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					Colonial Unit
                  Prepared By:
                 Jennifer Wilbanks
                     Mike Nelson
                  th
                 5 Grade Teachers
                        EGUSD




                    Table of Contents

1.   Colony Project Overview                         p. 3
2.   Colony Project Standards Overview               p. 4
3.   Colony Project Student Guidelines               p. 5 – 6
4.   Colony Project Timeline                         p. 7
5.   Colonial Model Instructions                     p. 8
6.   Writing Assignment- Letter to the Old Country   p. 9
7.   Map Assignments                                 p. 10 – 11
8.   Trades/Occupations                              p. 12 - 23
                               Project Overview

The Colony Project is a comprehensive unit covering Colonial America, circa
early 1600s – mid 1700s. Students will be required to complete several
assignments designed to allow them to learn about this time period in our
country’s history and about the people that lived through it. The goal of this
project is that at its conclusion, your child will be an expert on one of the three
colonial regions (Southern, Middle, or New England Colonies) as well as coming
away with a general understanding of Colonial America as a whole.




                                                                                      2
                     Colony Project Standards Overview
1. Map#1
This map will include information about one of the three colonial regions. Include the
following details: major geographic features; the regions natural resources; the industries
or products of the colony; major town, cities, or settlements. *Students may include
information on the Native Americans of the region.

Standard(s) - CS: SS 1-1A; 4-1A, B

2. Map #2
This map will show the extent of Colonization in North American circa 1750. The map should
include the major geographic features; the areas controlled by the colonial powers present:
Spain, England, France, et al; major cities; and Native American settlements.

Standard(s) - CS: SS 2-7A; 4-1A, B 4-2A

3. Letter to the Old Country
This “friendly letter” to a friend or family still living in Europe serves many purposes. After living
in the colony for several weeks, months, or years, the student, having adopted their colonial
persona, writes a letter home. Do they encourage them to come to America? Does their letter
reflect the hardship so common in the Colonies?

Standard(s) - CS: Writing 2.4A; SS 1-2A; 3-1A, 2A

4. Model of Colony
Colony teams will construct a model of their colony. Students should observe, through readings
and classroom instruction, that the colonies differ in many ways. The colonies differ
geographically, economically, socially, religiously, in their relations with Native Americans, how
their colonies came about, etc. Students need to understand how settlement sites were
selected. Why some colonies would develop industry, while others remained agrarian in nature.
How religion came into play when deciding where homes would be etc.

Standard(s) - CS: SS 1-2A, 4A; SS 2-3A, 4A; SS 4-1A, 3A, 4A

5. Colony Team Exam
One member from each colony will form a group and take a standard exam that covers all of the
requirements from chapters 5 and 6, all project elements, and information read and discussed in
class during this unit of study. Each member of the group will bring with them their expertise on
their colony.

Assessment Component #1

6. Individual Exam
This written test measures a student’s understanding of colonial life in early America. The test
will be a combination of multiple choice, short answer, and a final written prompt. The prompt
should require each student to discuss what they learned about their own colony; their place in
the colony; and an awareness of the other English colonists and what they were dealing with.

Assessment Component #2



                                                                                              3
                Colony Project Student Guidelines
                                 Social Studies
                                 Chapters 5 & 6

Goal: Each student will become an expert on one of the 3 early English Colonial
Regions: the Southern, Middle, or New England Colonies. Students will be
developing a mock town and fictitious characters based on their individual
research of one of the many types of laborers and craftsmen from this time.
Students will randomly receive a card assigning them to a region as well as
determining what their trade or occupation will be.

Responsibilities
Each student will be responsible for completing the following:

         Map #1
         Map #2
         Letter to the Old Country
         Chapter test made-up of material from chapters 5 & 6 and Writing
          Prompt
         Group Test
         Model of the colony (in-class project)
         Colony worksheet packet

Assignment Requirements

         Map # 1                                                   40 Points
          This map will include information about one colonial region’s natural
          resources, major geographical features (rivers, lakes, etc.) and the
          names and locations of towns.


         Map # 2                                                   40 Points
          This map will show the cities of 1750, major bodies of water, and
          indicate what country controlled each part of North America.


         Worksheet packet                                   10-20 Points Each
          Students will receive a worksheet packet that is specific to their colony,
          which will increase their knowledge about Colonial America.


         Letter to the Old Country                                    40 Points
          Students will write a letter to a friend back home about life in America.


                                                                                      4
         Group Test

          Groups will be made up of one member from each colonial group. Test
          will be taken together and will utilize the expertise of each colonial
          member.

         Chapter Test                                                65 Points
          The test will consist of items taken from the two chapter tests as well
          as material discussed and studied during the unit. There will also be a
          writing component to this test in the form of a prompt, where students
          will write what they learned about their own colony; their place in the
          colony; and an awareness of the other English colonists and why they
          were dealing with. Students will be allowed to use their outlines and
          worksheets during the test.

         Model of Colony                                         30 Points
          Every student must help create a model of a typical New England,
          Middle, or Southern Colony.

Note: All of the assignments will be worked on in class as well as at home.
(Except the model of each colony. This will only be worked on in class.)




                                                                                    5
                  Colony Project Unit Timeline

Week 1:

      Unit requirements will be discussed
      Students will be assigned a colonial region and a
       trade/occupation
      Students receive a packet of worksheets that pertain to their
       colonial region
      Begin working on Map #1

Week 2:

         Begin researching trade/occupation
         Readings and discussions
         Complete Map #1
         Work on Worksheet Packet

Week 3:

         Continued research/ visit Colonial Williamsburg website
         Begin Map #2
         Begin Letter to the Old Country
         Readings and discussions
         Work on Worksheet Packet

Week 4:

      Letter to the Old Country – rough drafts
      Complete Map #2
      Work on Worksheet Packet

Week 5:

         Complete Letter to the Old Country
         Prepare for Individual Test
         Groups create blue prints for Colonial Model
         Begin construction of model

Week 6:

      Finish model of Colony
      Team/Group Test
      Complete Worksheet Packet




                                                                       6
                             Model Instructions

During the last two weeks of this unit, students will begin constructing a model of
a typical Southern, Middle, or New England colony. Students will be working in
their colonial groups. Before they begin building, they should design a blue print
of their colony using a 12 x 18 sheet of white construction paper folded into four
quadrants; Groups need to have a water source in their model as well as the
various houses and shops that make up their town. Once the blue print is
finished the groups can begin designing their buildings. They can use the pre-fab
buildings from the Tom Snyder building kit, or they can design their own using
templates provided in this unit.

Supplies Needed:

   12 large white poster board (4 for each colony)
   Copies of templates and buildings (copied on tag board for durability)
   Glue gun (to glue all structures to the poster board)
   Crayons or colored pencils
   Spices (oregano, thyme, dill, etc.) for crops



Example blue print: New England Colony

     Farm




                                       Town




     River

                                                            Farm




                                                                                  7
              Letter to the Old Country
                      Guidelines
                      A Letter from America
                         Due

Requirements: You will be writing a letter to a family member or friend that is
from the country in which you or family originally came from. You will be telling
them about your life in America. Your letter needs to have a paragraph on each
of the following:

             Family
             Work
             The land
             Religion

Please use details from the resources that were provided to support the
information you have written about. You may also take some creative liberties in
describing your life in the colonies.

Here are some questions to that you may want to address in your letter:

             What will you say about the people that live around you?
             What is the land like?
             What has changed since you came to America?
             Should you encourage them to come to America?
             Are things different in America? Are they the same?
             What stories have you heard about the wilderness to the west?




                                                                                    8
Colonial Project                                              Due:
Map #1


You are going to create a map of your colony. Chapters 5 and 6 in your textbook
contain information about natural resources, rivers, cities, etc. See maps on
pages: 246, 207, 213, 219, and 244. You will be provided with a blank map of
your region for this assignment.

Your map should include:

    Major cities (1750)
    Rivers and important geographical features
    Products… Create symbols and a key.

Use color to highlight the border of your colony and other details

Note: Your maps show modern boundaries…dashed line.


    Important! Use pencil first. Then go over your edited work in black or
     blue pen. Eliminate mistakes and proof your work!




                                                                                  9
Colonial Project                                        Due:
Map #2


You will be given a blank United States map for this
assignment.

Locate and label the following:

      Bodies of Water:

          o   Atlantic Ocean
          o   Pacific Ocean
          o   Gulf of Mexico
          o   Missouri River
          o   Mississippi River
          o   Hudson River
          o   Great Lakes (label each one)
          o   Ohio River
          o   St. Lawrence River

      Cities of 1750: English, French, Spanish

                    England             France          Spain

                    Philadelphia        Quebec          San Francisco
                    New York            Montreal        St. Augustine
                    Savannah            New Orleans     Santa Fe
                    Boston              St. Louis       San Diego
                    Williamsburg
                    Baltimore
                    Portsmouth
                    Charleston

      Shade the areas controlled by Spain and France…as shown on maps pp. 199 &
       204.
      Shade the English Colonies as done on p. 246.


    Make a key to indicate the various territories and colonies.

Helpful Hints!
      Use a straight edge and draw a light line where you want to write
      Label in pencil first
      Check again.
      Go over with a fine point blue or black pen.



                                                                          10
11
                Trades/ Occupations

The following pages contain the several trades and occupations that were prevalent
during the colonial time period. Copy these pages and cut them out into individual
cards. Each student will receive one card, which will tell them what trade/occupation
they have as well as assign them to a colonial region. Depending on your class size,
some cards may not be used. Try to divide the class into 3 groups as evenly as
possible.




                                                                               12
New England Colony                            New England Colony

Cooper Coopers make barrels or                Wheelwright: This skilled craftsman
hogsheads, to carry many important            makes wheels for carriages, wagons,
products such as tobacco, fish, and           and riding chairs. These vehicles had to
flour. You’ll also make butter churns,        be built very well so they could deal with
casks for maple syrup, ale, and anything      the “roads” of Colonial America. The job
else that is liquid. A skilled cooper works   required the wheelwright to be both a
with white oak, cedar, and pine. You’ll       blacksmith and a fine carpenter. Good
use a variety of tools to shape the           measuring skills were also important.
staves for the barrel and then secure
them with a hoop of iron or hickory.          Lifestyle: You are a well-established
                                              and highly skilled craftsman. You’ve
Lifestyle: You are a well-established         lived in the colony for 8 years, and own
and highly respected craftsman. You           a nicely furnished two-story home and
arrived in America 25 years ago from          have a shop near the river. You attend
England, and own a nicely furnished           church with the Puritans in your town.
two-story home and shop near the river.
You have one young apprentice and a           Wealth: $$
pair of indentured servants. You attend
Puritan services with the others in your
town.                                         New England Colony

Wealth: $$                                    Cabinetmaker: Producing furniture was
                                              common in America, and the quality of
New England Colony                            the furniture depended upon the wealth
                                              of the individual. The everyday pieces
Cobbler and Saddler: Skill in working         for common people were made of yellow
with leather has enabled you to open          pine of oak. Only the wealthy could
both a shop for making boots, shoes,          afford furniture made of walnut, cherry,
and saddles. Saddles for hunting,             chestnut, and imported mahogany. The
racing, and general riding were in big        finest tools, often made of German
demand. You also make the bridles and         steel, were expensive. As a skilled
belts. Your cobbler work was usually          craftsman, you’ll be able to use any
repair work, but on occasion, you make        woodworking tool imaginable.
a pair of custom boots or shoes for a
wealthy customer.                             Lifestyle: You are a well-established
                                              and highly respected tradesman. You
Lifestyle: You are a well-established         arrived in America 5 years ago from
craftsman. You arrived in America 3           England, and own a nicely furnished
years ago from England, and own a             home and shop. You have 3 young
modest one-story home and shop. You           apprentices and pair of indentured
have one apprentice working for you.          servants. You attend Puritan services
You attend Puritan services with others       with the others in your town.
in our town.
                                              Wealth: $$
Wealth: $$




                                                                                      13
New England Colony                            New England Colony

Gunsmith: Colonial gunsmiths had to           Printer & Binder: This highly skilled
have several skills in order to produce       and literate individual was responsible
the weapons necessary to tame the             for printing and binding the various
frontier. You are a skilled blacksmith,       written correspondence in the colony.
founder, and woodworker. You’ll do            The printer would print business forms,
finishing work in iron and steel. On your     laws and proclamations, blank record
finest pieces you’ll make elaborate           books, and newspapers and handbills. It
carvings on cast brass and silver. You        was a time and labor intensive trade.
will also repair any other metal              For example, to set the type for a singe
implement that someone might bring            newspaper page would take nearly 25
into your shop. It will take you nearly       hours. Artists would create woodcuts
100 hours to make a fine rifle, and it will   (illustrations), compositors would set the
be passed down from father to son.            individual type letter by letter, and after
                                              the carriage was completely set, the
Lifestyle: You are a well-established         printer would place a singe sheet of
and respected tradesman. You arrived          paper in the press and exert nearly 200
in American 15 years ago from England,        pounds of pressure to print the page.
and own a nicely furnished two-story          News and information was so important
home and shop near the river. You             that newspapers would be passed from
attend Puritan services with the others       person to person until they fell apart.
in your town.                                 The workday would be nearly 14 hours
                                              long. Book printing was an ever more
Wealth: $$                                    complicated and expensive task.

                                              Lifestyle: You are a well-established
New England Colony                            and highly skilled craftsman. You are
                                              second generation English-American,
Carpenter: No one was more important          and own a nicely furnished home and
in a world where nearly every useful          shop near the river. You attend Church
item was made of wood. You are a              with the Puritans in your town.
highly-skilled tradesman that is able to
cut and join timbers and boards into          Wealth: $$
sturdy home, shops and barns. You’ll
lay floors, frame walls, raise rafters,
carve moldings, hang doors, and nail on
siding. You’ll work with oak, ash, poplar,
locust, and yellow pine. You’ll use a
saw, broadax, hammer, awl, mallet,
plane, scribe drawknife, and gimlet.

Lifestyle: You are a well-established
and highly respected tradesman. You
are a third generation English-American,
and own a nicely furnished two-story
home and shop. You attend church with
the Puritans in your town.

Wealth: $$$


                                                                                      14
                                             New England Colony
New England Colony
                                             Blacksmith: The local blacksmith was
Miller: Your mill is located along the
                                             not only one of the strongest people in a
river. The river powers your mill. The
                                             town, but also one of the most needed.
wheel is mated to a geared wheel called
                                             Everyone had some type of metal tool to
a rack. The rack is tied to a pinion which
                                             fix, a horse to shoe, or an ax to sharpen
in turn spins the grinding stone. Wheat
                                             or shape. With a forge, hammer, tongs,
and corn are fed through a hopper to the
                                             and an anvil, the smith created useful
space between the stones. The stone
                                             items from iron and steel. For a
turns 110 times per minute. The finely
                                             household the blacksmith might make
ground flour and meal is collected and
                                             locks, cooking utensils, pots and pans,
placed in sacks or barrels.
                                             fireplace andirons, and decorative iron
                                             candlestick- holders.
Lifestyle: You are a well-established
and highly respected tradesman. You
                                             Lifestyle: You are a well-established
are second generation English-
                                             craftsman. You arrived in America 20
American, and own a nicely furnished
                                             years ago from England, and own a
two-story home, mill and barn near the
                                             modest two-story home and shop near
river. You attend church with the
                                             the river. You also have a small livery
Puritans in your town.
                                             business where you rent out wagons
                                             and oxen for hauling. You have one
Wealth: $$$
                                             young apprentice working for you. You
                                             attend Puritan services with the others
New England Colony
                                             in your town.
Farmer: Is there anyone in the
                                             Wealth: $
American Colonies that works harder
than a New England farmer? Poor
rocky soil and a short growing season
make farming a difficult endeavor. Your
100 acres is cleared and you grow a
variety of vegetables that you sell in
town. You have goats, a pair of oxen,
and a team of mules you hire out to
other farmers.

Lifestyle: You are a well-established
and respected landowner. You arrived
in America 20 years ago from England,
and own a modest two-story home,
barn, and stable. You have one
indentured servant working for you. You
attend Puritan services with the others
in your town.

Wealth: $$




                                                                                   15
Middle Colony                                Middle Colony

                                             Printer & Binder: This highly skilled
Wheelwright: This skilled craftsman
                                             and literate individual was responsible
makes wheels for carriages, wagons,
                                             for printing and binding the various
and riding chairs. These vehicles had to
                                             written correspondence in the colony.
be built very well so they could deal with
                                             The printer would print business forms,
the “roads” of Colonial America. The job
                                             laws and proclamations, blank record
required the wheelwright to be both a
                                             books, and newspapers and handbills.
blacksmith and a fine carpenter. Good
                                             It was a time and labor intensive trade.
measuring skills were also important.
                                             For example, the set the type for a
                                             single newspaper page would take
Lifestyle: You are a well-established
                                             nearly 25 hours. Artists would create
and highly skilled craftsman. You’ve
                                             woodcuts (illustrations), compositors
been in America for 5 years, and live in
                                             would set the individual type letter by
a simply furnished home and have a
                                             letter, and after the carriage was
shop near the river. You speak some
                                             completely set, the printer would place a
English, but retain a heavy Scotch-Irish
                                             single sheet of paper in the press and
accent. You attend the Catholic mass
                                             exert nearly 200 pounds of pressure to
on Sundays.
                                             print the page. News and information
                                             was so important that newspapers
Wealth: $$
                                             would be passed from person to person
                                             until they fell apart. The workday would
                                             be nearly 14 hours long. Book printing
                                             was an even more complicated and
                                             expensive task.

                                             Lifestyle: You are a well-established
                                             and highly skilled craftsman. You are
                                             Dutch, and own a nicely furnished two-
                                             story home and have a shop. You
                                             attend services at the Protestant church
                                             in town.

                                             Wealth: $$




                                                                                   16
Middle Colony                              Middle Colony

Miller: Your mill is located along the     Gunsmith: Colonial gunsmiths had to
river. The river powers your mill. The     have several skills in order to produce
wheel is mated to a geared wheel called    the weapons necessary to tame the
a rack. The rack is tied to a pinion       frontier. You are a skilled blacksmith,
which in turn spins the grinding stone.    founder, and woodworker. You’ll do
Wheat and corn are feed through a          finishing work in iron and steel. On your
hopper to the space between the            finest piece’s you’ll make elaborate
stones. The stone turns 110 times per      carvings on cast brass and silver. You
minute. The finely ground flour and        will also repair any other metal
meal is collected and place in sacks or    implement that someone might bring
barrels.                                   into your shop. It will take you nearly
                                           100 hours to make a fine rifle, and it will
Lifestyle: You are a well-established      be passed down from father to son.
and highly respected tradesman. You
are a second generation Dutch-             Lifestyle: You are a well-established
American, and own a nicely furnished       and highly respected tradesman. You
two-story home and the mill and barn       arrived in America 5 years ago from
near the river. You attend church with     Germany, and own a nicely furnished
the Protestants in your town.              home and shop near the river. You are
                                           Jewish and hold services in your house
Wealth: $$$                                for the others in your town.

Middle Colony                              Wealth: $$

Carpenter: No one was more important       Middle Colony
in a world where nearly every useful
item was made of wood. You are a           Cabinetmaker: Producing furniture
highly skilled tradesman that is able to   was common in America, and the quality
cut and join timbers and boards into       of the furniture depended upon the
sturdy home, shops, and barns. You’ll      wealth of the individual. The everyday
lay floors, frame walls, raise rafters,    pieces for common people were made
carve moldings, hang doors, and nail on    of yellow pine or oak. Only the wealthy
siding. You’ll work with oak, ash,         could afford furniture made of walnut,
poplar, locust, and yellow pine. You’ll    cherry, chestnut, and imported
use a saw, broadax, hammer, awl,           mahogany. The finest tools, often made
mallet, plane, scribe, drawknife, and      of German steel, were expensive. As a
gimlet.                                    skilled craftsman, you’ll be able to use
                                           any woodworking tool imaginable.
Lifestyle: You are a well-established
and highly respected tradesman. You        Lifestyle: You are a well-established
arrived in America 2 years ago from        and highly respected tradesman. You
Scotland, and own a nicely furnished       arrived in America 5 years ago from
two-story home and shop near the river.    Germany, and own a nicely furnished
You attend church with the other           home and shop. You have 2 young
Catholics in your town.                    apprentices working for you. You attend
                                           Protestant services with the others in
Wealth: $$                                 your town.
                                           Wealth: $$


                                                                                   17
Middle Colony                                Middle Colony

Cooper: Coopers make barrels, or             Blacksmith: The local blacksmith was
hogsheads, to carry many important           not only one of the strongest people in a
products such as tobacco, fish, and          town, but also one of the most needed.
flour. You’ll also make butter churns,       Everyone had some type of metal tool to
casks for maple syrup, ale, and anything     fix, a horse to shoe, or an ax to sharpen
else that is liquid. A skilled cooper        or shape. With a forge, hammer, tongs,
works with white oak, cedar, and pine.       and an anvil, the smith created useful
You’ll use a variety of tools to shape the   items from iron and steel. For a
staves for the barrel and then secure        household the blacksmith might make
them with a hoop of iron or hickory.         locks, cooking utensils, pots and pans,
                                             fireplace andirons, and decorative iron
Lifestyle: You are a well-established        candlestick- holders.
and highly respected craftsman. You
arrived in America 2 years ago from          Lifestyle: You are a well-established
England, and own a nicely furnished          craftsman. You arrived in America 15
two-story home and shop near the river.      years ago from England, and own a
You have one young apprentice. You           modest two-story home and shop near
attend Quaker services with the others       the river. You have one young
in your town.                                apprentice working for you. You attend
                                             Quaker services with the others in your
Wealth: $$                                   town.

Middle Colony                                Wealth: $

Cobbler and Saddler: Skill in working        Middle Colony
with leather has enabled you to open
both a shop for making boots, shoes,         Farmer: Is there anyone in the
and saddles. Saddles for hunting,            American Colonies that works harder
racing, and general riding were in big       than a farmer? Your farm is near the
demand. You also make the bridles and        river and the topsoil is rich and fertile.
belts. Your cobbler work was usually         Your 250 acres is cleared and you grow
repair work, but on occasion, you made       a variety of vegetables and fruits that
a pair of custom boots or shoes for a        you sell in town. This year you’ll lease
wealthy customer.                            an additional 100 acres and plant wheat.
                                             You have goats, pigs, a team of oxen,
Lifestyle: You are a well-established        mules, and some beautiful Clydesdale
craftsman. You arrived in America 6          Horses.
years ago from Germany, and own a
modest two-story home and shop near          Lifestyle: You are a well-established
the river. You have one young                and respected landowner. You arrived
apprentice working for you. You attend       in America 35 years ago from England,
Catholic services with the others in your    and own a fine two-story home and
town.                                        barn. You have three indentured
                                             servants working for you. You attend
Wealth: $                                    Quaker services with the others in your
                                             town.

                                             Wealth: $$


                                                                                    18
Middle Colony                                Middle Colony

Farmer: Is there anyone in the               Farmer: Is there anyone in the
American Colonies that works harder          American Colonies that works harder
than a farmer? Your farm is near the         than a farmer? You have 15o acres
river and the topsoil is rich and fertile.   planted in wheat, and also run a simple
Your 1000 acres is cleared and you           tavern. You take in travelers and sell
grow a variety of vegetables and fruits      simple supplies to nearby townspeople.
that you sell in town. Some of your          This year you’ll lease an additional 50
produce is sold and shipped to New           acres and manage a dairy herd. You
York City. This year you’ll lease an         have pigs, and a team of oxen.
additional 250 acres and plant wheat.
The docks on the river have been built       Lifestyle: You are a well-established
and now your produce can be moved            and respected landowner. You arrived
even faster. You have goats, pigs, a         in America 2 years ago from Holland,
team of oxen, mules, and some                and own a fine two-story home and
beautiful Quarter Horses.                    barn. You have one indentured servant
                                             working for you. You are Jewish and
Lifestyle: You are a well-established        attend services at the home of a friend.
and respected landowner. You arrived
in America 20 years ago from England,        Wealth: $$
and own a fine two-story home, barns,
and other outbuildings. You have 12
indentured servants working for you.
You attend Quaker services with the
others in your town.
Wealth: $$$$

Middle Colony

Farmer: Is there anyone in the
American Colonies that works harder
than a farmer? Your farm is near the
river and the topsoil is rich and fertile.
500 of your 750 acres are cleared and
you grow a variety of vegetables and
fruits that you sell in town. This year
you’ll lease an additional 200 acres and
plant wheat. You have goats, pigs, and
3 teams of oxen.

Lifestyle: You are a well-established
and respected landowner. You arrived
in America 15 years ago from England,
and own a fine two-story home and
barn. You have three indentured
servants working for you. You attend
Quaker services with the others in your
town.
Wealth: $$$


                                                                                   19
Southern Colony                              Southern Colony

Wheelwright: This skilled craftsman          Printer & Binder: This highly skilled
makes wheels for carriages, wagons,          and literate individual was responsible
and riding chairs. These vehicles had to     for printing and binding the various
be built very well so they could deal with   written correspondence in the colony.
the “roads” of Colonial America. The job     The printer would print business forms,
required the wheelwright to be both a        laws and proclamations, blank record
blacksmith and a fine carpenter. Good        books, and newspapers and handbills.
measuring skills were also important.        It was a time and labor intensive trade.
                                             For example, the set the type for a
Lifestyle: You are a well-established        single newspaper page would take
and highly skilled craftsman. You are a      nearly 25 hours. Artists would create
second generation English-American.          woodcuts (illustrations), compositors
You live in a nicely furnished two-story     would set the individual type letter by
home and have a shop near the river.         letter, and after the carriage was
You go to the King’s Church, the             completely set, the printer would place a
Anglican Church, and every Sunday.           single sheet of paper in the press and
                                             exert nearly 200 pounds of pressure to
Wealth: $$                                   print the page. News and information
                                             was so important that newspapers
Southern Colony                              would be passed from person to person
                                             until they fell apart. The workday would
Carpenter: No one was more important         be nearly 14 hours long. Book printing
in a world where nearly every useful         was an even more complicated and
item was made of wood. You are a             expensive task.
highly skilled tradesman that is able to
cut and join timbers and boards into         Lifestyle: You are a well-established
sturdy home, shops, and barns. You’ll        and highly skilled craftsman. You are a
lay floors, frame walls, raise rafters,      third generation English-American, and
carve moldings, hang doors, and nail on      own a nicely furnished two-story home
siding. You’ll work with oak, ash,           and have a shop. You are a member of
poplar, locust, and yellow pine. You’ll      the House of Burgesses, are loyal to the
use a saw, broadax, hammer, awl,             King, and attend the Anglican Church.
mallet, plane, scribe, drawknife, and
gimlet.                                      Wealth: $$

Lifestyle: You are a well-established
and highly respected tradesman. You
arrived in America 12 years ago from
England, and own a nicely furnished
two-story home and shop. You have a
servant indentured to you for 6 years,
and are considering buying a slave to
help in the shop. You go to the Anglican
Church and remain loyal to your King
and country.

Wealth: $$


                                                                                   20
Southern Colony                               Southern Colony

Gunsmith: Colonial gunsmiths had to           Cabinetmaker: Producing furniture
have several skills in order to produce       was common in America, and the quality
the weapons necessary to tame the             of the furniture depended upon the
frontier. You are a skilled blacksmith,       wealth of the individual. The everyday
founder, and woodworker. You’ll do            pieces for common people were made
finishing work in iron and steel. On your     of yellow pine or oak. Only the wealthy
finest piece’s you’ll make elaborate          could afford furniture made of walnut,
carvings on cast brass and silver. You        cherry, chestnut, and imported
will also repair any other metal              mahogany. The finest tools, often made
implement that someone might bring            of German steel, were expensive. As a
into your shop. It will take you nearly       skilled craftsman, you’ll be able to use
100 hours to make a fine rifle, and it will   any woodworking tool imaginable.
be passed down from father to son.
                                              Lifestyle: You are a well-established
Lifestyle: You are a well-established         and highly respected tradesman. You
and highly respected tradesman. You           are a third-generation Cabinetmaker
are a second-generation gunsmith, and         and came to America 10 years ago.
own a nicely furnished two-story home         You own a nicely furnished two-story
and shop. You have 2 indentured               home and shop near the river. You
servants working for you. You are loyal       have 3 young apprentices and a pair of
to your King and attend services at the       indentured servants. You attend
Anglican Church in town.                      services at the Anglican Church with the
Wealth: $$                                    others in your town. Wealth: $$

Southern Colony                               Southern Colony

Cobbler and Saddler: Skill in working         Cooper: Coopers make barrels, or
with leather has enabled you to open          hogsheads, to carry many important
both a shop for making boots, shoes,          products such as tobacco, fish, and
and saddles. Saddles for hunting,             flour. You’ll also make butter churns,
racing, and general riding were in big        casks for maple syrup, ale, and anything
demand. You also make the bridles and         else that is liquid. A skilled cooper
belts. Your cobbler work was usually          works with white oak, cedar, and pine.
repair work, but on occasion, you made        You’ll use a variety of tools to shape the
a pair of custom boots or shoes for a         staves for the barrel and then secure
wealthy customer.                             them with a hoop of iron or hickory.

Lifestyle: You are a well-established         Lifestyle: You are a well-established
craftsman. You arrived in America 20          and highly respected craftsman. You
years ago from England, and own a             are a second-generation craftsman, and
modest one-story home and shop near           own a nicely furnished one-story home
the river. You have 1 young apprentice        and shop. You have one young
working for you. You attend Anglican          apprentice and rent a slave. You attend
Church services with the others in your       services at the Anglican Church and are
town.                                         loyal to your King.

Wealth: $                                     Wealth: $$




                                                                                     21
Southern Colony                             Southern Colony

Blacksmith: The local blacksmith was
                                            Plantation Owner: Power and prestige
not only one of the strongest people in a
                                            awaits the large plantation owners in the
town, but also one of the most needed.
                                            American Colonies. Easily the
Everyone had some type of metal tool to
                                            wealthiest individuals in America, they
fix, a horse to shoe, or an ax to sharpen
                                            sip wine from France, and have the
or shape. With a forge, hammer, tongs,
                                            finest mahogany furniture custom made
and an anvil, the smith created useful
                                            in England. German crystal and Swiss
items from iron and steel. For a
                                            cutlery decorate their dinner tables. You
household the blacksmith might make
                                            live in a mansion near the river that has
locks, cooking utensils, pots and pans,
                                            nearly 3o rooms and a vast garden to
fireplace andirons, and decorative iron
                                            stroll through when you entertain. The
candlestick- holders.
                                            plantation is a city. Numerous barns,
                                            drying sheds, slave quarters, and
Lifestyle: You are a well-established
                                            outbuildings stand downwind of the big
craftsman. You arrived in America 3
                                            house. Isolated because of its size,
years ago from England, and own a
                                            your slaves do everything. You have
modest one-story home and shop. You
                                            over 100 slaves. Some are skilled
have one young indentured servant
                                            smiths, carpenters, masons,
working for you. You attend Anglican
                                            glassblowers, and cooks. Your
Church services with the others in your
                                            overseer watches over the workings of
town. You are loyal to your King and
                                            the plantation, while you enjoy the
fought in France before coming to
                                            wealth your slaves created. You have a
America.
                                            stable of fine racing horses, and
                                            organize foxhunts to amuse your
Wealth: $
                                            neighbors. This year you’ll plant
                                            10,000 acres of wheat, and 5,000
Southern Colony
                                            acres of tobacco. You have anything
                                            and everything money can buy. You
Farmer: Is there anyone in the
                                            travel to Europe twice a year and
American Colonies that works harder
                                            entertain constantly. You are a member
than a farmer? You and your family
                                            of the House of Burgesses, and you are
have cleared 50 acres, and the other 50
                                            loyal to your King. You have built a
is heavily forested. You’re growing
                                            small chapel in which the minister holds
some tobacco, and have a garden to
                                            Anglican services for your family.
feed the family. You have a mule, and
you plan to buy an ox if your tobacco
                                            Wealth: $$$$$
crop pays well. You are wary of the
local Native Americans and keep your
musket with you at all times.

Lifestyle: You are alone and isolated
and live in the small cabin you built.
Your nearest neighbor is 15 miles away.
You are loyal to the King, but the only
sign of religion is the simple cross you
placed over the grave of your 2 year old
son.

Wealth: Poor, but proud.


                                                                                  22
Southern Colony                              Southern Colony

                                             Miller: Your mill is located along the
Plantation Owner: Your large
                                             river. The river powers your mill. The
plantation is nearly 5,000 acres. You
                                             wheel is mated to a geared wheel called
grow tobacco, rice, and some indigo.
                                             a rack. The rack is tied to a pinion which
You have plans to expand your land
                                             in turn spins the grinding stone. Wheat
holdings, but the King has directed the
                                             and corn are feed through a hopper to
governor to halt homes into the Native
                                             the space between the stones. The
American lands. You own 25 slaves,
                                             stone turns 110 times per minute. The
and they are primarily field hands. You
                                             finely ground flour and meal is collected
own several fine horses, and gamble at
                                             and placed in sacks or barrels.
the monthly horse races. You travel to
Savannah on business and purchase
                                             Lifestyle: You are a well-established
fine English furniture when it is
                                             and highly respected tradesman. You
available.
                                             are a second generation English-
                                             American, and own a nicely furnished
Lifestyle: Your home is large and made
                                             home. Your mill and barn are near the
of brick. Your plantation has several
                                             river. You are a member of the House of
large barns and outbuildings. Your land
                                             Burgesses. You attend the Anglican
is near the river. You are loyal to the
                                             Church and are loyal to your King.
King, but are angry that you cannot
expand your holdings. An Anglican
                                             Wealth: $$$
minister visits your plantation twice a
month. You hire a tutor for your children.

Wealth: $$$

Southern Colony

Plantation Owner: Your small
plantation is only 250 acres. You grow
tobacco and rice. You have plans to
expand your land, but the King has
directed the governor to halt homes into
the Native American lands. You own 2
slaves, and they are field hands. You
own a team of oxen, a mule, and
several fine horses.

Lifestyle: Your home is a simple two-
story wooden house. You have a large
barn and a few outbuildings. Your land
is near the river. You are loyal to the
King. An Anglican minister visits your
plantation twice a month.

Wealth: $$




                                                                                    23

				
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