an equal number of days later in the year. If they are physically unable to do this, they must feed a needy person for every day missed. Children begin to fast (and to observe the prayer) from puberty, although many start earlier. Although the fast is most beneficial to the health, it is regarded principally as a method of self purification. By cutting oneself off from worldly comforts, even for a short time, a fasting person gains true sympathy with those who go hungry as well as growth in one's spiritual life. 5) PILGRIMAGE (Hajj) . The annual pilgrimage to Makkah (Mecca) - the Hajj - is an obligation only for those who are physically and financially able to perform it. Nevertheless, about two million people go to Makkah each year from every corner of the globe providing a unique opportunity for those of different nations to meet one another. Although Makkah is always filled with visitors, the annual Hajj begins in the twelfth month of the Islamic year (which is lunar, not solar, so that Hajj and Ramadan fall sometimes in summer, sometimes in winter). Pilgrims wear special clothes: simple garments which strip away distinctions of class and culture, so that all stand equal before God. Hajj certificate Pilgrim in hajj clothes Road sign in Mecca The Kaba Pilgrims praying at the mosque in Mecca A new covering for the Ka’ba is made every year, and it takes about a full year to hand-stitch the covering – much of which is sewn with gold thread The rites of the Hajj, which are of Abrahamic origin, include . circling the Ka'ba seven times, and going seven times between the mountains of Safa and Marwa as did Hagar during her search for water. Then the pilgrims stand together on the wide plain of Arafa and join in prayers for God's forgiveness, in what is often thought of as a preview of the Last Judgment. In previous centuries the Hajj was an arduous undertaking. Today, however, Saudi Arabia provides millions of people with water, modern transport, and the most up-to-date health facilities. The close of the Hajj is marked by a festival, the Eid al-Adha, which is celebrated with prayers and the exchange of gifts in Muslim communities everywhere. This, and the Eid al- Fitr, a feast-day commemorating the end of Ramadan, are the main festivals of the Muslim calendar. -------------------- The Great Mosque -------------------------------------- Hajj Movie Stampede Kills 345 At Hajj Ritual MINA, Saudi Arabia, Jan. 12, 2006 At least 345 Muslim pilgrims were trampled to death and almost 300 injured Thursday as they tripped over luggage in a scramble to hurl pebbles at symbols of Satan during the annual pilgrimage, Saudi officials said. It was the latest in a succession of stampede tragedies to hit the hajj pilgrimage despite efforts of the Saudi authorities to avoid a repeat of disasters like the one that killed 1,426 people in 1990. Does Islam tolerate other beliefs? The Quran says: God forbids you not, with regards to those who fight you not for [your] faith nor drive you out of your homes, from dealing kindly and justly with them; for God loveth those who are just. (Quran, 60:8) Of course, saying that God does not forbid you from dealing kindly and justly is NOT the same as saying that God commands you to deal kindly and justly. We will return to this idea is a few minutes. It is one function of Islamic law to protect the privileged status of minorities, and this is why non-Muslim places of worship have . History provides many flourished all over the Islamic world. examples of Muslim tolerance towards other faiths: when the caliph Omar entered Jerusalem in the year 634, Islam granted freedom of worship to all religious communities in the city. Islamic law also permits non-Muslim minorities to set up their own courts, which implement family laws drawn up by the minorities themselves. When the caliph Omar took Jerusalem from the Byzantines, he insisted on entering the city with only a small number of his companions. Proclaiming to the inhabitants that their lives and property were safe, and that their places of worship would never be taken from them, he asked the Christian patriarch Sophronius to accompany him on a visit to all the holy places. The Patriarch invited him to pray in the Church of the Holy . Sepulchre, but he preferred to pray outside its gates, saying that if he accepted, later generations of Muslims might use his action as an excuse to turn it into a mosque. Above is the mosque built on the spot where Omar did pray. According to Islam, man is not born in 'original sin'. He is God's viceregent on earth. Every child is born with the fitra, an innate disposition towards virtue, knowledge, and beauty. Islam considers itself to be the 'primordial religion', din al-hanif, it seeks to return man to his original, true nature in which he is in harmony with creation, inspired to do good, and confirming the Oneness of God. Black Muslim Movement (BMM) Muslims cannot totally deny that there has been some intolerance of other faiths and of other races. The BMM is largely a black urban movement in the US. One driving force was a rejection of Christianity as the religion of the historically oppressing white race. It was started by Wallace Fard who built the first temple in Detroit. Elijah Muhammad (born Elijah Poole) established a second temple in Chicago and later supervised the Elijah Muhammad creation of temples in most large cities with significant black populations. They.taught that blacks were racially superior to whites and that a racial war is inevitable. The charismatic Malcolm X was perhaps their most famous spokesperson; he played an important role in reversing the BMM's anti-white beliefs. In its earlier years, the movement deviated significantly from traditional Islamic beliefs (particularly over matters of racial tolerance and the status of the BMM leaders as prophets). This deviation is being reversed. Common Islamic Beliefs • strict monotheism. God is the • belief in Paradise, a place of creator, is just, omnipotent physical and spiritual and merciful pleasure where the sinless • respect for earlier prophets go after death and belief in their teachings: • abstinence from alcohol and Abraham, Moses and Jesus gambling • that Mohammed is the last of • rejection of racism the prophets • avoid the use of alcohol, • belief in the existence of other drugs, eating of pork, Satan who drives people to etc. sin • avoid gambling • that Muslims who sincerely • that Jesus is a prophet. They repent and submit to God regard the Christian concept return to a state of of the deity of Jesus to be sinlessness blasphemous • belief in Hell where • that Jesus was not executed unbelievers and sinners on the cross spend eternity Divisions Within Islam Because of Islam's great growth geographically in the first two centuries of its inception, there needed to be a larger set of Islamic laws capable of handling the different needs of Muslims throughout the Empire. The Qur'an and the Hadith were not detailed enough to provide all the answers. Therefore, in the 8th century A.D., there arose a school of legal experts who interpreted and applied Islamic principles to different situations throughout the Empire. However, different scholars disagreed with these experts in various areas. This led to a variety of legal schools of thought within Islam. These different schools became different sects within Islam. The largest of the sects is the Sunni which comprises about 90% of all Muslims. The next two largest are the Shi'i and Sufi. After these, there are numerous splinter groups which are often named after the individual scholars who began them: Hanifa, Maliki, Shafi'i, Zaydi, the Nusayri, Ismaili, Murji'ah, etc. . 1) Followers of the Hanafi, Shafi, Hanibal, and Malik legal schools are called Sunni Muslims and constitute a 90% majority of the believers. They are considered to be main stream traditionalists. Because they are comfortable pursuing their faith within secular societies, they have been able to adapt to a variety of national cultures, while following their three sources of law: the Qur'an, Hadith, and consensus of Muslims. The Sunni emphasize the power and sovereignty of Allah and his right to do whatever he wants with his creation. Strict determinism is taught. Its rulership is through the Caliphate, the office of Muslim ruler who is considered the successor to Muhammad. This successor is not through hereditary lineage. 2) Followers of the Jafri school are called Shi'ite Muslims (or Shi’a) and constitute a small minority of Islam. They split from the Sunnis .of the fourth caliph in 661. Shi'ites over a dispute about the successor to Mohammed. This split occured after the assassination believe that the successor to Muhammad should have been Ali, his son in law, and that subsequent successors should have been through his lineage through his wife Fatima. Shi'ism is broken into three main sects: the Twelve-Imam, the Zaydis, and the Ismailis. Each group, of course, has differences of doctrine. Shi'ite theology includes a doctrine known as the five supports: these are Divine Unity (tawhid), prophecy (nubuwwah), resurrection of the soul and body at the Judgment (ma'ad), the Imamate (imamah), and justice ('adl). The first three are found in Sunni Islam, albeit with some differences of emphasis; the Imamate, however , is the essence of Shi'ism, and the last, justice, is an inheritance from the Mu'tazilites, or rationalists, whose system is in many ways perpetuated in Shi'ite theology. The Imamate, fom the word "Imam", in the Shi'ite traditions is the . political and religious leader of the Shi'ite sect. This person possess great power and influence. According to Shi'ite doctrine, the Imam must be a biological successor of Ali. The Imam is also sinless and infallible on all matters of Islamic doctrine and will intercede for Muslims in the afterlife. The Shi'i and the Sunni differ in some interpretations of the Qur'an and Hadith and even have a different canon of Hadith and the Sunni. 3) The Sufi are a mystical tradition where the followers seek inner mystical knowledge of God. This sect "officially" developed around the 10th century and has since fragmented into different orders: Ahmadiyya, Qadariyya, Tijaniyya, etc. Of course, the Sufi believe their roots can be traced back to the inception of Islam in the early 7th century. The Sufi mystic must follow a path.of deprivation and meditation. There are various forms of abstinence and poverty. Worldly things are renounced and a complete trust in God's will is taught. The goal is to attain to a higher knowledge and experience of Allah. The mystical focus meant that the Qur'an could be interpreted in different ways and so Sufism taught that the Qur'an had mystical meanings hidden within its pages. Out of this mysticism a type of pantheism developed among some Sufi believers. Pantheism is the teaching that God and the universe are one. Of course, the orthodox Muslims, called the Sunni, reject this idea since they claim that Allah is the creator of the universe and distinct from it. In part, Sufism arose as a reaction to the growing Islamic materialism that had developed in the Empire at that time. Islam had achieved great power and geographical scope and with it, the material gain was great. The Sufi "Whirling Derisshes": The greatest of the Sufi poets is."Meluana Celadin Rumi" (1207-73), from Turkey, whose work, "Masvani," is considered second only to the Koran, and it was Rumi who advocated and influenced the development of the "whirling dervishes," twirl dancing around the master, as a means of achieving oneness with God... it requires 1,001 hours to master the dance, once secret, now performed openly. They used to retreat to the desert where they live as wandering ascetics, abstaining from all worldly pleasures and dressing in woolen robes, "sufis"... and there are several "orders," like the Christian monastic orders. • 4) An interesting minor division . the Ahmadis: Followers of the is Ahmadiyya Movement believe that God sent Ahmad as a Messiah, "a messenger of His in this age who has claimed to have come in the spirit and power of Jesus Christ. He has come to call all people around one Faith, i.e. Islam..." The movement's founder was Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835-1908). He was born in Qadian, India. He felt that he had a mandate from God to correct a serious error within Christianity. Most Christians believe that Jesus is a member of the Godhead. "...because Jesus, whom God sent as a Messiah to the Israelites was taken for a God, Divine jealousy ordained that another man [Ahmad] should be sent as Messiah so that the world may know that the first Messiah was nothing more than a weak mortal." Islamic Sects Sunni Hanafi Barelvi Deobandi Hanbali Wahhabi Maliki Shafii Shiia Twelver - Ithna-Ashari Sevener – Ismaili (Hashashin) Alawi Bohra Druze Khoja Fiver - Zaydi Kharijite / Ibadite Ahmadi Qadiani Lahorite Sufi Islamic Law Within the Islamic vision of this world, there are rules that govern the lives of the Moslems themselves, and these rules are very strict. In fundamentals, there are no differences between schools of law. However, there are four streams of factions within Islam with differences between them concerning the minutiae of the laws. All over the Islamic world, countries have favored one or another of these schools of laws. The strictest school of law is called Hanbali, mainly coming out of Saudi Arabia. There are no games there, no playing around with the meanings of words. . There are various perspectives in Islam with different interpretations over the centuries. There were good people that were very enlightened in Islam that tried to understand things differently. They even brought traditions from the mouth of the prophet that women and children should not be killed in war. These more liberal streams do exist, but there is one thing that is very important for us to remember. The Hanbali school of law is extremely strict, and today this is the school that is behind most of the terrorist powers. Even if we talk about the existence of other schools of Islamic law, when we're talking about fighting against the Jews, or fighting against the Christian world led by America, it is the Hanbali school of law that is being followed. 2. Islamic Law - Shari`ah The Arabic word shari`ah refers to the laws and way of life prescribed by Allah (SWT) for his servants. The shari`ah deals with the ideology and faith; behavior and manners; and practical daily matters. "To each among you, we have prescribed a law and a clear way. (Qur 'an 5:48) Shari`ah includes the Qur'an and the sunnah of the Prophet (saas). The Qur'an is the direct word of Allah (SWT), and is the first most important source of guidance and rulings. The Sunnah of the Prophet (saas) is the second source of guidance and rulings. The sunnah is an inspiration from Allah (SWT), but relayed to us through the words and actions of the Prophet (saas), and his concurrence with others' actions. The sunnah confirmed the rulings of the Qur'an; detailed some of the concepts, laws and practical matters which are briefly stated in the Qur'an (e.g. definition of Islam, Iman, and Ihsan, details of salah, types of usury); and gave some rulings regarding matters not explicitly stated in the Qur'an (e.g. wearing silk clothes for men). Shari`ah 1-Qur'an 2-Sunnah of the prophet (saas) Ideology and faith Sayings Behavior and manners Actions Practical manners Concurrence with others' actions Articles of worship Day-to-day activities Pertaining to family, business, Characteristics of the Prophet (saas) penal code, government, international law, economy. 3. Islamic Law - Fiqh The Arabic word fiqh means knowledge, understanding and comprehension. It refers to the legal rulings of the Muslim scholars, based on their knowledge of the shari`ah; and as such is the third source of rulings. The science of fiqh started in the second century after Hijrah, when the Islamic state expanded and faced several issues which were not explicitly covered in the Qur'an and Sunnah of the Prophet (saas). Rulings based on the unanimity of Muslim scholars and direct analogy are binding. The four Sunni schools of thought, Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i and Hanbali, are identical in approximately 75% of their legal conclusions. Variances in the remaining questions are traceable to methodological differences in understanding or authentication of the primary textual evidence. Differing viewpoints sometimes exist even within a single school of thought. 3-Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence) Basis of Rulings Unanimity of Muslim scholars Direct and indirect analogy Benefit for community Custom Associated rules Original rules Opinion of a companion of the Prophet Mohammed Held That All the Biblical Prophets Were Muslims Mohammed did accept the existence of all the Biblical prophets before him. However, he also said that all these prophets were Muslims. Abraham was a Muslim. In fact, Adam himself was the first Muslim. Isaac and Jacob and David and Solomon and Moses and Jesus were all Muslims, and all of them had writings similar to the Koran. Therefore, world history is Islamic history because all the heroes of history were Muslims. Furthermore, Muslims accept the fact that each of these prophets brought with him some kind of a revelation. Moses, brought the Taurat, which is the Torah, and Jesus brought the Ingeel, which is the Evangelion or Gospel — namely the New Testament. Thus, there is a kinship between Muslims and Jews and Christians, since they are all ―followers of the Book.‖ What do Muslims think about Jesus? Muslims respect and revere Jesus, and await his Second Coming. They consider him one of the greatest of God's messengers to mankind. A Muslim never refers to him simply as 'Jesus', but always adds the phrase 'upon him be peace'. The Quran confirms his virgin birth (a chapter of the Quran is entitled 'Mary'), and Mary is considered the purest woman in all creation. The Quran describes the Annunciation as follows: 'Behold!' the Angel said, 'God has chosen you, and purified you, and chosen you above the women of all nations. O Mary, God gives . whose name shall be the you good news of a word from Him, Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, honored in this world and the Hereafter, and one of those brought near to God. He shall speak to the people from his cradle and in maturity, and shall be of the righteous.' She said: 'O my Lord! How shall I have a son when no man has touched me?' He said: 'Even so; God creates what He will. When He decrees a thing, He says to it, "Be!" and it is.' (Quran, 3:42-7) Jesus was born miraculously through the same power which had brought Adam into being without a father: ―Truly, the likeness of Jesus with God is as the likeness of Adam. He created him of dust, and then said to him, 'Be!' and he was.‖ (Quran, 3:59) During his prophetic mission Jesus performed many miracles. The Quran tells us that he said: . ―I have come to you with a sign from your Lord: I make for you out of clay, as it were, the figure of a bird, and breathe into it and it becomes a bird by God's leave. And I heal the blind, and the lepers and I raise the dead by God's leave.‖ (Quran, 3:49) Neither Muhammad nor Jesus came to change the basic doctrine of the belief in One God, brought by earlier prophets, but to confirm and renew it. In the Quran Jesus is reported as saying that he came: ―To attest the law which was before me. And to make lawful to you part of what was forbidden you; I have come to you with a sign from your Lord, so fear God and obey Me.‖ (Quran, 3:5O) . The Prophet Muhammad said: Whoever believes there is no god but God, alone without partner, that Muhammad is His messenger, that Jesus is the servant and messenger of God, His word breathed into Mary and a spirit emanating from Him, and that Paradise and Hell are true, shall be received by God into Heaven. The Perfect Servant (Hadith from Bukhari) Muslims, Jews, & Christians Like Judaism and Christianity, every Muslim has to acknowledge the fact that there is only one God. But it's not enough to say that there is only one God. A Muslim has to acknowledge the fact that there is one God and Mohammed is his prophet. These are the fundamentals of the religion that without them, one cannot be a Muslim. But beyond that, Islam is a civilization. It is a religion that gave first and foremost a wide and unique legal system that engulfs the individual, society and nations with rules of behavior. If you are Muslim, you have to behave according to the rules of Islam which are set down in the Koran and which are very different than the teachings of the Bible. But there are more differences….. . The Bible is the creation of the spirit of a nation over a very, very long period, if we talk from the point of view of the scholar, and let me remain scholarly. But there is one thing that is important in the Bible. It leads to salvation. It leads to salvation in two ways. In Judaism, it leads to national salvation — not just a nation that wants to have a state, but a nation that wants to serve God. That's the idea behind the Hebrew text of the Bible. The New Testament that took the Hebrew Bible moves us toward personal salvation. So we have got these two kinds of salvation, which, from time to time, meet each other. But the key word is salvation. Personal salvation means that each individual is looked after by God, Himself, who leads a person . through His word to salvation. This is the idea in the Bible, whether we are talking about the Old or the New Testament. All of the laws in the Bible, even to the minutest ones, are, in fact directed toward this fact of salvation. Secondly, there is another point in the Bible, which is highly important. This is the idea that man was created in the image of God. Therefore, you don't just walk around and obliterate the image of God. Many people, of course, used Biblical rules and turned them upside down. History has seen a lot of massacres in the name of God and in the name of Jesus. But as religions, both Judaism and Christianity in their fundamentals speak about honouring the image of God and the hope of salvation. These are the two basic fundamentals. Now let's move to the essence of Islam. Islam was born with the idea that it should rule the world. There is a difference between these three religions. Judaism speaks.about national salvation — namely that at the end of the story, when the world becomes a better place, Israel will be in its own land, ruled by its own king and serving God. Christianity speaks about the idea that every single person in the world can be saved from his sins, while Islam speaks about ruling the world. The Qur’an says that "Allah sent Mohammed with the true religion so that it should rule over all the religions." The idea, then, is not that the whole world would become a Moslem world at this time, but that the whole world would be subdued under the rule of Islam. When the Islamic empire was established in 634 AD, within seven years — 640 AD — the core of the empire was created. The rules that were taken from the Koran and from the tradition that was ascribed to the prophet Mohammed, were translated into a real legal system. Jews and Christians could live under Islam provided they paid poll tax and accepted Islamic superiority. What about Muslim women? Islam sees a woman, whether single or married, as an individual in her own right, with the right to own and dispose of her property and earnings. A marriage dowry is given by the groom to the bride for her own personal use, and she keeps her own family name rather than taking her husband's. Both men and women are expected to dress in a way which is modest and dignified; the traditions of female dress found in some Muslim countries are often the expression of local customs. The Messenger of God said: 'The most perfect in faith amongst believers is he who is best in manner and kindest to his wife.' Can a Muslim have more than one wife? The religion of Islam was revealed for all societies and all times and so accommodates widely differing social requirements. Circumstances may warrant the taking of another wife but the right is granted, according to the Quran, only on condition that the husband is scrupulously fair. And Muhammed himself believed that it would be difficult for most men (including himself) to be fair to more than four wives; thus four wives is the acceptable limit (assuming he can provide for them and treat them all fairly). Hijab - veiling The practice of hijab among Muslim women is one based on religious doctrine, although the Qur'an does not mandate it. Instead, it comes from the Hadith of Sahih Bukhari. The Hadith, the "tradition of Mohammed," reveals the teachings of the Prophet to believers. According to the Hadith, "My Lord agreed with me ('Umar) in three things... (2) And as regards the veiling of women, I said 'O Allah's Apostle! I wish you ordered your wives to cover themselves from the men because good and bad ones talk to them.' So the verse of the veiling of the women was revealled" (Bukhari, v1, bk 8, sunnah 395). Surah XXXIII, Verse 59 of the Qur'an is most often cited in support of veiling. It states: . "O Prophet! Tell thy wives and thy daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks close around them. that will be better, so that they may be recognized and not annoyed. Allah is ever forgiving, merciful....―(other versions translate the original Arabic as "veils" ). Among Muslim women, the debate about hijab takes many forms. Many believe that the veil is a way to secure personal liberty in a world that objectifies women. Several women have argued that hijab allows them freedom of movement and control of their bodies. Understood in such terms, hijab protects women from the male gaze and allows them to become autonomous subjects. Others have argued that the veil only provides the illusion of protection and serves to absolve men of the responsibility for controlling their behavior. Both positions assert that Islam is not responsible for sexism. In fact, the Qur'an supports the notion of gender equality. Just in case you’re wondering… There are similar, yet less obvious requirements for a Muslim male's attire. 1) A Muslim man must always be covered from the navel to the knees. 2) A Muslim man should similarly not wear tight, sheer, revealing, or eye-catching clothing. 3) In addition, a Muslim man is prohibited from wearing silk clothing (except for medical reasons) or gold jewelry. A Muslim woman, however, may wear silk or gold. Is Islamic marriage like Christian marriage? A Muslim marriage is not a 'sacrament', but a simple, legal agreement in which either partner is free to include conditions. Marriage customs thus vary widely from country to country. As a result, divorce is not common, although it is not forbidden as a last resort. According to Islam, no Muslim girl can be forced to marry against her will: her parents will simply suggest young men they think may be suitable. How do Muslims treat the elderly? In the Islamic world there are no old people's homes. The strain of caring for one's parents in this most difficult time of their lives is considered an honor and blessing, and an opportunity for great spiritual growth. God asks that we not only pray for our parents, but act with limitless compassion, remembering that when we were helpless children they preferred us to themselves. Mothers are particularly honored: the Prophet taught that 'Paradise lies at the feet of mothers'. When they reach old age, Muslim parents are treated mercifully, with the same kindness and selflessness. In Islam, serving one's parents is a duty second only to prayer, and it is their right to expect it. It is considered despicable to express any irritation when, through no fault of their own, the old become difficult. The Quran says: Your Lord has commanded that you worship none but Him, and be kind to parents. If either or both of them reach old age with you, do not say 'uff to them or chide them, but speak to them in terms of honor and kindness. Treat them with humility, and say, 'My Lord! Have mercy on them, for they did care for me when I was little'. (17:23-4) How do Muslims view death? Like Jews and Christians, Muslims believe that the present life is only a trial preparation for the next realm of existence. Basic articles of faith include: the Day of Judgment, resurrection, Heaven and Hell. When a Muslim dies, he or she is washed, usually by a family member, wrapped in a clean white cloth, and buried with a simple prayer preferably the same day. Muslims consider this one of the final services they can do for their relatives, and an opportunity to remember their own brief existence here on earth. The Prophet taught that three things can continue to help a person even after death; charity which he had given, knowledge which he had taught and prayers on their behalf by a righteous child. What about food? Although much simpler than the dietary law followed by Jews and the early Christians, the code which Muslims observe forbids the consumption of pig meat or any kind of intoxicating drink. The Prophet taught that 'your body has rights over you', and the consumption of wholesome food and the leading of a healthy lifestyle are seen as religious obligations. The Prophet said: 'Ask God for certainty [of faith] and well- being; for after certainty, no one is given any gift better than health!' Zillij – Islamic Art Muslim mosques are rich with geometric ornamentation called Zillij. These patterns reflect basic Islamic beliefs as well as mathematical truths. Muslims see these patterns as being "discovered rather than created." When you study the patterns of the tiles in wall and floor mosaics, what do you notice about these arrangements? The designs are endlessly repeating in elaborate complexity. Looking at the whole, you see no center but rather an even, total, and unending aesthetic. Islamic designs convey spirituality without religious iconography (drawings and statues). Although they are intense and brilliant in color and design, they are impersonal and anonymous. Nowhere do you see the artist’s hand, only the pure form and color. These profound concepts reflect the Muslim understanding of God. Muslims believe it is a sin to reproduce the likeness of God or his image in man, Islamic artwork is not made using random, free-choice designs, but is drawn within the constraints of symmetry and the laws of proportion. The basic component is a simple shape, repeated in patterns following bilateral or radial symmetry. How does Islam guarantee human rights? Freedom of conscience is laid down by the Quran itself: 'There is no compulsion in religion'. (2:256) The life and property of all citizens in an Islamic state are considered sacred whether a person is Muslim or not. Racism is incomprehensible to Muslims, for the Quran speaks of human equality in the following terms: O mankind! We created you from a single soul, male and female, and made you into nations and tribes, so that you may come to know one another. Truly, the most honored of you in God's sight is the greatest of you in piety. God is All- Knowing, All Aware (49:13) University Mosque of Al Azhar - a center of learning since 969 AD. Left: Mosque in Iran. Right: Mosque in Mali. What does Islam say about war? (Version 1) Like Christianity, Islam permits fighting in self-defense, in defense of religion, or on the part of those who have been expelled forcibly from their homes. It lays down strict rules of combat which include prohibitions against harming civilians and against destroying crops, trees and livestock. As Muslims see it, injustice would be triumphant in the world if good men were not prepared to risk their lives in a righteous cause. The Quran says: Fight in the cause of God against those who fight you, but do not transgress limits. God does not love transgressors. (2:190) If they seek peace, then seek you peace. And trust in God for He is the One that heareth and knoweth all things. (8:61) . War, therefore, is the last resort, and is subject to the rigorous conditions laid down by the sacred law. The term jihad literally means 'struggle', and Muslims believe that there are two kinds of jihad. The other 'jihad' is the inner struggle which everyone wages against egotistic desires, for the sake of attaining inner peace. Personal Jihad This is the most important form. This type of jihad, called the Jihadun-Nafs, is the intimate struggle to purify one's soul of evil influences -- both subtle and overt. It is the struggle to cleanse one's spirit of sin. Both the Qur'an and the Hadith use the word "jihad" to refer to personal struggles: Putting "Allah ahead of our loved ones, our wealth, our worldly ambitions and our own lives." Resisting pressure of parents, peers and society; strive against "the rejecters of faith..." (Quran 25:52) "...strive and struggle to live as true Muslims..." "Striving for righteous deeds." Spreading the message of Islam. "The (true) believers are only those who believe in Allah and his messenger and afterward doubt not, but strive with their wealth and their selves for the cause of Allah. Such are the truthful." (Quran, 49:15) Non-personal (Outer) Jihad Jihad is "holy war." Or, more precisely: It means the legal, compulsory, communal effort to expand the territories ruled by Muslims at the expense of territories ruled by non-Muslims. The purpose of jihad, in other words, is not directly to spread the Islamic faith but to extend sovereign Muslim power (faith, of course, often follows the flag). Jihad is thus unabashedly offensive in nature, with the eventual goal of achieving Muslim dominion over the entire globe. Jihad did have two variant meanings through the centuries, one more radical, one less so. The first holds that Muslims who interpret their faith differently are infidels and therefore legitimate targets of jihad. The second meaning (previously described) rejects the legal definition of jihad as armed conflict and tells Muslims to withdraw from the worldly concerns to achieve spiritual depth. A small percentage of Muslims who are from the extreme, radical and violent wing of Islamic Fundamentalism, and who are passionate, . [deeply] religious and anti-Western might dwell on passages or verses dealing with conflict, war, and resistance to oppression. Many conclude that the Qur'an expects them to engage in acts of terrorism, assassinations, suicide bombings, armed aggression against persons of other religions, oppression of women, executing innocent persons, etc. The best known of these fundamentalist groups are the PLO, Hamas, ANO, and PIJ (in Palestine) and Al-Quaida (in Afghanistan) and the Hezbollah (in Lebanon). Those Muslim Fundamentalists who are not extreme, violent and radical, and those Muslims from mainline or liberal wings of the religion might concentrate on passages and themes of spirituality, justice, personal struggle, peace, freedom, etc. and focus on self- defense rather than aggression. What does Islam say about war? (Version 2) - End of Days It is highly important to understand how a civilization sees the end of days. In Christianity and in Judaism, we know exactly what is the vision of the end of days. In Judaism, it is going to be as in Isaiah — peace between nations, not just one nation, but between all nations. People will not have any more need for weapons and nature will be changed — a beautiful end of days and the kingdom of God on earth. Christianity goes as far as Revelation to see a day that Satan himself is obliterated. There are no more powers of evil. That's the vision. In the end of days, Islam sees a world that is totally Muslim, completely Muslim under the rule of Islam. Complete and final victory. Christians will not exist, because according to many Islamic . traditions, the Muslims who are in hell will have to be replaced by somebody and they'll be replaced by the Christians. The Jews will no longer exist, because before the coming of the end of days, there is going to be a war against the Jews where all Jews should be killed. I'm quoting now from the heart of Islamic tradition, from the books that are read by every child in school. The Jews will all be killed. They'll be running away and they'll be hiding behind trees and rocks, and on that day Allah will give mouths to the rocks and trees and they will say, "Oh Muslim come here, there is a Jew behind me, kill him." Without this, the end of days cannot come. This is a fundamental of Islam. Islam in the United States It is almost impossible to generalize about American Muslims: converts, immigrants, factory workers, doctors; all are making their own contribution to America's future. This complex community is unified by a common faith, underpinned by a countrywide network of a thousand mosques. Muslims were early arrivals in North America. By the eighteenth century there were many thousands of them, working as slaves on plantations. These early communities, cut off from their heritage and families, inevitably lost their Islamic identity as time went by. Today many Afro- American Muslims play an important role in the Islamic community. The nineteenth century, however, saw the beginnings of an influx of . Arab Muslims, most of whom settled in the major industrial centers where they worshipped in hired rooms. The early twentieth century witnessed the arrival of several hundred thousand Muslims from Eastern Europe: the first Albanian mosque was opened in Maine in 1915; others soon followed, and a group of Polish Muslims opened a mosque in Brooklyn in 1928. In 1947 the Washington Islamic Center was founded during the term of President Truman, and several nationwide organizations were set up in the fifties. The same period saw the establishment of other communities whose lives were in many ways modeled after Islam. More recently, numerous members of these groups have entered the fold of Muslim orthodoxy. Today there are about five million Muslims in America. The Islamic Cultural Center, Washington DC. United States: Muslim Population Circa 2000 Because the U. S. Census does.not collect information on religious affiliation of residents in the nation, there are no exact figures on the number of Muslims in the country. According to a national poll conducted in 2001, known as the American Religious Identity Survey, approximately 1,104,000 adult Muslims reside in the United States. National Muslim organizations put the total number of all Muslims in the nation at about seven million, based on a survey that determined that two million Muslims regularly attend weekly Friday prayer services, and stipulated that the majority of Muslims do not attend such services. Whatever the exact number, the Muslim population in North America is characterized by its diversity. Approximately 24 percent of American Muslims are African Americans according to the American Muslim Council’s Zogby poll conducted in 2000. The Muslim World The Muslim population of the world is around one billion. 30% of Muslims live in the Indian subcontinent, 20% in Sub- Saharan Africa, 17% in Southeast Asia, 18% in the Arab World, 10% in the Soviet Union and China. Turkey, Iran and Afghanistan comprise 10% of the non-Arab Middle East. Although there are Muslim minorities in almost every area, including Latin America and Australia, they are most numerous in the Soviet Union, India, and central Africa. There are 5 million Muslims in the United States. . Western Europe: Muslim Population Circa 2000 It is estimated that 35 to 50 million Muslims live currently in Western and Eastern Europe, although no reliable statistics are available. The majority lives in the Balkans and southeastern Europe, areas once part of the Ottoman Empire. In Western Europe, the largest numbers are in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom—ranging from around four to five million people in each country. Many of these Western European Muslims are immigrants or children of immigrants from areas formerly colonized by European powers. Muslim Countries of Africa/Asia/Middle East/South East Asia . Today there are nearly 65 states or countries with significant or majority populations who are Muslim. They include some of the largest nations in the world in terms of population, such as Indonesia, Nigeria, and Pakistan. Others are small countries like Qatar and Djibouti. Many are secular republics such as Indonesia, or monarchies such as Saudi Arabia, or so-called ―Islamic states‖ such as Iran. Some are democracies, such as Malaysia. No majority Muslim state exists in Europe or the Americas. In almost all of those states where a majority of the population is Muslim, a belief in Islam serves as a common bonding among diverse inhabitants in politics and life. It is a source of faith and a significant foundation of social identity and community relations. Almost all of these Muslim states are also developing nations that have only recently emerged from European colonialism. South America: Muslim Population Circa 2000 Although thousands of enslaved Muslims from Africa were carried . to South and Central America from 1450 to the 1830s, few South American Muslims today are the descendants of the formerly enslaved. Today, most South American Muslims are immigrants, or the descendants of immigrants, who came from India, present-day Pakistan, Java, and other parts of South and South East Asia. Beginning in 1838, Asian and South East Asian Muslims arrived in South America to work as indentured laborers, merchants, and farm workers. New waves of Muslim immigrants continued to sweep into Brazil, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Argentina, Peru, and Trinidad throughout the 19th century, including people from Lebanon and Palestine. Taj Mahal stands on the bank of River Yamuna, which otherwise The Taj Mahal serves as a wide moat defending the Great Red Fort of Agra, the center of the Mughal (Muslim) emperors until they moved their capital to Delhi in 1637. It was built by the fifth Mughal emperor, Shah Jahan in 1631 in memory of his second wife, Mumtaz Mahal, a Muslim Persian princess. She died while accompanying her husband in Burhanpur in a campaign to crush a rebellion after giving birth to their 14th child. The death so crushed the emperor that all his hair and beard were said to have grown snow white in a few months. When Mumtaz Mahal was still alive, she extracted four promises from the emperor: . first, that he build the Taj; second, that he should marry again; third, that he be kind to their children; and fourth, that he visit the tomb on her death anniversary. He kept the first and second promises. Construction began in 1631 and was completed in 22 years. Twenty thousand people were deployed to work on it. The material was brought in from all over India and central Asia and it took a fleet of 1000 elephants to transport it to the site. It was designed by the Iranian architect Ustad Isa and it is best appreciated when the architecture and its adornments are linked to the passion that inspired it. It is a "symbol of eternal love." O mankind! We created you . from a single soul, male and female, and made you into nations and tribes, so that you may come to know one another. Truly, the most honored of you in God's sight is the greatest of you in piety. God is All-Knowing, All-Aware. (Quran, 49:13) REVIEW Objectives The discussion of Islam in Chapter 10 includes information on the prophet Muhammad, the Qur'an, the central teachings, the Sunni-Shi'a split, Sufism, the Five Pillars and jihad, the spread of Islam, relationships with the West, and Muslim resurgence. After reading this chapter, you should be able to: • Explain the background and importance of the prophet Muhammad to Islam. • Discuss the role of the Qur'an in the religion. • Describe the basic teachings and practices of Islam. • Recognize the religion's major divisions. • Discuss current issues in Islam and the relationship of Islam with the West. • Define important Islamic terms, names, and places including Abraham, Ishma'il, Ka'bah, Muhammad, Mecca, Medina, Qur'an, Allah, Hadith, Sunnah, Gabriel, hijrah, caliph, suras, Fatiha, Paraclete, Shahadah, shirk, kufr, angels, archangels, Satan, jinn, the Last Judgment, Hell, Sunni, Shi'a, ummah, Shari'ah, Imams, 'Ali, Twelvers, Seveners, Sufism, dervishes, Jalal al-Din Rumi, Five Pillars of Islam, Islamists, zakat, fasting, hajj, jihad, mujahid, dhimmis, ulama, and hijab. In Islam, the supreme central focus and authority is Allah. Imam. Muhammad. Caliph. The word "Islam" means those who follow Muhammad. sons of Allah. surrender to God. recitations. When Muhammad was _____ years old, he began receiving revelations from God. 30 40 60 25 Muslims calculate time from the migration of Muslims to Medina, called the hijrah, which took place in _______ CE. 612 266 587 622 The Qur'an acknowledges prophets from Judaism and Christianity, including Adam. Jesus. Abraham. any of these. The Shi'a faction of Islam claims ______, Muhammad's cousin and husband to his daughter Fatima, as the legitimate Islamic leader after Muhammad's death. 'Ali Abu Bakr Umar Husayn The largest group within Islam is the _______, making up about 80 percent of all Muslims. Shi'a Sufi Imams Sunni Shi'ites seek leadership from Sufis. Any of these. caliphs. Imams. The mystic tradition within Islam is called Sunni. Fana. Shi'a. Sufism. The Mevlevi Dervish Order in Turkey famous for its ecstatic dancing was founded by the poet Abu Yazid al-Bistami. Junayd. Rabi'a. Jalal al-Din Rumi. The specific patterns for Muslim worship set forth in the Shari'ah are commonly known as the Teachings of Muhammad. The Qur'an. The Five Pillars of Islam. any of these. The Five Pillars of Islam consist of the profession of belief in God and messengership of Muhammad, prayer five times a day, tithing, fasting, and submission to God. mosque sacrifice. pilgrimage to Mecca. memorization of the Qur'an. Although fasting is strongly recommended as an Islamic practice, it is only required during the month of ___________, a celebration that commemorates the beginning of the revelations to Muhammad. Rajab Muharram Safar Ramadan The Muslim community has often been particularly tolerant of other monotheistic religions, especially Jainism and Sikhism. Sikhism and Hinduism. Judaism and Christianity. Hinduism and Buddhism. In the United States, the movement started by Elijah Muhammad and now led by his son, Warith Deen Muhammad, is called the Twelvers. American Muslim Mission. Nation of Islam. American Muslim Society. Ka'bah the angel who brought God's words to Muhammad Allah the One God Hadith Muhammad's sayings and actions Sunni Adam's place of worship, Islam's holiest sanctuary Gabriel Muhammad's life and sayings Hijrah the migration from Mecca to Medina Caliph the Qur'an's opening sura Qur'an successor to the Prophet Muhammad Suras chapters within the Qur'an Fatiha advocate, helper Paraclete "reciting" which comes directly from Allah, Islam's holy book Shahadah "There is no god but God" shirk the sin of associating things other than God with God Kufr atheism or ungratefulness to God Angels nonphysical beings of light who serve and praise God continuously Archangels highest form of angelic beings jinn immaterial beings of fire between human and angel Last Judgment the Muslim community Hell poor mendicant mystics Ummah Shi'ite leaders or guides Shari'ah the final accounting for one's deeds Imams destiny of unrepentant non-believers dervishes sacred law of Islam Zakat "striving" Hajj protected people Jihad veiling of women for modesty Mujahid spiritual tithing or almsgiving Dhimmis fighter in the path of God hijab pilgrimage to Mecca QUESTIONS Describe the factors contributing to the rapid spread of Islam. Examine the role and status of women in Islam. Visit this site, Women in Islam, for information. What misconceptions concerning Islam and Muhammad have been common in the West? Explain the concept of jihad. Read this Religious Tolerance website’s commentary on the word jihad. . What are the obligations of the Muslim faithful? . of all the prophets: __________ Muslims consider this man the greatest Through the angel Gabriel, Muhammad received God's message. This message, the holy book of the Islam faith, is called the __________. Muslims trace their ancestry back to _________ by the Egyptian slave Hagar. The Muslim name for God is ____________. The holy city of Islam is ___________. Any Questions?
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