guide by G790sJJ


									    Guide to the Internet for History
                                      June 1999

                               Richard M. Rothaus


CHAPTER ONE: Introduction to the Internet ___________________________ 1
    The Internet and the Discipline of History __________________________________________ 1
    Getting Started _______________________________________________________________ 2
    Where did the Internet Come from? _______________________________________________ 2
    What the Internet is (and Isn‘t) ___________________________________________________ 3
    Internet Addresses _____________________________________________________________ 5
CHAPTER TWO: Using the Internet __________________________________ 9
    E-Mail ______________________________________________________________________ 9
    The World-Wide Web _________________________________________________________ 15
    FTPs, Gophers, MU*s and other creatures _________________________________________ 15
CHAPTER THREE: Conducting Research ____________________________ 18
    Resources __________________________________________________________________ 18
    Searching___________________________________________________________________ 23
    A Walk-Through _____________________________________________________________ 27
    Evaluating __________________________________________________________________ 30
    Citations ___________________________________________________________________ 35
CHAPTER FOUR: History on the WWW ______________________________ 37
    General Resources____________________________________________________________ 37
    Maps and Geography _________________________________________________________ 38
    World History _______________________________________________________________ 38
    Prehistory __________________________________________________________________ 39
    The Ancient Near East ________________________________________________________ 39
    Greco-Roman World __________________________________________________________ 41
    Africa _____________________________________________________________________ 43
    Asia _______________________________________________________________________ 46
    Russia and Eastern Europe _____________________________________________________ 50
    Middle East and Islam_________________________________________________________ 52
    Western Europe ______________________________________________________________ 55
    North America_______________________________________________________________ 60
    Central and South America, Caribbean ___________________________________________ 63
    Australia ___________________________________________________________________ 65

Table 1.   Discussion List Commands ___________________________ 14
Table 2.   Internet Directories _________________________________19
Table 3.   Favorite Search Utilities _____________________________ 21
Table 4.   Other Search Utilities _______________________________ 22
Table 5.   Search Engine Limiters ______________________________ 25
Table 6:   On-Line Libraries __________________________________26
Table 7:   Library Catalogs and Bookstores ______________________ 27
CHAPTER ONE: Introduction to the Internet


The rapid development of digital storage capabilities and the opportunities for inter-
connectedness have created new resources (and responsibilities) for students and re-
searchers of History. Not only are new sources of data, graphics, and ideas now easi-
ly available, the wealth and varied formats of the information calls for new research
techniques and goals.

This brief guide is intended as an introduction to using the Internet as a resource for
the study of History. Written for students, it should also prove useful to anyone inter-
ested in gaining greater proficiency in this arena. The Internet grows at such a rapid
rate that no printed document can hope to be complete. This booklet begins with in-
structions on how to utilize the Internet to find resources and ends with a brief catalog
of some of the very best that is out there. Intermixed are a few proficiency exercises
designed to develop and test proficiency in using the Internet, as well as spark inquiry
and contemplation of the benefits and problems of the Internet resources.

One of the most exciting things about the Internet for students of History is an in-
creasing accessibility to material previously available only to specialists or by travel
to major libraries. While the amount of material is limited, this is certainly a case
where ―some‖ is better than ―none.‖ The charge has been made that the Internet
brings more to the elite, who can afford computer equipment, and further isolates
those without similar financial resources. In the United States, where almost every
college, university and library in the United States has access to the Internet, the
charge is largely unfounded. Other countries, especially in Europe, are reaching simi-
lar levels of accessibility. At the time of writing, there were only a few countries in
Africa that did not have some sort of Internet access. The next quest needs to be one
not for access, but for content.


The Internet has seemingly become omnipresent, and is regularly used in some way
by both the public and private sectors. Universities and colleges (and university and
college students) have consistently been among the heaviest users, and part of this
legacy has been an increasing focus on using the Internet to make educational and
research materials more easily and widely available. The Internet has become an in-
valuable tool for historians, and anyone not taking advantage of it is unnecessarily
limiting him or herself. On the other hand, the Internet has also become a vast, con-
fusing landscape where finding and evaluating information can be a time consuming
and frustrating task. This guide to internet resource for Historians is designed to help
the user by indicating some important places to start, techniques for searching, and
methods of evaluating what is on the Internet.

This guide assumes that you have a basic understanding of how to use a computer and
the Internet, especially e-mail and the World Wide Web. What platform you use—
Mac, Windows or other, matters not, nor does it matter what Internet browser you
use. Microsoft‘s Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator are recommended. Do be
sure to have a recent version to ensure that you are taking full advantage of web sites
and seeing what the creators intended you to see. If you are unsure of the basics of
how to use the Internet, go to your school or public library—there are almost certain-
ly people there willing to help you, and very likely they offer short courses that will
help to bring you up to speed.


Since this is guide for historians, we really can not go farther without relating briefly
the history of the Internet. The amorphous Internet was born, ironically, out of Cold
War paranoia. In the 1960‘s the U.S. Department of Defense began research into the
creation of a computerized network to enhance military communication and defense-
related research. In 1982, under the guidance of the National Science Foundation,
this rudimentary network expanded its scope by becoming the Computerized Science
Network. It became fully functional in 1983 when all U.S. military sites were linked
on this network.

In 1988, the National Science Foundation, seeing the potential o interconnected com-
puter systems as an enhanced means of communicating and sharing data, helped
create a new high-speed area network open to all educational and research facilities
(in the U.S. and world-wide) and to government employees. This ―democratized‖
network marked the real birth of the Internet. Once in the hands of academics—and
graduate students—explosive growth occurred. These pioneers spent no small
amount of energy getting the Net to do things it was not originally designed to do.
Clever individuals who wanted to play Star Trek (or discuss the relative merits of
starship captains) with unseen friends thousands of miles away pushed the technology
to a new point of usefulness. Sometimes in developing technology, play comes be-
fore work.

In 1999 it was estimated that over 40% of adults, some 83 million individuals, in the
United States had Internet access, and spent an average of 12.1 hours on-line per
week. All indications are that this number will continue to rise.


Internet users are often frustrated by problems. A basic understanding of how the In-
ternet works may not allow you to fix those problems, but might help you know when
it is, or is not, your fault. Let us remember, of course, to put these problems in con-
text. Users become frustrated because usually the Internet works so well. There is a
certain ludicrousness to how quickly we become frustrated when we can not see pic-
tures from the other side of the planet right when we want to—all for free.

The Internet has often been referred to as the ―information superhighway.‖ This po-
pularized phrase is a misnomer; the Internet is, at its name implies, an intricate net-
work. Unlike a superhighway, there are a seemingly infinite number of pathways,
and multiple roots to the same destination. The user who attempts to simulate the su-
perhighway and rush directly to his destination will miss much of the joy, and ulti-
mately the value of the trip, and will never find the destination anyway.

The Internet is not, however, a perpetual font of goodness and knowledge. The
―noise-to-signal‖ ratio is extremely high. Matching every item of value are many
more items of little or no value. In this way, the Internet is very much like television.
Occasionally there are shows of substantial content and value, often there are shows
that are moderately entertaining and contain the occasional pearl, but mostly there is
material of no value. The great difference, however, is that no one owns the Internet.

It is much easier to change the channel, and if we do not like what is there, we can
make our own.

There is no central administration or computer for the Internet. The Internet is a sys-
tem built largely by consensus, with little hierarchy, and no authority. But the Inter-
net is not anarchy. Content is, of course, uncontrolled, but the only way the comput-
ers can communicate is by agreeing on common communication protocols. These
protocols are not enforced. You can, for example, put your web page in any format
you want—but if it is not recognized by others, no one can read it. Protocols are ad-
ministered by voluntary consortium. Among the most important are The Internet So-
ciety ( which acts as an organizational home for a variety of groups,
and the World Wide Web Consortium ( which develops common proto-
cols. It is cooperative agreement on communication protocols (like the World-Wide
Web or e-mail), and naming conventions that allow the Internet to work.

The Internet is a collection of cooperatively linked computer networks. As a student,
you may be using an account on a University network, or perhaps have contracted for
service from a local Internet provider. In either case, when you dial-in or sit in a room
with networked computers, this provider allows you entrance into the network. For
the average user, the local provider is the most important. It is very likely that the
intermediate networking steps taken to reach your Internet destination will be com-
pletely unknown. To the user it looks like once you logon, you connect directly to the
computer you wish to access.


In most cases, however, the connection is much more complicated, as your computer
accesses data through your Internet provider, and your Internet provider accesses data


from one of their providers, and so on.

Another common term used to describe the world of the Internet is ―cyberspace.‖
―Cyberspace‖ was coined by William Gibson in his 1984 science fiction novel Neu-
romancer. In Gibson‘s creation, cyberspace was a semi-autonomous matrix of com-
puters. Gibson‘s gritty, not-too-distant future of high technology and low culture is
an important part of the recent literature, but not (as of yet) a realistic portrait of the
Internet. Despite popular depictions the Internet is not all powerful, and the informa-
tion one can find is, in fact, quite limited.

One of the most common misperceptions is that almost all information is available
via the Internet, including personal information. This simply is not true. For some-
thing to be available someone has to have made the choice to dedicate a computer and
put the information on-line—usually with no financial incentive to do so. So while
you might be able to find someone‘s address, as many phone books are on-line, you
cannot find someone‘s employment record or life history—unless they (or someone
who knows them) has made a conscious decision to make the information available.
Think of the implications of this for historical research. Information about ―Pet Care
during the Civil War,‖ or whatever topic you might be interested in is quite unlikely
to be sitting on a computer somewhere waiting for you to access it. Who would have
gone to the trouble of doing this? For the historian, the Internet is a very useful in-
formation tool, but not yet a substitute for the library.


Just as you do not need to know how the computerized fuel injection of your car
works to drive, you do not need to know how the Internet works to use it. One bit of
invaluable knowledge, however, is how Internet addresses work. Being able to un-
derstand, guess and manipulate these addresses will make you work much more effi-
ciently. E-mail addresses and Web addresses, or URLs (Universal Resource Loca-
tors) work the same way and are easily dissected.

                      Server Name
                                             Domain Type
                               Domain Name

Protocol indicates the type of connection being made with the computer. Standard
types include http (hypertext transfer protocol—how the WWW works), gopher, and
ftp (file transfer protocol). The most recent software, including Netscape Communi-
cator and Internet Explorer, automatically detect the type of connection, and users can
regularly omit this information.

       The Server is the computer upon which the data is stored. Very often the
       computer is name WWW, and in such cases this part of the address can also
       be omitted as browser software will guess this. Note that the server name is
       not always ―WWW,‖ however.

       The Domain is the registered name of the organization or individual hosting
       the web site. It is this name that your service provider searches for when you
       request a connection.

       Domain Type indicates the type of organization. The most common domain
       types include
                       .com –commercial site
                       .edu –educational site
                       .gov—U.S. governmental site
                       .net –Network provider site
                       .org –non-profit site

       Domain types can sometimes indicate a non-U.S. web site, although usage is
       inconsistent. would indicate, for example, a site in France.

       Directory indicates what folder on the host machine the web data resides in.

       File Name is the file being retrieved. When no file is listed, most servers and
       browsers will automatically display either index.html or default.html

E-mail addresses use the same principle. simply indicates the user
name ―Bob‖ at the domain named ―bob‖, which is operated by a commercial entity.

Sometimes you will find yourself at a site with a rather odd URL like ―http://search
Wide+Web.‖ This usually happens went you have conducted a search or requested
something specific. This is coding that allows the computer delivering the data to
search itself and find what it is looking for. These URLs are temporary things, and
should not be cited or kept.

CHAPTER TWO: Using the Internet


       Using E-Mail:
Most students are familiar with the basics of how to use electronic mail. If you are
not, see your insititution‘s computing center or library to get assistance. Many stu-
dents are not aware, however, of how to use e-mail to its full potential. E-mail can
and should do much more than transmit brief messages. Be sure to use a mail reader,
not just a telnet connection to your e-mail server. Telnet emulates a terminal that lets
you communicate to another computer. For just sending notes, Telnet is fine, but to
manage large amounts of e-mail, send and receive attached files, and automate repeti-
tious tasks, a mail reading program is essential.

To use e-mail you must, of course, have an e-mail account on a server. Almost all
colleges and universities provide students with such an account as part of their stan-
dard fees. Commercial e-mail providers are also possible. Many students use free
web based e-mail, such as HotMail ( The greatest advantage of
web-based e-mail is the ability to instantly access mail from any machine without
having to set up hardware. The disadvantages include difficulty in more sophisticated
e-mail applications, including the use of attachments, unwanted advertisements, and
substantial possibilities for slow access or even system unavailability. What system
you use should depend on how you intend to use e-mail. If you will be using the
same computer for all your correspondence, then a private e-mail account and mail
reading software is the most useful system. If you are going to be bouncing around
the world checking mail from public machines in strange places, web mail is for you.

There are innumerable mail readers available. Netscape Communicator and Internet
Explorer both come with mail readers, and Eudora ( provides a free
basic reader for both Mac and Windows. All the mail readers work similarly; Eudora
Light is our example application, but the information is easily transferable to other
software packages. Most e-mail packages come with tutorials that will teach you the
basics, be sure you know how to check mail, open a message, reply, cc: and forward.
Frequent users should also learn how to use aliases, multiple mailboxes, filters and

One thing particularly useful to Historians is the ability to
attach and receive files. Any file can be sent along with an         When sharing word
e-mail message—graphics, word processing documents,              processing files, use the
                                                                 RTF format. Almost all
sound files, anything. This makes communication, colla-          word processors can save
boration, and consultation much easier. If you are working       and read this, and you
on a paper with someone else, or wish your professor to          need not worry about
review a draft, you can send it as an e-mail attachment. If      software compatibility.
you have an image and wish an expert to identify some-
thing in it, send it to them. In almost all programs, attaching a file is as simple as se-
lecting a menu item.

In Eudora you can click on
the attachment button, and
then select the file you wish
to send.

Send the message, and the
file will go along with it.

When you receive an at-
tachment, your e-mail reader
will save the file to a direc-
tory on the hard drive. This
directory can be set through
the program options. Eudo-
ra         defaults         to
c:/eudora/attach. Work with
a received attachment just
like any other file.

       Discussion Groups (Listservs):
One e-mail application used by many historians and students of history is the listserv.
Listservs are public or private discussion groups where messages are distributed au-
tomatically. Say for example, Bob Smith is a member of the discussion group great-
meninhistory-l. Bob might post a message to the discussion list hoping to get some
assistance with the picture of Churchill, Stalin and a mysterious third person. Bob‘s
message goes to the listserv program, which then sends it out to every member of the
discussion group.

                                                                          Walter Wagon

                                                                                                        Marge Macko
                                                            Sam Sampson
            Bob Smith


                                                                                                                      James Jackson
                                                                                         Jill Jorgens
Discussion groups serve to bring together people with similar interests who might
otherwise never come into contact with one another. They can have memberships
ranging from a few to thousands, and provide a unique resource for learning.

Discussion groups are not perfect, however. Some are so inactive that they become a
circle of only 5 or 6 people occasionally chatting. Others are so active that no one
can keep up, even though the material might be of great interest. Some discussion
groups are unmoderated—meaning anyone can post anything. Other are moderated
where only appropriate messages are allowed. Unlike chat rooms and Usenet, list-
servs tend to be calm, serious places.

Finding the correct listserv for you can be a bit time consuming, but worth the search.
It has rapidly become a given that for certain disciplines, groundbreaking and impor-
tant discussions take place through this medium. No Bronze Age archaeologist, for
example, would want to miss the activity of Aegeanet. For history there are two easy
ways to find a discussion group. One is to visit and search their list of
over 90,000 groups. H-Net: Humanities and Social Sciences On-Line (www.h-

                                          11 maintains an excellent selection of moderated groups where quality is
consistently maintained. The Directory of Scholarly and Professional E-Conferences
( offers a searchable list of select resources.

                                                        Subscribing to a discussion group
              Proficiency Assignment 1                is a relatively simple process, once
                       E-Mail                           the proper commands are deter-
                                                        mined. The commands to use de-
  Subscribe to a history focused discussion group.
  Save the welcome message you receive, and moni-       pend on the software the listserv
  tor the group for two weeks. Be sure to note how      uses. The most important thing to
  active the group is, who participates in the discus-  understand is that there is the list
  sions, what the tone is, and how useful the discus-   address, and the list manager ad-
  sion is. Note that if you select a particularly quiet dress. These are separate entities,
  group, you will probably want to select another.
                                                        and confusing the two pretty much
  If assigned, forward a copy of the welcome message    annoys everyone. When Bob sent
  to your professor. Send your summary of group         his message, it went to Greatme-
  activity to your instructor as an e-mail message or; if howev-
  attachment.                                           er Bob wanted to unsubscribe, he
                                                        would send his message to list- Otherwise, everyone on the list would get a copy of his unsub-
scribe request.

Below is a list of some of the discussion group commands you might want to use.
Look at the list manager type and match it to the e-mail address you received for in-
formation and subscriptions from one of the discussion group indices mentioned
above. E-mail the appropriate command to the address. Do not of course, literally
type [list name], [your name], [your e-mail], but substitute the appropriate name. If
the list manager address looks different, you may have to contact a human controller,
or some more obscure software.

There is a certain expected etiquette expected in these discussion groups, defined by
the tradition of the people involved. Some groups are very serious, others ligh-
thearted. Some are very active, others are used only for the most important commu-
nications. As you are entering a new community, it‘s nice to respect their ways.
Watch for awhile before entering into a discussion. One thing you never want to do

is join a group and then immediately post a question about some class assignment.
All too

Table 1. Discussion List Commands

    Desired Action              List Manager Type                      Command
Subscribe                     Listserv or Listproc    SUBSCRIBE [list name] [your name]

                              Majordomo               SUBSCRIBE [list name] [your e-mail]
Unsubscribe                   Listserv or Listproc    SIGNOFF [list name]

                              Majordomo               UNSUBSCRIBE [list name] [your e-mail]
Digest (all messages are      Listserv                SET [list name] DIGEST
compiled into one message
sent every 24 hours or once   Listproc                SET [list name] MAIL DIGEST
a week)
                              Majordomo               SUBSCRIBE [listname]-DIGEST
                                                      (In the same message, unsubscribe from the
                                                      undigested version:)
                                                      UNSUBSCRIBE [listname]
Cancel Digest                 Listserv                SET [list name] MAIL

                              Listproc                SET [list name] MAIL ACK

                              Majordomo               UNSUBSCRIBE [list name]-DIGEST
                                                      (In the same message, subscribe to the undi-
                                                      gested version:)
                                                      SUBSCRIBE [list name]

Get list of Subscribers       Listserv                REVIEW [listname] F=MAIL

                              Listproc                RECIPIENTS [listname]

                              Majordomo               WHO [listname]

frequently as the end of the semesters discussion groups are barraged with questions
like, ―I‘m doing a paper on Egypt. Does anyone know of some books?‖ Very specif-
ic questions may get answered, but this sort of annoyance is usually ignored. Alas,
the students who do this sort of thing are not likely to be reading this textbook any-


Most students have at least a passing familiarity with the World-Wide Web. If you
have never use the Web, then it is probably best to get a friend to help. Most college,
university and public libraries have staff who would be willing to get you started.
The World-Wide Web, at its simplest, is a graphical, interactive, interface to the In-
ternet. Web creators author documents in HTML (hypertext markup language) and
place them on servers; browser (or client) programs, such as Internet Explorer and
Netscape Communicator allow users to access this material. The Web usually is easy
enough to use that only a rudimentary understanding of how it works is necessary to
be successful.

As servers and clients have become more powerful, web pages are including more
material beyond straight graphics and html. To access these pages, you might have
to download and install plug-ins. There are myriad plug-ins, such as Real Audio,
Shockwave, Quicktime, and Adobe Acrobat that enhance animation, interactive ap-
plications, and audio capabilities. The web pages for Netscape (
and Internet Explorer ( both contain links to plug-ins, and most
pages that use them also will indicate where they can be downloaded.

In the section on Conducting Research there is detailed information on how to find
what you want, as well as evaluate what you find on the WWW.


For most historians, e-mail and the world-wide web meet almost all needs. There are
other Internet applications you might encounter or wish to use.

File Transfer Protocol is a method to upload and download files to a server. Any type
of file can be transferred. Downloads are now easily accomplished with the WWW,
and most browsers can also access FTP sites. Thus only individuals involved in fre-
quent file transfers or needing to upload (copy from a local to a distant computer)
files tend to use the software. One thing worth noting is that files on FTP and occa-
sionally web sites may be compressed to save space and reduce transfer speeds.
Some files are in self-extracting archives, and need only be executed. You may well,
however, encounter files that are ―zipped;‖ these files have a zip suffix, such as cools- There are many decompression utilities available via the Internet; one popu-
lar program is available at If you know what you want, Fast FTP
Search ( is quite useful.

Accessing material via the Internet was initially dominated by a utility called Go-
pher—develop at the University of Minnesota and named after their mascot. Gopher
is text-based, but can display directory structures and content more readily than FTP.
The WWW has almost entirely replaced Gopher, for better or for worse. Your
WWW browser can view Gopher sites, so if you ever do encounter one, it is not a
problem. If you want to visit the increasingly dusty gopher-space, go to go-

Internet Relay Chat allows real-time communication over the Internet. While useful
for on-line conferencing and arranged meetings, most historians prefer e-mail.

MU*s are multi-user domains designed to allow people to interact in a shared ―vir-
tual‖ space. MU*s are mostly used for games, and come in a variety of odd sounding
formats including MUDs (multi-user domains) and MOOs (MUD Object Oriented).
There have been some academic uses of MOOs, which allow a reader, via text com-
mands to wander an area and look at objects and interact. MOOs allow users to ask
for a textual description of a room, pick up objects (again with text only), and talk to
others. They offer all the excitement of the first interactive, purely textual games
where action goes something like this:
Player: Cast find object spell.
Computer: You see a knife.
Player: Pick up knife.
Computer: You have the knife.
Player: Look at knife.
Computer: The knife gleams and is very sharp.
Player: Stab Dragon.
Computer: The Dragon doesn’t like that.
Player: Stab Dragon.
Computer: Dragon kills you.
Computer: Game over.

MOOs are doomed in the face of graphic interactive environments.

Telnet allows a user to access a remote computer and emulate a terminal to control
activity on the computer. With the exception of e-mail, most historians have little use
for Telnet and are find the commands and problems overly substantial.

Usenet newsgroups (not to be confused with discussion groups or listservs) are a
large network of groups arranged by topics of interest. The discussions reside on cen-
tral computers and you can normally access only those subscribed to by your Internet
provider. A newsreader is needed to access the groups, but one is provided with In-
ternet Explorer and Netscape Communicator. Usenet allows users to read and post
messages, and arranges the material within groups by thread. Thus in the group
sci.archaeology, one might find a thread about the archaeology of slave houses. Use-
net is chaotic, and little used by professional historians. While there are worthwhile
discussions, mostly there is noise. If for example, you look for information about
Egyptian pyramids, you will mostly find talk of aliens, ufo‘s and conspiracies. In all
fairness, it should be noted that the technical disciplines use Usenet for very serious
purposes, and the latest hardware innovations often appear there first. If you feel the
urge, I highly recommend accessing Usenet via a carefully worded search at one of
the Usenet index sites on the WWW such as Dejanews at

CHAPTER THREE: Conducting Research


The greatest challenge in doing online research is finding quality, relevant material.
There are many ways to find information on the Internet, but there are two sources
that people access most often: directories and search engines. Sites that combine
both a directory and a search engine are sometimes called hybrids. It is important to
know the difference between these.

Directories are lists of links that are organized topically by human indexers. The staff
of a directory read, evaluate and place a web page in appropriate categories. The
main benefit of this is that it provides only relevant results when you look for some-
thing. The problems are that because of the human element, many relevant sites can-
not be listed, and you must rely on the discretion and indexing job of someone who
may be less expert than you.

The most popular directory is Yahoo! (, but there are many other
directories as well. The Argus Clearinghouse ( offers a high-
ly selective alternative. Web Sites must request to be indexed on Argus, and only 5-
10% meet rather strict criteria. Because of its high standards, try Argus as a starting
point for your academic research—whatever you find is almost guaranteed to be use-

So which directory should you use? That is an impossible question to answer, as it
depends on what you are searching for and personal preferences. One thing you
should note is that there is substantial overlap in the sources of the listing in directo-
ries. As you check more and more directories, you will get a diminishing return on
your time.

Table 2. Internet Directories

          Directory                      URL                          Source
 Argus Clearinghouse           Independent
 HotBot                               Open Directory
 Infoseek                           Independent
 LookSmart                         Independent, supple-
                                                              mented by Alta Vista.
 Lycos                                 Open Directory, supple-
                                                              mented by a spider.
 Microsoft Network                       Independent, supple-
                                                              mented by Inktomi.
 Open Directory                             Independent, Voluntary
 Snap!                                  Independent, supple-
                                                              mented by Inktomi.
 Yahoo!                                Independent, supple-
                                                              mented by Inktomi (see
                                                              search engines).

         Search Engines
Search Engines work on a different principle than the directories. Human involve-
ment is minimal, as Search engines work with a utility called spiders. Spiders auto-
matically access web pages, read
them and then follow the links on                 When you follow a link to a URL and get
the page to do it over and over again.      “File not Found” error, climb back up theURL
How many of these links the spider          by editing the address in your address bar.
                                   might be
follows depends on the search en-           gone, but try, if
gine, as does the number of pages           that fails, and finally—
within the same web site that will be       there is a reasonable chance you will find what
read. After reading the page and            you are looking for.
omitting the most common words
(called stop words), such as the, of, a, the results are placed in the search engines in-
dex. When you visit the search engine, it is this index you access.

Most search engines rank sites in some way, usually by the location and number of
times the term you are searching for appears on the matching page. Other ranking

techniques include counting the number of links on other web pages to the web page,
or counting the number of times users of the search engine select the web page in
question to visit. At two sites, and AltaVista, web sites can pay a fee and
receive higher ranking. Ranking is not a conscious evaluation of quality—spiders
cannot discern the intellectual value of a site.

Choosing a search engine is more difficult than choosing a directory; not only are
there more of them, but there is even greater overlap in the sources of their listings. If
you have ever checked several search engines and felt like you were getting the same
result, that is because you were. Below is a guide to the more useful search engines.
All of these are, in fact, fine. A negative recommendation only means there are better
choices for academic research.

Remember the Internet changes quickly, and while this information was correct at
time of writing (May 1999), the situation may be different. To learn more about
search engines, and to get the latest developments, visit Search Engine Watch at

Hybrids include both a search engine and a directory, and are increasingly popular.
As most search engines are going this direction, the issue need not be belabored here.

Metasearches allow the user to search multiple search engines simultaneously. Ra-
ther than using one search engine, then another, then another, search several simulta-
neously. Popular metasearch engines include MetaCrawler (, Sav-
vySearch (, and WebInfoSearch ( and
Dogpile ( All of these are fine, with Dogpile having the edge in
power, SavvySearch the edge in ease of use. Metasearches are not as helpful as one
might think. It is probably best not to start here, but if you want to be absolutely sure
you found everything, visit a metasearch.

Table 3. Favorite Search Utilities

 Search En-       URL                  Source         Comments                         Recom-
 gine                                                                                  mended
 Alta-Vista    Independent,   Alta-Vista has largest in-       To be sure
                                       Ask Jeeves     dex and is the place to go       you have
                                                      for an exhaustive search.        everything.
                                                      Other engines produce
                                                      results in a slightly more
                                                      usable manner, however.
 HotBot        Direct Hit,    HotBot will give you al-         The author
                                       then Inktomi   most everything, but places      usually
                                                      the most popular sites first.    starts here.
                                                      Popularity is not every-
                                                      thing, but it is an indicator.
                                                      HotBot has easy to use
                                                      filter options, and groups
                                                      pages from the same site to
                                                      reduce clutter—this alone
                                                      make HotBot the most
                                                      efficient to read.
 Northern Light   www.northernlight.   Independent    Northern Light has the           Top recom-
                  com                                 second largest index.            mendation
                                                      Northern Light clusters          for academic
                                                      results in a usable format.      research.
                                                      Northern Light also has a
                                                      ―special collection‖—
                                                      magazine articles and other
                                                      material you can buy on-
                                                      line for reasonable prices.
                                                      If your library is small,
                                                      check here for help.

Table 4. Other Search Utilities

 Search En-   URL           Source       Comments                            Recommended
 Excite       www.excite.   Indepen-     Only a medium sized index.          Sometimes. Be-
              com           dent                                             cause the index is
                                                                             small, you have to
                                                                             wade through fewer
                                                                             results, but you can
                                                                             also miss things.
 GoTo         www.goto.c    Inktomi      GoTo returns responses for          No. Unless you like
              om                         paid advertisers, then Inktomi      advertising.
 Go Network     Indepen-     With a medium size index, Go        Sometimes for quick
              m             dent         will not find everything. What      results.
                                         Go excels at is grouping and
                                         presenting the results in a lean,
                                         usable format. ‗Recommend-
                                         ed Sites‘ are designated such
                                         because they are financial
 Direct Hit   www.directh   Indepen-     Direct Hit supplements other        No.
            dent         search engines by monitoring
                                         what choices users click on,
                                         and giving those choices top
 Inktomi      www.inkto     Indepen-     The third largest index. In-        NA
            dent         ktomi cannot be queried di-
                                         rectly, but powers many
                                         search engines.
 Microsoft    www.msn.c     Inktomi      The Microsoft Network offers        Maybe.
 Network      om                         some excellent personalization
                                         choices and varied services all
                                         from one page. Some users
                                         like that, others find it too
 WebCrawler   www.webcr     Indepen-     WebCrawler prides itself on         Occasionally.
         dent, but    being small but thorough. Not
                            run by Ex-   the best for research, but if
                            cite         you are searching for some-
                                         thing incredibly common, this
                                         might be a good choice.

Knowing where to search is not enough; the researcher must also know how to
search. A successful Internet search requires both the knowledge of how to make the
search engines work, and the cleverness to pick the search terms that will yield the
most discrete results.

The ―how‖ is usually a matter of search limiters. This may sound complicated and
formidable, but is essential. Search engines are rather heavy-handed tools; expe-
rienced users will agree that the problem usually is one of getting far too many re-
sults. A successful search depends on limiting those results. The limiters tell the
search engine how to deal with the many terms you might enter. This is important: if
you do a search on the words george washington cherry tree, you need to know what
the search engine is doing. Is it looking for any document containing any one of
these words, or all of these words, or all of these words in this order, or what? Like-
wise, you can force the search to combine and limit words in very specific phrases to
find what you want.

Search Engines tend to use limiters differently. In the following chart, you will find
the most common and useful limiters and whether our favorite search utilities (Hot-
Bot, AltaVista and Northern Light, Yahoo!, Argus Clearinghouse) support them.
[Remember, Yahoo! and Argus are not search engines and should not be used as
such]. If you are using another search utility, you will have to check their instruc-
tions. The chart also indicates the symbols frequently used to incorporate symbols—
not all limiters have symbols, but use them when they are available. There are many
other search limiters that you might want to learn to use—the best method is to check
the instructions of the search engine you like. ―Default‖ in the chart means this is the
limiter the services uses unless otherwise specified.

A successful search depends not just on knowing the technical details, but also a good
sense of what words and phrases to search for. The basic rules are simple—three or
four search words will allow you to get more specific results: george and washington
can pull up most anything. George and washington and cherry and tree is more spe-
cific. The more particular the word, the less likely you are to get irrelevant results.
Spend a few minutes thinking about what you want to find, and the most unique
words that might be used in discussing it. Phrases are more powerful that a string of

single words. George and washington can find all kinds of things unrelated to
George Washington. But if you search for the specific phrase ―George Washington,‖
you will get, for the most part, only the president himself.

As you will see in our example search below, it is important to modify the search as
you go along to narrow your results. If, for example, you are finding a slew of irrele-
vant results from one specific web server, use limiters to exclude that server from the
search. If you find other specific search terms that will help, add them in. If you find
a common theme that is leading you to irrelevant results, find a word to exclude that
will keep those sites from listing.

                                     Proficiency Assignment 2             
                                         WWW Search

                 Pick a (very narrow) historical topic and do a complete Inter-
                 net search on it. Compare the results from the favorite directo-
                 ries and search engines listed in this book, and explain why
                 you got those results. Make a list of search words, phrases and
                 limiters that proved most useful. Create a search routine that
                 yields no more than 100 results. See if you can create search
                 criteria that will return no irrelevant sites. Create a bibliogra-
                 phy of all relevant books on the subject published in the last 10
                 years. At what stage in your search did you reach maximum
                 benefit for the amount of labor involved?

                 A class may decide to all search the same subject—this allows
                 students to get a sense of how complete their search was by
                 comparing their results to others.

Table 5. Search Engine Limiters

   Limiter      Symbol           Function                       Example                         When to Use           Support
    AND           +       Returns pages that       george AND washington (george +        This is the most         All. Default
                          contain all the words    washington) returns pages that con-    common use—select        for HotBot,
                                                   tain both the word george and the      discrete words that      Norther-
                                                   word washington                        will find what you       nLight and
                                                                                          want.                    Argus.
    NOT            -      Returns pages that do    george NOT washington (george -        Remove words that        All except
                          not contain the word     washington) returns pages that con-    are leading you to       Argus.
                                                   tain the word george but not the       irrelevant    informa-
                                                   word washington.                       tion.
    OR                    Returns pages that george or washington returns all             When there are dif-      All. Default
   (Match                 include one or the oth- pages that contain george, or wash-     ferent topics or words   for AltaVis-
    Any)                  er or all search terms   ington, as well as pages containing    that will all reveal     ta and Ya-
                                                   both words.                            acceptable results.      hoo.
   Phrase         ――      Returns the precise ―george washington‖ returns only            Allows high selec-       All
                          phrase                   pages containing the two words in      tiveness.
                                                   this order and next to each other.
  Domain        Domain:   Returns results only ―george washington‖ host: edu re- This can be used to Only HotBot
                          from the specified turns only pages containing the check specific web and AltaVis-
                          domain.                  phrase located on a server in educa- sites or domain, and ta. For Al-
                                                   tional domains. Exclude specific do- also can be used to taVista use
                                                   mains by using a NOT operator, eg. filter out multiple host:
                                                   ―george washington‖ - host: smithso- entries from an un-
                                                                        wanted source.
  Trunca-          *      Allows any charac- wash* will return pages containing Use to find variations All
    tion                  ter(s) to be substituted any word beginning with wash: on uncommon terms
                          for the *                washington, washing, etc.               or alternate spellings.
             AltaVista         Recognizes only symbols (+, -, ―‖, *) unless the Advanced Search Page is selected.
             HotBot            Uses a drop-down menu to select limiters—use advanced search page for many useful limiters.
             Yahoo!            Recognizes only symbols.
As you already know, or will soon learn, no student of history can find everything on
the Internet. The wealth of historical information resides still in libraries and arc-
hives. The Internet has, however, greatly increased the ability of students to use li-
briaries. Unless you are attending a major research university, your library is proba-
bly limited in size. All libraries vary in the quality and extent of their holdings.
Sometimes you can supplement your library with on-line holdings. In general, how-
ever, only works old enough to be out of copyright will be found on-line. Do not
look for the on-line version of the latest academic books or. Do, however, look for
primary sources and less recent but still relevant articles.

Table 6: On-Line Libraries

  Library                     URL                   Comments
  Internet Public Library          An attempt to catalog what is al-
                                                    ready out there. Do not miss the
                                                    journals and newspapers. For ex-
                                                    ample, IPL can guide you to the
                                                    on-line contents of the American
                                                    Historical Review.
  Project Gutenberg          Literary texts and reference
                                                    books. This is a good resource
                                                    for primary sources.
  E-Text, University of       etext.lib.virginia.   Focuses on the Humanities. Also
  Virginia                    edu/                  a good place to find journal indic-

Books do not necessarily have to be on-line for the Internet to benefit you in your re-
search. At small libraries, just finding what books may be out there was until recently
rather difficult. Traditional methods of checking periodical indices, book reviews,
and book catalogs are so slow, frustrating and limited in their results that many stu-
dents never quite get around to it. With the Internet, there is no excuse not to know
about every important book written that may touch on your subject. Almost all major
university libraries, as well as the Library of Congress, have their catalogs available

via the WWW. A massive list of academic libraries can be found at Yahoo!

For history a search of the below library consortiums, University Libraries and the
Library of Congress would be quite complete. Another good place to search, espe-
cially if you are concerned only with recent works, are virtual bookstores, as they
maintain massive databases.

Table 7: Library Catalogs and Bookstores

 Catalog                                         URL                            
 Barnes and Noble                      
 California Digital Library (UC shared collec-
 Library of Congress                   
 Ohio Link (colleges and universities in Ohio)
 University of Michigan                
 Yale University                       

Of course, knowing about the books is not the same as having them available to
you—but it is a start. If you know of the work, you can search out book reviews,
check other area libraries, or at least mark it as something you would like to read
someday. Many college and universities have an Interlibrary loan office that may be
able to obtain books from other libraries for you if you can provide them with the au-
thor, title and publication information.


To illustrate the search technique, we will work on a hypothetical assignment: ―Write
a 10 page essay on the story of George Washington and the Cherry Tree. Be sure to
include a discussion of the origins and purposes of the tale.‖ This is a topic narrow
enough that you will not find the answer quickly in the library without some further
indications of where to look, so we will begin with the Internet. Maximize the benefit
and so these searches yourself.

Stop One—Argus Clearinghouse. Maybe some
academic has already made a page on this subject. But
a check of their History directory shows no links to any-
thing close.

Stop Two—Yahoo. Maybe someone, somewhere
has already made a page on this subject. But a check
of Social Science, History, U.S. History, 18th Century
reveals nothing of use.

Stop Three—HotBot. We can be pretty sure that there are thousands of web pag-
es that mention not just Washington and Cherries, but also many pages containing
this very story. At HotBot we search for george washington (remember HotBot de-
faults to AND), but with 335,220 pages listed, it is clear the search must be limited.
After all, george + washington would find a web page about George O. Jungles vaca-
tion in Washington—not much help to us. When the search is limited to the phrases
―george washington‖ and ―cherry tree,‖ only 700 pages are matched. This is a lot,
but not so many we can not look and see how else we can limit the search. A quick
look at the results reveals many of these pages are just a joke about the President
Clinton. A new search is done:
―george washington‖ ―cherry tree‖
– clinton. This removes all the
links containing the word ―clinton,‖
and reduces the matches to 450.
For a subject that is a very popular tale, that is not to bad, so it is time to see if any of
these pages will help us.

At we find a
little quiz:     George Washington
chopped down a cherry tree—True or
False. We select false and learn that
the tale is a fabrication by someone named Mason Weems. Hardly enough to write
our paper, but quite helpful. We return to HotBot and do a new search ―george wash-
ington‖ ―cherry tree‖ ―Mason Weems.‖ Surprisingly, this yields no matches at all.
Knowing that people often refer to authors and presidents by last name only, we try
washington weems ―cherry tree.‖ This yields 140 matches—a reasonable number to
look at. Among other things we find that Weems was an Anglican minister who lived
from 1794-1825 and wrote a largely fictional biography of Washington as an exhorta-
tion to honesty and virtue, an excerpt from his life of Washington, and a few other
useful tidbits, including an image of the 1929 Grant Wood painting Parson Weems’
Fable. There is also a lot of repetition and junk—
essays on conspiracies, rantings against Christians
and so on that we can just ignore. A search just on
                                                               Do Not Stop Here!
                                                         Instructors are increasingly
―Mason Weems,‖ as he is clearly going to be impor-       frustrated by students who
tant in the paper, yields nothing additional. This is a  perform only a cursory check
very useful start, but not enough to write the paper—    of material on the Internet. If
so more research is called for.                          you have not tried at least 3
                                                           or 4 search methods, you
                                                           have not really tried. It is
Stop Four—On-Line Libraries. We know we                   easy to find the tidbits—but
must deal with Mason Weems‘ Life of Washington,            the really useful stuff takes
so we check at the Internet Public Library and other       some time.
on-line libraries. Unfortunately, we cannot find it.

Stop Five—NorthernLight. NorthernLight has a larger index than HotBot, and
some additional resources, so we need to check here. Here we search for weems
washington (NorthernLight defaults to AND). Let‘s omit ―cherry tree‖ as we do not
want to eliminate useful information about Weems‘ mythology that is not directly
about the cherry tree. The search yields 3,990 results. We will scroll through the first
hundred just in case. In addition to a few useful tidbits of information, we find an on-
line copy of Weems‘ book at! From this
we follow a link to a web page, The Apotheosis of George Washing-
gwmain.html), that contains a wealth of useful information, and a bibliography cur-
rent through 1991. While we are at NorthernLight we check the Special Collection
folder that appears on the left side of the screen. There are no articles that are worth
purchasing, but we do pick up a few references to recent books. We could check Al-
taVista, but at this point we have enough information to proceed, so there is no need.

Stop Six—Libraries. By this point we have an idea about where to go with this
paper—we want to compare the known actions of Washington with the fabricated ac-
tions and see if we can detect a difference that will tell why Weems made things up.
We already have a bibliography courtesy of the web site on The Apotheosis of George
Washington, and all we need to do is update it through the on-line library catalogs.
Our search at the library of Congress reveals a new edition of Weems‘ work, with a
commentary—that might prove useful. With list in hand, we head off to our library,
with our research well underway.

Just finding the information on the Internet is not sufficient—the material must also
be evaluated. This is a far greater concern than with books you check out at the li-
brary. When something is published with a major publishing house it usually goes
through at least a minimal review process. Academic presses employ a rigorous re-
view process. These reviews check for accuracy of material, legitimacy of sources
cited, rationality of conclusion and so forth. With limited budgets, libraries tend to
purchase only what they think are quality books. These factors combine as a type of
safeguard: when you check something out from the library, chances are it is at least
not horribly unreliable. If it is a well-documented work from a University press, you
need not have many worries at all.

As you know, the Internet does not work that way. Anyone, for just a few dollars,
can make a web site saying anything they would like. Sometimes there are out-and-
out fabrications, especially on political and religious issues. People can, and do,
make up evidence, as well as deliberately misquote and distort. But as advanced stu-
dents, you will not have much trouble detecting these people—their strongly voca-
lized agenda will reveal them.

The more insidious problem is the plethora of self-proclaimed experts and well-
meaning ―amateurs.‖ Their goal is certainly not to deceive, but that does not mean
that they are propagating correct information. With no formal review process, it be-
comes your job to evaluate the material. There is a reasonably good example of this
problem in our George Washington research. Our very first HotBot search listed a
web page entitled ―The REAL Story of George Washington and the ‗Cherry Tree‘‖
( The document begins: ―What follows is the true
story of Washington and the "cherry tree." There was no cherry tree. . . Read on to
discover what really happened.‖ What follows is a story about, among other things, a
young Washington accidentally killing his mother‘s favorite colt while trying to break

You could just take this story at face value, cite the web page, and incorporate it into
your paper. Instructors see such uncritical use fairly frequently, and it nevers helps
the students‘ grades (or learning). A healthy dose of skepticism is called for—why
should I believe this anymore than the cherry tree story. As historians, first you will
probably ask, ―what is the source for this story.‖ The web page does not say, nor is it
really clear who made the web page, and why. By following some of the internal
links, you can find out that the page is made by a private individual who is also inter-
ested in selling you some products. That does not, of course, invalidate the informa-
tion, but the author does not speak with the same authority as someone who, for ex-
ample, has spent 20 years researching Washington. But no where on the site can we
find the source of this information. That should be a big warning sign, as history is a
discipline dependent on documented sources—that should be enough to bring the rea-
lization that this cannot be used in your paper.

If you search the author‘s history pages long enough you can find this statement:
“From time to time I will be posting interesting historical accounts you probably
won't find anywhere else. Most are from books printed in the mid 1800's before "his-
tory" was watered down and re-written.” That‘s another good clue, as the colt-
breaking story reads just like the cherry-tree story—more about morality than history.
If you were not convinced before, this certainly should indicate that this Washington
story is not going to help your research. Just to be sure, we can use one of the au-
thor‘s favorite tricks, and see if we can identify the source. As you know, you can
search for phrases on the Internet. If the story is taken verbatim from a source that
appears elsewhere on the Internet, we probably can find it. [Note that this also makes
things plagiarized from the Internet pretty easy to detect]. Punctuation sometimes
confuses search engines, so we will pick a short but unique text string. The first few
strings tried failed, but this phrase, ―Washington's father died when George was only
eleven years old‖, got a match in AltaVista. On another page, ―Washington‘s Rules
of Conduct‖ ( we find that
this story is taken word from word from one of two late nineteenth century readers for
children—it is anything but the ―true story.‖

While there can be no hard-and-fast rules for evaluating Internet sources, there are
some general guidelines that should be heeded, however.

1. What are you looking for? For example, are you seeking documentable historical
   facts, or opinions people hold about history. A Web page might provide one hor-
   ribly and the other wonderfully.

2. Why did the person or organization post the material? Intent is important—an
   organization whose sole goal is to forward an idea or agenda will not have the
   same concerns as someone who seeks to present many different sides of a story.
   Some people will have a vested interest in what they are writing about, others will

   not. You would not want, for example, to use or un-
   critically as sources in the study of oil spills.

3. Does the web site have any quality control? Organizations and companies control
   very closely what appears on their web sites. Educational institutions tend not to
   monitor as closely, but researchers are usually monitored by their peers. An his-
   torian‘s page on history is probably okay; an historian‘s page on increasing your
   gas mileage might not be so reliable.

4. Is the web site rational and well-argued? Differentiate between unsupported
   claims and statements, and claims and statements that are bolstered by reason and

5. Do the authors have appropriate qualifications? Authority and academic degrees
   do not make a web site accurate—but they help. Ask if the person writing seems
   sufficiently trained to make the claims being presented. Do they know the requi-
   site languages? Have they studied the primary sources?

6. Does the site look professional and reliable? This does not mean the graphics
   good and the colors must be pleasing, but rather that the words are spelled cor-
   rectly, and the grammar is acceptable. A good rule of thumb is that people who
   do sloppy presentations also do sloppy research. But do not hold too tight to that,
   as you may encounter a web site in the middle of being created.

7. Is this part of a current ―hot‖ topic? Unreliable web sites are much more likely to
   be found about issues that are current points of debate. Someone might have a
   reason to distort evidence about oil spills. No one is going to fabricate a list of
   Latin synonyms for ―pine tree.‖

8. Can the material be confirmed by an external source? Can you find the informa-
   tion elsewhere, perhaps at the library? Other Internet sites saying the same thing
   may just be clones that have no ability to verify.

9. Is the site objective? This does not mean the site might not have a strong point to
   make, but it does mean that the site acknowledges that other points of view do ex-
   ist, and that issues are rarely black-and white.

                                   Proficiency Assignment 3                      
                                     Web Site Evaluation
Your task is to find something akin to a objective evidence. The topic is the Shroud of Turin—
an artifact whose origins are being debated, at least in theory, along scientific and scholarly
terms. Below are the URL‘s of two web sites about the Shroud. Do not be surprised if you be-
come frustrated and confused about what is accurate and what is not—it is confusing!
Here is something to make things even more complicated—you will have to follow links from
the two chosen sites to other locations. Be sure to answer questions 1 and 2 for all these loca-
tions. You will certainly want to visit ( for additional material.
It might be easiest if you make a chart similar to that below for all the sites you visit. Do not
forget how to do a search limited to domain. For example you might want to search for + blood
+ to speed your work.—it would take many, many hours to search manually.
         Schwortz, B. M. “The Shroud of Turin.” []. 1999.
               Shafersman, S. D. “The Skeptical Shroud of Turin Website.”
                                      /shroud.html]. 1999.
                                    Question                                        Site    Site
                                                                                     1       2
  Who is responsible for the website, and what are their qualifications?
 Does the site have any supervisory authority? If so, who makes up that au-
 thority and what their qualifications?
 Does the site work on the basis of claims, supported arguments, or both?
 What does the C14 evidence suggest? Where were the first C14 results pub-
 lished? Is the journal peer-reviewed? What objections have been raised?
 Are those objections taken seriously by authorities?
 Is there blood on the shroud? What is the evidence for and against? Which
 answer is more convincing, and why?
 Does the image realistic represent a bleeding body? What is the forensic evi-
 dence? Which answer is more convincing, and why?
 What does the pollen evidence? What objections have been raised? Are those
 objections taken seriously by authorities?
 Are there coins and other objects represented in the image? What are the
 arguments for and against?
 Which web sites, if any, can be called unbiased and objective?
 Which web sites are useful?
 Is there enough information available on the Internet to reach a conclusion?


As in any research, it is important that you cite your sources, even if they are from the
Internet. Citation methods vary, and complete consensus on how to cite the Internet
has not yet been reached. The basic idea is simple—record the information necessary
to identify author, work and where to find it. If there is a standard for History, it is
probably this variation on the APA style. If you wish more detailed information, visit
Bibliographic Formats for Citing Electronic Information (
      For Bibliographic Entries:
             Author's Last Name, First Name [author's e-mail]. "Title of Work"
             or "title line of message." In ―Title of list/site‖ as appropriate.
             [URL]. Date (of last revision).
      For Footnotes and Endnotes
             Author's First name and Last name, [author's e-mail], "Title of
             Work" or "title line of message," in "Title of list/site" as appropri-
             ate, [URL], date (of last revision).
For a WWW page:
      Bibliographic Entry
             Sanders, Ed []. ―The REAL Story of
             George Washington and the ‗Cherry Tree.‘‖ In ―‖
             /hist001.htm]. 1997.
      Footnote or Endnote Entry
             Ed Sanders, [], ―The REAL Story of
             George Washington and the ‗Cherry Tree,‘‖ in ―‖
             hist001.htm], 1997.
For a Discussion List:
      Bibliographic Entry
             Watro, Lonny J. []. ―Re: Washington &
             Weems & fort.‖ In ―VA-Hist.‖ []. 7 Jan 1999.
      Footnote or Endnote Entry
             Lonny J. Watro, [], ―Re: Washington &
             Weems & fort,‖ in ―VA-Hist,‖ [], 7 Jan 1999.

For an E-Mail Message:
      Bibliographic Entry
            Weems, Mason. []. "Why I Wrote About
            George Washington." Private e-mail message to Grant Wood,
            []. 6 June 1929.
      Footnote or Endnote Entry
            Mason Weems, [], "Why I Wrote About
            George Washington," private e-mail message to Grant Wood,
            [], 6 June 1929.

                                   Proficiency Assignment 4                    

    Take the material collected for your Web Search assignment and convert it into a biblio-
    graphy following the format guidelines presented here. Create an example ―endnote‖ page
    that includes an example of each entry in the bibliography.

CHAPTER FOUR: History on the WWW

      Presented here are some of the very best resources available for Historians. This list is hardly
      comprehensive. For a full, up-to-date list, visit the World History web site at

       indicates those few sites so wonderful and useful, everyone should visit it.


      Art Source. Links to other sites with information and images concerning art and architecture.

      E-Hawk: Electronic Headquarters for the Acquisition of War Knowledge. Links to informa-
      tion on military history.

      Excite Travel. Not overly concerned with history, but a quick and easy way to find informa-
      tion on countries and cities world-wide.

      Country Studies: Area History. A Library of Congress site which lists contains country stu-
      dies and area handbooks. Written by multidisciplinary teams.

      Gateway to World History. With a focus on modern history, this wonderful index and guide
      contains items that would be otherwise difficult to find.

      Historical Journals On-Line. Links to almost all journals with a web presence.

      Historical Texts Archive. Primary sources primarily for U.S. history.

      History Index. Perhaps the most comprehensive set of links. Although not easy to use, it is
      worth the time.

      Horus’ Web Links to History Resources. This guide, from the University of California—
      Riverside, contains a huge list of available resources. Unfortunately, it is falling out-of-date.

      The Human Languages Page. Links to information about numerous different languages.

      Humanities and Social Sciences On-Line. Interdisciplinary Resources for Humanities and
      Social Sciences. High standards, and sponsorship make H-Net important.

      Internet Archive of Texts and Documents. Go here to look for primary sources and interesting

      HyperHistory On-Line. Slick interface to timelines, maps and information with links to
      even more relevant information and other sites. Students should use this site often.

      Voice of the Shuttle. A comprehensive, annotated list. Visit often.

      World Art Treasures. Continuing displays with accompanying texts in French and some Eng-
      lish. Presently includes works from Egypt, China, Japan, India, Myanmar/Burma, Laos, Cam-
      bodia and Thailand.


      The Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection. A large number of maps from all parts of the


      Ancient History. This site features timelines broken down by region, civilization, and cul-
      ture. Useful organization by region or by civilization.

      Fourth World Documentation Project: Indigenous Peoples' Information for the Online Com-
      munity. Documents specifically focused on contemporary issues of indigenous peoples. Ar-
      ranged geographically.
      Global History Consortium. The Virtual Research Institutes represents all geographical re-
      gions except Europe. A really nice site with focus on world history.

      That Wacky Millennium. This site outlines events from 1001 CE to 2000 CE, with a focus on
      the ironic.

      World Cultures to 1500. An excellent page full of useful material, images and information.
      Designed for a course taught by Richard Hooker, Washington State University.

      The World Systems Gopher. Texts, book reviews, syllabi and more related to world systems.
      Difficult to navigate, but worth the time if you are working on systems theory.


      The Long Foreground: Human Prehistory. A good introduction to human evolution and ear-
      ly hominids.

      Neanderthal Museum. Site of German museum, whose goals are to maintain and popularize
      the cultural heritage of the Neanderthals.


      General Resources

              Ancient Near Eastern Cross-Cultural Timeline. A very useful and clear timeline.

              Catal Huyuk. Recent work done in the area, with historical and archaeological data.

              Mesopotamia and Persia. This site gives valuable information on the influences of
              geography on early Persian civilizations, reviews Persian military history, and dis-
              cusses the importance of Persian religion.

        The Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago. Contains continuing presenta-
        tions of on-going research.

        The Oriental Institute Museum. A comprehensive site from the University of Chica-


        Djoser Pyramid. An interactive plan with some graphics of the pyramid. This site is
        a bit hard for the non-specialist.

        Egypt: Alexandria: The Ptolemaic Dynasty. Background on this ancient city's histo-

        Egyptian Museum. Web site of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, highlighting images
        of accessories and jewelry, sculpture, furniture, mummies, and written documents of
        ancient Egypt from the museum's enormous collection.

        The Giza "Plateau Mapping Project. Current research on the monuments of Giza,
        with important computer-generated perspectives. Excellent images.

        The Institute of Egyptian Art and Archaeology. This is a web page from the Univer-
        sity of Memphis. Included are a color tour of Egypt and an exhibit of Egyptian arti-

        Louvre Department of Egyptian Antiquities. Includes images.


        Creative Impulse: Mesopotamia. The University of Evansville's impressive site on
        all things about ancient Mesopotamia.

        Life in Early Mesopotamia. This site offers glimpses into a recent archaeological
        expedition to Tell Mashnaqa, a settlement nearly 7,000 years old. Images of finds
        and of archaeologists at work.
              Nippur, Sacred City of Enlil. History of the city, with information on archaeological
              material. Images and maps.

              The Oriental Institute's Mesopotamian Collection. An extensive site from the Uni-
              versity of Chicago.

      Israel and Palestine

              Ancient Palestine with Ancient Sources. A model web page with analysis, ancient
              texts and images linked for a superior introduction to ancient Palestine.

               Israel: The New Jerusalem Mosaic. An historical look at the city with good pic-
              tures. Discusses the history of Jerusalem.

              Images of Ancient Iran. Images of Persian Art, without commentary.


      Ancient Mediterranean Civilization.    Brief histories and timelines of Greece, Rome and

      Ariadne: The Hellenic Civilization Database. Extensive site containing information on Greek
      art, literature and archaeology. Includes a description and images of Greek museums.

      Diotima: Materials for the Study of Women and Gender in Antiquity.

      GIS and Remote Sensing in Archaeology: Burgundy, France. A good introduction, with ex-
      cellent graphics, to advanced techniques in archaeology.

      About Lepcis Magna. Lepcis Magna, an amazingly preserved Roman city on the North Afri-
      can coast has been excavated by archaeologists since the 1920s. Little blurb on the Roman
      Empire being in Africa, nice and historical. Enjoy the multimedia lecture hall.

The Ohio State University Excavations at Isthmia. A summary, with graphics, of work at the
Sanctuary of Poseidon at Isthmia.

Overview of Greek History, T.R. Martin. An on-line, hypertext textbook, integrated with the
Perseus project.

Perseus Project. The Perseus Project is an evolving digital library of resources for the
study of the ancient world and beyond.     An incredible amount of primary source material,
bith textual and archaeological.

The Perseus Atlas Project. Maps and satellite imagery in various scales. Extremely interest-
ing and useful.

Pompeii Forum Project. Constructed by historians and archaeologists from the University of
Virginia, this site examines ancient Pompeii from the perspective or urban design.

Pompeii. One hundred images from the Tulane University site provides a virtual tour of an-
cient Pompeii.

The Pylos Regional Archaeological Project. A multi-disciplinary, diachronic archaeological
expedition investigates the history of prehistoric and historic settlement and land use in west-
ern Messenia in Greece.

Roman Art and Architecture in the City of Rome. A collection of images of Roman architec-

The Tech Classics Archive. Translated classical texts, with a search facility. A phenomenal

Timeline. The history of ancient Rome, with a chronological index and links to Internet re-
sources. Emphasis is placed on the roles of woman in ancient times.

Vesuvius. A beautiful exploration of Mount Vesuvius in ancient Rome and as it appears to-
day. Speculations on the next eruption as well.

         Women's Life in Greece and Rome. Primary Sources arranged topically. A wonderful re-
         search resource.


         General Resources

                African Art: Aesthetics and Meaning: An Electronic Exhibition Catalog. A very brief
                introduction to African Aesthetics. Good images of objects with descriptive and ex-
                planatory text.

                African Studies WWW Links (UPenn). A useful set of links to many places having
                items related to Africa.

                African News. Limited news bulletins from the "Omnivore."

                AfricanTimelines. Chronology with descriptions for Ancient Africa, African Em-
                pires, African Slave Trade & European Imperialism, Anti-Colonialism, Post-
                Independence Africa, plus Sources for Further Study.

                Africa South of the Sahara. Hypertext linked timeline of African history. A timeline
                of African history

                Country-Specific Pages for Africa. A useful set of links arranged by country.

                Dutch Portuguese Colonial History. History of the Portuguese and the Dutch in
                Ceylon, India, Malacca, Bengal, Formosa, Africa, and other places.

                Internet African History Sourcebook. Extensive on-line source for links about the
                history of Africa Offers short primary documents describing the slave trade and the
                life of the enslaved people in their own words, As well as extensive on-line sources
                for links about the history of ancient Africa, including the kingdoms of Ghana, Mali,
                and Songhay.
          Islam and Islamic History in Arabia and the Middle East: The Coming of the West.
          A short discussion of the Western influence and domination from the seventeenth
          century until 1945.

          Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of African Art. Changing on-line dis-
          plays and exhibits.

          West African Music. An introduction (with references), and sample audio files.


          See "Ancient Near East"


          Eritrea Page. General information maps and images.


          Ethiopia Page. General information, maps and images.


          Ghana Home Page. Images, limited historical information.


          The Virtual Institute of Mambila Studies. Information and Research on the Mambila


          Somalia Home Page. Descriptions, maps and images.


        Ancient Nubia: Egypt's Rival in Africa. Designed to teach users about a lesser
        known African civilization that existed alongside the more famous Egyptian civiliza-
        tion. Nice web site dedicated to telling about Nubian civilization

        Nubia--Its Glory and its People. An exhibit at the Oriental Institute of the history of
        Nubia from 2800 BC to 1400 AD. Includes images and good text.

        Nubia: The Land Upriver. The geography and early history of the Nubian peoples,
        from prehistoric times to the Kingdom of Kush.

        Sudan News and Views. Periodic news review.

South Africa

        African National Congress. Includes documentation and a history of South Africa.

        South Africa: Labyrinth of East London Lore. A means to make the history of this
        harbor town accessible to the community and schools.


        Zambian Web Page. Guide to the country and The Post, a major newspaper.


        Great Zimbabwe. A 23-slide series, with commentary, that will take you through the
        ruins of Great Zimbabwe in southern Africa. A lot of fun.


       General Resources

             Asian Studies. A comprehensive listing of Internet resources.

             Asia-Pacific Information. Links to information on Asia, including Japan, China, Ko-
             rea, Russia, and India.

             Asia Timeline. Timeline of Asian events. Good basic overview of the history of the

             The Huns. An extensive site about the Huns and Attila.

             The Buddhist Age, 500 BCE to 319 CE Text and images detail Buddha's life, the
             Four Truths, and the evolution of Buddhism. Related links offer analyses of Budd-
             hist texts and a lengthy list of primary texts.

             Buddhist Studies. Links to pages concerned with Buddhism.

             Central Asian History. Major events relative to Central Asian history with a time-

             China and East Asia. China and East Asia chronology timeline.

             Empires Beyond the Great Wall: The Heritage of Genghis Khan. A rich site offering
             a biography of Genghis Khan and information about the history and culture of the
             Mongol Empire.

             Empires Beyond the Great Wall: The Heritage of Genghis Khan. Guide to an exhibit
             at the Royal British Columbia Museum. Good historical information, and many im-
             ages of artifacts.

Hinduism. Extensive webpage offering a number of sites about Hinduism, including
a discussion of Veda, the Vedic culture, and its meaning in today's world, and ex-
cerpts from the Bhagavad-Gita and the Rig-Veda.

Internet East Asia History. Extensive on-line source for links about the history of
East Asia including primary documents regarding exploration, European imperial-
ism, and the influence of missionaries.

Jainism. Extensive site discusses the principles, traditions, and practices of Jainism
and includes numerous related links.

Jews from Asia. Background and history of Jews from India, China, Thailand, and
other parts of Asia.

Manchoukuo Train Line. Good site about the history of Manchuria, "the puppet
state." Discusses the five northeastern provinces of China collectively known as
Manchuria, who declared their independence from the Chinese Republic under Japa-

Masterpieces of the Kyoto National Museum. Numerous images, with descriptions,
of the artworks of Japan, Korean, and China.

The Ramayana: An Enduring Tradition. The Ramayana is one of the most important
literary and oral texts of South Asia. This extensive site from Syracuse University
offers both a short and complete story of Rama, history, images, and maps.

The Silk Road. This site links Europe and Asia through trade. Includes a map of the
silk road and a brief history.

Silk Road to China, Arts at Dunhuang Grottoes. Including maps of the ancient trade
route and images of the artwork at the DunHuang Grottoes. Gives maps for the silk
road, and tells a bit about them.


        Ancient Dynasties. Images and texts present a view of early China, from prehistory
        to the era of the Warring States, 221 BCE .

        Art of China Homepage. A large collection of images.

        A Brief History of Hong Kong. A history of Hong Kong starting in the 19 th century.

        China Education and Research Center. Provided by Tsinghua University. Some li-
        mited historical information. Good images, and audio files, including Mao Tse-

        Chinese Music Page. Information and links to other sites containing Chinese music.
        Covers traditional, folk, ceremonial and modern music. Includes downloadable and
        playable audio files.

        China News Digest. News reports from China.

        China the Beautiful. Extensive site exploring the art, calligraphy, poetry, literature,
        and music of China throughout its lengthy history.

        Classic Chinese Literature. Links to on-line classic Chinese literature.

        History Timeline. Chinese history-with hypertext links to information from the Xia
        dynasty to the Modern People's Republic. Comprehensive timeline, with links tell-
        ing about the Dynasties.

        Imperial China: The Ming. Map and images pertaining to the Ming dynasty, 1368-
        1644; a part of the Internet East Asian History Sourcebook.

        Xi’an and the Silk Road. The history of Xi‘an and the ancient trade route.


         History of Korea. Text and images documenting the Koryo and Chosen dynasties of


         Nanjing Massacre. An extremely disturbing page with documents, photos and per-
         sonal accounts.

         Exploring Japanese Feudalism. Site explores in depth the history of Japanese feu-
         dalism, including Japan's founding myth, the warrior ethic, and the establishment of
         the shogunate.

         Japan News. Links to news from Japan .

         The National Diet of Japan. A web site explaining the history, organization and
         workings of the National Diet; includes images. Information provided by the Diet.


         The Republic of China. Historical information on Taiwan. Includes details of unifi-
         cation plans.

         Taiwan WWW Master Index. A comprehensive index to WWW material concerning


         Thailand: History of Chiangmai Page. This site about the history of the city in-
         cludes topography and popular places.

Southeast Asia
         South-East Asia Information. Limited information on Brunei, Burma, Cambodia,
         Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.


                Chronology-Medieval India. Extensive history of India with timelines, articles and
                primary sources.

                Hindi Program at Penn. Audio and movie files provide language instruction.

                Medieval India. Site discussing the principles, traditions, and practices of Jainism as
                well as a discussion of the history, sites and monuments, and classical texts of me-
                dieval India, 600 BC-1526 CE.

                India Timeline. An extensive timeline for Indian historical events and related stories
                and sites.


       General Resources

                Russian and East European Network Information Center. Suggested links to basic
                information on numerous countries.

                REESWeb: Russian and East European Resources. Links to relevant resources in
                eastern European countries.


                Little Russia in San Antonio, Texas. A very useful page with links to other pages.
                Sections include Moscow Architecture, 12-19th centuries, Baroque Architecture of
                St. Petersburg, The Trinity-St.Sergiy Lavra, and others, all with excellent images.
                See the music page for lyrics and recordings.

          Russia. A history of Russia during the time of Peter the Great and Catherine the
          Great includes information and images regarding geography, politics, people, and

          The Alexander Palace Time Machine. A virtual tour of the fairy-tale treasure
          house of the Russian Czars, home of Nickolas and Alexandra, and Alexander Palace
          with good graphics and information. An enjoyable site.

          Window to Russia. This page is designed to spread information about Russia and in-
          cludes a section on culture, art and history. Some good exhibits and images.


          The Armenian Research Center. Some fact sheets and images. Highly politicized.


          Bosnia Home Page. Focused on recent military activity.


          Croatia: Historical and Cultural Overview. A reasonable introduction with some

          Welcome to Croatia. A simple guide, with many images.


          Pzlen. An interactive guide to the city of Pzlen. Includes a clickable map of the city
          and numerous images.

          Bucharest, Romania. History with pictures of the city of Bucharest.


                 The Slovakia Document Store. A very thorough collection of information, mostly of
                 things contemporary. Do not miss the Cities, Region section for a virtual tour.


                 Slovenia. An introduction with some images. See the clickable map and virtual tour.


                 Ukraine. Links to things Ukrainian. A useful history, and some images.


                 Poland: HISTORY. History about the city of Krakow from the stone age to the 20th


                 Frederick the Great of Prussia. Extensive site on the king of Prussia and his times.



                 Dutch Portuguese Colonial History. A history of the Portuguese and the Dutch in
                 Ceylon, India, Malacca, Bengal, Formosa, Africa, and other places.

                 Haqqani Foundation Home Page. An esoteric introduction to Sufism, from a Sufi
                 point of view.

                 Middle East Studies. Extensive list of links to things related to the Middle East. Ar-
                 ranged topically and geographically. Good individual state guide.


        Mughul Monarchs. A detailed introduction to the Mughul dynasty and the city of
        Agra, whose images emphasize the superb architecture of the time.

        Topkapi Palace. A guide to Topkapi Palace, with numerous images of the palace
        rooms and grounds and its phenomenal artifacts, including portraits of the sultans,
        manuscripts, clothing, porcelains, and ornaments.


        The Grand Tradition of Byzantine Historiography. A text document with a nice
        overview and list of authors.

        Byzantium Studies on the Internet and Byzantine Art. This site includes many im-
        ages of icons, monasteries Ravenna, and Hagia Sophia; it details Byzantine life in Je-
        rusalem and offers links to related Web sites.

        Byzantium Through Arab Eyes. An original account of a mission to Constantinople
        by an Arab ambassador in the late tenth century.

        Byzantium: Timeline. A useful timeline with pictures.


        Internet Islamic History Source Book: Mohammed and Foundations. Mohammed
        and foundations-to 632 CE. Extensive on-line source for links about the early histo-
        ry of Islam, including a biography of Mohammed and the many aspects of Islam, in-
        cluding the role of women. and Founda-
        tions - to 632 CE

        The Virtual Mosque. Information about Islam, Islamic History, as well as pictures
        and audio files. The entire Qu‘ran in Arabic and English with audio files. An excel-
        lent resource.

        Islamic and Arabic Arts and Architecture. A rich and attractively designed site,
        with information and images regarding architecture, calligraphy, and textiles. In-
         cludes a glossary of terms and names of important artist and architects. A subsite of-
         fers a portfolio of shrines and palaces including the Ka'ba, the Mosque of the Prophet
         Mohammed, the Dome of the Rock, and the Alhambra.

         Islamic Texts and Resources. A large collection of material at the University of Buf-
         falo. Contains an introduction to Islam, the Qur'aan, Hadiths, and a good section on
         Islamic thought, including jurisprudence. Mysticism, theology and science are also
         featured, all with links to numerous primary and secondary sources. Links to other
         resources on the Internet.


         The Great Game: Afghanistan and the Asian Sub-Continent. A page explicating
         Russian and British conflict in Afghanistan. Very thorough with many interesting


         Isfahan. A very good virtual tour of the city and its Islamic architecture, ranging
         in date from the 11th to 19th centuries.


         The One and Only Morocco WWW. A virtual tour with many images.


         Turkey: Fall of Constantinople. Reflections on the fall of Constantinople.

         Turkey: History of Istanbul. A wonderful text document on the history of Istanbul
         from the city's founding to the Turkish period.

         Turkey in Pictures. An extensive collection.


      General Resources

            Age of Discovery. An excellent collection of resources that includes text, images,
            and maps relating to the early years of European expansion.

            Columbus Navigation Home Page. Extensive information regarding the life and
            voyages of Christopher Columbus.

            Internet Medieval Sourcebook: Exploration and Expansion. Extensive on-line
            source for links about Western exploration and expansion, including primary docu-
            ments by or about da Gama, Columbus, Drake, and Magellan.

            Western and Central Europe. A page in chronological order of the happenings in
            Western Europe. A good general overview of history.

      Middle Ages

            Geoffrey Chaucer (ca. 1343-1400). This site includes quotes, biography, collection
            of works and resources about Chaucer, his works, and the time.

            Gregorian Chants. History, texts and explanations.

            Internet Medieval Source Book. Extremely helpful site containing original course
            materials from medieval authors and secondary sources dealing with a large variety
            of medieval subjects.

            Labyrinth: Medieval Studies Infoserver. An excellent site for resources and links to
            resources for the study of medieval history and culture. Extensive links to texts, in-
            cluding Latin, French, Italian and Middle English.

            Medieval Science Page. A great site for anyone interested in medieval medicine and

      Medieval Women Home Page. Interdisciplinary exploration of the life of women in
      the late Middle Ages.

      Middle Ages. This site, under the direction of Annenberg/CBS Project, features
      information and exhibits illustrating what daily life was like during the Middle Ages.

      The Plague. Offers links detailing the origins, causes, and effects, with an emphasis
      on literature.

      Women Writers of the Middle Ages. A collection of both secular and religious works
      authored                  by                  medieval                     women.

Early Modern and Modern

      Internet Modern History Sourcebook: The Scientific Revolution and the Enlighten-
      ment. Extensive on-line source for links about the Scientific Revolution and the En-
      lightenment, including primary documents by or about Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo,
      Descartes, Adam Smith, and John Locke.

      The Louvre. This web site for one of the world's greatest museums offers many
      paths to some of the most beautiful Renaissance art.

      Peace of Westphalia. Complete text of the peace treaties that together made up the
      Treaty of Westphalia (1648), which ended the Thirty Years' War.

      Renaissance Art. Some of the major paintings, works of sculpture, and architecture
      from the Renaissance.

      Renaissance Dante in Print. An exhibit charting various editions of Dante, with illu-

      Scientific Revolution. The homepage of the Galileo Project, offering a variety of
      helpful sources on the Scientific Revolution.

         WebMuseum, Paris: Italian Renaissance (1420-1600). A useful site for anyone in-
         terested in the art of the Italian Renaissance, especially the works of Leonardo de
         Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo.


         The Avignon Papacy. Includes a brief history of the Papacy, images and a list of
         Avignon Popes.

         Catacombs of Paris. A sensationalized account of the history and finds.

         Charlemagne: King of the Franks. Gives a brief synopsis of his life includes links.

         French Civilization: Capetians to Crusades. A work-in-progress, this presents a
         brief history of France with images and sounds. In French.

         French Painting in the Age of Enlightenment. An extensive collection of images
         with explanatory texts. Includes multiple indices.

         French Revolution. Lists several major web sites and a selected general biography
         dedicated to the French Revolution.

         French Revolution. Provides a broad range of links and it includes numerous images
         related to the French Revolution.

         Historical Maps of Paris. Maps from the early 18th to late 19th century.

         L’Age d’Or: The Age of the Sun King. Provides information on 17th century French
         and English Baroque; including information on the costumes and customs of the Pe-
         riod. Nice graphical site, tells about military, customs, and costumes of the time.

         Marie Antoinette. A short biography of the queen, with related Web sites offering
         portraits, genealogy, and life at Versailles.

          Military History: Napoleonic Wars (1800-1815). Canadian Forces College site lists
          links on the biographies of Napoleon and Nelson, campaigns and battles, museums,
          navel operations, and reenactments.

          Napoleon. Site provides extensive biographic and general historical information
          about Napoleon and his times.

          The Paris Page. Extensive information for the visitor to Paris. Images of famous
          monuments with brief histories. The page on the Liberation offers good information
          and images.


          Aachen. A basic history of Charlemagne‘s capital with images.

          Deutsche Datenquellen: Geschichte (German History). Index to historical informa-
          tion by subject and geographic location. Materials in both German and English.

          Bremen History. An extensive historic page about the oldest political city in Germa-

          Historical Braunschweig. Comprehensive site with pictures and text to tell the histo-
          ry of the city of Braunschweig

          Holocaust Pictures Exhibition. Comprehensive site with 37 images and commen-

          Trier. A basic and brief history of Trier with images.


          Northern Ireland. A remembrance of Bloody Sunday, the 1972 deaths of 14 prote-
          sters in Derry. Includes historical resources and commemorative event listings. Poli-


        Citta del Vaticano. A guide to the Vatican city, with many fine images. Be sure to
        visit the museum.

        Città italiane...e non. Information, including histories on many Italian cities and re-
        gions with excellent images.

        Italy: History of Venice. The History, Culture, Curiosities and Society of the Sere-
        nissima in Venice.

        Sistine Chapel. Photo collection depicting all facets of the Sistine Chapel, including
        18 images of Michalango's ceiling.

        WebMuseum, Paris: Italian Renaissance (1420-1600). A useful site for anyone in-
        terested in the art of the Italian Renaissance, especially the works of Leonardo de
        Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo.


        Netherlands: Amsterdam Heritage. An introduction and history of Amsterdam, fo-
        cusing on the city's historic buildings and sites.


        Glasgow: Images of a Forgotten City contains photographs and a history of Glas-
        gow, plus information on the Springburn Museum.


        Historical Towns of the Province of Seville. Discusses the history of some towns in
        the province of Seville.


              Holmiensis. Stockholm history from the middle ages to the 20th century.

     A Former Parish in Sodermanland. History and lists of emigrants during
              the period 1865-1925. User friendly site about the history of an old parish in Swe-

      United Kingdom

              British Empire. Dedicated to charting the history of the British Imperial experience.

              The Portico. Home page for the British Library. Includes links to exhibits with im-

              Tudor England. Site detailing life in Tudor England includes biographies, maps, im-
              portant dates, architecture, and music, including sound files.


              Bangor. A guide to the town of Bangor.


      General Resources

              Cabeza de Vaca. The first European to describe America from Florida through Tex-

              Columbus Day. Extensive site that includes his voyages, writings, controversies,
              timelines, myths, biography.

      Discoverers Web: Jacques Cartier. He went looking for a passage through or
      around North America to East Asia, as some had done before him, and many would
      after him.

      The French Colonials on the Coast. An attractive site of French colonial history on
      the Gulf of Mexico.

      Leif Eriksson Greenland-Vinland year 1000-2000. Celebrating the 1000th anniver-
      sary of the Viking discovery of North America. Good site about Leif Eriksson, his
      life and times.

      North America to 1997. A hypertext linked timeline to history of the continent.

      Samuel de Champlain’s 1607 Map. This site is from the American Treasures of the
      Library of Congress.

      The American Revolution: A Select Bibliography. Divided topically.

      Voyage to Another Universe. A highly personalized account (by Karen M. Strong)
      focusing on travels in Arizona and New Mexico. Please note that this is copyrighted
      material. Numerous links to literature and images.

      WestWeb: Western History Resource. A user friendly site on Western American
      history resource. Includes Canadian and Mexican resources.

Native American

      Arctic Studies Center. Smithsonian Institution site dedicated to the study of Arctic
      peoples, culture, and environments includes numerous images, as well as audio and
      video segments of dance and discussion.

      Conquest Channel-Midwest American Conquest. Native American conquest in the
      "New World" during the Sixteenth Century is investigated from a fresh view point.
      Good site for lots of information on many Midwest regions.

         Lakota Wowapi Oti Kin: Lakota Home Page. See especially the information on the
         teaching of Native American religion.

         National Museum of the American Indian. Web site of the Smithsonian Institution's
         National Museum of the American Indian offers a look at one of the finest and most
         complete collections of items from the indigenous people of the Western Hemis-


         Arctic Dawn—The Journeys of Samuel Hearne. Originally published in 1795, this is
         a new hypertext edition of the journals of Samuel Hearne, the first European to ex-
         plore the western Canadian Arctic. Includes pictures and sounds.

         Diefenbunker History. From the Diefenbunker's birth to Canada's newest Museum,
         the Diefenbunker's history and future. Interesting site about Canada during the Cold

         Old Fort Williams-Homepage. Step through the palisade gates into another world,
         two centuries ago. Site dedicated to Fort William in Canada.

         Ukrainian Cultural Heritage Village. This historic site tells the story of Ukrainian
         immigrants and the development of the Bloc Settlement in East Central Alberta from
         1892 to 1930. Site about Ukrainian immigrant history.

United States

Note: The information on individual states is far too great to list here. This list is particularly

         American Memory. Primary source and archival material. Sections on Walt Whit-
         man, rural life and war mobilization (1938-44), early motion pictures, and folklore.
         The collection is in the process of expanding. The section on the American Civil
         War, with timeline, is particularly useful.

         Anti-Imperialism in the United States, 1898-1935. Useful historical summary, sec-
         ondary and primary material. Good graphics.

             Benjamin Franklin, Glimpses of a Man. A multimedia biographical presentation
             with good hypertext and images.

             National Archives. See original historic documents, among other things.

             The Constitution of the United States of America. A hypertext Constitution with
             links between amendments.

             A Hypertext on American History. A basic history with links to other websites.

             US Historical Documents. Key documents, from the Declaration of Independence to

             The Valley of the Shadow: Living the Civil War in Pennsylvania and Virginia. A
             hypertext history with images. Includes archive of sources.


      General Resources

    Information about Caribbean culture and religions, including Voodoo.

             Chicano/Latino Net. A few links to things humanistic.

             Latin American Network Information Center--University of Texas. Links to items
             concerned with Latin America.

             The Incas Art and Culture. A pictorial tribute to the pottery, gold work and masonry
             of the Incas. Includes history of Ecuador, links, and more.
         Jason Project. A project designed to allow access for schoolchildren to ongoing re-
         search. See Jason V for work on Mayan sites and coral reefs in Belize.

         Mesoweb, including Illustrated Encyclopedia of Mesoamerica. Mesoweb is devoted
         to ancient Mesoamerica and its cultures: the Olmec, Mayas, Aztecs, Toltecs, Zapo-
         tecs, and others.

         Tupac Amaru, the life, times and execution of the last Inca. Recounts the history of
         the last Incas, from the strangulation of Atahuallpa to the beheading of Tupac Amaru
         in Cuzco in 1571.


         Bem-vindo ao Brasil. Excellent collection of images, including maps.

         The History of Brazil. Images, maps and documents.


         The Incas Art and Culture. A pictorial tribute to the pottery, gold work and masonry
         of the Incas. Includes a history of Ecuador, links, and more.

         Investigating the Inca Empire: Saraguro, Ecuador. Investigating Inca imperial strat-
         egies of conquest and control in the Saraguro Region of Ecuador. Informative page
         on Inca history.


         Guatemala. Brief historical information, with images and maps.

Falkland Islands

         The Falkland Islands/Malvinas War. A detailed account of the war and Falkland Isl-
         ands history.


              Haiti: Haitian Revolution-Slave Rebellion of 1791. A brief account from The Li-
              brary of Congress Country Studies site about a slave rebellion in Haiti.


              Mexico: Virtual Palenque. An excellent interactive look at the ruins of Palenque,
              includes a tour of some Mayan ruins.


              Panamá: Places, Folklore, Festivals, and Museums. A clickable map and very basic


              Venezuela Web Server. Basic historical information, maps, images, and some prima-
              ry material.


      The Aboriginal page. A basic essay on the history of Australia's indigenous people.

      Jail Story. A comprehensive site on the history of Darlinghurst Gaol (1840s). Includes plans,
      photos, stories.

      At Sea. A comprehensive history of the Greek community of Darwin, in the Northern Territo-
      ry of Australia.

      Northcote Historical & Conservation Society. An extensive site exploring the Northcote's
      history, includes a newsletter and links. The society's homepage discusses the history of
      Northcote as well.

New Zealand: Buried Village, Rotorua, New Zealand. Experience the legacy of the eruption
of Mount Tarawera, the most recent of numerous volcanic events in the Rotorua region over
the last 20,000 years. Site provides a tour of the buried village, pictures, and history.


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