17_ _world_war_i_ _notes by G790sJJ


									                                    THE US IN WORLD WAR I


Introduction to World War I

As always when considering foreign policy the key questions surround whether or not the United States
should have entered World War I. What events justify war? What outcomes have to be achieved in order to
feel that the war was "worth it?"

I. Roots of the Conflict

       A. "Great War" - A surprise to US
       B. World's first "Total War"
            o August 1914 to November 11, 1918 (11/11/18)
            o 32 Nations
            o 30 Million Die
            o $350 Billion
            o Political, Social and Economic Effects?

A. Causes of World War I

1. Failure of Balance of Power System – International Anarchy

       1. "Balance of Power" System
             o designed by Prince Metternich
             o 1815 - Congress of Vienna
             o Collapse building in Europe since 1871 - Balance of power changed in Europe
       2. England was #1 had the responsibility to maintain the system
             o only had a powerful navy the balance broke down
       3. Hague Conference - 1899
             o created to settle disputes through arbitration not used
             o devised rules of war that failed to take new weapons into account
       4. No means of using international force to prevent war
       5. World economy - interdependent - needed peace
             o a. raw materials
             o b. markets
             o c. growth
       6. System was not flexible enough to adjust to changes by the industrial revolution
             o a. industrialization led to competition for colonies
             o b. competition led to military buildups
             o c. military buildups led to alliances
             o d. nationalism led to conflict (Serbia's desire for freedom)

2. Imperialism - National rivalries - review motives
       Have-not countries tried to catch up to France and England
       1. Franco - Prussian War - 1870-1871 - German unification and expansion
            o Ems telegram - used to sucker Napoleon III into declaring war while unprepared
            o Bismarck used threat of war with France to force smaller German states to turn to
                      creating Germany (nationalism)
            o c. Germany defeated France and took Alsace-Lorraine (imperialism)
            o d. $1 billion indemnity designed to weaken France further
            o e. military occupation until paid and humiliation of treaty signed at Versailles
            o f. France - paid quickly desired to recover Alsace-Lorraine and get revenge
                      both began to build militaries to prepare for war with each other - look for allies
       2. Turkey - Sick Man of Europe (Balkans) - S.E. Europe
            o a. Turkey had begun to disintegrate - unable to hold the Ottoman Empire together
            o b. Crimean War (1853-1856)
                      1. Russia attacked Turkey to obtain the Dardanelle Straits (warm water port)
                                a. England stopped them - maintained balance of power
                                b. keep Russians from threatening Suez Canal
                      2. Turkey weakened
            o c. Balkan Crisis - powderkeg of Europe
                      1. now Austria-Hungary also wanted the same territory because it was
                          landlocked and needed ports
                                annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina in October - 1908
                                         it became a hotbed for assassins targeting A-H officials
                                         Serbia claimed Bosnia as its possession - Black Hand used
                                            assassination in an attempt to unify all Serbs
                                wanted Serbia next
                      2. Russo-Turkish War - 1877-1878
                                a. Russia won - obtained Dardanelle Straits
                                b. Germany double-crossed Russia sided with Austria-Hungary
                                c. Russia forced to give Straits back
            o This set up a potential war between Austria-Hungary and Russia over the Balkins
       3. Russo-Japanese War - 1904
            o Japan humiliated Russia and increased Russian need for a warm water port

3. Militarism - buildup of military

       nationalism within these nations gave support for buildup
             o (US imperialism is a good example of this public support)
       1. Germany moved up to #4 - had always had a powerful army
             o a. unification made them the fastest growing power
             o b. to challenge England for #1 - they built a German navy - Dreadnaughts
       2. France - #5 had always had both
             o a. after Germany defeated them they began to build even faster
             o b. wanted revenge began to race Germany
       3. Italy had never had either sought to catch up
       4. Russia was huge and so was their army - #3 until Russo-Japanese war
             o a. Japan was #41 - showed that Russia was overrated - based on size
             o b. they needed an industrial revolution to catch up in quality
             o c. this required a warm water port
       5. England had to continue to build up its navy to stay #1
             o a. it also had to prevent others from becoming too powerful
             o b. maintain status quo
       6. Austria-Hungary - #2 - but losing ground
            o    a. was powerful but landlocked - to become #1 it needed ports
            o    b. to build a navy it needed the Balkans

4. Alliance System - completed by 1907

       1. Triple Entente
            o a. France - needed allies to get even with Germany
            o b. Russia - needed help to gain Balkans joined France - 1892
            o c. England - isolated, feared naval blockade - imported food - 1904
                       joined after Germany began upgrading its navy
       2. Triple Alliance - 1882
            o a. Germany - wanted allies against France and had chosen between A-H and Russia in
            o b. Austria-Hungary - needed support to gain port which would upset England and Russia
            o c. Italy - was focused on France and North Africa
                       willing to side with which ever side was going to win - wanted territory
       3. Von Schlieffin Plan - 1905
            o German plan to fight and win a two front war against France and Russia
            o Count Alfred von Schlieffen, who became Chief of the Great General Staff in 1891,
                 submitted his plan in 1905
                       it was adopted, slightly modified, in 1914.
                       modifications weakened the thrust through Belgium
                       in 1905 Russia was considerable weaker as a result of the Russo-Japanese War
                          than it would be by 1914
            o key to plan was timetable
                       1. Germans measured routes to Paris - best route through Belgium
                       2. counted on neutral Belgium to let them pass without fighting
                                did not plan on issuing an ultimatum - but Germany later did so
                                hoped to trick France into violating Belgium neutrality first -
                       3. they had 6 weeks from the time Russian troops started moving west to
                                capture Paris and
                                put their troops on trains for the Eastern Front

5. Nationalism - intense patriotism and national pride

       Germany united 1871
             o Pan-German movement
             o France was humiliated and wanted revenge
       Italy - Late 1860's united
       National "Sore Spots" -
             o 1) Italy lost territory to Austria
             o 2) France lost Alsace-Lorraine to Germany
             o 3) Balkan Peninsula - desire for independence by colonies (Serbia)
       1. Turkey - Sick Man of Europe (Balkans) - S.E. Europe
       2. rebellions occurred as Empire began to disintegrate
             o a. Greece
             o b. Bulgaria
             o c. Rumania
             o d. Serbia (Yugoslavia today)
            o e. all wanted independence
       3. Balkan Crisis - powderkeg of Europe
            o a. Serbia became the focal point
            o b. Russians - Slavic so were Serbs - offered protection from Austria-Hungary - Pan-
                Slavic Movement
            o c. Serbia did not want to become a part of either

B. Chain Reaction

1. Immediate Cause of WWI - Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

       1. 6/28/14 - in Sarajevo, Bosnia by Gavrilo Princip - 19 yr. old
             o member of the Black Hand organization
             o 22 members were distributed five hundred yards apart over the whole route along which
                  the Archduke must travel from the railroad station to the town hall.
       2. attempt to free Balkans and Serbia
       3. Franz Joseph I got blank check from Germany to punish Serbia by taking it over
       4. sent ultimatum to Serbia - gave 48 hrs. to reply
       5. Serbia was willing to meet all demands short of giving up its independence
             o wanted the Hague to settle the dispute - Russia agreed
       6. Austria-Hungary declared war - 7/28 - did not want Hague involved
       7. Serbia asked Russia for aid
       8. Russian mobilization - 7/29 - set the Von Schlieffin plan in motion
       9. official start of WWI - led Germany to attack Belgium to get to France - 8/4
             o Belgium resistance lasted 16 days = Von Schlieffin plan fails
       10. England declared war on Germany 8/4

2. Two sides

       1. Central Powers
            o a. Austria-Hungary
            o b. Germany
            o c. Ottoman Empire (Turkey)
            o d. Bulgaria
       2. Allied Powers
            o a. Russia
            o b. France
            o c. Great Britain
            o d. Japan
            o e. Italy switched sides when Schlieffin plan failed
            o f. Serbia

D. Stalemate in the Trenches

       Everyone expected a short war

1. The Western Front

       1. 9/14 - war stalled at Marne River - 60 miles from Paris
       2. 400 miles of trenches (English Channel to Swiss border)
       3. separated by no-man's land
       4. Basically unchanged until 1918 - US entry
       Stalemate

2. Russian (Eastern Front)

       German victories slowly pushed into Russia
       Russia suffered high casualties - public turned against the war and the Czar
       Same strategy used against Napoleon - burn everything

E. New Instruments of Death

1st Total War

       8/14 - European war
       1. 30 nations - 61 million troops
       2. mass armies and people at home
       3. mass destruction
             o machine gun
             o tank
             o plane - aces
                       The Red Baron - Baron von Richthofen - 80 victories
                       Eddie Rickenbacker - 22 victories
             o sub
             o poison gas
             o hand grenades
             o flamethrowers
             o land and sea mines
             o Big Bertha artillery - range - 75 miles
             o very bloody, high casualties
       4. Two front war

F. The War at Sea

       Germans used the U-Boat
             o at one point the British had only 3 weeks of food
             o sank one-fourth of the British fleet
       British used the blockade
       Declaration Respecting Maritime Law. Paris, April 16, 1856.
             o 1. Privateering is, and remains, abolished;
             o 2. The neutral flag covers enemy's goods, with the exception of contraband of war;
             o 3. Neutral goods, with the exception of contraband of war, are not liable to capture under
                 enemy's flag;
             o 4. Blockades, in order to be binding, must be effective
                       maintained by a force sufficient to prevent access to the coast of the enemy.

G. Submarines Threaten American Trade

       President Woodrow Wilson
       Aug. 4 - "Proclamation of Neutrality"
            o 1. Is this possible?
            o 2. Strong ties to Europe - especially England
            o 3. Wilson demanded "belligerents" follow rules of warfare regarding neutrals
            o "Strained Neutrality" - 2 1/2 years
       In November 1914 it became clear that this war would be one of commerce with the opponents
        trying to strangle each others economies to force a surrender.
       We wished to make a profit - sell weapons and food to both sides
             o exports to Europe 1914 - 1916 - graph

British Blockade - England took advantage of Pro-Br. feelings in U.S.

       The British had already installed from the first day of the war a distant blockade of Germany
             o a method which had already proven its worth in the Napoleonic wars
             o finally won the war for the Allies.
       All ships taken to England and searched
             o Contraband - food and clothing: everything destined for Central Powers
             o Blockaded neutrals to keep them from shipping to Germany
             o seized goods destined for other neutral countries on the grounds that those goods "might"
                 end up in the hands of Germany
                       "continuous voyage"
                       "Blacklisted" firms
       North Sea mined - maximum blockade without upsetting US
             o Declared North Sea "Military Zone"
             o 1905 Declaration of London - violated by the British
             o Lansing demanded British obey the law - they ignored us - we let them
       Should U.S. protest? Is this a reason for war?

German Blockade - U-boat - violated Freedom of the Seas

       Oct. 1914 - first merchant vessel sunk by U-Boats
             o Oct. 1914 - first merchant vessel sunk without warning
       Realizing the economic dimension of the war, the Germans advocated a counter-blockade of
        Britain by U-boat in response to the British blockade:
             o Put into effect consistently, this U-boat blockade could have won the war for Germany.
       When the year 1914 came to an end
             o U-boats had sunk eight secondary warships and
             o ten merchants (20,000 tons) at the loss of 5 U-boats.
       Feb.4, 1915 - first round of unrestricted submarine warfare (actually still had some limits)
             o The seas around the British isles were declared a war zone by the German government
             o any ship found there on or after 18th February faced sinking without warning
             o A neutral flag was considered to be no guarantee for safety
                       it was regarded as a common war deception
                       U-boat skippers were ordered to be absolutely sure a ship was neutral before
                           sparing it.
             o maximum blockade without upsetting the US
       Wilson - "Strict Accountability" - Feb.10, 1915
             o Freedom of the Seas
       The war against the merchants was thriving and by the end of April the U-boats had been able to
        sink 39 vessels at an own loss of three U-boats.

What moved us to enter the war against Germany?

       What should US foreign policy be based on?
       Idealism - ideological quest for democratic principles, equal opportunity, optimistic
       Realism - national security, economic needs, capitalism, anti-revolutionary, stress on order
       US entry into WWI inevitable or avoidable? what were the alternatives?
       How neutral was the US?
II. U.S. Goes to War

A. Wilson Responds - NEUTRALITY - Wilson's official position -8-19-14

       A majority of Americans wished to avoid war (favored Allied Powers)
             o businessmen wanted to make $ through trade with both sides
             o Cabinet - pro-Allies except for W.J. Bryan = neutral
             o we could decide who won - richest neutral with most powerful navy
       Goals in Foreign Policy?
             o National Security
             o Trade
             o Nationalism
                       Spread Democracy
             o Humanitarianism
                       Morality (Wilson)
       Restricted Submarine Warfare
             o rules of war were old and outdated - did not take into consideration new weapons of war
             o U-Boats which gave warning were vulnerable
             o especially after merchants were armed - do armed merchants ships still constitute
                 "civilian" ships or do they become "warships"?
       4/4/15 - declared war zone - could not warn - vulnerable
             o 3/28/15 Falaba
       5/1/15 - U.S. tanker GULFLIGHT attacked by U-boat.
       Lusitania - 5/7/15 - British passenger liner attacked
             o 25 April: Three U-boats, including U-20, are ordered to British waters.
             o 30 April: U-20 sails.
             o 1 May: Germany places a newspaper notice, warning American travelers.
             o 1 May: LUSITANIA sails from New York.
       7 May, 1410: LUSITANIA struck by torpedo from U-20, and sinks in eighteen minutes. Of 1959
        persons on board, 1195 are lost and 764 survive.
             o 1198 dead (128 US)
             o German ads warned against travel - 4/15/15
             o ship carried munitions
             o Wilson's 1st response - May 1915
             o Future incidents viewed "deliberately unfriendly"
             o U.S. demanded a stop of sub attacks - WJ Bryan resigned - called a traitor
             o Lansing replaced Bryan - harsh with Germany not with England
             o difference between GB and Germany = life vs. property
       US public was outraged - turning point #1
       The British Cunard liner RMS Lusitania
             o flew the Stars and Stripes in the Irish Sea on 31st January because U-boats were reported
                 to be in the vicinity.
       Probably the most spectacular incident of the First World
       War happened on 7th May 1915
       Walther Schwieger - commander
       fired one torpedo aimed at RMS Lusitania (30,000 tons) south of Ireland.
       After the explosion of the torpedo a devastating second explosion sank the ship
             o caused by coal dust
             o sank within 18 mins with the loss of nearly 1,200 lives, among them 128 Americans.
   the German U-boat had every right to torpedo the ship
         o she was registered as a vessel of the British Fleet Reserve
         o she traveled in a declared war zone
         o she was carrying rifles and explosives and thus was a rightful target
   the sinking caused sharp American protest, resulting in a German order to leave passenger liners
   U-boat activity increased
         o August 1915 the sinkings by German U-boats (185,800 tons) bypassed the monthly
             building rates in British shipyards
         o 19th August 1915, the debate about the U-boats heated up again
         o sank RMS Arabic (15,800 tons) with one torpedo
                    mistaking it for a troop transport
                    The liner sank in 10 mins with 44 casualties,
                    among them 3 Americans.
                    Again sharp American protests followed.
   German navy promised the collapse of the British within six months, if they had free hand at sea,
   US intervention would take effect - a fairly accurate assessment of the situation
   Arabic Pledge
         o a prohibition of attacking passenger ships except under prize rules
         o end of August.
         o But U-boat warfare according to prize rules was too risky in British waters.
         o This and the possibility of confusing passenger ships with other ships led to the refraining
             of U-boat skippers from attacks.
         o On 20th September 1915, the U-boats were withdrawn from British waters
         o the focus of the U-boat campaign shifted to the Mediterranean with plenty of targets and
             virtually no Americans present.
   Sussex Pledge
   On 24th March 1916
   torpedoed the French cross-Channel ferry Sussex (1,350 tons)
   mistaking it for a minelayer
   with eighty casualties, among them 25 Americans.
   The damaged ferry was then towed to Boulogne. Following were sharp American protests,
    resulting in a total cancellation of the U-boat campaign around the British isles on 24th April
   In October 1916 the U-boats returned to British waters with the obligation of applying prize rules.
    Despite this
   restrain, they sank 337,000 tons during this month, followed by 961,000 tons of shipping sunk
    between November
   1916 and January 1917.
   In February 1917, the German Admiral Staff was finally able to convince the Chancellor
    Bethmann-Hollweg to
   declare unrestricted U-boat warfare. Immediately the sinkings went up to 520,000 tons.
   U-Boat atrocities
       o killing of survivors of ships
                  SS Torrington - April 1917
                  SS Belgian Prince - July 1917.
       o hospital ship - Landovery Castle - June 1918
                  The worst case of these kinds of atrocities
                         against international law
                           against standing orders of the Imperial German Navy
                   U-boat rammed the life boats and shot at the survivors.
                   Of a crew of 258 of the Landovery Castle only 24 survived.
   The U-boat successes increased steadily in March (560,000 tons)
   and in April 1917, when the USA finally declared war on Germany, reached its peak with 860,000
   In May, however, the numbers of the sunk tonnage dropped to 616,000 tons,
   because the British Admiralty was finally able to convince itself to introduce the only really
   working counter measure against the U-boat threat: the convoy system. Of the 16,693 merchant
    vessels being
   escorted from May 1917 to November 1918 in one of the 1,134 convoys, 99% safely reached their
   Although sinkings in June increased again to 696,000 tons, the drooping numbers of July (555,000
    tons) were
   already foreshadowing the final outcome. It was the convoy system, which finally rendered the
   campaign as unsuccessful and led to the defeat of Germany.
   German pledges - not to sink ships without warning and a chance to evacuate
         o a. Arabic Pledge - 8/19/15 - 2 Americans killed - paid an indemnity
                    9/1/15 - no passenger ships would be attacked
   July 21, 1915 - President Wilson's Protest to Germany
   The Government of the United States is not unmindful of the extraordinary conditions created by
    this war or of the radical alterations of circumstances and method of attack produced by the use of
    instrumentalities of naval warfare which the nations of the world can not have had in view when
    the existing rules of international law were formulated, and it is ready to make every reasonable
    allowance for these novel and unexpected aspects of war at sea; but it can not consent to abate any
    essential or fundamental right of its people because of a mere alteration of circumstance. The
    rights of neutrals in time of war are based upon principle, not upon expediency, and the
    principles are immutable. It is the duty and obligation of belligerents to find a way to adapt the
    new circumstances to them.
   The events of the past two months have clearly indicated that it is possible and practicable to
    conduct such submarine operations as have characterized the activity of the Imperial German
    Navy within the so-called war zone in substantial accord with the accepted practices of regulated
    warfare. The whole world has looked with interest and increasing satisfaction at the demonstration
    of that possibility by German naval commanders. It is manifestly possible, therefore, to lift the
    whole practice of submarine attack above the criticism which it has aroused and remove the chief
    causes of offense.
   In view of the admission of illegality made by the Imperial Government when it pleaded the right
    of retaliation in defense of its acts, and in view of the manifest possibility of conforming to the
    established rules of naval warfare, the Government of the United States can not believe that the
    Imperial Government will longer refrain from disavowing the wanton act of its naval commander
    in sinking the "Lusitania" or from offering reparation for the American lives lost, so far as
    reparation can be made for a needless destruction of human life by an illegal act.
   The Government of the United States, while not indifferent to the friendly spirit in which it is
    made, can not accept the suggestion of the Imperial German Government that certain vessels be
    designated and agreed upon which shall be free on the seas now illegally proscribed. The very
    agreement would, by implication, subject other vessels to illegal attack, and would be a
    curtailment and therefore an abandonment of the principles for which this government contends,
    and which in times of calmer counsels every nation would concede as of course. The Government
    of the United States and the Imperial German Government are contending for the same great
    object, have long stood together in urging the very principles upon which the Government of the
    United States now so solemnly insists. They are both contending for the freedom of the seas.
   The Government of the United States will continue to contend for that freedom, from
    whatever quarter violated. without compromise and at any cost. It invites the practical
    cooperation of the Imperial German Government at this time, when cooperation may accomplish
    most and this great common object be most strikingly and effectively achieved.... Repetition by
    the commanders of German naval vessels of acts in contravention of those [neutral] rights must be
    regarded by the Government of the United States, when they affect American citizens, as
    deliberately unfriendly.
   The rules of blockade were largely embodied in a generally accepted customary law, rather than in
    clear written terms. The Paris Declaration of 1856 laid out only a
   few broad rules: privateering was abolished; neutral goods, except contraband (not defined), were
    not subject to capture; a neutral flag protected a belligerent's
   goods, except for contraband; and a blockade to be legal must be effective [Click here to read the
    text - part of WW1-WWW].
   In 1908-1909 there was an international effort to codify the laws of maritime war in a more
    systematic fashion, resulting in the Declaration of London. The British
   House of Lords refused to ratify the accord and thus it did not come into legal force either for
    Britain or any other nation. There nonetheless was a sort of unofficial
   understanding that the Declaration would be treated as a statement of customary law. At the outset
    of the war Germany declared her intention to abide by it, and the
   United States tried without success to persuade Britain to make a similar pledge.
   Almost immediately after the outbreak of war Britain took measures that violated the traditional
    laws of blockade, including the expansion of the definition of
   "contraband" to include all food and other traditionally exempt goods, the prolonged detention and
    search of neutral ships in British ports (as opposed to inspection
   at sea), and the announcement that the entire North Sea was a war zone and subject to mining.
   The Royal Navy was also forced by the threat of the mine and torpedo to adopt a strategy of
    distant blockade rather than the traditional close blockade. Bailey at least
   regards this as a clear violation of the traditional law that blockade, to be legal, must be effective.
    The Paris Declaration of 1856 states only that "Blockades, in order
   to be binding, must be effective, that is to say, maintained by a force sufficient really to prevent
    access to the enemy." The British blockade was certainly
   effective--German commerce vanished from the seas--and it is not clear why a distant blockade
    would be inherently illegal. Article 1 of the Declaration of London
   states that "A blockade must not extend beyond the ports and coasts belonging to or occupied by
    the enemy," but this appears merely to state that neutral ports could
   not be directly blockaded, a prohibition stated more clearly in Article 18. Article 30 would seem to
    implicitly allow distant blockade, as it permits the blockading
   force to seize any "absolute contraband" (goods of a clearly military character) ultimately bound
    for the enemy, even if it is to be transhipped through a neutral port; a
   blockade confined to the immediate approaches to an enemy port clearly would not result in
    capture of such goods. The seizure of transhipped goods incorporated
   the concept of "continuous voyage," espoused by Britain. The British did in fact violate the
    unratified Declaration, and the traditional rules of blockade, by their
   expansion of the continuous-voyage principle to civilian goods, but this is a separate matter from
    the legality of distant blockade per se.
   On 4 February 1915 Germany announced a blockade policy that, like Britain's, was in violation of
    the traditional rules of war. She declared a war zone around the
   British Isles and announced that all enemy merchant ships in that area, armed and unarmed, were
    subject to destruction "without its always being possible" to
   provide warning. International law clearly called for merchant ships to be warned, and their crews
    allowed to abandon ship, before they were sunk.
   Bailey and Ryan are wrong in equally branding the British and German blockades as
    "unquestionably illegal 'paper blockades,'" and in simplistically referring to
   LUSITANIA as a "blockade runner." At this time the U-boat force was small, and only a small
    proportion of British merchant ships were being sunk. The British
   blockade was illegal in several respects, but in no way can its efficacy be compared to that of the
    German U-boat campaign at this stage of the war; British commerce
   continued to flow essentially unimpeded, albeit with some losses. [Bailey and Ryan, pp. 94-95,
   Criticism of U.S. policy during the neutrality period centers on our tolerance of British blockade
    methods and on the large-scale provision of war materiel and loans
   to the Allies.
   Bailey and Ryan are critical of the U.S. failure to protest the illegalities of the British blockade as
    stridently as we did the German violations, remarking several
   times, for example, on the absence of any official U.S. protest over the mining of the North Sea.
    "The slow strangulation of Germany was achieved by an
   unorthodox long-range British blockade. Profit-hungry America, with a remarkable show of
    unneutrality, was acquiescing in it , while simultaneously shipping
   mountainous piles of munitions to the United Kingdom." [pp. 31, 38, 330]
   By another interpretation, well expressed by Arthur Link, U.S. acquiescence in the British
    blockade, and continued trade with the Allies, was a proper policy. Trade
   by a neutral with a belligerent was not only permitted under international law but was in fact
    normal practice. To cut off British access to American goods and
   credits, in Link's view, would in itself be an unneutral action. Britain's command of the sea was a
    legitimate military advantage, and Britain was entitled to reap the
   benefits of it; navies exist not for show, but to protect one's own commerce and to choke off that
    of the enemy.
   The Wilson Administration recognized the illegalities in British blockade practice. It did not
    oppose the Allied blockade as forcefully as it did German submarine
   operations, both because of its pro-Allied sympathies and because the British blockade, onerous as
    it was, did not cause direct destruction and death. There was
   nonetheless a great deal of friction between the United States and Britain on blockade policy
    almost to the moment the United States declared war on Germany.
   Tensions became especially severe in late 1916, after the resolution of the SUSSEX crisis.
    Wilson--angered by Britain's failure to cooperate in his peace efforts, by
   British blacklisting of U.S. firms, opening of U.S. mails, and other measures--was in Link's view
    moving rapidly toward a completely neutral position, as the
   President's private statements at the time suggest. Bailey and Ryan understate or ignore these
    disputes between the United States and the Allies, both before and
   after the LUSITANIA sinking. While their fundamental point of U.S. favoritism toward the Allies
    is undeniably true, Wilson's policy was much more nuanced than
   their work suggests.
   Bailey and Ryan are critical of the U.S. trade in war materiel with Britain, while conceding that
    such trade between a neutral and a belligerent was not only legal but
   was normal international practice. They note that Congress did have the power to ban such trade
    with belligerents (as in fact it did in 1935, at a time when many saw
   this munitions trade as a major cause of U.S. involvement in the war). While a case can be made
    that Congress and the Wilson Administration should have
   restrained the arms trade to maintain U.S. neutrality, Bailey and Ryan take this to excess when
    they state that "Morally the Germans had a strong case when they
   urged the Washington government to clamp an embargo on such munitions in the interests of
    humanity, including a shortening of the blood-draining war." Neither
   Germany nor the Allies at this point was receptive to a compromise peace, and the only means by
    which either side proposed to shorten the war was by winning it.
   It is difficult, then, to see what moral standing Germany would have to call for the cessation of
    arms shipments to its enemies in the name of humanity; clearly
   Germany was not proposing to curtail its own arms production, and a domestically manufactured
    bullet or shell has much the same effect on human flesh as an
   imported one. To reiterate the point stressed by Link, British access to imports was the result of a
    naval superiority which was a perfectly legitimate military
   advantage, just as, say, German superiority in heavy artillery and staff organization was a
    legitimate advantage in the war on land. [Bailey and Ryan, p. 97]
   The critics of U.S. policy, including Bailey and Ryan, have a much stronger case when we move
    from trade and blockade in the broadest sense to the operational
   nature of the U-boat war and the U.S. response to it. In the diplomatic wrangling over the German
    submarine campaign in 1915- 1916, the United States
   Government persistently failed to acknowledge the validity of the German point that it was not
    reasonable to expect a submarine to endanger herself by giving
   warning to a merchantman that was likely to be armed and under orders to ram any U-boat
    encountered (one exception to this was Secretary of State Lansing's
   abortive effort at a compromise arrangement in early 1916, which will be briefly discussed later).
    Furthermore, Wilson's rigid insistence that U.S. citizens were
   sacrosanct even when traveling on belligerent ships was not reasonable and had no foundation in
    international law. The President carried this point to an extreme in
   early 1916 when he quashed a Congressional effort to issue a mere warning--not a ban--advising
    Americans against traveling on armed belligerent merchantmen; in
   Wilson's view the presence of American citizens even on a defensively armed British
    merchantmen made an attack on such a ship an affront to the United States.
   Link's failure to criticize Wilson on these points is one sign of partiality in a generally excellent
   Colin Simpson condemns U.S. support of Britain and the Allies, in a much more intemperate and
    less knowledgeable fashion than Thomas Bailey. Simpson, as his
   fashion, casts his story largely in conspiratorial terms with a liberal dose of personal scorn. At one
    point Simpson descends to the absurd--when he states in
   connection with the Secretary of State's support for a perfectly legal bank loan to the Allies that if
    Lansing's "inclinations had favoured the Germans, he would
   undoubtedly have eventually been convicted of high treason." [p. 57, ch. 4 in the Penguin edition]
   There are serious flaws of fact as well in Simpson's treatment of U.S. neutrality policy. He states
    that the German liners in the United States "were interned on the
   grounds that they were auxiliary cruisers of the German Navy and there has never been a
    satisfactory explanation why the American authorities did not give the same
   treatment to the LUSITANIA. German sources, have, perhaps uncharitably, claimed that it was
    because Morgan and Co., who owned a large part of the equity the
   German liners represented, did not wish to expose their investments to the attentions of the British
    Navy which constantly patrolled the mouth of the Hudson
   River." Simpson's characteristic insinuation of venality would have more force if there were any
    truth in the broader premise. The United States Government did not
   classify German merchantmen in U.S. ports as "auxiliary cruisers," and these German ships were
    never forcibly detained until the U.S. declaration of war in April
   1917. The German owners kept their ships in American ports for the perfectly simple and logical
    reason that they would be captured by patrolling British warships if
   they ventured out. In a book whose main subject is the maritime war between Britain and
    Germany, and the U.S. involvement in it during our period of neutrality,
   this is a serious error, and indicative of both bias and lack of knowledge. [Simpson, p. 101, fn.]
   One diplomatic episode of early 1916, discussed by Simpson, deserves mention as it is pertinent to
    U.S. handling of the submarine campaign. This occurred after
   Wilson's three LUSITANIA notes to the Germans, and after Germany pledged, following the
    sinking of ARABIC, to refrain from sinking passenger ships without
   warning. While Colonel House was in Europe on a peace mission, Secretary of State Robert
    Lansing launched what Link describes as "one of the most maladroit
   blunders in American diplomatic history."
   Lansing, with Wilson's approval, proposed a modus vivendi to end unrestricted submarine
    warfare. The Allies would pledge to disarm all their merchant ships,
   while Germany and Austria would agree not to sink merchantmen without warning. The British
    were dismayed, believing that such an agreement would leave their
   merchant fleet completely at the mercy of the Germans. The Central Powers were far more
    receptive. In a conversation with Austrian charge Baron Zwiedinek,
   Lansing gave the impression that the United States would welcome a German- Austrian
    declaration of unrestricted warfare against armed ships. The baron duly
   reported this, and in response on 10 February 1916 Germany announced that it would attack
    armed merchant ships without warning (although it had never exactly
   renounced such attacks; the ARABIC pledge applied only to unresisting liners). The Wilson
    Administration, though, almost immediately disowned the modus
   vivendi in the face of British resistance, and deplored the new submarine policy which the
    Germans and Austrians thought Lansing had approved. [This is a tangled
   story; for more details see Link, pp. 205-10, or especially Patrick Devlin, "Too Proud to Fight:
    Woodrow Wilson's Neutrality (Oxford, 1975), pp. 410-50.]
   Simpson sees a dark plot in this fiasco. "Colonel House and Wilson had evolved a plan whereby
    America was to enter the war on the Allied side," although
   subsequently Simpson seems to suggest a more convoluted motivation which is not easy to
    follow--Wilson wanted to wreck the LUSITANIA negotiations to win
   the election, while simultaneously effecting a peace settlement in Europe and plotting American
    entry into the war. After Lansing proposed his modus vivendi,
   Wilson explained this master plan to him, and Lansing "devised a Machiavellian solution,"
    deliberately enticing the Germans into declaring unrestricted submarine
   warfare against armed merchantmen, to embarrass them and destroy the negotiations over the
    LUSITANIA notes.
   Lansing, Simpson says, "admitted the trick long after the war." This is one of many
    undocumented, or very vaguely documented, assertions in Simpson's work. If
   the source is Lansing's memoirs, Simpson is simply wrong, for Lansing does not admit a
    deliberate plot but only a mix-up involving an alleged misunderstanding
   of his words by Baron Zwiedinek, compounded by some machinations against Lansing on the part
    of Count Bernstorff, the German ambassador. Devlin believes
   that Lansing was covering up his own careless misstatement of the U.S. position by blaming the
    error on Zwiedinek's misinterpretation. In any event, there is
   absolutely no evidence for a deliberate set-up of the Germans by Lansing and Wilson. If Lansing's
    memoirs are the source of Simpson's assertion, he is grossly
   misusing the evidence to support his taste for conspiratorial theories. A more fundamental flaw is
    his implausible depiction of Woodrow Wilson as a devious
   practitioner of ruthless realpolitik, scheming in early 1916 to embroil the United States in war with
    Germany. Whatever the faults of Woodrow Wilson, there has
   never been a President who took this country to war with greater anguish and reluctance.
    [Simpson, p. 241, ch. 18; Devlin, p. 447; Lansing, "The War Memoirs of
   Robert Lansing," pp. 112-14]
   Robert Lansing gets scant respect from many historians--a bumbler to some, a "weak man" to
    another (Robert H. Ferrell in "Woodrow Wilson & World War I"), a
   scheming, devious "chameleon" to Colin Simpson. To Bailey and Ryan (who barely mention this
    episode) he is a supine tool of the Allies, while Link on the other
   hand blames him for endangering relations with the Allies by proposing to disarm their merchant
    ships. Lansing no doubt deserves most of the blame for the modus
   vivendi fiasco. In retrospect, though, his basic idea--that merchant ships be disarmed in return for
    a German pledge to warn them before attacking--seems an
   honorable and fair-minded effort to stop the slide into unrestricted warfare at sea. In taking
    Lansing to task for the idea, Arthur Link again does not quite admit that
   there was justice in the German position that a U-boat could not be expected to expose itself to an
    armed merchantman--although in an indirect way he comes close
   to this in his statement in this context that Lansing's "sense of fairness sometimes outran his
    strategic thinking."
   The traditional rules of war stipulated that a warship must warn a merchantman and allow its
    passengers and crew to abandon ship before sinking it, unless the
   merchant ship resisted or attempted to escape, or was in convoy under the protection of warships.
    A limited armament on a merchant ship, such as a gun or two for
   protection against pirates or lightly armed raiders, did not necessarily nullify the ship's immunity
    to attack without warning. A cargo of munitions or war materiel
   did not affect a merchant ship's status in this respect, although it certainly legitimized destruction
    of the ship and cargo after removal of passengers and crew.
   Traditional international law, however, did not anticipate the extensive arming of merchantmen
    that took place in 1914- 1918 or the advent of the submarine, a
   uniquely vulnerable craft, as a commerce raider.
   Even before the war the British government publicly took steps toward the arming of
    merchantmen. On 17 March 1914 Winston Churchill told the Commons that
   forty merchant ships had each been armed with two 4.7-inch guns. He claimed that by the end of
    the fiscal year 1914- 1915, on 1 March 1915, seventy ships would
   be so armed. In Bailey and Ryan's account, "these formidable weapons would be mounted in the
    stern so that they could be fired only at a pursuer, and the vessels
   so armed were or would be ships engaged exclusively in carrying food to Britain. They would not
    be permitted to fight enemy surface warships and would be under
       instructions to surrender when overtaken by such foes." Presumably such an armament would be
        intended for use against lightly armed auxiliary cruisers, but it was
       bound to call the status of British merchantmen into question. Admiral Fisher, perceiving this,
        wrote to Prime Minister Asquith on 14 May 1914 that "the recent
       arming of our British merchant ships is unfortunate, for it gives the hostile submarine an excellent
        excuse (if she needs one) for sinking them." [Bailey and Ryan,
       pages 10-11]
       After the outbreak of war the Admiralty issued orders to merchant ships dictating resistance to U-
        boats when possible. The orders of 10 February 1915 directed
       merchant ships to escape when possible, but "if a submarine comes up suddenly close ahead of
        you with obvious hostile intention, steer straight for her at your
       utmost speed..." Further instructions, issued ten days later, told armed steamers to open fire on a
        submarine even if it had not yet fired. Given the extreme
       vulnerability of a submarine, either to ramming or to even small-caliber shellfire, a U-boat that
        surfaced and gave warning against a merchantman so instructed was
       putting itself in serious peril. The Germans were well aware of these orders; although they were
        meant to be secret, copies were soon obtained from captured ships
       (and, Beesly indicates, from wireless intercepts as well). [Beesly, "Room 40," p. 94]
       There were a number of instances of such resistance to U-boats before the sinking of
        LUSITANIA. The first recorded ramming of a U-boat by a merchant ship
       came on 28 February 1915, when the steamer THORDIS rammed and damaged a submarine off
        the south coast of England (Bailey and Ryan state that five U- boats
       were sunk by ramming before May 1915, but they are not clear on whether any of these sinkings
        were by merchant ships). Most merchant ships, however, did not
       yet have guns, and there are only two known cases of armed resistance to submarines before the
        sinking of LUSITANIA. [Bailey and Ryan, p. 53-54, p. 351n]
       There is no clear indication that the United States Government was aware of the secret orders until
        December 1915, after the despatch of all three LUSITANIA
       notes. Bailey and Ryan imply that knowledge of such orders might have tempered the U.S.
        response to the sinking of LUSITANIA. [Bailey and Ryan, pp. 48-49,
       54]
       Bailey and Ryan rightly put much emphasis on the secret Admiralty orders to merchantmen to fire
        upon or ram U-boats when possible; it is not reasonable to expect
       a submarine to surface and give warning under such circumstances. This, not the phantom
        munitions, the nonexistent armament, or any other conspiracy notion, is
       much the best argument for the German case in the sinking of LUSITANIA and in the tactics of
        their submarines in general.

5. Morgan Loans - Allied Arsenal

       total trade increased from $824 million (1914) to $3.2 billion (1916)
       munitions trade increased from $40 million (1914) to $1.3 billion (1916)
       US position in 1914-1915
             o cash and carry - government would not loan - nor would it allow others to until 1915
             o 1915 - allies ran out of cash and got private not government loans
             o JP Morgan asked Wilson to change the policy
       26 August, 1915 - Wilson had a Change of Attitude on War Loans
             o by this time WJ Bryan had been replaced by Robert Lansing as Secretary of State
             o J.P. Morgan - loaned $2.3 billion to British and French between 1915 and 1917
                        used to purchase weapons and food
       Bankers and munitions manufacturers could not resist profits
           o if Allies lost - they would not get their money
           o "vested interest"
                      Industrial Revolution changed neutrality - laws did not adjust
       Does this look neutral to Germany?

7. Preparedness - proposed Nov. 1915

       Army - 80,000 = only enough to provide security at home
       Navy - powerful, yet not large enough to take the war to Europe
       Air Force - part of army - 16 planes
       Wilson proposed enlarging all 3 using taxes
       Isolationists, Progressives and even Conservatives were opposed

8. Gore-McLemore resolutions - 2/16

       attempted to prevent Americans from travel into war zones
       public approved - Wilson did not
            o felt it would be a humiliation
            o felt it violated freedom of the seas
       Could this have kept us out of war?
            o Was this a better option than the Sussex Pledge?

2. House-Grey Memorandum (Peace Without Victory) - 2/16

       instead, Wilson tried to force an end to the war - offered to mediate
       US threatened to declare war on Germany if they would not meet
       clearly sided with Allies - those who favored our entry into the war pushed it

b. Sussex Pledge - 3/24/16 - French passenger ship -wounded several Americans

       how many times should we turn the other cheek?
       1. no merchant ships would be attacked if US would be neutral
       2. kept promise for 9 months - used time to build more subs
       3. waited for US to return to neutral position

a. June 3, 1916 - National Defense Act

       Wilson got part of what he was after
       1) Army from 100,000 to 220,000
       2) National Guard 400,000
       3) $500 million - Navy
       4) Tax wealthy, Inheritance Tax, Windfall Profits Tax
       b. Aug. 1916 - Council for National Defense
       Did this move us closer to war?

B. The United States Enters War

1. Election of 1916
       Charles Evans Hughes (R) - tied to the pro-war faction
       Woodrow Wilson (D) - "kept us out of war" - winner
       Blacklist of US companies dealing with Central Powers
             o 1. Strained relations with England
             o 2. US never returned to neutrality
       Jan. 22, 1917 - Wilson speaks to Congress
             o both England and Germany wanted peace with victory
             o Too late for negotiation

3. German Unrestricted submarine warfare - 2/1/17 - primary causeof US entry

       gambled on US entry not making a difference - reinstituted war zone and enlarged it
            o Feb. 2 - Laconia sank, Americans killed
            o Feb. 3 - U.S. broke relations w/Germany
       expected to starve England into submission before US could make a difference
       Wilson had issued ultimatums threatening war during the Lusitania and Sussex crisis
       He was forced to cut off relations with Germany to save face
            o This put us on the verge of war

5. Zimmerman Note - 2/24/17 intercepted

       Arthur Zimmermann - German ambassador to Mexico
       sent to Mexico - intercepted by British who held it till the right time - 3/1
       proposed Mexico declare war on US if US went to war with Germany
             o offered return of lands lost to US
       England released note - public demanded war

4. Armed Neutrality

       Wilson wanted to become an armed neutral - filibustered
            o Feb. 26 - Wilson asks Congress to arm merchant ships
       we armed American merchants ships with guns

6. Tsar Nicholas II overthrown - 3/17

       Kerensky and democracy came briefly to Russia then came Lenin and Trotsky
       US viewed war as - democracy vs. autocracy
       removed one of Wilson's major objections to the war

7. 3/17 - 3 US ships attacked (200 US deaths - total) – US demanded war

8. Wilson War Message - 4/2/17 - Idealism (Democracy)

       April 4 - Congress approves war declaration
       370-50 House / 82-6 Senate - unrestricted sub warfare made the difference
       US sought balance of power
            o a. Peace Without Victory - make world safe for democracy
                      morality
                      war to end all wars
            o b. based on 14 Points
       US had economic interest in the outcome
       most Americans just wanted to win - idealism not overwhelming to them
       April 6 - Wilson signs Declaration of War into law
              o Why?
                         1. Sub warfare
                         2. Ideological interests with Allies
                         3. Economic interests
                         4. Allied propaganda
                         5. Morally right - Wilson
       Is it too late for US to mobilize?
       Based on the information up to this point does it appear that the US made the correct decision?
       Would the outcome change your perspective?

C. The Yanks are Coming

1. American Expeditionary Force (AEF)

       led by John J. Pershing
       US forces were under the Allied command of Marshall Foch - France
             o 6/17 - small in number
             o French wanted to use them as replacements - Pershing said no
             o not much difference at 1st

2. convoy system

       did have an immediate impact
       protection of ships going to England
       kept England from surrendering

D. The Last Years of the War

1. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk - 3/3/18

       Germans helped V.I. Lenin return to Russia
       11/8/17 - Bolshevik Revolution - (communists) - Trotsky headed army
       1918 - Russia surrendered to Germany
            o Russia gave up Baltic states, Poland, and Ukraine
            o Americans felt cheated
                      Br. and US invaded Russia (Archangel and Vladivostok)
                      US withdrew 5000 troops in late 1920

2. Doughboys - 1 million American soldiers make a difference

       the Germans had a chance to win by moving their entire army to the Western Front
            o tried to win before we could make a difference
            o American men and supplies were pouring in by 1/18 and stopped the German advance
            o Battle of Chateau-Thierry - 6/1/1918
                     turned the tide
                     saved Paris

E. Geography as Enemy

       Battle of Argonne Forest
            o    used as much ammo in one month as the entire US Civil War did in four years
            o    black soldiers were among the first to receive the Croix de Guerre from France
            o    yet we did not reward them with equality

F. All Quiet On The Western Front

       11/11/18 - armistice (Germany expected it to be based on the 14 points)
       Allied powers might have survived, but would not have won without US aid
       We were on the winning side - Does that fact alone justify the decision to enter the war?

III. On The Home Front - Mobilization

A. You're in the Army Now

       Selective Service Act - 5/17 - army = 200,000 when we entered the war
            o conscription - military draft - no substitutes - 18 to 45 (originally 21-30)
            o 3 million drafted out of 24 million listed - used lottery
            o 2 million volunteered / only 1.7 million served in combat
            o 370,000 blacks served

B. Organizing Industry

1. Increased Presidential Powers

       Wilson - "It is not an army we must shape and train, it is a nation."
            o centralized organization
            o planned economy
            o even wealthy supported - no laissez faire
       Wilson provided strong leadership
       Given emergency powers by Congress
       Council of National Defense - created agencies - 500
            o created a level of regulation never seen before
            o Overman Act - gave President special powers

2. War Industries Board - 7/17

       Bernard Baruch
       coordinated industry and expanded production of war materials - set prices
            o Iron and steel shift from cars and trains to weapons
            o textiles used for uniforms instead of civilian clothes
       created shortages of domestic goods at home
            o Railroad Admin. - William McAdoo
            o Shipping Board - Albert Laskin
       supported by big business
            o government agreed to purchase all they could produce
            o wealthy regained control of business from Progressives

C. "Labor Will Win The War"

1. War Labor Board - 4/18
       mediated labor disputes to prevent strikes
            o work for everyone
       Samuel Gompers - AFL
            o 1. no strikes
            o 2. 8 hr. day
            o 3. unions legalized given right to collective bargaining
            o 4. wages rose faster than prices
       Union membership increased from 2.7 million to 4+ million

2. IWW - International Workers of the World

       Union that opposed the war
       Argued that the war was being fought for the rich
       Discredited the Socialist movement in America

3. Women and Blacks

       Women
            o a. industrial jobs
            o b. Red Cross
            o c. 19th Amendment - reward for their service
       Blacks
            o a. 370,000 drafted - not allowed to serve in combat except in segregated units - 40,000
            o b. soldiers became black leaders
            o c. rising expectations disappointed - race riots - 1917-1919
            o d. movement from southern farms to factory jobs in northern cities - 500,000
       Mexican-Americans

D. Conservation - voluntary rationing

1. Food Administration - 8/17

       Herbert Hoover
       increased farm output - set prices high
       Hooverizing - encouraged public to conserve food
             o 1. wheatless meatless, porkless, and sugarless days
             o 2. victory gardens

2. Fuel Administration

       Harry Garfield
           o heatless and lightless days
           o daylight savings time

E. Financing the War

       Liberty Bonds - 4 bond drives
            o Sec. of Treasury William McAdoo
            o Raised taxes and tariffs - 10 billion
            o Liberty war bonds - 23 billion - main source of income
                    21 million people bought war bonds
                    people loaned the government money which it would owe plus interest after the
F. Rallying Public Opinion

1. U.S. had a cultural tie to England

       even immigrants created divided loyalties
            o Germans were the largest foreign-born immigrant group
            o Irish Americans supported the Central Powers against England as well
       common cultural ties with England offset these new immigrants
            o language
            o literature
            o law
            o democracy
            o many volunteered to help the Allies

2. Propaganda - British cut underwater cable from Germany

       news was one sided
            o similar to US Yellow Journalism during Spanish American War
       Bryce Report: Belgian Neutrality violated by Germany
       Deportation of citizens
       Zeppelin - bombing London
       Kaiser Wilhelm - atrocities - painted as militaristic and barbaric

G. Enforcing Loyalty

       censorship - Program to limit press and speech - criticism viewed as disloyalty - intolerable
       To suppress dissent or criticism Congress passed three acts

1. Trading with the Enemies Act

       Postmaster General could censor any publications exchanged with foreign countries

2. Sedition Act - 1918 - extended the espionage act

       prohibited speech that was disloyal, profane, or abusive of the government, flag, Constitution, or
        armed forces
       casual remarks against the government or war effort led to arrest of 1500+
       most important restriction

3. Espionage Act - 1917

       punished anyone found guilty of helping the enemy, hindering recruitment, or inciting revolt
       $10,000 fine and 20 yrs. prison for spreading false rumors to impede the war effort
       illegal to obstruct draft or war bonds

4. Schenck v. U.S. - 1919 - ruled these laws Constitutional

       Oliver Wendell Holmes - vote 9-0
            o clear and present danger to national security
            o leaflets challenging draft
       Abrams vs. U.S. Sedition Act constitutional
            o Congressmen were refused seats
             o  Anarchist - Emma Goldman - 2 years in prison for opposing the draft
             o  Socialists and Communists were persecuted
                     Eugene V. Debs given 10 yr. prison sentence
                               for predicting the triumph of socialism over capitalism
                               pardoned 12/21
             o IWW - leader - William D. Haywood - convicted of sedition
                     94 members of IWW also convicted
             o ACLU created to protect civil rights - 1920 - American Civil Liberties Union
       anti-German sentiment out of control at home
             o 1. books burned
             o 2. names changed
             o 3. people fired, tarred and feathered, even hanged

H. Promoting Patriotism

       American Creed - William Tyler Page

I. Building Support for the War

1. Committee on Public Education and Information -4/17

       George Creel
       influence public opinion to create support for the war effort - selling the war
             o posters and leaflets to sell the war
             o introduced the singing of the national anthem
       opposition to any deviant social behavior led to Prohibition, immigration restriction
             o anti-German attitudes - anti - foreigner attitudes
             o easy to create - hard to stop once the war was over

Did the affects of mobilization change your mind about the correctness of entering the war?

Why or why not?

VI. Peacemaking, Mapmaking, Policymaking

A. Wilson's 14 Points - Peace Without Victory - 1/8/18 -Idealism

        1. Open covenants of peace - open treaties
        2. Absolute freedom of navigation - freedom of seas
        3. Removal of trade barriers
        4. Reduction of arms to defensive levels - elimination of wars for empires
        5. Impartial adjustment of all colonial claims
        6. Evacuation of all foreign troops from Russia
        7. Evacuation of all foreign troops from Belgium
        8. Evacuation of German troops from France; restoration of Alsace-Lorraine to France
        9. Readjustment of Italy's borders
        10. Self-determination for nationalities in Austria-Hungary - national self-determination -
        political boundaries set by cultural ties
        11. Evacuation of foreign troops from Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro
        12. Self-determination for nationalities in Turkish Empire
        13. Establishment of an independent Poland
        14. Establishment of League of Nations - world peacekeeping organization to protect weak and
        settle disputes

                 need for world order - one international government devoted to justice

       This plan convinced Germany to sign the armistice
            o they felt that they had not lost the war since they had not been invaded
            o they felt that Wilson's plan was fair
       Completely in conflict with European plan

B. The Paris Peace Talks - Wilson's Three Mistakes

1. Wilson abandoned bipartisanship

       Democrats attempted to take all the credit for winning the war - angered Republicans
       Wilson refused to take Republicans with him to France
       This turned Republicans against him and guaranteed that Wilson would be blamed if the outcome
        were not perfect

2. European plan differed from Wilson's

       secret treaties existed between the Allied countries which we did not know about
       Europeans planned to divide up the world for profit
       The Bolsheviks were cut out of their share for surrendering and published the secret documents
       Europe was more interested in punishing enemies than in permanent peace
       This caused conflict between Europe and the US

3. Wilson's personality hurt process

       Stubborn
       Self-righteous
       Unwilling to compromise

C. New Nations from Old Empires - Treaty of Versailles -1919

1. Big Four

       David Lloyd George - Prime Minister - Great Britain
            o 1. goal - maintain naval supremacy
            o 2. goal - make Germany pay for war damages
       Georges Clemenceau - France
            o 1. goal - revenge - do to Germany what had been done to them
            o 2. goal - make Germany pay for damages
            o 3. goal - make sure Germany was not powerful enough to seek revenge
       Vittorio Orlando - Italy
            o 1. goal - expand by acquiring territory
       Woodrow Wilson - US - 1st to leave US while President

2. Four Empires had collapsed

       Russia
       Austria-Hungary
       the Ottoman Empire
       Germany

3. Victories and defeats for National Self-Determination

       Russia lost land - national self-determination used to create
            o Finland
            o Latvia
            o Lithuania
            o Estonia
            o Poland
       Austia-Hungary
            o Austria
            o Hungary
            o Czechoslovakia
            o Yugoslavia
       Ottoman Empire - mandates - land supervised by the Allies under League of Nations supervision
            o Syria - France
            o Palestine - England
            o Iraq - England

D. A Treaty of Peace or Vengeance?

       They met at the Palace of Versailles
             o Paris Peace Conference (Jan.-June 1919)
             o site of the treaty signing which ended the Franco-Prussian War of 1871 - not a good sign
       1st issue agreed on was the League of Nations
             o General Assembly - 1 vote/nation
             o Executive Council of 5 - voted on joint action for military
             o Germany and USSR left out
             o Wilson's failure to invite Republicans to France made acceptance of the Treaty difficult
                        created immediate opposition to the League at home
                        Wilson left to return home to convince the US to support the League
                        While he was gone England and France wrote the rest of the treaty based on
                            their plan
                        compromised because he believed the League was critical
       1. Article 231 - war guilt clause - required Germany to accept full guilt for starting the war
       2. Germany lost huge chunks of land
             o Alsace-Lorraine returned to France
             o Rhineland demilitarized as a buffer between France and Germany
                        occupied by Fr. - 15 yrs.
             o Polish Corridor taken from Germany
             o Saar Valley taken by League to ensure reparations payments - 15 yrs.
                        coal fields
             o Sudetenland taken away from Germany and added to Czechoslovakia
             o All German colonies were taken away
       3. the size of the German army and navy were limited
             o a. army - 100,000 volunteers no draft allowed
             o b. subs, airplanes, tanks, and war industries outlawed
       4. Reparations of unspecified amount required Germany to pay for damages caused by the war
             o eventually the amount was set at $33 billion
             o designed to keep Germany broke until paid off in 1986
             o only managed to pay $4.5 billion
       Germany protested and refused to sign, but when the US took no action, they had no choice
                o   Treaty signed under the same circumstances as with the Franco-Prussian War - 6/28/19
                o   and created in Germany the same desire for revenge that France had once felt
                o   Led directly to the rise of Adolph Hitler when it was not enforced

E. The Treaty in the Senate - US Reaction to the Treaty of Versailles

           Wilson had been forced to accept a harsh treaty in order to get the League of Nations
                 o was this a good decision?
                 o Most Americans including Wilson were disillusioned by the treaty and expected it to led
                     to another war - Wilson felt the only hope was the League
                 o 1918 - Republicans regained control of the Senate
                           were upset at not being included at Paris
                           political cartoon
           Article X - heart of League - mutual security alliance
                 o entangling alliance
                 o would require us as members to defend one another's territory against aggression
                 o Senator Henry Cabot Lodge - chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee
                           was the leading reservationist
                           Felt that Article 10 would get US into another European war
                           Felt that England would control the votes
                           Delayed hearings and allowed public support to die - a way to get even with
                           Willing to accept League if reservation (amendment) added
                                    requiring Congressional approval to use US troops
                           14 irreconcilables - opposed to the League in any form
           Wilson speaking tour took the issue to the people and was making headway, but was ended by
           Wilson's refusal to compromise led to a defeat for the treaty - 11/19/19
                 o and again in 1920 - 49/35 in favor with reservations - 7 short
           US signed separate peace and refused to join the League
           1920 Election became a referendum on the League of Nations
                 o a. James Cox (D) - favored the League
                 o b. Warren G. Harding (R) - favored a Return to Normalcy
                           1. opposed the League
                           2. favored a return to isolation from Europe

Should the US have entered World War I? Has your answer changed after considering the treaty?

Consider the results summarized below and explain whether it was a good decision. Why or why not?

F. The Global Impact of the War

G. The War's Impact on the United States

League of Nations - weakened by the failure of the US to join -it faced many problems

1. Social

           10 million soldiers killed and 20 million soldiers wounded
                o a. Germany - 1.8 million
                o a. Russia - 1.7 million
                o b. France - 1.4 million
                o c. England - 900,000
              o d. US - 112,432 only 49,000 in combat
        casualties affected marriage and birth rates
        millions of civilians wounded and killed
        starvation was widespread
        world hatred increased
        extreme nationalism created
        idealism replaced by cynicism and materialism
        in the US women were rewarded with the right to vote
        growth of nativism at home in America
              o racism and race riots
              o blacks not rewarded for their sacrifices

2. Economic

        total cost over $350 billion ($33billion - US)
        resulted in higher taxes and lower standards of living
        trade suffered - tariffs were raised
        Communist economic system in USSR took them out of world trade
        depression - factories, farms and railroads destroyed
        US became a creditor nation - and an exporter - clearly the richest nation in the world
              o higher standards of living here

3. Political

        Discontent led to the rise of dictators in Russia, Italy, and Germany
             o Weimar Republic - Germany
                       blamed for signing Treaty of Versailles
                       blamed for depression
                                 lack of food
                                 lack of fuel
                       doomed democracy in Germany - led to Hitler
        began Europe's decline as world leader
             o Hohenzollern, Hapsburg, and Romanov Dynasties gone
             o new nations created in Europe
        Communist Russia
             o Whites (anti-communists) vs. Reds (communists)
             o US, England, France, Japan sided with Whites
             o 1922 USSR created
        Anti-colonialism in the 3rd world
             o The Middle East
                       Balfour Declaration
                                 promised support for the establishment of a national homeland for Jews
                                     in Palestine
                                 divided the territories into Jordan and Palestine, but conflicts postponed
                                 led to race wars between the arabs and the Jews
             o Armenia
                       genocide - systematic destruction of an entire people
                       Ottoman Empire murdered 1.5 million Armenians
                       continued until 1922
        US became the most powerful country in the world
             o turned tide in the war
             o then refused to take responsibility - created a power vacuum
             o returned to a policy of isolation
       broke America's traditional policy of isolation - Monroe Doctrine
       Ended Progressivism and returned us to Laissez - Faire
            o government regulation was accepted, but government control was returned to the rich
       League of Nations created, but without it's only real supporter - the US


#1 - 1989

       "The United States entered the First World War not 'to make the world safe for democracy' as
        President Wilson claimed, but to safeguard American economic interests." Assess the validity of
        this statement.

#2 - 1979

       "Between 1776 and 1823 a young and weak United States achieved considerable success in
        foreign policy when confronted with the two principal European powers, Great Britain and France.
        Between 1914 and 1933, however, a far more powerful United States was far less successful in
        achieving its foreign policy objectives in Europe."

        Discuss by comparing United States foreign policy in Europe during the period 1776-1823, with
        United States policy in Europe during the following period:1914-1932.

#3 - 1982

       Prior to American involvement in both the First and Second World Wars, the United States
        adopted an official policy of neutrality. Compare the policy and its modifications during the period
        1914 - 1917 to the policy and its modifications during the period 1939 - 1941

#4 - 1991

       DBQ: It was the strength of the opposition forces, both liberal and conservative, rather than the
        ineptitude and stubbornness of President Wilson that led to the Senate defeat of the Treaty of
        Versailles. Using the documents and your knowledge of the period 1917 - 1921, assess the validity
        of this statement.

#5 - 1995

       Assess the relative influence of THREE of the following in the American decision to declare war
        on Germany in 1917.

        German naval policy
        American economic interests
        Woodrow Wilson's idealism
        Allied propaganda
        America's claim to world power

To top