"Florence 20THE 20HISTORY 20of 20the 20English"
1 THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH TOURISTS IN FLORENCE, ITALY (including Notes to the speech on p, 22) When the Christian faith starts spreading through the Catholic Church we see the first beginnings of a regular traffic between England and Italy, Florence included. The first travellers travelled for religious reasons: CRUSADERS (korstogsfarere) went via Italy and the Catholic pope to fight againsts the Turks in order to win back Jerusalem from the Moslems. - Richard Lionheart is one of them. PILGRIMS is another category of religious travellers who went through Italy to the Holy Land of Israel, or to Rome. Ordinary church people, monks, priests, bishops were moving freely around Europe and a great number of them went to the center of the Catholic church, of course, which is Italy, and the pope in Rome. On their way they visited Florence. 1300/14th century With the Renaissance Florence becomes something of a center, not so much for the Christian faith as for MONEY. Florence is famous for its banking industry, and from the 1400s/15th century there is a lively commercial traffic between England and Florence. London got its own branch (afdeling) of the Medici bank in the 1400s/15th century. Before the Medici family two other big banking families, the Bardies and the Peruzzis, were made bankrupt by the English King Edward the Third's loans (hundred years' war and luxury) which he was unable to pay back (1340s). Both these families had supported the arts in Florence - they had Giotto decorate their chapels in Santa Croce, which you will see. Santa Croce has a Bardi-chapel with Giotto's frescoes showing the life of Saint Francis of Assis, and a Peruzzi-chapel with frescoes showing scenes from the New Testament. So England influenced Florence quite a lot in this century - bringing Florence into an economical crisis, which was followed political breakdown and ecological disaster (the Arno over-flowed and took down 4 bridges) The crisis of the banking world was not the only disaster in the 1340s: 1349 saw the breaking out of the Black Death which took away more than half the population of Florence: 100,000 people. (London had a population of 40,000) OH:Boccaccio The famous poet Boccaccio's (1313-1375) DECAMERON (1340) was written with this plague as its background, because Boccaccio takes his starting point for his collection of stories with 7 young men and 3 young women running away from Florence and isolating themselves at a country estate in order to avoid the Black Death. To kill time they start telling each other stories. these stories are in verse - short stories in prose not having been invented yet. OH:Chaucer This brings us to Boccaccio's English fellow poet: Chaucer. The kings and leaders of the European countries communicated with each other through messengers, and we know that in Dec.1372 the famous English medieval poet Geoffrey CHAUCER (1345-1400) went to Genoa and Florence on a diplomatic mission for the English king: to negotiate a loan, by the way. Some of his stories in his world famous "Canterbury Tales"are also "loans" from Bocaccio's "Decameron" - as is the whole idea of the pilgrims' stories: 29 people join on their 2 way as pilgrims to the holy shrine of Canterbury, and they shorten the way be telling each other stories. "The prologue of the Clerkes Tale of Oxenford" is taken from Bocaccio's, "The Tale of Griselda", and "The knight's Tale" from B's "Il Teseida". Chaucer's story "The Monk's Tale" is about John Hawkwood's father-in-law, Bernatio Visconti, by marriage to Donnina Visconti, Hawkwood's second wife - and an Italian, obviously. Stories by Petrarca are also found in Canterbury Tales, and his "Story of Hugelyn of Pyze" is taken from Dante's "Inferno" (Divina Comedia). "The Knight's Tale" = Baccaccio "Il Teseida" Sir John Hawkwood In the Duomo/ cathedral Santa Maria del Fiore,(North aisle, just before the side altar, 1/3 into the main nave of the church) there is a painting by Paolo Ucello ("St George and the the Dragon", "The battle of San Romano" (between Florence and Siena) of S.J.H. OH the first Englishman to become famous in Florence - and perhaps the only one ever to be so much honoured. Living in the 1300s/14th century he came to Italy when he was 40 years old as a army commander (hærfører) who was such a clever war general that in 1381 the Florentines had become so sick and tired of losing battles to their neighbouring cities, Pisa and Milan (mi'læn), who had Hawkwood in their service that the Florentines bought his loyalty for 130,000 gold florins on condition that he did not fight against them. He ten entered the service of Florence and made his home there - a villa given to him by Florence. In 1392 he had become so popular that awarded an enormous pension and after his death a pension for his widow - she was his second wife, Donnina Visconti, daughter of a Milan (mi:løn) nobleman, Bernation Visconti (see Chaucer's "Monk's Tale" below) and his descendants were given the priviledge of Florentine citizenship for ever. In addition the city council unanimously agreeed in 1393 on constructing a "worthy and handsome tomb for the ashes of the great and brave knight sir John Hawkwood (Acuti, in Italian,), English captain- general." He lead his last battle - against Milan - when he was 80 years old, and he won. He died in 1394 and his body was carried in a funeral procession through the city and all the shops were closed. The tomb, however, was not erected - only Paolo Ucello's painting of what is should have been like remains. The English king Richard II requested that his ashes were to be returned to England and he himself had also expressed a wish of going back to England. VI LÆSER BOCCACCIO + CHAUCER 1400/15th century But it was a Medici, Lorenzo the Magnificent, who concieved a plan for a commercial treaty between England and Florence which gave the English a monopoly of the wool export to the Mediterranean (Middelhavet) (he wanted Florence to compete with and outdo the Flemish wool industry and market in eastern countries, Russia). after years' of negotiations the treaty was finally signed in 1497 and after 1511 there was a a twice monthly galley traffic between England and Florence, (its port: Pisa), carrying wool wool from Egnland and bringing back the finished cloths and silk. THAT brought along with it a number of other people - from England to Florence/Italy - and from Italy/Florence to England, but the voyage was dangerous: 21 days with risks of storm, pirates and bad navigational instruments. 3 Frescobaldi, an Italian banker in the 15th century, who settled in England and became so popular that he was appointed Constable of Bordeaux. About the English national character he wrote (15th century) a sonnet: OH 1500s/16th century Towards the end of the century there was a whole colony of Italian merchants living in London who met for social chats in the local pub "the Elephant Inn" on Bankside, very close to Shakespeare's theatre "The Globe Theatre" where Shakespeare worked in the 1590's. 15 of Shakespeare's 38 plays are set in Italy/ inspired by Italian writers: "The Merchant of Venice" in Venice, "Romeo and Juliet" in Verona, "Much Ado about Nothing" in Florence - Julius Caesar in Rome and it is quite clear that Shakespeare must have got information from the Italian traders in "The Elephant Inn" - or, some think, that he has even been to Italy himself. One thing is certain, however, and that is that English plays written between 1580 and 1630 show a definite Italian influence. EVT.SHAKESPEARE PLAY PÅ VIDEO HER (med undertekst!) The sonnet form is Italian, but very popular in England. Shakespeare himself wrote 150 sonnets himself. Things from Italy was regarded as the best, and Queen Elisabeth I, (died 1611), had a number of Italians appointed to her court: doctors, poets, and musicians, painters. The travellers of this age brought home new clothes. The Italian fashion was so popular in England that Shakespeare can write of: OH: reports of fashion in proud Italy whose manners still our tardy apish nation (gumpetung, efterabende) limps after in base imitation (ussel efterligning) They often had their portraits painted/busts made. 1600,/17th century (During the 1600s/17th century permanent diplomatic representation in foreign countries, the whole embassy system, was established and with it came politicians, law people, families and servants, - in short,) in the 15 and 16 hundreds Englishmen began to go to Italy and Florence in relatively large numbers. (The young travellers went abroad to educate themselves for future jobs within the diplomatic world, jobs at foreign embassies - but) we also see a growing stream of educational travellers who go to Italy for purely intellectual reasons, namely to experience the classical civilization at the spot. What was now so much of an institution that it was called "THE GRAND TOUR" was in fact becoming part of a gentleman's general training. The English education was already very classical and the young men now claimed that it was absolutely necessary to see the places which they had read about in the books. Travelling was claimed to be e new way of education just as good, or better than, reading books at home in England. Soon it became the fashion in the rich families to laugh at the country gentleman who had only seen the local vicar and his father's friends and spent his time by the great fire in his family manor (herregård). Many of the young men studied the Italian language and were able to read and write Italian. 4 The Grand Tour in the 1600s/17 century was full of hardships, and even though they would hate to admit it many of the travellers undoubtedly enjoyed the tour more when they told about it back home in England than when they were actually on the travel. One hindrance was the weather which could delay their travel for months, especially if they sailed from place to place, but there were also incidents of the plague (pest) and there were bandits along the route, apart from the general hardship of travelling in a horse drawn carriage. What a lot of inconvenience (bøvl, pakken ind/ud etc) in this uncomfortable way of travelling compared to our easy way of travelling today, and dangerous too. The family expenses show with what care the young men were sent off, the right clothes bought, horses reshod and licences to travel obetained. But some never returned. Fever and sickness were always about: the measles, smallpox (kopper) and sometimes the Englishmen quarrelled and duelled and killed each other.: "There was an unfortunate meeting of some Englishmen at a supper at Florence: Sir Hambden - Skidmore - Cartwright - Lock, where Cartwright upon a quarrel was killed, for which Skidmore as the principal killer is to suffer death. Sir Hambden is to serve 2 years in the galleys upon suspicion of having assisted in the killing - he had n earlier quarrel with the dead Cartwright. Lock, the last of the four fell sick in prison and after getting permission to go back to his lodgings died there the next day." (July 1611) The itinerary (rejserute) gradually became set: landing in Genoa in October, then Florence, Rome and ending in Venice around Ascensiontide (Kr.Himmelfart)where they had a famous carnival and then back over the Alps and Milan to Genoa and the boat back to England. OH:Marseille What fascinated everybody most was the Italian music. Choirs with organ music, bass viols and trumpets really got unanimous praise - one traveller stated that "the harmony was so sweet that never the like must again be expected unlesse in heaven or in Rome."! Sightseeing in Florence was a must on their journey: the architecture, the sculptures the churches but we know from their their letters home, and from their diaries that the Duke of Toscany's treasury impressed them the most. They drew copies of buildings, paintings, sculptures OH but also bought original paintings - had their own portraits or busts made. OH and in this way they intensified the Italian influence to England. London architecture in particular shows this influence, because London had to be rebuilt after the great Fire in 1666 OH and Sir Christopher Wren became the leading architect. OH Christopher Wren and St.Paul's Cathedral. Even though sir Christopher Wren did not go to Italy himself we know that he studied the drawings and papers brought home from Italy by others. That is the reason why so many buildings in London today look very classical, with lots of columns and renaissance lines.. They go back to Wren in the 1600s, and later architects who followed in his footsteps. So London today is one big example ofthe enormous influence of Florence and Italy. 5 The most famous Englishman to visit Italy in this century is the great poet Milton ("Paradise Lost"). He lectured in the academic societies which were such a typical feature of Florence and other cities, and a thing much admired by the English travellers. Some of them tried to make similar clubs, literary or scientific, when they came back to England. Milton made lasting friendships in the Florentine academies. He also saw Galileio there in 1638, a year after Galileio had gone blind. Milton himself was to become blind later and he wrote a moving sonnet about it. OH: On his Blindness The Italian influence on his work appears especially in his imagery. The most towering personality among those who - for various reasons - settled in Tuscany is Robert Dudley: Tired of England under King James because court intrigues which prevented him from getting his title and fortune as the legitimate son of the Earl of Leicester. His father had married his mother, but secretly, and he left her to marry somebody else for various reasons. So few knew that he already was married that there were no protests to this second bigamous marriage, and after his death the new wife - a friend of the Royal family used bribery of the lawyers to make them seal up for ever the documents which proved that Robert was the legitimate heir to the title, the castle and the money. Not only did Robert Dudley leave England but he also took a young beautiful girl of noble family with him - in spite of the fact that he too was already married! Robert and she went to Florence where they were married in the Catholic church and lived under the protection of Ferdinand I, Grand Duke of Toscany and a Medici. Robert became very popular and was used as negotiator for example, and so respected that he ended up with the title of Grand Chamberlain of the court of the dukes, from 1616-1636. He had several other talents, and showed this in a cleverly designed harbour at Livorno after having, equally cleverly drained the marshes behind it. He also designed a canal and an aquaduct to bring fresh water to Pisa. He was the architect of his own house which we will find: facing Palazzo Strozzi, on a wedge shaped ground, whose narrow end faces P.Str. It has a loggia under it and a plaque (pla:k, mindeplade) in Dudley's memory. 1700/18th CENTURY (:one full lesson) When we reach the 1700s/18th century we see that by now almost every young man of good family was sent on the Grand Tour to Italy. So much so that the poet Dr. Johnson could say that: "A man who has not been in Italy, is always conscious of an inferiority (underlegenhed), from his not having seen what it is expected a man should see." (1776) 6 Most travellers were called "bear-cubs", young sons of the aristocracy and upper classes, who were accompanied by tutors who were therefore called "bear-leaders" who were to guide the tastes of their pupils, supervise their their social life - especially their love life and send reports home. These rich young men were often self-assured and arrogant. They did not think very much of the Italians or the Italy of their day, in fact they regarded their own good old English manners and customs as far superior to those of any other people or country they met on their travels. Their insular prejudice was sometimes so extreme that the could see no good at all in the Italian society: the Florentine system of government was corrupt, Italian people only sought to rip off (flå for penge) the travellers, but what especially shocked them was the sexual morals in Italy, in particular the CHICHISBEE system which gave a married woman the right to have a lover, who was fully accepted in a marriage. Accepted by society, by the family, by the husband - the lover/cicisbi might even have his living quarters in the house. This narrow-minded distrust in everything not English is reflected in the many guide books written in this century which slash out at the Italians in the grumpy (gnaven) way that we also see in the most famous of the travel books: Tobias Smollett's "Travels through France and Italy" (1766) So the English found it a great advantage that they could be sure of getting English company in all the larger cities of Italy. Nor did they found anything exciting in the Italian way of living but sought out the hotels where they could have everything in the good old English way. Thomas Watkins wrote in 1787: Among the many agreeable things at Florence, I cannot but mention to you a hotel: it is kept by one Meggit, an Englishman, and is, in my opinion, equal to any I ever entered, either in or out of England. We find everything served in the English manner, which I am unfashionable enough to prefer to all other. However, the fashion of negative national prejudice against everything not English, the grumpy tone of Smollett and other travel books shifted after the appearance of LAURENCE STERNE: "A SENTIMENTAL JOURNEY THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY"(1768). This book stopped the criticism of the ill-humoured travellers because he used the complaining English traveller as a topic of satire to be laughed at rather than be taken seriously. In the book he even satirized Smollett himself, making him the bogeyman (bussemand/skræmmebillede) of his own travel book by the name of Smelfungus (lugtesvamp), and tells about him that he can: travel from Dan to Beersheba (syd til nord), and cry, "'tis all barren"! But, as in the last century,there was still general agreement on the music. They welcomed the invasion of foreign musicians to England. (You see, after the death of the only national English composer, Henry Purcell (1659-1695) there was no music talent in England to take over, so English music was left in the hands of Italians, Ariosti and Bonincini, and Händel was imported from Germany in 1712 (he died a759)) An Italian Opera was established in London in 1718. 7 What otherwise most attracted them in Florence was the masterpieces of Renaissance art in the galleries and museums and churches. But they were not content just to see. They took the antiques and old masters with them home, bought them- or had their own portraits made with backgrounds of the well- known tourist views. (cp. our holiday photoes). When it comes down to facts, however, many of the bear-cubs found the foreign experience of thorough (grundig!) sigthseeing tedious. So in conpensation many bear cubs drank heavily and could not handle being away from the restrictions of their family and society. Alcohol was cheap and heavy social drinking was accepted abroad. In 1741 Horace Walpole told about the Florentine club, the Dilettanti, that in order to be a member of the club the nominal (official) qualification is having been in Italy, but the real one, is being drunk. the two chiefs, Lord Middlesex and Sit Dashwood were seldom sober the whole time they were in Italy. In 1731, 9 July the magazine "The Daily Post" claimed that British gentlemen-travellers spent all their time drinking and whoring. So much for their scandalization at the morals of the Italians! And the truth is that quite a number of distingushed young people in the same situation as Viscount Morpeth who died of a venereal diseases which he had got in Italy. As a matter of fact the bear-cubs were rather expected to "sow their wild oats" (løbe hornene af sig) now that they were abroad and a scandal could be kept out of England. In 1750 Horace Mann, England's diplomatic representative in Florence had to persuade the reluctant heir to the Duke of Newcastle to return to England to marry - reluctant, because he had fallen deeply in love with the beautiful Italian Countess Acciaiuoli. The English representative was in no way unaccustomed to this kind of situation. The stories of affairs between English bear-cubs and Italian women are countless. OH: Horace Walpole's dirty ode to Henry Fiennes Clinton, 9th Earl of Lincoln (1740): But foreign travel also gave an opportunity for people to live together away from the laws and customs of decent behaviour in England. Consequently there were many e'lopements (elskende der flygter), or, men who were already married could live with their new mistress in Italy in a relationship which would be bigamy in England. William Beckford had to leave England in 1785 as a result of homosexual scandal, and obviously travelling abroad offered better opportunites for homosexual practice.Italy was so much associated with homosexuality, that is was called "the Italian vice". So Lord Pembroke could appear in Florence with "a brunette en homme" (man), and Irish noblemam could live in Pisa with both his wife and an Italian comtessa as his mistress and many Englishmen followed the Italian custom of becoming accepted lovers, cicisbis, of married women - at least for a time. Unlike the first tourists from the previous century the new travellers no longer took the trouble to study the Italian language, and the literary academies only appealed to a few of the visitors. Scentist and other professional visitors: The Etruscan academy, however, was more respected. Etruscology flourished and became a very popular study. 8 And in this century of Rationalism and Reason and Enlightenment both in Italy and all over Europe we also see scientists from England coming to Florence to meet the leading Italian scientists and agriculturalists and Natural historians (zoology) - see a great interest in science in Florence: the Grand Duke Peter Leopold had impressive laboratories and the finest instruments chemistry, geology, electricity, optics, surgery and .This kind of traveller had an easy entry into the Florentine society, but were very different from the general young travel- ler on his Grand tour. As the fashion of travel spread, whole families visited the continent, mostly wealthy upper class people. Some went for reasons of health to a better climate than the English, others for abovementioned reasons (sexual relations), and others again to survive a scandal or, like John Wilkes to avoid arrest and prison in England. Some families were tempted by the lower cost of living in Italy. In 1752 Horace Mann (the English diplomatic representative in Florence) was so fed up with the great number of English tourists that he wrote to his friend: "Oh, the number of English! I am absolutely ruined in feasting them. (it was his job to entertain them and present them at court) We have such crowds of English of both sexes that I have not a moment to myself. Upon a muster yesterday I think there were four or five and thirty. In short I never had so many people on my hands at once. It is quite ridiculous to see me at the head of a train at Count Riche court's or marching into an assembly. The rival to the English throne - the royal line of the Stuarts (Queen Elisabeth/Prince Charles = Tudors) - settled in Florence in 1775. The young pretender, son of the old pretender (="king James the III of England"). He now called himself "Count of Albany" was 55 and had a wife, the beautiful 22-year-old Countess of Albany. After his hopes of ever going back to England as king was gradually crushed he started drinking, beating up his wife, stopped washing himself and became an inhuman beast. The countess, however, in the meantime found the love of her life, in Florence: Count Alfieri, a talented poet who fought for a united Italy and wrote in order to rouse a national spirit. He stood by her, as passionately in love with her as she with him, and finally she fled from her husbond to Rome where Count Alfieri followed her. Her husbond, the young Pretender died in 1788, but the countess of Albany and Count Alfieri lived happily ever after - both developing into rather excentric personalities - she recieving visitors downstairs, he keeping himself a solitary company upstairs. Alfieri is not just anybody. You will see his tomb in the church of Santa Croce. He is a famous Italian poets who with his pen fought for the Italian union, Risorgimento - which came about in the middle of the next century, 1850s. The 1800s/ 19th century Now there are so many English in Italy and Florence that we will concentrate on the life stories of the really famous ones. In the beginning of the century we have the first colony of English poets. The are no less than THE ROMANTIC poets of England. Look it up in any dictionary and you will find the names of Shelley and Byron. Shelley's wife too, by the way. Mary Shelley. She is the very person who wrote the novel "FRANKENSTEIN", pure horror, as you know. 9 SHELLEY: came to Italy in 1818. He was a rebel: against Christianity, for the philosopher Godwin, whose political theories shocked the world. He said: Government is an evil, a usurpation upon (bortrøvelse fra) the private judgement and individual conscience of mankind. (den personlige dømmekraft og individuelle samvittighed, som mennesket har) Shelley agreed. He also broke with his father, and was sent down from the university of Oxford (smidt ud) for having written an article called "The necessity of Atheism"(ateisme) He was a vegetarian and shocked everybody when he married the 16-year-old Harriet, with whom he lived for 3 unhappy years: 1811-1814 after which they were seperated and Shelley leaves England with another woman, namely the daughter of the philosopher Godwin whose political ideas Shelley supported. She became the Mary Shelley who wrote Frankenstein. Harriet drowned herself two years later in the Serpentine,the small lake in one Hyde Park, London. Mary and Percy Shelley settled happily with their two children in Italy in 1819 till he drowned when sailing into a storm in the Bay of Genoa, only 30 years old (1822), but unfortunately long enough to experience the tragedy of losing his two beloved children, Clara and not long after William. But in happier days,in October 1819 they had come to Florence where their third child, Percy Florence Shelley was born on nov. 19 and christened in the English church in Florence. Shelley loved Florence and wrote that it was "the most beautiful city (he) had ever known". One of their favourite walking places was the Boboli Gardens, but it was in the other park, the Cascine, that he got the idea for his most famous poem "Ode to the West Wind", and it was also in this park that he later wrote the poem. Shelley was a very mild and positive person, who really cared about his friends. The home of the Shelleys was the centre to which poets and other artists came and the Shelleys were in correspondence with most of the other Romantic poets. Shelley urged Keats to come to Italy for his health, but Keats died in Rome before they had seen each other. Shelley wrote the elegy "Adonais" in remembrance of him. They also kept up a close contact with Byron. Byron, for instance, who had fallen in love with an Italian countess,wrote to Shelley from Venice to ask him to write to her in Florence and persuade her to join Byron in his house in Pisa. Byron himself, however, did not go to Pisa until three months later! Byron and Shelley had decided between the two of them to invite yet another poet, Leigh (li:) Hunt and his large family to Pisa where they could have the ground floor of Byron's house and Byron himself live on the first floor. But Leigh Hunts many children were brought up on the principle of absolute freedom and were always dirty and uncontrollable, so Byron had to buy a big bulldog which he tied at the top of the stairs to prevent the 6, wild Hunt children from getting up to his part of the house! 10 It was Byron and Leigh Hunt who found the dead body of Shelley washed ashore 3 weeks after the drowning accident. They could only recognize him because he had a certain book of poems in his pocket. They also arranged for his dead body to be burnt in a sort of funeral pile (ligbål) right there on the shore - remember he was an atheist. ODE TO THE WEST WIND BYRON (1788-1824) and ITALY/FLORENCE Already when in England LORD Byron had got the reputation not only of being a great poet but also of being irresistable to women. He had had numerous affairs - with married women too, and he never had to seduce a woman in his whole life. They gladly tried to catch him. A demon, he was characterized, dangerous to view for the female sex. This was probably con- firmed by his apperance: very handsome, but with a club foot/lameness in one foot which made him limp. He was extremely conscious of his looks, as handicapped people perhaps tend to be, tried to dress and walk so that nobody would notice his handicap. Never danced of course. Always on a slimming diet etc. The only woman who really meant something to him, however, was his half-sister, Augusta, with whom he had an incestuous relationship which resulted in a child. When he finally married - a short and very unhappy marriage - he said to his wife: "I ask nothing of a woman but to make me laugh. I can make Augusta laugh abouth anything. No one makes me happy except Augusta." As a traveller in Italy he was more like the old type of previous centuries. He was an aristocrat, and he met Italian aristocrats in their society and not like the new middle-class English traveller who had no wish of socializing with the Italians. Deriding the traditional GRAND TOUR he summed up his own travelling in this manner: "Now I have lived among the Italians; not Florenced and Romed and Galleried and Conversationed it for months, and then home again - but been of their families and friendships and feuds, and loves and councils, in a part of Italy least known to foreigners, and have been amongst them of all classes from the conte to the contandino" In Italy he also had numerous conquests, both English and Italian. Mary Shelley's step-sister, Claire Clairmont threw herself at him and bore him his only child, a girl called Allegra, who died in childhood, much to his grief. For Clair he never cared much and got pretty much fed up with her as she tried to get him back by every means. His last affair, and perhaps the one that meant most to him, was with the beautiful Countess Teresa Guiccioli, 20 years and already 2 years married when they met, married to a widowed man in his fifties who had several children, some her age. Byron ended up being installed, so to speak in the house and the household, as a cicicbeo, i.e. the accepted lover of the wife. Accepted by husband and the rest of the family. Byron became politically enganged in Italy's fight for a united Italy and for freedom by throwing off the rule of Austria and become a country of its own. With Teresa's husbond and other family members he joined secret meetings and pistol practice and his room was used as a store for arms. The police, however, kept a close watch on all his movements. 11 She may have reminded him of his half-sister Augusta, but nevertheless the routine of this established life (making love to Teresa every morning "by the clock") seemed boring after a while, so he welcomed a new friendship with the Blessingtons from Florence, who he met in Genoa. In spite of Teresa's jealousy he spent two inspiring months, April and May 1823, with the couple (in Genoa), especially with her, but they both tell that it was a purely platonic friendship : rides, visits, dinner parties and endless conversation, of gossip, and Byron loved to tell about his life and the people he had met and each their little weaknesses. His con- versation was a continous remembering aloud, and nothing was kept secret. When the Blessingtons left Genoa Byron answered the call to go to Greece to fight for liberty, even though he was quite sure that the end of his life was near. He believed in fate, and followed its call. He died in Greece,from Malaria, in the fight for Greek liberation. Teresa's last years were spent in a villa near Florence where she also kept Byron's letters and her own book called "Life of Byron in Italy." Lady Blessington: Daughter of a petty landowner (husmand), forced into marriage at the age of 15 with a drunkard, an army man, Captain Farmer, whom she left after 3 months' marriage. Later Farmer, dies from falling out of the window of a debtor's jail (gældsfængsel), drunk. Mistress of captain Jenkins for several years, but when Farmer, her husbond dies by falling out drunk from the window of a debtor's jail, she is free to marry, and she soon gets married to Lord Blessington, rich, kindly and lavish man, who takes her to live in Florence,and perhaps tolerant enough to accept his wife's lover, Count Alfred d'Orsay, with them, but whether he was or was not Lady Blessington's lover them has never been established. Their friend, Landor, vows (sværger på) that he wasn't. 1817 her portrait was painted by Lawrence. 1823 Meets Byron at the age of 35, still a beauty. To FLORENCE came also Walter Scott, Wordsworth, Tennyson, FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE born 1820 in Florence, made the name of the city a common name for girls. P.B.SHELLEY: "Ode to the West Wind" "The View from the Pitti Gardens" inspired by the Boboli Gardens "Medusa of Leonardo" written in Florence about the influence of art on poetry. "Peter Bell the Third" 1814 GEORGE DENNIS, self-educated archaeologist, studied the Etruscan civilization: "Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria" which is still the most comprehensive book on Etruscology. Cp.D.H. Lawrence. W.M. THACKERY: A poem about the fish soup in the Ristorante Laura, Via dei Cerchi. 12 1850-1900 The next great period in Florence came in the middle of the century, with a new colony of poets who made their homes in Tuscany and Florence and differed from most of the Romantic poets in that they really loved and cared about the Italian people. This was a period when the middle classes were now the ones to be on the march. The grand Tour no longer existed. But social life among the English flourished with the peculiar custom of paying calls upon each other all the time, or leaving one's card with an invitation to call back, or with a date when a new call would be made. In 1830 we find an English poem called "Italy" (by Samuel Rogers. With etchings by Turner) in which it says: "Ours is a nation of travellers...None want an excuse. If rich they go to enjoy; if poor to retrench (spare); if sick to recover; if studious to learn; if learned to relax from their studies." In 1855 visitors described Florence as "totally English town" (the brothers Goncourt: "ville toute Anglaise") - there were English shops, restaurants, hotels, doctors, dentists, banks, English goods in the shops, English books in the bookshops. Really a totally English town! A whole colony of English people living permanently in Florence - artists mainly, and among them writers and poets mainly. Through the great American writer Henry James, who also loved Florence A number of relationships which shocked the English colony: Seymor Stocker Kirkup, painter, married a 22 year old woman at the age of 87. Dickens set up the family of his mistress in a Palazzo in Florence. Oscar Wilde who brought his young lover to see Florence. The Brownings who eloped from England and settled in Florence in 1847, later in Casa Guidi. Robert Browning. Browning reached the age of 32 (1845) before he fell seriously in love with a woman - his future wife, and the story about this is quite interesting. He was already an established poet, and thought himself "incapable of loving any woman" when one day he came across a newly published book "POEMS" by Elizabeth Browning which made such an impression on him that sat down and wrote a letter to the author in which he sais: "I do, as I say, love this book with all my heart - and I love you too." And as soon as he could he knocked at her door to pay her a visit. HOWEVER, she was ill, almost an invalid, had been shut up dfor years in a sickroom, in bed all day and only very few close family and friends were allowed to even see her face. Instead she wrote tons of letters to a lot of people, all her friends and aquaintances. She loved writing and receiving letters, but did not allow Browning to actually see her. The fact is, as he well 13 knew, that she was 40 years old - 8 years his senior, and she was very acutely aware of the fact that she did not look one day younger than 40. Furthermore as she later wrote to him, "I had done living, I thought, when you came and sought me out." It was months before (May 1845) - after many warnings to him about her looks - she finally allowed him to see her face to face. It was not easy for her to confront this younger man who, she wrote, came with the intention of trying to love whomever he would find" But he loved her even after having seen her and he fought to make her well again, excercising with her until she could walk again and indeed succeeeding to restore her to life, and giving her the will to live which is necessary to be able to live. "My life was ended when I knew you, and if I survive myself, it is for your sake... I have come back for you alone." And at long last, in January 1846 she also accepted to marry him. He admired her and looked up to her superior intelligence and she loved him and felt he needed her. "..to make my life yours would render me supremely happy, as I said, and say, and feel. My whole suit to you is, in that sense, selfish..." Nevertheless it required all his patience to make her actually walk up to the church to perform the marriage. She had many excuses and kept postponing the day for more than 9 months. And he kept pressing her, in letters which we still have and in words when visiting her - much too often, and for too long in the opinion of her father, Mr. Edward Moulton-Bar- rett, "It appears, Elisabeth (BA, was her nickname) that THAT man has spent the whole day with you!". It was not easy for her to slip out of the weird dream-world in which she had been living as a hermit and suddenly stepping out into life, marriage and the trip for 1 or 2 years to Italy which they had planned - but which in actual fact came to be for the rest of her life, 12 years. It was not easy for her, either, to leave her father's house, under whose roof she had lived all her life. Mr. Moulton Barrett was a very strong character and she was completely under his domination - and always felt strongly attached to strong men. But that was not what she would find in Browning. He for his part looked up to strong women - and that was what he saw in her, under the surface. She, however, was rather surprised to find out that he so strongly depended on her, that she would in fact not only step out into life, but also into a life where she was the one to take "the pan's part, according to the sex-role pattern of the day. It shocked her, but she accepted it when, after the marriage she saw her lover make one mistake after the other in the planning of their elopement form her father's. He misread the timetable of the boat on which they were to sail from England - first got it right, then corrected it, and then changed it back again. When this waw repeated with the departures of the trains from the London station she herself took the time-table in hand and settled the matter on her own. She was,however, a bit alarmed by this new role of hers and complained to him that he played the woman's part, he was the one that honoured and obeyed instead of her - as the marriage ritual goes. He finally silenced her with the following words: "You shall think for me. That is my command!" On the 12th of September,1846, supported by two strong men, Elisabeth finally went up the church steps to marry Browning. She was paralyzed when she was to write the letter to her father that she had got married for him to recieve when she left a few days later (the 18th/9). He never forgave her and died 11 years later, in 1857, unforgiving as she had feared. His death almost broke her heart. 14 Having just arrived arrived in Italy (4th Dec,1846) Elisabeth Browning wrote in a letter: "We have heard a mass in the Campo santo and achieved a pilgrimage...to walk in the footsteps of Byron and Shelley." And Robert added in triumph: "She is getting better every day - strong, better wonderfully and beyond all our hopes" During the next 15 years - till her death in 1861 - they lived in Florence and they were never away from each other. To Browning his married years here were - in spite of her constant illness in his own words his "real life - and before and after, nothing at all. I look back on all my life when I look back there: and life is painful." The Brownings were the centre of a happy intellectual circle and they regarded Florence as their home. When she was buried, in 1861, all the shops in the street were closed, and a crowd of people were following, sobbing, Italians, Americans, English crying like children. CEMETERY: through the gates, through arched entrance lodge and up a sloping path to the central column - just before it, on the left, a simple tomb resting on slightly baroque pillars. Near by is Walter Savage Landor. A BROWNING INSTITUTE in Casa Guidi (a plaque(pla:k) above the door) in the apartment where they lived - restored the best possible to the original. GEORGE ELIOT: "Romola" novel ab. Savonarola, begun in Florence 1860, published 1862- 63 in the "Cornhill Magazine" FRANCES TROLLOPE: Writer of travel books and novels - thus supporting her family as single mother. Settled in Florence 1843, at the age of 63! With her came her son: THOMAS ADOLPHUS TROLLOPE: Books on Italian history, novels with an Italian setting. Settled in Italy with his mother, Frances and wife Theodosia, whom he married in middle age when she was only 23, a poetess who was considered to have helped the cause for Italian free- dom. Their house from 1848 in Piazza Maria Antonia, known as "Villino Trollope"was a meeting place for authors livingin Italy.After 17 happy years of marriage, Theodosia dies, 1865,(buried in the English cemetery) and heart-stricken he moves to "Villa Ricorboli", beyond Porta San Niccolò, where after some years he marries the governess he had got for his daughter. She was Fanny Ternan, sister of Dickens' secret mistress, Nelly Ternan. He died in England in 1886. 15 WALTER S.LANDOR: Poem "To Theodosia", Trollopes wife, for her virtues as hostess. "Savonarola and the Prior of San Marco" and 2 other dialogues in "The Athenaeum" about Filippo Lippi. He and his wife were separated and he generously gave her and their children both his villa and his money and went to England himself. But when he returned, as poor as he had left, she refused to help him so absolutely that he was not even allowed to go into the house to fetch his personal things which he had left, and without money he was forced to live a very humble life in a house outside Florence. It was his old friend, Robert Browning who found him in this miserable situation, sick and poor, and who put him up in a better place and supported him until he died, deserted by everone he loved and very bit ter.That was what life did to him, who had once been a very lively man - famous for his funny stories - and boisterous (larmende). His explosive temperament appears from the fact that he once threw a dinner out of the window in a boarding-house, because he found it revolting. He is buried in the English Cemetery, Piazza Donatello. CHARLES DICKENS Charles Dickens (1812-1870) the most popular and famous author of the 19' century, wrote a great number of novels about poor and rich people in England, sentimental, siding with the poor, but honest heroes and heroines who are cruelly deceived by bad and dishonest villains before the final happy ending. (Oliver Twist, David Copperfield). He also wrote the famous Christmas Carols where ghosts appear, and the heartless miser is con- verted into a happy and generous character who helps the poor and suffering people - much as Dickens himself did - and for which reason he became the popular ideal of a GOOD man - and ideal family father. He had 4 children with his wife Catherine. In 1844 he took his family: his wife 5 children,his sister-in-law, two nurses and the family dog - with him to Italy. Out of it came "PICTURES FROM ITALY" written after his return on the basis of letters he had sent home and elsewhere: to Lady Blessington whom he had obviously stayed with in Florence. OH of letter to L.Bl. But at the age of 46 he meets a young, 18-year-old actress, Nelly (Ellen Lawless Ternan) with whom he falls head over heels in love and for whom he splits up his happy home in the most gruesome way. The only thing he did not want to lose was his career, he polularity, the image he had in the English public. So what he does is, first to divorce his wife - for no apperent reason apart from the one he gave: that the marriage had been unhappy for years, that his wife was suffering from mental disorder, and that she had never been able to look after the children. He took all the children with him, and away from her, though he secured her financially for the rest of her life. He repeatedly denied, even publicly in the papers, all rumours of a connexion with the young actress, an "innocent person dear to my heart". The truth was that Nelly did not go into a sexual relationship with Dickens, but nevertheless accepted all the benefits that Dickens lavished on her and her family. HE simply did everyt- hing for them - and they did need it: they were 3 sisters: Fanny, Maria, and Nelly alone with their mother, Mrs. Ternan who all earned their living as actresses, which was not then a very respectable job. A general view was that actresses were no better than prostitutes. He set the whole family up in a house he bought for them to be abvle to live as respectable middle class people, and he tried in every way to promote the careers of the 3 sisters. Nelly was not so talented, so she gave up her career completely at the age of 20. Dickens financed a study for 16 Fanny in Florence, where he introduced her to the ionfluential people he knew there: the Trollopes (Frances the father and the son Tom, both writers) and spent money on singing lessons for Fanny with a famous opera singer. How could Nelly resist the famous and genrous author who had done so much for her family, who meant more to her than anything else in the world? As a matter of fact she did love Dickens, in her own way. They were together for the rest of his life, 13 years, but always in secret. She became "the invisible woman"* who could never step out in the open and become his wife, and most evidence of their relationship was carefully destroyed. But what we do know that about 5 years after they met (she was 23) when she probably bore him a child (born in France) who died very early. We also know that, in spite of all Dickens' effforts to promote the Ternan sisters they did not have talent enough to make a great career as actresses or opera singers. Maria married a well-to-do brewer in Oxford, Taylor, and was extremely bored in the marraige, as a housewife, after the exciting years round the country as an ambitious actress. Perhaps under the cover of "delicate health" which so many women suffered under at this time she travelled abroad to a warmer climate, such as for instance Florence in Italy where her sister Fanny had taken opera lessons in earlier days. Fanny, who was now around 30, apparently going to end up as a spinster, did not succeeed as an opera singer. She ended up as a singing teacher and governess to young girls in the middle class. This was how she again got into contact with the Trollopes from Florence, for Thomas Trollope's wife ((Theodosia) has died, and their daughter, Beatrice, was taken to London by Thomas' brother, another famous writer Anthony Trollope, and took singing lessons with Fanny and the end was that Thomas Trollope invited her to go with Beatrice back to Florence, as Beatrice's governess. Within three months after her arrival in Florence Thomas Trollope asked her to be his wife, which she accepted. Whether she loved her 56-year-old husband is uncertain but it was a sensible solution to her problems as well as his. Nelly's life was now completely in Dickens' hands - she was a fallen woman. But he loved her dearly till his death even though it appears that she was often a little grumpy. After all her life was not an easy one. Like her sisters she could have had a husband and children by now instead of living an invisible life with Dickens. Long after his death she has told that she hated sexual intercourse with him - perhaps he was more of an old beloved rich uncle to her than a proper husband alomst 30 years older than herself. Maria enjoyed life in Italy and took to painting, just as Fanny perhaps inspired by her husbond and his brother-in-law, the two famous writers Thomas and Anthony Trollope, had started a writing career, which again SDickens tried to promote as best he could, without much success. In 1867 Dickens went to America on a reading tour which lasted almost a year, but of course he could not take Nelly with him. In august 1867 she went to Florence instead with the mother, old Mrs. Ternan, and they all enjoyed this half year together in Florence immensely. It was the coldest winter in Florence for many seasons, and the Trollope home, Villa Ricorboli, was very cold indeed. At the end of April, 1868, Dickens and Nelly were united again in London, but his health had suffered from the trip to America and he died two years later in her arms, on the 9th of June 1870. After his death Nelly was often in Florence. She got married 6 17 six years later, to a husband 12 years younger than herself 20 who had courted her ever after Dickens' death. She was then 37 and he was 25. Kilden til alt dette er "The Invisible Woman" by Claire Tomalin OSCAR WILDE(1854 - 1900) The famous play writer who ended up in jail for being a homosexual was born in Ireland by wealthy parents: Sir and Lady William Wilde.A hard-working, interested student at college in dublin.Sent to England, studies at Oxford University. At this time in his life he was rather attracted by the Catholic religion and concerned about religious questions in general. In Oxford he also becomes interested in Italy after having heard Oxford professor Ruskins lectures on Italian art.So, in 1875, at the age of 21, he goes to Italy himself and he is much impressed by the way the Catholic faith made itself seen both in art and in people's way of life. This tension between, on one hand pious faith and , on the other, the material world and its obvious attractions - that was what made Wilde start writing, in Italy ("San Miniato", June 1875), about sin and shame, and "Mary could I but see thy face,/ Death could not come at all too soon."! His first "Poems" was published in 1881, aged 27. Very popular with young beautiful women, but finally marries Constance Loyd in 1884.(aged 30), 1885 first-born child. In 1891 he meets the young unscrupulolus Lord Alfred Douglas who did nothing to hide his homosexual relations with Wilde, who had fallen totally in love with him. But under this pres- sure Wilde was very productive. As he says "Work never seems to me a reality, but a way of getting rid of reality", so during the next 4 years he wrote all the great humoristic plays for which he is now famous. Douglas was in Florence during April 1994 and soon after, in May, Wilde followed. In Florence Wilde had hoped not be recognized, but was, of course, on account of his excentric clothes and behaviour. Not long after,when Wilde was at the top of his career, with his masterpiece, "The Importance of Being Earnest" on in London, he was arrested for homosexual activity in connection with his relationship with Douglas and in the following trial he was sentenced to two years' imprisonment. He got out of jail in 1897 a different man, and died only 3 years later in whicu he went about Europe, but mostly lived in France. The royal theme from the last century with the young Pretender settling in Florence is continued in this century, when the great Queen Victoria (after her: Victorianism, the Victorian Age) visits Florence in 1888 with crowds of servants, her own doctors, cooks,secretaries,lots of suitcases, even pieces of her own furniture and her favourite pictures - BUT she travelled incognito - under the name of Countess of Balmoral - and probably believed no one could recognize her. She fell in love with Florence like so many others and returned in 1893 and again in 1994. 18 D.H.LAWRENCE 1885 - 1930 Lawrence was extremely closely attached to his mmother. "Sons and Lover" about this and about the fact that this strong bond of love prevented him from loving other women. Lawrence is famous for bringing back sex into literature, where it had been a tabu for more than a hundred years. (the Victorian age). Some of his books were banned ("Lady Chatterley's Lover") which was not released even in Denmark until the 60's. It includes descriptions of the sex life of the main characters - in much the same way as all modern literature does today. His father: a miner His mother: belonged to the higher middle classes - she was a school teacher. She felt above her husbond, and Lawrence sided with her - as can be seen in Sons and Lovers where the father is desribed as a drunkard. Later in his life he came to admire father's vitality and integrety and he now saw how his mother had made their children her allies against the father and shut him out completely. At this stage in his life he blames the mother for her superiority and self-righteousness. Lawrence was a frail child and he was not expected to live long. It was his older - bright - brother William, however, who died at a very young age of pneumonia. He went to different boarding shools which he hated, and since he was very often ill he was not the best pupil in his class. 1901: he meets Jessie whom he gets very much attached to. Her family adored Lawrence and regarded his as their own son and they meant a lot to him. He liked Jessie because she was not superficial like other girls. She read a lot. Lawrence too had acquired a taste for reading from his mother who was a member of a literary society. Jessie and Lawrence made many trips in the neighbourhood together, reading to each other and enjoying the nature round Nottingham, and they fell in love. Shortly after school (1902, aged 17?)he came to work in a factory in Nottingham, but only for 2 months. It was at this time his brother died. Lawrence too fell ill with pneumonia, but his mother's care for him during his illness saved his life. After this, from 1902-1906 he earned money by teaching two days a week in order to finish his schooling for the other 4 days a week. He found teaching hard and non-inspiring, however. He started writing novels and poems.His first novel "The white Peacock" was published in 1911 and the money it brought to the house amazed his father. He did not regard writing as ordinary work and therefore looked upon his son as a swindler. After school he went to Nottingham University for 2 years: 1906-1908 and then he taught in London for 3 years. In 1909, however, his mother got cancer and she died a year later - 1910. Lawrence was devastated. At her funearl he said to Jessie: 19 "I have loved her like a lover. That is why I can never love you. A year after her death he caught tuberculosis (1911, 25 years) and once again he was near to death. His convalescence after his illness loosened his tie to his dead mother. In 1912 he wrote some poems about her illness and death and describes this work as follows: one sheds one's sicknesses in a book: but he suffered intensely by writing them. He had broken up with Jessie some time before his mother's death. There are two reasons : his mother did not like Jessie, and - Jessie, too, was very much inflkuenced by HER mother and from her she got her disgust of sex. To Lawrence, who saw the repression of sex as man's chief enemy and rebelled against his age of sexual victorianism, this was a thing he could not live with, so the other reason is simply her frigidity. In 1912, after the traumatic experience of his mother's horrible death of cancer, and his own serious illness after that, he decided to go abroad. He looked up his old teacher, the famous Ernest Weekley (etymologist=sproghist)for advice on the trip, but fell in love with his German wife, Frieda. She - a mother of three children - fell in love with him too, and a month later they eloped and went through Germany to Italy. Their relationship was never an easy one.Their first months were marked by her grief about missing her children, but it was always a stormy relationship: full of passion, but also full of bitter quarrels. She introduced him to Freud whose ideas on sex influence Lawrence's later writing a lot. 1914 they marry, after she had obtained a divorce from her angry husbond, but they had to leave Italy during the first World War. As soon as it was over they went back to Italy. 1919 This second time in Italy he saw Florence for the fist time and fell totally in love with the town - and when Frieda arrived a bit later, - she arrived by train at 4 o'clock in the night - he took her for a drive in the moonlit night to show her the beautiful town right away. 1926 they finally settled there. They found a villa much to their liking outside Florence. He studied the old Etruscans and wrote "Etruscan Places" but also finished "Lady Chatterly' Lover". 1930 Lawrence dies from tuberculosis which had pestered his life for years and slowly taken all life out of him. ROBERT BROWNING: "My Last Duchess" "Fra Lippo Lippi" "Andrea del Sarto" ELISABETH BROWNING: "Casa Guidi Windows" about the cause of Italian liberty. 23 "Aurora Leigh" (blank verse) was writ ten in Casa Guidi. CHARLES JAMES LEVER: "The Dodge Family Abroad" Written 1850 in Florence HENRY JAMES: was working on his first important novel "Roderick Hudson"during his first stay in Florence 1874, and by 1880 when he returned he had become famous. 20 TO FLORENCE CAME ALSO: Thomas Hardy, Turner (5 tours of Italy, inspired to develo his brilliant use of colour and mystical treatment of light). Holman Hunt. Pre-Raphaelites( 1849ff.): their doctrines: Sought to infuse art with MORAL QUALITIES through a scrupulous STUDY OF NATURE and the depicting of UPLIFTING SUBJECTS. Considered art from Raphael and onwards degenerate. Who: Holman Hunt, the Rossetti brothers a.o. A group of English painters thought that art had become too artificial, selfconscious and academical. It had lost the natural touch which gives both freshness and moral. They went back into the past to search for the time before art became corrupted and they found that it had happened around the year 1500 and the last great painter was Rafaello who died in 1520, 37 years old, at the top of his career. In their own works of art as painters they now tried to go back to the painting before Raphael. Rossetti first used the name Pre-Raphelite Brotherhood (PRB) in 1849. Holman Hunt's wife died in Florence and he himself took a studio there and painted there. The painter John Singer Sargent was born and lived in Florence. RUSKIN: made several Tuscan tours and wrote just as many essays,letters,guides, books and held lectures about Tuscany and its art. "Mornings in Florence" ab. S.Croce. FORSTER "A room with a view" refers to Ruskins guide of S.Croce. OSCAR WILDE: "A Florentine Tragedy", blank verse about a Jewish husbond whose wife is courted by a nobleman. In the begin ning he pretends not to notice but ends up in a duel where he kills his rival. His wife, however, shows no emotions on that score, but states that she never knew he was so strong, and he answers that he never realized she was so beautiful. 21 Let us end with the words of the American writer Constance Wilson: "Florence is all that I have dreamed and more. Here I have attained the old world feeling I used to dream about, a sort of enthusiasm made up of history, mythology, old churches, pictures, statues, vineyards, the Italian sky, dark-eyed peasants, opera music, Raphael and old Michael, and ever so many more ingredients - the whole, I think, has taken me pretty well of my feet!" In 1830 we find an English poem called "Italy" (by Samuel Rogers. With etchings by Turner) in which it says: "Ours is a nation of travellers...None want an excuse. If rich they go to enjoy; if poor to retrench (spare); if sick to recover; if studious to learn; if learned to relax from their studies." Government is an evil, a usurpation upon (bortrøvelse fra) the private judgement and individual conscience of mankind. (den personlige dømmekraft og individuelle samvittighed, som mennesket har) 22 NOTES THE HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH IN FLORENCE First travellers(800-1200): CHURCH PEOPLE: clergy (kirkefolk): monks etc pilgrims (to Jerusalem/Rome) crusaders (korstogsriddere) 1300s HAWKWOOD: English army commander who had a great Italian career. Ended up as honorary citizen of Florence. Led the Florentine army successfully against the neighbouring Toscan cities for years. His fresco (on horseback) in the Cathedral of Florence, Santa Maria del Fiore, painted by Paolo Ucello (cp. Sct George and the Dragon). CHAUCER. in Florence as a royal negotiator (for a loan) where he read Dante and BOCCACCIO - and went home to make an English "Divine Comedy". : "CANTERBURY TALES".(In "The Monk's Tale" there is a stanza about the tragic fate of Hawkwood's Italian father -in-law Viscount Bernabo of Milan. 1400s Lorenzo di Medici establishes a commercial treaty between England and Florence: England is given the monopoly of the wool export to the Mediteranean - this leads to the beginning of a regular galley traffic btween England and Florence (via Pisa). 1500s The Italian influence is deeply felt in England in : music theatre (15 out of 38 plays by Shakespeare are set in Italy) The English Royal court (Elisabeth I) has a great number of Italians employed: doctors, painters, poets etc 1600s English travellers to Italy in larger numbers: THE GRAND TOUR was becoming part of the education of the young sons of the upper classes. Many hardships (a few never returned alive): horsedrawn carriage bandits weather 23 the plague/ diseases in general fights among themselves FIXED ITENERARY (rejserute) GENOA - FLORENCE - ROME - VENICE - GENOA Sightseeing in Florence: the masterpieces of the Renaissance (galleries, buildings, churches) They buy works of art - have their own portraits/busts made by great Italian artists. ARCHITECTURE After the Great London Fire 1666 Sir Christopher Wren and Inigo Jones's new builidngs show a marked Italian influence - very visible in london of today. Robert Dudley. English Earl of Leicester who made a great career in Florence at the court of Grand Duke of Florence, Ferdinand I: designed the harbour in Livorno aquaducts of Pisa designed his own house in Florence : opposite Palazzo Strozzi FIND HIS PLAQUE THERE 1700s The GRAND TOUR has become an institution among the sons of the aristocracy: BEAR CUBS (nickname for the young educational traveller) BEAR LEADER (nickname for his teacher/tutor on the travel). The new generation of travellers: arrogant, believe that the English are superior to all other nationalities. travel books : often critical and even grumpy: TOBIAS SMOLLETT: "Travels through France and Italy" (1766) Two years later the grumpy fashion changes with the" reply" to Smollett: LAURENCE STERNE: "A Sentimental Journey" The English seek each others' company and prefer English pensions and food. Sightseeing in Florence is still the thing. Heavy drinking and loose sexual morals, however, have also become part of the journey. Many travellers settle in Florence (and Italy) to escape the sexual morals of England: to remarry, to elope, to live homosexually (homosexuality was then nicknamed "the Italian vice"), to have a mistress etc. Towards the end of the century: Whole families travel abroad. Reasons: lower cost of living health reasons: better climate in Italy 24 sexual relations (see above) A.L.Sells "The Italian Influence in English Poetry",London 1955 Olive Hamilton "Paradise of Exiles English Travellers Abroad in 17th cent. John Stoye. "Inden turen går til Firenze" Dansklærerforeningen