# 3G Sci

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```							Pathways for Learning: K-6
rd
Science-3
I. COURSE OF STUDY CONTENT STANDARD

14. Recognize that natural forces affect the surface of the Earth.
- Slow forces
Examples: waves, wind, water, ice

II. ALABAMA HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION EXAM (AHSGE) STANDARDS AND
OBJECTIVES

I-1, VIII-2

III. OVERVIEW/PREPARATION

The purpose of the activity is to observe forces that affect the surface of the
Earth.

Force is a push or pull. Moving things create a pull or (in other words) exert a
force. Water waves are formed from some force exerted on the water.

IV. TIME ALLOTMENT

30 minutes

V. MATERIALS NEEDED

Large clear pan of water
Marble
Ice cubes

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VI. ACTIVITY “Fascinating Forces”

1. Place the clear pan of water in a central location where all students can
see it.

2. Ask students to give reasons as to how waves are created.

3. Drop a marble in the pan of water. Have students observe what happens.

4. Explain that the marble is a force that pushed the water, causing waves.

5. Tap the sides of the pan. Tell students to observe what happens.
Explain that the tap represents an earthquake and that force pushed the
water, causing waves.

6. Have a student volunteer gently blow across the surface of the water.
Tell the other students to observe what happens.

7. Tell students to predict what would happen if the volunteer student really
blew hard across the surface of the water.

8. Have the student blow really hard across the surface of the water. Let
other students observe what happens.

9. Explain that the waves were caused by the force exerted by the student’s
blowing on the surface of the water. The students should observe that
the harder the student blew on the water, the bigger the waves were.

10. Hold an ice cube and tell students that the cube represents a glacier piece
that has broken off. Drop the ice cube into the pan of water. Let
students observe what happens.

11. Have students explain how waves were formed. They should be able to
tell that the force of the ice cube hitting the water caused the waves.

Pathways for Learning: K-6                                  136
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I. COURSE OF STUDY CONTENT STANDARD

18. Relate events in daily life to aspects of the water cycle.

II. ALABAMA HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION EXAM (AHSGE) STANDARDS AND
OBJECTIVES

I-1, II-1

III. OVERVIEW/PREPARATION

The purpose of the activity is to identify each part of the water cycle and
relate it to daily life and to construct a water cycle bracelet.

Less than 25% of the surface of the Earth is solid ground, and the rest is
water. The total amount of water found on Earth stays the same from year to
year. Only its form changes as it moves through the water cycle.

The water cycle is one of perpetual motion: evaporation, condensation, and
precipitation. Water on the surface of the Earth is evaporated by the energy
of the sun. Once water is heated by the sun’s rays to a certain temperature,
it evaporates as water vapor into the air. In addition, plants release water
vapor into the air. This is called transpiration.

The water vapor in the air condenses. Condensation is the process by which
water vapor changes to liquid drops. The water vapor forms clouds when
conditions are right. The clouds condense and become too heavy so
precipitation occurs. Precipitation falls on Earth as rain, snow, sleet, or hail.
The cycle then begins again.

Three independent activities that relate to these standards and objectives are
included in this section.

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IV. TIME ALLOTMENT

45 minutes

V. MATERIALS NEEDED

THE RETURNING RAINDROP handout -- one per student (See handout
provided.)

Activity One

Per student:

12” leather stripping or thin yarn for each student
Beads to represent each part of the water cycle
blue--rain; yellow--sun; brown--earth; green--leaves; white--cloud;
clear--water vapor
Paper

Activity Two

Clear bowls or water glasses
Rulers

Activity Three

Glasses of ice water

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VI. ACTIVITY “It’s Raining”

Activity One–-Making a Water Cycle Bracelet

1. Explain each part of the water cycle. Tell each student to place the
correct color bead on his/her bracelet as discussed.
a. The sun comes out (yellow bead).
b. The leaves of plants transpire (green bead).
c. The sun evaporates the water (clear bead).
d. The water vapor condenses into clouds (white bead).
e. The clouds become too heavy, so precipitation occurs (blue bead).
f. Precipitation falls to Earth as rain, snow, hail, or sleet (brown bead).

2. Tie the ends of the leather or yarn strips together.

3. Tell students to repeat the stages of the water cycle to the rest of the
class.

4. Have students draw the water cycle on paper.

5. Ask students the following question:

Question: What would happen to organisms in an ecosystem with no water
cycle?
Answer: The organisms would die if they did not get enough water.

Pathways for Learning: K-6                                  139
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Activity Two--Water Evaporation

1. Put water in a clear water glass or bowl.

2. Place the glass or bowl in a sunny place or under a light.

3. Direct students to measure the amount of water with a ruler and to record
inches (cm) in a journal, using the results chart below.

4. Continue to measure and record results each day as the water evaporates.

5. Record results in the following manner:

Day One          _____inches (cm)

Day Two          _____inches (cm)

Day Three        _____inches (cm)

Day Four         _____inches (cm)

Activity Three--Condensation

When water vapor in the air has been cooled by a cold surface, the result is
condensation.

1. Set a glass of ice water anywhere in the classroom.

2. Tell students to observe and record any changes. (The glass will begin to
get water droplets on the outside.)

3. Ask students the following question:
Can you think of other examples where condensation takes place? (Answer:
grass on a cool morning, a cold bottle of soda pop)

4. Distribute THE RETURNING RAINDROP handout to summarize the lesson.
Have students complete and return the handout for grading.

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THE RETURNING RAINDROP
Fill in the blanks to label the picture. Use the terms at the bottom.

Terms: water cycle
evaporation
condensation
precipitation

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I. COURSE OF STUDY CONTENT STANDARD

20. Describe observable properties of the states of matter.
Examples: solids have definite shape, liquids and gases take the
shapes of their containers

II. ALABAMA HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION EXAM (AHSGE) STANDARDS AND
OBJECTIVES

I-1, II-2

III. OVERVIEW/PREPARATION

The purpose of the activity is to identify objects from the three states of
matter.

Matter is anything that occupies space and has weight.

Air, water, wood, stones, and metals are examples of matter. Humans, plants,
animals, the sun, stars, and planets are also examples of matter.

Matter is found in four states: solids, liquids, gases, and plasma. Plasma is
not discussed in this activity.

IV. TIME ALLOTMENT

30 minutes

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V. MATERIALS NEEDED

Per group:

Balance scale

Per student:

Ice
Two clear plastic cups
Cola
MATTER handout (See handout provided.)

VI. ACTIVITY “A Cola and a Smile”

1. Divide the class into groups of eight students.

2. Distribute to each student the MATTER handout.

3. Instruct students to make a list of solids, liquids, and gases they have
observed in the environment.

4. Have students record the list on the MATTER handout, Part A.

5. Discuss Part A of the handout.

6. Distribute to each student one empty cup and one cup filled with cola and
ice.

7. Direct each group to a balance scale.

8. Ask students to determine which cup weighs more by placing the cups on a
balance scale.

9. Through discussion, emphasize that the matter inside the cup fills the
space (cup) and has weight.

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10. Tell students to complete Part B of the MATTER handout.

11. Discuss Part B of the handout with students.

12. Tell students that all things can be classified as one or a combination of
the four states of matter.

13. Instruct students to “drink the matter.”

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MATTER
Handout

Name: _________________________
Part A

SOLID                       LIQUID                     GAS

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Part B

1. Observe the carbonated beverage.

2. In the blanks below, list which part of the drink is a solid, which part is a liquid,
and which part is a gas.

Solid:

Liquid:

Gas:

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I. COURSE OF STUDY CONTENT STANDARD

27. Explain the effects of heat on matter.

II. ALABAMA HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION EXAM (AHSGE) STANDARDS AND
OBJECTIVES

I-1, II-4

III. OVERVIEW/PREPARATION

The purpose of the activity is to understand how heat changes the ability of
water to dissolve sugar.

Make sure the temperature difference between the hot and cold water is as
great as possible. The warm water should be very warm but not hot enough to
burn. Add ice to the cold water.

Make sure equal amounts of water are used. Spoonfuls of sugar should be
level to increase accuracy of experiment.

Heat energy helps matter to mix. When a solid dissolves into a liquid it mixes
with the liquid and becomes invisible. The particles in hot water move faster
and farther apart, so more sugar can move into the spaces between the water
particles. This is called dissolving.

IV. TIME ALLOTMENT

30 minutes

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V. MATERIALS NEEDED

Per group:

Cold water
Metric measuring cup
Two clear plastic cups
Spoon
Sugar
Warm water

VI. ACTIVITY “Disappearing Sugar”

1. Divide students into groups of three or four students. Distribute
materials.

2. Direct students to pour 100 ml of cold water into one of the plastic cups.
Have groups predict how many level spoonfuls of sugar they think will
dissolve in the cold water. Students should record their predictions in a
notebook.

3. Pour level teaspoons of sugar (one at a time) into the water and stir until
sugar is completely dissolved. Continue adding spoonfuls of sugar (one at a
time) until you have a sugar settlement in the bottom of the cup that will
not dissolve. Have students record the number of spoonfuls of sugar
added. Tell students to compare the number added to their prediction.

4. Have students repeat steps 2 and 3 with warm water.

Questions:

1. Which dissolved more sugar, the cold water or the warm water? (Answer:
warm water)

2. Discuss how heat changes the ability of water to dissolve sugar. How do
you know? (Answer: Students might suggest that more sugar dissolves in
warm water because the particles are farther apart, making more room for
the sugar particles.)

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I. COURSE OF STUDY CONTENT STANDARD

28. Explore sound.

II. ALABAMA HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION EXAM (AHSGE) STANDARDS AND
OBJECTIVES

I-1, VII-1

III. OVERVIEW/PREPARATION

The purpose of the activity is to explore pitch and to discover how sound
travels.

Sound happens when matter vibrates, or moves back and forth very quickly. If
you hit a drum, part of the drum will vibrate. The drum makes sounds. All
the sounds around you happen only when objects vibrate. If you lightly tap a
drum, you will hear a soft sound. If you hit a drum harder, you will hear a
louder sound. The loudness or softness of sound is called volume. The harder
you hit the drum, the more it will vibrate. The more an object vibrates, the
louder the sound will be.

In music, you hear high sounds and low sounds. Pitch describes how high or low
sound is. Different volumes and pitches can be combined to make pleasant
music. Objects that vibrate slowly make sounds with a low pitch. On a guitar,
some strings are shorter than others. As a string is shortened, it vibrates
more quickly and has a higher pitch.

Sound travels in waves. It moves from one air particle to another. You can
hear sound only when it travels through matter. Sound moves through solids,
liquids, and gases. Particles of matter in solids are the closest together.
Therefore, sound moves fastest and most easily through solids. Particles in
liquids are farther apart. Sound moves more slowly through liquids. The
particles in gases are the farthest apart, so sound moves the slowest through
gases.

Two activities are included that relate to the standard and objective. These
activities are independent.

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IV. TIME ALLOTMENT

45 minutes

V. MATERIALS NEEDED

Activity One

Per group:

One shoebox
Five rubber bands of different widths
RUBBER BAND DATA SHEET (See handout provided.)
Crayons

Activity Two

Per group:

Self-sealing bag
Pencil
Water
Cup
Wood block
RESULTS FORM (See handout provided.)

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VI. ACTIVITY “The Sounds of Science”

Activity One--Pitch

1. Divide the class into small groups of students. Distribute materials.

2. Direct students to stretch the thinnest rubber band around the shoebox
and pluck it.

3. Tell students to do the same thing with each rubber band.

4. Have students put the rubber bands on the RUBBER BAND DATA SHEET
handout in order from the highest pitch to the lowest pitch.

5. Direct students to trace around the rubber bands and color the tracings.

Activity Two--How Sound Travels

1. Divide the class into groups of two students. Direct the students to
complete the following steps:

a. Fill the bag with air by blowing into the bag. Seal the bag.
b. Hold the bag next to your ear.
c. Cover your other ear with your hand.
d. Listen while your partner taps the bag lightly with the pencil eraser.
e. On the RESULTS FORM, record whether the sounds are loud or quiet.
f. Use the cup to fill the bag with water. Seal the bag.
g. Repeat steps b, c, and d. Record whether the sounds are louder or
quieter than before.
h. Hold the block next to your ear and cover the other ear.
i. Ask your partner to tap lightly on the block.
j. Record whether the sounds are louder or quieter than before.

2. Ask students the questions that follow and discuss answers with the class.

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Questions:

1. Through which material did you hear the loudest sound?

2. Through which material did you hear the quietest sound?

3. Does sound travel most easily through solids, liquids, or gases?

4. Suppose you were trying to hear footsteps. Would you put your ear next to
the ground to hear the sounds better or would you hold your head up in the
air?

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RESULTS FORM

MATERIAL                        OBSERVATION
SOUNDS THROUGH AIR

SOUNDS THROUGH WATER

SOUNDS THROUGH WOOD

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RUBBER BAND DATA SHEET

Highest pitch

Lowest pitch

Pathways for Learning: K-6                   153
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I. COURSE OF STUDY CONTENT STANDARD

28. Explore sound.

II. ALABAMA HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION EXAM (AHSGE) STANDARDS AND
OBJECTIVES

I-1, VII-2

III. OVERVIEW/PREPARATION

The purpose of the activity is to build a model to show the way a sound wave
moves.

Sound, which is produced by vibrations, is a form of energy that travels
through matter as a wave. Vibrations are back and forth movements of
matter that are carried by air to your eardrums, causing them to vibrate.

Anything that is in motion has energy, and sound is certainly in motion. If you
tap a drum with a drumstick, you transfer energy from the moving drumstick to
the surface of the drum. The back and forth motion of the drum surface
(vibration) pushing against air particles around it creates sound waves.

The louder the sound, the sharper the wave.

The softer the sound, the flatter the wave.

IV. TIME ALLOTMENT

30 minutes

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V. MATERIALS NEEDED

Per group:

Two pieces of string 30 cm long
One coil spring toy
Ten pieces of colored yarn, each 10 cm long

VI. ACTIVITY “Ride the Wave”

1. Divide the class into groups of three or four students and distribute
materials.

2. Direct groups to complete the following tasks:
a. Use one of the pieces of string to tie one end of the coil spring toy to a
table or desk leg. Stretch the coil spring tightly enough so that it is
off the floor. Use the other piece of string to tie the other end of the
spring to another table or desk leg.
b. Fold the pieces of yarn in half. Hang a piece on every tenth coil,
beginning at one end of the spring.
c. Pinch together five coils at one end of the spring and quickly let them go.
d. Ask students to record observations.

3. Tell students to repeat the previous step several times and record
observations each time on paper.

4. During the concluding discussion, ask students to write a general statement
about how the coil reacted when it was pinched and let go. (A wave moved
along the coils of the spring.)

5. Ask students what evidence was observed that showed the transfer of
energy. (Evidence for the energy transfer was that the yarn hanging on
the coils moved in succession.)

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VII. RESOURCES

Stwertka, Eve and Albert. Tuning In: The Sounds of the Radio. New York:
J. Messner, 1992.

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I. COURSE OF STUDY CONTENT STANDARD

29. Understand that gravity is a force that pulls objects toward the Earth.

II. ALABAMA HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION EXAM (AHSGE) STANDARDS AND
OBJECTIVES

I-1, VIII-1

III. OVERVIEW/PREPARATION

The purpose of the activity is to observe and describe whether or not gravity
has a greater pull on objects that weigh more.

The materials should be used during a demonstration for the entire class.

Gravity is an invisible force that pulls objects toward one another. The
strength of the pull depends on the amount of matter (or mass) an object has.
The larger the object’s mass, the stronger the pull.

The Earth is very large and its gravity is very strong. It pulls everything on it
towards its center.

IV. TIME ALLOTMENT

30 minutes

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V. MATERIALS NEEDED

Ball bearing
Light plastic ball
Cookie sheet
Modeling clay
Rolling pin

VI. ACTIVITY “Free Falling”

1. Ask students, “When you jump into the air, why do you fall back down
again?” (Answer: You fall because of an invisible force called gravity.)

2. Show students the two balls (metal ball bearing and plastic ball). Allow
each student to feel the difference between the two weights.

3. Ask students, “If I drop these from the same height, what do you think will
happen?” (Responses may vary.)

4. Hold the two balls above the cookie sheet and release them both at the
same time. (Students should observe that they both hit at the same time.)

5. Ask students to explain why both balls hit at the same time. (Acceleration
of gravity is constant, so the balls fall at the same speed.)

6. Roll out the clay with the rolling pin and place it on the cookie sheet.

7. Drop the two balls again. Carefully lift the balls to see which one made the
deeper impression.

8. Ask students to explain why they think the ball bearing made a deeper
print. (Gravity pulls on it with the stronger force.)

Pathways for Learning: K-6                               158
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I. COURSE OF STUDY CONTENT STANDARD

32. Classify plants and animals according to their features.

II. ALABAMA HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION EXAM (AHSGE) STANDARDS AND
OBJECTIVES

I-1, III-1

III. OVERVIEW/PREPARATION

The purpose of the activity is to classify animals as mammals, reptiles,
amphibians, birds, or fish.

Animals are classified according to certain characteristics. The
classifications in this activity are mammals, reptiles, amphibians, birds, and
fish. These five classifications of animals need to be discussed before the
activity begins. Use the ANIMAL CLASSIFICATIONS chart to aid in this
discussion.

IV. TIME ALLOTMENT

30 to 40 minutes

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V. MATERIALS NEEDED

ANIMAL CLASSIFICATIONS chart (See handout provided.)

Per student:

Resource books
Old science magazines
Scissors
Glue
Pencils
Five game card sheets, A through E (See samples provided.)

VI. ACTIVITY “Animal Rummy”

A. Making Animal Cards

1. Give each student five different animal game card sheets.

2. Allow students to use resource books to find examples of each
classification of animals.

3. Instruct students to cut out animal pictures from magazines or draw
pictures of animals and glue them on their animal cards.

4. Tell students to cut out all ten of the animal cards from their game card
sheets. Cards may be laminated for durability.

5. Have students keep their playing cards at their desks until further
instructions are given.

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B. Playing Animal “Concentration”

1. Divide the class into groups of four students. Assign a specific area of
the classroom to each group.

2. Tell students to take all ten cards to their assigned play areas.

3. Appoint a card dealer for each group.

4. Instruct the dealer to shuffle all cards (40 cards).

5. Instruct the dealer to place the cards in four rows of ten.

6. Explain the game rules to the students.
a. Each player takes one turn.
b. The first player turns two cards face up.
c. If the cards match by classification, the player takes the pair.
d. If the cards do not match, the player returns them to the deck face
down.
e. Other players then take turns.
f. The game continues until all pairs are matched.
g. The player with the most paired cards at the end of the game is the
winner.

7. Instruct students to play the game.

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ANIMAL CLASSIFICATIONS
Chart

Mammals:      Mammals have a body covering of hair. This includes all species of
animals that possess mammary milk glands for feeding their young.
Mammals are warm-blooded animals.

Reptiles:     Reptiles have dry, scaly skin. They are cold-blooded, which means
their body temperature stays the same as its surroundings. To stay
alive, reptiles must avoid extremely high or low temperatures.

Amphibians:   Amphibians are animals with scaleless skin that live part of their lives
on land and part of their lives in water. Most of them lay their eggs
in or near water. They are cold-blooded.

Birds:        Birds are animals with feathers. All birds have wings. Not all birds
fly, however. Ostriches walk and run and use their wings for balance.
Penguins swim and use their wings as flippers. Birds are the fastest
travelers of all animals.

Fish:         Fish live in the water. There are more kinds of fish than all other
water and land vertebrates combined. Fish vary greatly in size,
shape, and color. Fish use gills to breathe.

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GAME CARD A

Study of Animals                 Name

Mammals                   Mammals

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GAME CARD B

Study of Animals                 Name

Reptiles                   Reptiles

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164
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GAME CARD C

Study of Animals              Name

Birds                   Birds

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Fish
Name
GAME CARD D

Fish
Study of Animals

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GAME CARD E

Study of Animals                   Name

Amphibians                   Amphibians

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I. COURSE OF STUDY CONTENT STANDARD

32. Classify plants and animals according to their features.

II. ALABAMA HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION EXAM (AHSGE) STANDARDS AND
OBJECTIVES

I-1, III-3

III. OVERVIEW/PREPARATION

The purpose of the activity is to understand how different bird beaks
determine the foods a bird can eat.

Every bird uses its beak for catching and eating food. Some use their beaks
for tearing meat. Others use them for cracking seeds, scooping water, or
spearing fish. Birds also use their beaks to build nests and for self-defense.

IV. TIME ALLOTMENT

Two class periods:

Making the bird beaks (10 to 15 minutes)
Completing the RECORD SHEET (30 to 40 minutes)

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V. MATERIALS NEEDED

Per student:

Two clothespins
Two long pieces of a craft stick
Two short pieces of a craft stick
Glue
Several short pieces of a plastic straw
RECORD SHEET (See handout provided.)
BIRD BEAK HANDOUT (See handout provided.)
EXAMPLE OF CRAFT STICK BEAKS (See handout provided.)
DIFFERENT BIRD BEAKS (See handout provided.)

VI. ACTIVITY “What’s for Dinner?”

Day One

1. Distribute materials to each student.

2. Direct students to complete the following steps:
a. Glue two long pieces of a craft stick to the inside of the grasping
end of a clothespin. (See example provided.)
b. Glue two short pieces of a craft stick to the inside of the grasping
end of another clothespin. (See example provided.)
c. Place aside to allow glue to dry.

Day Two

1. Divide the class into pairs of students. Distribute a RECORD SHEET to
each student.

2. Direct each pair of students to complete the following steps:
a. Think of each clothespin as a bird. One bird has a long beak, while
the other bird has a short beak. The straws will be food for the birds.
b. Work with your partner to write your discoveries on your record
sheet.

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RECORD SHEET

A. Use the “short-beaked bird” to pick up a piece of plastic straw. What
did the short beak do to the straw?

B. Use the “long-beaked bird” to pick up another piece of straw. What
did this beak do to the straw?

C. Compare the straws being held by the two beaks. Which beak put the
most force on its straw?

Stop and Think

D. Many seed-eating birds crack open their food. Would it be better for
these birds to have a short beak or a long beak? Why?

E. Some other birds eat soft foods, like berries. What type of beak
would be better for these birds to have? Why?

F. With your partner, observe the birds’ beaks in the pictures. Complete
the chart.

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EXAMPLE OF CRAFT STICK BEAKS

wooden clothespins

craft sticks

broken craft sticks

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BIRD BEAK HANDOUT

Description of Beak     What Beak is Used For       Examples

Long, wide

Long, hooked

Long, pointed

Short, thick

Short, hooked

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DIFFERENT BIRD BEAKS

swan
flamingo

Hawaiian                 eagle                         pelican
honeycreeper

hummingbird                cockateel                   parrot

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I. COURSE OF STUDY CONTENT STANDARD

34. Examine inherited attributes of living things.

II. ALABAMA HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION EXAM (AHSGE) STANDARDS AND
OBJECTIVES

I-1, IV-1

III. OVERVIEW/PREPARATION

The purpose of the activity is to explore life cycles of some animals.

Living things undergo changes from birth to adulthood. Stages of growth
comprise the life cycles of living things. Some changes are simple; others are
drastic. The following activities encourage observation and exploration of
animals’ life cycles.

FROG:      1A, egg; 2A, tadpole; 3A, tadpole with legs; and 4A, frog
BUTTERFLY: 1A, egg; 2B, larva; 3B, pupa; and 4B, butterfly
BEETLE:    1C, egg; 2C, larva; 3C, pupa; and 4C, beetle

Color-code the three sets of LIFE-CYCLE CARDS. (See sample provided.)

IV. TIME ALLOTMENT

30 minutes

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V. MATERIALS NEEDED

Student baby pictures
Baby animal pictures with matching adult pictures
LIFE-CYCLE CARDS, cut apart with correct number order written on
back -- one set per two students (See sample provided.)

VI. ACTIVITY – “A Crazy Cycle”

1. Have students share their baby pictures. Discuss the stages of growth
that have occurred (hair, height, weight). Ask questions similar to the
following:
a. How do you think you will look as an adult? (Possible answers: big, tall,
hair)
b. Do all animals change as they grow? (Answer: yes)

2. Show pictures of baby animals that look very much like their parents.

3. Discuss changes that will occur as growth proceeds.

4. Have students match adult pictures with baby pictures.

5. Ask students which baby animals look very different from their parents.

6. Explain to students that animals and people go through growth stages as
they change from babies to adults. Explain that stages are parts of their
life cycles.

7. Discuss the complete life cycle of a dog (puppy, young dog, adult dog).

8. Pair students. Have each pair of students arrange the self-correcting,
life-cycle cards in order.

9. Have students write stories about an animal’s life cycle and share the
stories with the class.

Pathways for Learning: K-6                              176
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LIFE-CYCLE CARDS
Cut apart on the lines.

egg                       egg                 egg

tadpole                    larva               larva

tadpole with front legs            pupa                pupa

frog                    butterfly             beetle

Pathways for Learning: K-6            177
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I. COURSE OF STUDY CONTENT STANDARD

35. Become aware that the smallest unit of life is called a cell.

II. ALABAMA HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION EXAM (AHSGE) STANDARDS AND
OBJECTIVES

I-1, V-1

III. OVERVIEW/PREPARATION

The purpose of the activity is to construct a model of a cell with the nucleus,
cytoplasm, and cell membrane.

Living things are made of small units called cells. These cells are made of
living matter. A cell is the smallest unit of living matter. In 1665, an English
scientist, Robert Hooke, made a great discovery. While observing a slice of
cork under a microscope, he saw that the cork had holes that looked like small
rooms or cells. That is how cells got their name. With more powerful
microscopes, scientists have now looked inside cells and know they are made up
of even smaller parts. The part of the cell that functions as the cell brain
(control center) is called the nucleus. It is surrounded by a gelatin-like
material called cytoplasm. The covering around the cell is called the cell
membrane.

IV. TIME ALLOTMENT

Two class periods (30 minutes each)

Pathways for Learning: K-6                               178
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V. MATERIALS NEEDED

One plastic pint resealable bag (per group)
Strawberry gelatin mix (per group)
One bag of gumdrops
Large mixing bowl
Hotplate or access to microwave
Pan
One liquid measuring cup (per group)
One large spoon
Note: Access to a refrigerator is needed in order to chill the mixture
overnight.

VI. ACTIVITY

Day One

1. Mix gelatin according to instructions on the box.

2. Allow the gelatin to cool.

3. Divide students into groups of three students.

4. Give each group a plastic resealable bag and a cup of gelatin.

5. Have students pour the gelatin into a plastic bag, seal the bag, place it in a
large bowl, and put it in the refrigerator.

6. Allow the gelatin to chill overnight.

Day Two

1. Tell students to remove the gelatin from the refrigerator, open the bag,
and insert a gumdrop into the center of the gelatin.

2. Seal the bag again and observe. Place bags on the desk or table. Observe
and compare the shape.

3. Have students draw their bags and label the bag as the cell membrane, the
gelatin as the cytoplasm, and the gumdrop as the nucleus.

Pathways for Learning: K-6                                179
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I. COURSE OF STUDY CONTENT STANDARDS

37. Understand that species depend on one another and on their environment
for survival.

39. Describe how various organisms satisfy their needs (food, water, air,
shelter, and space) within their environments.

II. ALABAMA HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION EXAM (AHSGE) STANDARDS AND
OBJECTIVES

I-1, VI-1

III. OVERVIEW/PREPARATION

The purpose of the activity is to determine that living organisms are dependent
on green plants.

Living organisms are dependent on plants for their existence due to an
important exchange of gases that takes place between the two. All animals
require oxygen for life. Animals breathe in oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide.
Plants absorb the carbon dioxide because they need it to produce food.
Plants, then, produce oxygen that the animals need. Remind students that
plants also take in oxygen and give off carbon dioxide in the process of
respiration. In this way, the supply of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the air
remains relatively constant. If there were no green plants to use carbon
dioxide and produce oxygen, soon the atmosphere would contain no oxygen and
animals could no longer exist.

Living organisms are also dependent on green plants because green plants are
the base of the food pyramid.

Pathways for Learning: K-6                              180
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IV. TIME ALLOTMENT

One class period (30 minutes)
Five additional minutes per day for two to three weeks

V. MATERIALS NEEDED

Per group:

Plastic shoebox terrarium (or regular shoebox lined with a small plastic garbage
bag)
Topsoil
Grass seeds
Small animals (chameleon, cricket)
Water
Small paper cups
TERRARIUM CHECK Chart (See sample provided.)
Plastic wrap

Pathways for Learning: K-6                              181
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VI. ACTIVITY “Home Sweet Home”

1. Divide the class into groups of three or four students.

2. Distribute a shoebox to each group.

3. Have students put several cups of topsoil in the bottom of each shoebox.

4. Have students plant grass seed in the shoebox.

5. Instruct students to water the soil.

6. When the grass sprouts, have students place several crickets in the
shoebox terrarium and cover the box with plastic wrap.

7. Have all students in the group observe the box.

8. Place the daily TERRARIUM CHECK chart near the box.

9. Assign the following responsibilities to a different student in the group
each day.
a. Check plants and water soil, if necessary.
b. Observe the crickets.
c. Complete the appropriate area of the chart. Write any comments for
that day.

10. Write a paragraph and draw a picture representing observations of the
terrarium.

Note: All students in each group should be allowed to observe and record
comments.

Pathways for Learning: K-6                              182
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TERRARIUM CHECK
Chart Key

Name   Date     Check Plants   Check Animals          Comments

1.   John     3/26    No change       No change

Plants
2.   Julia    3/29    sprouted        No change

Crickets have eaten
3.   Jack     3/30    Plants grown    No change       some plants

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

Pathways for Learning: K-6                         183
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I. COURSE OF STUDY CONTENT STANDARD

43. Recognize relationships among science, technology, and society.

II. ALABAMA HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION EXAM (AHSGE) STANDARDS AND
OBJECTIVES

I-1, IV-2

III. OVERVIEW/PREPARATION

The purpose of the activity is to discuss the fact that everyone’s fingerprints
are different.

Human beings are similar, but no two people are exactly alike. Every person in
the world has a unique set of fingerprints, unlike those of any other person who
ever lived. Fingerprints are formed before birth. Although everyone’s
fingerprints are unique, there are basic patterns that are always found. These
patterns help criminologists classify fingerprints. The three basic patterns
are whorl, arch, and loop. Whorl patterns have lots of circles that do not
leave either side of the print. Arch patterns have lines that start on one side,
rise in the center, and leave on the other side. Loop patterns have lines that
start on one side, rise toward the center, turn back, and leave on the same side
from which they started.

IV. TIME ALLOTMENT

30 minutes

Pathways for Learning: K-6                              184
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V. MATERIALS NEEDED

Per group:

Ink pad
¾” transparent tape
ALIKE/DIFFERENT handout (See handout provided.)
TASK CARD (See sample provided.)

Per student:

CLASSIFICATION OF FINGERPRINTS handout (See handout provided.)
No. 2 pencil
Hand lens
One damp paper towel

VI. ACTIVITY “Can’t Touch This!”

1.   Divide the class into groups of four students.
2.   Distribute materials and TASK CARDS
3.   Instruct students to follow directions on the TASK CARDS.
4.   Have groups share results with the class.

Pathways for Learning: K-6                   185
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TASK CARD

1. Rub your pencil lead across a sheet of paper several times. Cover a large
area and make it as black as possible.

2. Take your thumb and rub it across the pencil lead on your paper several
times. (Your thumb should be black.)

3. Press a piece of tape on the black part of your thumb. The tape will
collect your thumbprint.

4. “Lift” your thumbprint and stick the piece of tape on your student handout
CLASSIFICATION OF FINGERPRINTS. You should get a good view of
your thumbprint.

5. Compare your thumbprint to the ones on the CLASSIFICATION OF
FINGERPRINTS handout. Use the magnifying glass.

6. Write down the type of fingerprint you have.

7. Look at the other thumbprints in your group.

8. Write on your student handout ALIKE/DIFFERENT a description of your
thumbprint as well as the description of the others in your group.

9. Choose the thumbprint of another student in your group to compare with
your thumbprint.

10. Write down the similarities and differences.

Extension Activity:

On a separate sheet of paper, create art by making fingerprints using a stamp
pad. For example, many fingerprints can look like flowers.

Pathways for Learning: K-6                             186
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CLASSIFICATION OF FINGERPRINTS

ARCH                       LOOP                    WHORL

Put your fingerprint here.

My fingerprint type is _________________.

Pathways for Learning: K-6                    187
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ALIKE/DIFFERENT

A. Describe your fingerprint and the fingerprints of three other students in
your group.

Fingerprint One:

Fingerprint Two:

Fingerprint Three:

Fingerprint Four:

B. Choose one of the above fingerprints and compare it to your fingerprint.

How are they alike?

How are they different?

Pathways for Learning: K-6                             188
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I. COURSE OF STUDY CONTENT STANDARD

43. Recognize relationships among science, technology, and society.

II. ALABAMA HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION EXAM (AHSGE) STANDARDS AND
OBJECTIVES

I-1, III-2

III. OVERVIEW/PREPARATION

The purpose of the activity is to grow plants without soil. (hydroponics)

This process is called hydroponics. Soil may not be needed in order to grow
plants. Hydroponics is the process of growing plants in water that contains
dissolved nutrients instead of growing them in soil.

IV. TIME ALLOTMENT

Ten minute observations (daily) for two weeks

V. MATERIALS NEEDED

One tomato seedling
One box quick-growing fertilizer
Water
Gallon jar
Quart jar
Gravel

Pathways for Learning: K-6                              189
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VI. ACTIVITY “Hydroponics”

Teacher Demonstration

1. Follow directions on the back of a quick-growing fertilizer to produce a
gallon of “ready to use” fertilizer.

2. Add about 3 cm of gravel to the quart container.

3. Place tomato seedling inside the quart container.

4. Pour two cups of the fertilizer solution into the jar containing the seedling.

5. Observe for several days.

6. Ask students to explain why growing plants without soil may be useful.
(Possible answers: countries where soil is poor; countries where soil is
scarce; when plants are grown inside, they are protected)

7. Ask students to discuss disadvantages of hydroponics.
(Possible answers: disease could attack and damage entire crops, expense
involved)

Pathways for Learning: K-6                               190

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