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					Distributed Small Scale Power Plant
       (DSSPP) in Indonesia
                              By :
                     Ir. Djuwarno, MM
                          Chairman
  INDONESIAN RENEWABLE ENERGY SOCIATY (IRES)
        Jl. Duren Tiga No. 101 – Pancoran – Jakarta 12760
            Ph. 62-21-79198581, Fax. 62-21-79198581
                 E-mail : metiires@centrin.net.id


                             Indonesian Renewable Energy Society   1
Government’s Policy on Renewable Energy

• Electricity Law No. 20/2002 states that
  Renewable Energy is the first priority for
  providing electricity in the country.

• Utilization of Renewable Energy will be part
  of Government’s policy in promoting
  “Green Energy Program” under the
  proposed “Energy Law”.


                    Indonesian Renewable Energy Society   2
Indonesian Territory Map




         Indonesian Renewable Energy Society   3
           PLN’s Installed Capacity
Total Capacity : 20,930 MW


                               749.5 MW                   6770 MW
           6864 MW          Geothermal, 3.5%            Steam, 31.8%
        Combined Cycle,
            32.2%




            1225 MW                                               3106 MW
        Gas Turbine, 5.8%                                       Hydro, 14.6%
                              2585 MW
                            Diesel, 12.1%




                                Indonesian Renewable Energy Society            4
Electricity Supply - Demand Forecast
     Description          2001     2002           2003          2004      2005     2006

Java Bali

Energy Sales (TWh)       69.12    74.82        81.74          89.27      97.47    106.22

Growth Rate (%)          11.5     6.5          6.7            7.0        7.3      7.2

Peak Demand (MW)         13.326   14.174       14.862         15.844     16.965   18.168

No. of Customers (Mio) 20.12      20.78        21.74          22.80      23.95    25.16

Outer Islands

Energy Sales (TWh)        16.41    17.63         19.39          21.41     23.72    26.28

Growth Rate (%)            7.3      7.4           10.0           10.4      10.8     10.8

Peak Demand (MW)           3.85     4.12          4.52           4.98      5.50     6.07

No. of Customers (Mio)     9.48     9.95         10.69          11.50     12.38    13.32
                                   Indonesian Renewable Energy Society                     5
Indonesian’s Renewable Energy Potential
                                                               Expected      Expected
                                         Installed
 Energy Sources     Potential (MW)                              Invest.     Energy Cost
                                          (MW)
                                                               US$/kW        US$/kWh
Hydro (Big scale)       75,674             3,106            2,000 – 3,000         -

Mini & Micro
Hydro                  230,913            32 & 22           1,000 – 2,900   0.025 – 0.069
Geothermal              19,658             749.5             910 – 1,500     0.03 – 0.05
Biomass                 49.807             177.8            1,200 – 1,500      Vary

                       4-6.5
Solar                kWh/m2/day               5            9,000 – 15,000       1–2
Win                   3-6 m/sec              0.5            1,000 – 1,500    0.05 – 0.06
Utilization of Renewable Energy could significantly reduce oil
consumption in the country, that is expected to diminution.
                                     Indonesian Renewable Energy Society                    6
Potential of Mini and Micro Hydro in
            Major Islands
      Location                       Expected Potential
                                      Capacity (kW)
SUMATRA                                          39,954
KALIMANTAN                                                8,987
SULAWESI                                                141,824
MALUKU                                                    2,941
NUSA TENGGARA                                            24,274
IRIAN/PAPUA                                              12,933
                 TOTAL                                  230,913
                  Indonesian Renewable Energy Society             7
     Potential & Status – Hydro

• Indonesia’s total potential of hydro plant is
  about 75 GW. Potential in Java, Sumatra,
  Kalimantan and Other Islands is 4.2 GW,
  15.6 GW, 21.6 GW, and 33,6 GW
  respectively.
• Currently, total installed capacity of hydro
  plant is just about 6% of its total potential.
• By 1997 about 32 MW Mini Hydro and 22
  MW Micro Hydro had been installed (less
  than 0.1% of its total potential)

                     Indonesian Renewable Energy Society   8
   Potential & Status – Geothermal

• Mostly located in Java, Sumatra, Bali, Nusa
  Tenggara, Sulawesi and Maluku.
• Total identified potential of 70 fields is about
  19.658 MW.
• Total Installed capacity, currently is 749,5 MW,
  mostly they are interconnected into PLN’s network
  system at 55 MW sizes.




                      Indonesian Renewable Energy Society   9
Distribution of Geothermal Prospect in Indonesia




                    Indonesian Renewable Energy Society   10
     Potential & Status – Biomass

• Total potential is 48,807.3 MW.
• Mostly for electricity generation utilizing
  farming/plantation waste (rice Husk skin, coconut
  shell, empty palm oil bunch, bagasse), woods,
  garbage, etc
• Total potential in Sumatra, Kalimantan, Java,
  and others Islands is 1800 MW, 500 MW, 800
  MW, 380 MW and 120 MW, respectively.
• Total installed capacity, currently is 177,98 MW.


                     Indonesian Renewable Energy Society   11
        Potential & Status – Solar

• Most area in Sulawesi, Bali and Irian Jaya has a
  high heat radiation of 6 – 6.5 kWh/m2/day.
• Mountain area in Irian Jaya, Sulawesi Java, has
  an average heat radiation of 4.5 – 5.5
  kWh/m2/day.
• Low terrain area in Kalimantan, Java, and
  Sumatera, has an average heat radiation of 4 – 5
  kWh/m2/day.
• Total installed capacity is about 5 MW, mostly
  used for households.

                       Indonesian Renewable Energy Society   12
        Potential & Status – Wind

• Most of equatorial area is likely to have less wind
• Total potential is 448 MW.
• Total current installed capacity is 0,5 MW, mostly
  used for electricity, pumping, refrigeration and
  batteraycharging.
• Most potential area such as Nusa Tenggara and
  Sulawesi have potential of wind energy at about
  10 – 100 kW sizes.



                        Indonesian Renewable Energy Society   13
    Benefits of Developing DSSPP

• Create a better social life to local
  community surrounding the Project (Better
  Irrigation for Farming, Fishery, etc).
• Gives more sustainable electricity supply in
  the long run.
• Give mutual benefit to local community,
  local government as well as investors.



                    Indonesian Renewable Energy Society   14
   Community Based Development

• Benefits of Developing DSSPP under
  Community Based Development Concept :
  – Give mutual benefit to local community,
    investor and government.
  – More Oriented to encourage participation of
    local community.




                     Indonesian Renewable Energy Society   15
   Business Scheme – On Gird

                                     Interconnected to
            DSSPP                    Low Voltage System
             ~
Interconnected to                        ~     DSSPP
Medium Voltage
System

                                                          Low Voltage
                                                          Transmission Lines
Medium                                                    Medium Voltage
Voltage                                                   Transmission Lines

Customer

                                               Low Voltage
                                               Customer

                    Indonesian Renewable Energy Society                        16
      Business Scheme – Off Grid


• DSSPP generates and transmits electricity
  directly to consumers.




               GENERATION                         CONSUMPTION




                            Indonesian Renewable Energy Society   17
Electricity Tariff for DSSPP < 1.0 MW
Interconnection to                             Tariff

• Medium Voltage     • 0.8 x PLN’s Medium Voltage
  Transmission         Production Cost
  System

• Low Voltage        • 0.6 x PLN’s Low Voltage
  Distribution         Production Cost
  System


                      Indonesian Renewable Energy Society   18
     Community Based Development
          •User
          •Operator                                                     •Promoting
                                                                         utilization of DSSPP
          •Worker during         Local
           Erection Activity
                               Community                                   Others :
                                                                           -NGO
                                                                           -University




                                                                      Local
   Investor
                                                                    Government

•Project Sponsor                                                        •Facilitator
•Financing                                                              •Permits
•Built Power Plant                                                      •Land
                                  Indonesian Renewable Energy Society                           19
      Next 5 Years DSSPP Project Planning
          For Mini/Micro Hydro Plant
• Financed by ADB Loan (PLN’s Project) :
  –   Tatui MH – 1,100 kW – Serui – Papua
  –   Amai MH -1,100 kW – Jayapura – Papua
  –   Prafi MH – 1,000 kW – Manokwari – Papua
  –   Lobong MH – 1,300 kW – Kotamobagu – East Kalimantan
  –   Mongango MH – 1,700 kW – Gorontalo – North Sulawesi.

• Developed by IPP :
  –   Kalumpang MH – 1,700 kW – Luwuk – North Sulawesi
  –   Hanga-hanga MH – 2 x 1,700 kW – Luwuk – North Sulawesi
  –   Mangani MH – 1,200 kW – West Sumatra
  –   Cileunca (3 x 300 kW) and Ketenger 4 (600 kW) – West Java
                            Indonesian Renewable Energy Society   20
Identified Constrain in Developing DSSPP
 • Mostly located in an isolated area :
    – Limited access road
    – Limited infrastructure.
    – Limited well educated people to operate power
      plant.
    – Mostly for Households having limited purchasing
      power.
 • After economic crisis, Government have very
   limited financing to support development of
   DSSPP. It is very welcome to private company
   to participate in developing DSSPP.
                        Indonesian Renewable Energy Society   21
THANK YOU FOR YOUR KIND ATTENTION




              Indonesian Renewable Energy Society   22

				
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