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									                 ENVIRONMENTAL ATTITUDES AND CONCEPTS
                                    PRTR 302 -- FALL 1998
Meeting Time: Tuesday and Thursday 10:20-11:40 Room: Natural Resources 306


Instructor:              Dennis B. Propst, Ph.D., Associate Professor
Department:              Park, Recreation, and Tourism Resources
Office:                  131 Natural Resources Building
Phone:                   353-5190, ext. 119
Email:                   propst@pilot.msu.edu
Mail Box:                Room 151
Office Hours:            Tues. & Thurs., 1:30-3:30 PM & by appointment


INTRODUCTION


The environment is often neglected or abused in our modern times. Building, development, economic
activities as well as recreation overuse have placed a number of pressures upon our natural resources
and public lands. It is important to understand our environment from the human perspective.
Management decisions involving public and private resource lands will require public involvement and
action, be that citizen input or voting at the ballot box. In the years ahead, we as a society and you as an
individual will be faced with some of the most difficult and far-reaching environmental decisions ever
placed before a citizenry. Ozone depletion, global warming, toxic contamination and waste management,
nuclear waste storage, forest and water preservation are but a few of the issues which will test our
understanding of the environment and our resolve as concerned citizens. Underlying public concern and
involvement in these issues is the assumption that citizens are informed, aware and willing to become
involved. It is a prerequisite for a democracy.

"At the individual level, people have begun to respond to increased awareness of global environmental
change by altering their values, beliefs and actions. Changes in individual behavior are surely necessary
but are not enough. It is as a global species -- pooling our knowledge, coordinating our actions and
sharing what the planet has to offer -- that we have any prospect for managing the planet's transformation
along pathways of sustainable development. Self-conscious, intelligent management of the earth is one
of the great challenges facing humanity as it approaches the 21st century."
Clark, W. C. (1989) Managing Plant Earth. Scientific American, 261(3) 47-54


COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course is designed to foster a better understanding of the environment and human action toward the
environment. Environmental action, be it political, financial or social, requires knowledge and awareness.
 This course will survey historical environmental perspectives and present day environmental problems.
The process of preserving wilderness will be defined and used as a metaphor for understanding how we
know the environment, respond to it, use or abuse our surroundings and natural resources. Historical
points of view will be compared and contrasted with modern "environmentalism" as well as multicultural
and futuristic perspectives. The course will cut across a number of settings, from urban to rural,
wilderness to the planned landscape. Some of the concepts to be covered include: wilderness,
preservation, environmental ethics, environmental attitudes and perceptions, environmental movements
and organizations and natural resource use and management, particularly related to recreation and
tourism activity.

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COURSE OBJECTIVES
By the end of the course, a student should be able to:

       recognize and describe major historical events and people who have shaped our present day use
        attitudes and responses toward our natural resources;

       differentiate between various worldviews regarding the environment as well as the movements
        and organizations that represent these worldviews;

       articulate and critique various environmental behavior concepts and processes;

       assess and critique current environmental problems;

       describe individual, social and institutional actions and changes required for planetary health and
        sustainability;

       relate the wilderness metaphor to current environmental issues.


CONDITIONS AND CRITERIA

1. Student Participation. Most material is presented through lectures, discussions, and cooperative
learning exercises (i.e., learning together in groups). Open and frank discussion is encouraged and
expected in each class period. Students are also expected to be present in the class, prepared and ready
to lead and participate in discussions, and willing to engage in cooperative learning (small group)
activities. Fifteen percent of you grade (same as an exam!) relates to your class participation.

If you attempt to contact me and I am not available, it is your responsibility to leave a complete message
with your name, phone number, date and time. You may also leave a written message in my mailbox in
151 Natural Resources or contact me via Email.

2. Writing Quality. I expect high quality writing in all your assignments. In this course, “high quality”
means writing that is well-planned and coherent. It has been subjected to several drafts and revisions. It
follows standard, edited written English practices. Papers that do not meet these “high quality” criteria will
be returned to you for revision with no grade.

3. Exams. The first two exams are made up of essay and short answer questions. You will have several
choices for the final exam, all of which will be "take-home" (I'll provide details later). The first two exams
will be closed book. Make-up exams are rare. Make up exams are provided only for documented medical
excuses; they are essay as well.

4. Environmental Issues Updates. Select an environmental issue (local, state, national international) that
interests you (some examples follow). It would be helpful if your issue is one that has meaning to you.
Keep in mind that this issue and assignment will be the basis of the next assignment. Issues will be
approved ahead of time.

Your assignment will be to explain concisely the issue (an issue has two sides) in a two page statement.
The first page and a half of your assignment should be a describe of the issue. (1) Provide a brief history
explaining the different perspectives to the issue, (2) note any pending plans of action or resolutions under
consideration. (3) Comment on what action you think should be taken and why. (4) In the last half of the
two pages describe the significance of this issue to you and your interests. Be prepared to offer a brief
summary of your findings to the class for discussion. Turn in a copy of an article, newspaper article or


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other reference that suggested the problem to you. You may work in pairs on this assignment if you like.
Submit your selection and partner's name (if applicable) in writing by the fifth class (September 15).
Some Issues to get your started (you may choose one of these; other choices are possible but first obtain
instructor approval):

1.      A U.S. government ruling on roads in the forest designed to help grizzlies. The ruling will be
        protested by loggers. Wall Street Journal, Oct.1, 1993, P.B1.

2.      Government asked to take down a dam to allow salmon runs in the Pacific Northwest. Wall
        Street Journal, Aug.5, 1993, P. A1. What's the latest on this and dam decommissioning in
        general? Related issues: the salmon are no longer running in Calif. and
        Oregon. Also Canada‟s blockade of a ferry in protest of US fishing practices.

3.      Disney thought about a new theme park in Virginia. The environmental impacts related to the
        historical and cultural landscape were hotly debated. What happened? Why? George Will
        editorial: "Marring our most defining landscape", The Detroit News, July 24, 1994, P.3b.

4.      What is the relationship between recent free trade agreements and the environment? Pro and
        con articles in Scientific American, November, 1993, P.17. What is the most recent thinking on
        this issue?

5.      Is "Love Canal" a dead issue? Lois Gibbs spoke on campus two years ago about this landmark
        case. What's the latest?

6.      In Canada one of the big environmental battles involves the damming of rivers in the Hudson
        Bay area. It is the James Bay Hydro-Electric Project. What is this about and what is the
        latest?. Green Peace and the EDF groups are involved.

7.      Landowners want to develop oil and gas reserves in the Jordan River Valley (Michigan) while
        others want to protect the land.

8.      Scarcity of clean drinking water is a world wide problem and one in this country as well in
        certain areas. More and more, waste water is being treated and re-used for drinking water.
        What is the latest on this, who in the U.S. is drinking this water and why? Wall Street
        Journal, Aug.8, 1994, P. B1.

9.      Alan During of the Worldwatch Institute argues that logging towns in the Northwest need to
        re-invent their economies as forest activities slow down. How are things going out West on this
        issue? What is the latest from Worldwatch and other sources on this? Futurist, July-Aug, 1994,
        P. 59.

10.     On the east coast of the U.S., fishing and fishing towns are in deep trouble as the commercial
        fish supply diminish. On both coasts, the government is experimenting with "individual
        transferable quotas." What is this about and how is it going? A science and society story in
        U.S.News and World Report, August 15, 1994, P. 55 offers a hint.

11.     As if whales and other sea life did not have enough problems, now Scripps Institute of
        Oceanography in San Diego is trying to study the ocean and global warming with the project
        Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate. It involves sending low freq. sounds across the ocean
        over a 30 month period. What is the latest, will it happen and what are the environmental
        impacts? Water Impacts, Institute of Water Research, MSU, August 1994, P.1.

12.     Helena Norberg-Hodge after years of living with the Ladakh people argues that there are
        better ways to "progress" in our world. What is her point regarding progress and
        sustainability? Editorial - Futurist, May-June, 1992, P. 60.

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13.   E Magazine's Will Nixon wonders how the White House is doing with respect to caring for the
      environment. What is the latest? Are Al Gore's latest proposals worth implementing or just
      political rhetoric? E Magazine, March-April, 1994, P. 36.

14.   Jack Ward Thomas, a leading forest scientist in the middle of the Spotted Owl issue, is now
      Chief of the Forest Service. How is he doing? E Magazine, March - April, 1994, P. 14.

15.   New York can't dump sewage sludge in the ocean anymore, so what is it doing in Az and
      Colorado? What is the latest on the transport and use of sludge? Environment, April 1993, P. 24.

16.   Businesses are being asked to self assess their environmental practices by the Global
      Environmental Management Initiative. What is the latest? Environment, April 1993, P. 22.

17.   The internet system offers several environmental nodes and contacts. List and describe ten of
      your favorite internet environmental links. What are the pros and cons of using the internet to
      obtain environmental information? How can you tell which sites are the most/least credible?

18.   In Nov. 1994, the people of Michigan were asked to vote on developing an endowment fund to
      support the Michigan State Parks system. What was the nature of the ballot issue and how did
      Michigan vote on the issue? What will be the repercussions? What‟s happening with the
      State Parks now?

19.   The National Parks are very popular places and their use can be overwhelming and destructive
      to the environment. What visitation trends occurred in the National Parks this summer tourist
      season? Up or down and why?

20.   Do you recycle here on campus? If you wanted to could you and how? The campus has been
      working on a recycling program for some time. What is the history of the program, what is the
      latest in the program, how do or can faculty and students contribute and pitch in? Recycling and
      Waste Reduction - 355 0354.

21.   In the past, recreation on public lands in the U.S. has been provided at zero or low cost to
      visitors. Now, with budgets being cut at the federal, state and local levels, there is more and
      more pressure to apply a pay to play strategy in which users of various types are increasingly
      asked to pay for the services and management of resources to meet their needs.
      Hunters, snowmobilers, anglers and others contribute to the funds needed to manage the lands
      and provide services. Higher fees are also being considered for use of less or undeveloped
      lands, wilderness areas, parks, campgrounds, forests, and trails. Is this acceptable? Will it
      provide enough funding? What about equity and access? Who will gain and who will lose?
      Lansing State Journal, 8/9/94 and Dustin, Fedkiw, McCloskey references at end of syllabus.

22.   Wolves from Canada were recently reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park. Why? Why
      not reintroduce a species of insect or plant instead? What is the latest on this issue? How much
      did the effort cost taxpayers? Lansing State Journal, 4/19/95; Jackson Hole News, 8/16/95 and
      other issues; recent issues of Western Wildlands, Wyoming Wildlife, and Audubon.

23.   There was a “World Forests Convention” in Switzerland this year (1998). Why was it held? What
      were the conclusions of the experts at this convention in terms of (a) world forests and (b)
      indigenous peoples that live near and depend on these forests? (heard on National Public Radio)

24.   People are chaining themselves to redwoods on private land, owned by Pacific Lumber in
      California. Why? What‟s the latest thinking on who should decide the fate of these trees?



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25.     What is the "MSU-Green" initiative? Why did this initiative arise? How can students get involved?
        Contact instructor and Terry Link (MSU Library).

5. Position Statement/Cover Letter OR Content Analysis of Internet Environmental Literature.
         5.A. Position Statement/Cover Letter. The objectives of this assignment are for you to articulate
an environmental issue, to examine conflicting perspectives on this issue, and to develop a position
statement to be sent to someone in a policy or decision making role. Each person or team (no more than
3 per team) will submit a typed paper taking and defending a position on one of the issues they wrote
about in the Issues Update Assignment. A progress report will be due and there will be a chance to revise
based on class and instructor feedback. The final product must have the following:
a.       A description of the issue (you will most likely have to expand on your discussion from your
         issue paper). Explain why is this an issue?
b.       A discussion of your position on the issue including both how it is the same and how it is
         different from others positions. You must logically support your views using evidence you‟ve
         collected. What is the basis for your position?
c.       A discussion of what the future holds for resolution of the issue.
d.       A reference list containing a minimum of six references used to gather information on the issue.
e.       A cover letter to the person to whom you are sending your position paper. This must be a formal
         letter. You will need to find out the person‟s correct title and address. After the papers are
         evaluated and revised, you will be encouraged to mail them.
         Papers must be 3-4 pages in length (not including the cover letter) and MUST BE TYPED OR
COMPUTER PRINTED. Double-space and provide one inch borders on all sides. Turn off proportional
spacing and do not right justify. Use the default font and size - pica or elite (10 or 12 point) - no fancy or
large fonts! Be sure you proofread your paper.

         5.B. Content Analysis of Internet Environmental Literature. There is computer software
which analyzes the content of environmental literature than appears on the internet. The software allows
individuals to assess, for example, changes in how much attention is devoted to a particular topic over
time. To illustrate, one could examine the content of newspaper articles regarding logging versus other
uses of the Tongass National Forest (Alaska). The results could indicate changes in people's values
regarding how the Tongass should be used (e.g., recreation vs. logging). It is a powerful tool especially
for those of you interested in tracking environmental policies and changes in values over time. However,
some software packages are expensive and I need to do a little more research to see if this is even
feasible. Talk to me if you are interested in this and I will see what I can do to get you the software for a
small price or free.

EVALUATION (Note- 10% of pts. per day will be deducted for late work w/o prior permission)
 Criteria                         Due Dates  Points (%)                Grading Scale     Points
 Exam I                           October 1   75 (15%)               4.0 = 90% or more     450-
                                                                                           500
 Environmental Issue Updates      October 13   25 (5%)               3.5 = 85%-89.95%      425-
                                                                                           449
 Exam II                         November 10  75 (15%)               3.0 = 80%-84.95%      400-
                                                                                           424
 Position Statement or C.A.                                          2.5 = 75%-79.95%      375-
  (C.A. = Content Analysis)                                                                399
          - Progress Report       October 29   25 ( 5%)              2.0 = 70%-74.95%      350-
                                                                                           374
          - Statement            November 17  50 (10%)               1.5 = 65%-69.95%      325-
                                                                                           349
          - Cover Letter or C.A. November 24   25 (5%)               1.0 = 60%-64.95%      300-
             written report                                                                324
          - Revisions            December 3   50 (10%)              0.0 = below 59.95%    >299


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 Take Home Final Exam               December 18        100 (20%)
                                     or before
 Participation & Assignments                    75 (15%)
 Total                                         500 (100%)
REQUIRED READINGS
Nash, Roderick. (1982). Wilderness and the American Mind, (3rd Ed.). New Haven: Yale University
Press.

Nash, Roderick. (1990). American Environmentalism: Readings in Conservation History, (3rd Ed.).
University of California, Santa Barbara: McGraw-Hill Publishing Co.

Callenbach, Ernest, (1975). Ecotopia. New York: Bantam Books.

PRR 302 Reading Package - to be purchased from Paper Image or the College Store in the Hannah
Shopping Center (Hagadorn Rd.) behind USA Café (available around Sept. 10 but call first).


CLASS TOPICS, READINGS, AND ASSIGNMENTS (note: try to read in order listed)


Class    Date      Topics                           Readings                                     Pp.    Assignments
  1     Sept. 1    Introduction, Business           None
  2     Sept. 3    Wilderness: Historical Origins   WAM: Preface, Prologue                       (14)   Meaningful
                   & Personal Meanings              WAM: Chapter 1, Old World Roots...           (14)   Experiences
  3     Sept. 8    Wilderness as Metaphor;          AE: Environmental History pp. 1-8             (8)
                   Historical Events/People         WAM: Chap. 2 A Wilderness Condition          (21)
  4     Sept. 10   Romantics and Nature             AE: Conservation Impulse pp. 9-11             (2)   Check on CP
                                                    WAM: Chapter 3, Romantic Wilderness          (23)   at Paper
                                                    WAM: Chapter 4, American Wilderness          (17)   Image
  5     Sept. 15   ism's: Transcentalism,           WAM: Chap. 5, Henry David Thoreau            (12)   Issue choice,
                   Deism, Primitivism, Eco-         AE: Thoreau, Value of Wildness p36            (4)   partner's name
                   colonialism, etc.                AE: Cronon, Human Factor ........ p17         (8)   Due
                                                    AE: Jacobs, Frontiersmen........... p25       (6)
  6     Sept. 17   Wilderness Saved                 WAM: Chap. 6, Preserve the Wilderness!       (12)
                   Video: Oregon Trail              WAM: Chap. 7, Wilderness Preserved           (14)
                   (excerpts)                       AE: Catlin, Artist Proposes....... p31        (5)
                                                    AE: Marsh, Human Responsibility ...p40        (5)
                                                    AE: Olmsted, The Value and Care .... p45      (7)
  7     Sept. 22   Preservation/Conservation        WAM: Chapter 8, John Muir: Publicizer        (19)
                   Video: Muir vs. Pinchot          WAM: Chapter 9, The Wilderness Cult          (20)
                   (excerpts)                       AE: Progressive Cons. Crusade, pp69-71        (2)
                                                    AE: Pinchot, Birth of Conservation p73        (7)
  8     Sept. 24   Hetch Hetchy Battle;             WAM: Chapter 10, Hetch Hetchy                (21)
                   Preservation vs.                 AE: Johnson, Aesthetics …. P90                (3)
                   Conservation (cont'd.)           AE: Muir, Voice for Wilderness ......p94      (4)
                   Guest Speaker                    AE: Hays, Cons. As Effeciency…..p 102         (3)
                                                    AE: Nash, Cons. As Anxiety……p 105             (4)
  9     Sept.29    Women and Native American        CP: Merchant, Women & Conservation            (9)
                   Contributions                    CP: Pioneer Women …..                         (2)
                   Review for Exam                  CP: Bird, From: "A Lady's Life in ….          (7)
                                                    CP: Cornell, The Influence of Native......    (6)
                                                    AE: Black Elk, Native Americans ….            (3)
 10      Oct. 1    Exam I                                                                               Exam 1
 11      Oct. 6    Wilderness Act of 1964 &         WAM: Ch. 11(skim 182-91 read 191-99)          (8)
                   related legislation              WAM: Ch. 12, Decision for Permanence         (38)
                                                    AE: Marshall, Wilderness                      (5)



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 12     Oct. 8    Current Wilderness/Protected   WAM: Ch. 15, Irony of Victory                  (25)
                  Areas System and               AE: Stegner, Meaning of … p. 175                (5)
                  Wilderness Values/Uses         CP: Miller, Public Lands ….                     (4)
                                                 CP: Fede-Corrigall, The Enduring ....           (4)



Class    Date     Topics                         Readings                                       Pp.    Assignments
 13     Oct. 13   The Future and Role of         WAM: Epilogue, A Future for Wilderness         (10)   Env. Issue
                  Wilderness and its             AE: Nash, Wilderness Advocacy p 259             (9)   Updates
                  Management                     CP: Peterson-Harmon, Wilderness Mgt....         (4)
                                                 CP: Forman, Islands of Doom                     (4)
 14     Oct. 15   TRANSITION—CURRENT             CP: Miller-- Science, Models …                  (5)
                  ISSUES & HUMAN                 CP: Porterfield: Luxury Items ..........        (1)
                  RESPONSES: 1.Technology,       CP: Wilderness Soc.--Salute to Aldo            (13)
                  Science, & the Environment     AE: Leopold, A Land Ethic p171                  (4)
                                                 AE: Commoner, Fund. Causes p206                 (9)
 15     Oct. 20   Critical Thinking--Science &   CP: Kimmins, Clearcutting …                    (30)
                  Values Compared                AE: Douglas, Mineral King/Standing, 243         (2)
                                                 CP: Schiffmann, Activist lives in tree          (1)
                                                 CP: The Futurist: Global Environment            (6)
                                                 CP: Samuelson: Don‟t Hold Your Breath           (1)
 16     Oct. 22   Environmental Crisis:          AE: Carson, Pesticides p191                     (4)
                  Population and Pollution       AE: Ehrlich, Overpopulation p202                (4)
                                                 CP: Hardin: Tragedy of Commons                  (6)
                                                 CP: Keyfitz: Growing Human Population           (8)
 17     Oct. 27   Video: After the Warming       CP: Ruckelshaus: Towards World                  (7)
                  (Part 1) and Introduction to   CP: Ponting: Historical Perspective ........    (9)
                  Sustainability                 CP: Hall etal, Env. Impacts of US Babies        (1)
 18     Oct. 29   Environmental Perception,      CP: Kaplan & Kaplan, Humanscape                       Progress
                  Cognition and Territory        (articles by Kaplan & Kaplan, Campbell,               Reports
                                                 Napier, Washburn & Sommer)                     (12)
                                                 CP: Carpenter & Holmes, Living w/Nature         (3)
                                                 CP: Goleman, Psychology's New Interest          (1)
 19     Nov. 3    Environmental Values and       CP: Kellert, American Society                  (30)
                  Attitudes                      CP: Hare, Black Ecology                         (3)
                                                 AE: Berry, Religion & Environment, 275          (4)
                                                 CP: Williams, Redemption                        (2)
 20      Nov. 5   Mystery Day                    Mystery Day                                           Mystery Day
 21     Nov. 10   Exam II                                                                              Exam 2
 22     Nov. 12   Environmental Movements        AE: Brower, Friendship with… p. 246            (8)
                  and                            AE: Sale, Schism Environmentalism,285          (9)
                  Organizations                  AE: Bookchin, Shortcomings ......... p.294     (5)
                                                 CP: Letto: 100 Yrs of Compromise               (5)
                                                 CP: The Defense of Nature 2; Sprouting         (1)
                                                 CP: Friedman: Env. Told „No sale‟              (1)
 23     Nov. 17   GAIA Theory,                   AE: Sessions&Devall, Deep Ecology, 309         (7)    Position
                  Deep Ecology, and              CP: Pearce: Gaia Revolution …..                (2)    Statements
                  Wise Use Movement              CP: Lovelock: Hands up for the Gaia ….         (2)    Due
                                                 CP: Brick: Determined Opposition               (9)
                                                 CP: Dillard, Living like Weasels               (3)
 24     Nov. 19   Multicultural Perspectives,    CP: Mohai-Bryant: Race, Poverty & Envir.       (3)
                  Environmental Justice          CP: Bullard: In Our Backyards                  (2)
                  and Ecofeminism                CP: Taylor: Environ. Justice Movement          (3)
                                                 CP: Two feminists discuss….                    (2)
                                                 CP: W. LaDuke on Indians' Place in …           (1)
                                                 CP: Budd, Cinnamon Mare                        (6)
                                                 CP: Guha, Radical American …..                 (8)



                                                                                                                  7
 25      Nov. 24   TRANSITION: SOLUTIONS          CP: MacNeill: Strategies for Sustain.….    (9)   Cover Letters
                                                  CP: Begley: Butterflies Aren‟t Free        (1)   OR Content
                   Video: After the Warming       CP: Orr, Ecological Design Arts            (2)   Analysis
                   (Part II) and Sustainability   CP: Lovins, Technology is Answer           (2)   Reports Due
                                                  CP: Marklein, Colleges going green         (1)
         Nov. 26   Thanksgiving Recess



Class     Date     Topics                         Readings                                  Pp.    Assignments
 26      Dec. 1    Toward “Techno” and Social     CP: Brown: We Can Build Sustainable....   (5)
                   Fixes                          CP: Kunzig & Zimmer, Carbon Cuts ….       (6)
                                                  CP: Green, Buddy Thomas ….                (2)
 27      Dec. 3    Ethics, Behaviors, and         CP: Weiss: Fairness to Future ….          (7)    Revisions Due
                   Life Styles                    CP: Schmipf: Keep it Simple               (2)
                                                  CP: Duignan-Cabrera, Mississippi Clean    (7)
                                                  Ecotopia: pp. 1-59
 28      Dec. 8    Environment, Recreation and    CP: Robbins: Tourism Trap                  (6)
                   Tourism                        CP: Russell, Torrent of Tourists           (2)
                                                  CP: Margolis: With Solitude for all        (9)
                                                  Ecotopia: pp. 60-118
 29      Dec. 10   Future Environments            CP: Cronon, Getting Back to the Wrong..    (4)
                   Wrap-up                        AE: Barney:, A Troubled Future p329        (4)
                                                  AE: Adams-Cahn, Future Environ.... p336   (13)
                                                  CP Chief Seattle: Speech                   (2)
                                                  Ecotopia: pp. 119-181


 30      Dec. 18   Final Exam 10:00- 12:00        Same Room                                        Final Exam
REFERENCES AND READINGS (also see course packet)
Allee, D. J. (1989). Establishment of a pricing policy to reduce the waste system: Supply and demand
        issue for recyclables. In: C. C. Fridgen (ed.), National CES Solid and Hazardous Waste
        Management Workshop Proceedings (pp.74-80). Detroit, MI: Waste Management of North
        America, Inc.
Bleviss, D. L. & Walzer, P. (1990). Energy for Motor Vehicles. Scientific American, 263(3), 103-109.
Bratton, S. P. (1986). Battling satan in the wilderness: Antagonism, spirituality, and wild nature in the four
        gospels. In: R. C. Lucas (Compiler)., Proceedings-- National wilderness research conference:
        Current research; 1985 July 23-26; Fort Collins, Co. General Technical Report INT-212. Ogden,
        UT: Inter-mountain Research Station.
Brown, L. R. and Flavin, C. (1988). The earth's vital signs. In L. R. Brown, E.C.Wolf, L. Starke, et. al.
       (eds.), State of the World 1988 (pp. 1-21; Notes: Ch. 1, 189-192). NY: W.W. Norton & Co.
Brown, L. R. and Wolf, E. C. (1988). Reclaiming the future. In L. R. Brown & E. C. Wolf (eds.), State of
       the World 1988 (pp. 170-188; Notes: Ch. 10, 224-226) NY: W.W. Norton & Co.
Cahn, R. & Cahn, P. (1990). Did earth day change the world? Environment. 32(7), 16-20, 36-43.
Chandler, C. & Brauchli, M. W. (1990). Oil security-- How Japan became so energy-efficient: It leaned on
       industry. Wall Street Journal, September 10, p. A1, A7.
Citizens Committee for Michigan State Parks. (1992). Vision 2020: A strategic plan for Michigan State
        Parks. Lansing, MI: MI Department of Natural Resources.
Cone, J. D. and Hayes, S. C. (1980). Environmental problems/behavioral solutions. Monterey, CA:
        Brooks/Cole.
Davis, Ged R. (1990). Energy for planet earth. Scientific American, September, 263(3), 55-62.

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de Crevecoeur, H. St. Jean (1782). What is an American. (pp. 130-139).
Reprinted in J. Conron (ed.), (1974). The american landscape: A critical anthology of prose and poetry.
        NY: Oxford University Press.
Dustin, D. L. (1986). Outdoor recreation: A question of equity. Forum for Applied Research and Public
        Policy, 1(3), 62-67.
Fedkiw, J. (1986). U.S. outdoor recreation policy: Strengthening private initiatives. Forum for Applied
        Research and Public Policy, 1(3), 43-55.
Fridgen, J. D. (1987). Use of cognitive maps to determine perceived tourism regions. Leisure Sciences,
        9, 101-117.
Graefe, A. R., Donnelly, M. P. & Vaske, J. J. (1986). Crowding and specialization: A reexamination of the
        crowding model. In: R. C. Lucas (Compiler), Proceedings-- National wilderness research
        conference: Current research; 1985 July 23-26; Fort Collins, CO. General Technical Report
        INT-212. Ogden, UT: Inter-mountain Research Station.
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