mobile by Ppz55K60


									IELM 511: Information System design


     Part 1. ISD for well structured data – relational and other DBMS
          Info storage (modeling, normalization)
          Info retrieval (Relational algebra, Calculus, SQL)
          DB integrated API‟s

     Part 2. ISD for systems with non-uniformly structured data
          Basics of web-based IS (www, web2.0, …)
          Markup‟s, HTML, XML
          Design tools for Info Sys: UML

     Part III: (subset of)
           API‟s for mobile apps
           Security, Cryptography
           IS product lifecycles
           Algorithm analysis, P, NP, NPC

  Need and applications of mobile apps

  Problems in development of mobile apps

  Case study: Google Android

  Concluding remarks
Mobile computing: Needs and Applications

 Location and guidance systems, e.g.
    GPS and Map-based services

 Logistics services, e.g.
    FedEx/DHL delivery tracking/receiving systems

Ubiquitous computing, e.g.
   Internet fridge, Home device controls, Building security systems
Mobile computing: Issues


  Lower Bandwidth (wireless bandwidth is lower than wired) 
    Data transfer is slower (e.g. poor performance of iPhone GPS)

  Limited battery power 
    Restricted to low power consumption apps
  Reliability 
    Wireless service (cells) do not cover all areas, e.g. Mfg Sys Lab !
  Human Computer Interface (HCI) 
    For small mobile devices, e.g. phones/PDAs, user-interface is an issue

  Multi-purpose devices 
   Multi-tasking/threading, prioritizing and switching between processes
Common Mobile Phone OS‟s

 Symbian OS (used by Nokia, Sony-Ericsson, …)
  - Pre-emptive multi-tasking
  - Closed source, Uses C++, Supports Java,
  - App development requires certification

 RIM Blackberry (used by Blackberry phones)
  - Simple GUI, Optimized applications and HCI for email
 Windows mobile (used by Samsung, AT&T, LG, Palm Treo)
  - GUI emulates windows on PC
  - Software development kit (SDK) is free for students, uses Visual C++, .NET

 iPhone OS (used by Apple iPhones)
  - Based on Apple OS X
  - GUI: user friendly, touch-screen only (no keypad support)

 Google Android (used by Google phone, HTC, …)
  - Linux-based OS, Open source !
  - SDK is free, uses Java
Comparing mobile apps with desktops..

 What differentiates mobile apps from desktop apps ?

     - Networked applications must deal with cellular communications

     - Mobile OS (and apps have very limited resources:
       Smaller size, Less RAM, Slower low energy CPU, Limited graphics,
       RAM is smaller, …

                           mobile multimedia formats and file formats are different

     - Mobile I/O systems are quite different from desktop ones
       Touch-screen based, phone-keys based, reduced keyboard-based, …
Mobile Application Development: Case study - Android

 Steps in Android Application development:

    Download and install SDK

    Develop the application: Eclipse IDE (Java, SQLite, XML)

    Test the application: Android emulator

    Register with Google (US$ 25)

    Upload your application to Google App Store
 Android OS Architecture

  Phone users

App developers


Structure of an Android Application
                                                        Android apps are
                                                        stored in „packages‟

             Data, sound files, images

 java                                    aapt   MyApp.apk
             data      mp3

              # library calls

Android OS is multi-processing, multi-threading  multiple processes can
be running on the device at the same time.
Processes can communicate w/ the OS, and also can communicate w/ each other
Logical structure and life of an Android Application

  An Android app is composed of a set of components

   - Each component does a well defined activity
   - Due to multi-tasking, multiple components could be doing something
     at the same time
   - An app may use a component from some other app, and/or it may
     allow other apps to use some of its components

  When an app is executed, Android creates a “virtual computer” in which
  the process runs  each process is isolated from others.
  This is implemented via the DalVik Virtual Machine [Java Virtual Machine]
   security

  However, processes can share data with each other via special components
  called „content providers‟
Android components: Activities

 Activity is a sequence of related actions
 Each activity presents a visual interface to the user
 Each activity is derived from base class Activity
 Each activity owns a View which controls a rectangular window;
 Child views (controlling sub-rectangles) can be derived from parents;
 Views are used to create images, icons, buttons, etc.

 The “Contacts” application may have an activity that displays a
 scrolling list of all contacts listed by last name.

 The “Calculator” app may have an activity that displays a numeric keyboard
 and buttons for numeric operations, etc. and awaits inputs from the user.
      Android API – activity control loop

Colored ovals: states of the activity

Grey rectangles: callback methods written by developer

Android components: Services

 Service is an activity that runs in the background  no visual interface
 Each activity is derived from base class Service

 A common example of a service is an mp3 player that may run in the
 background as the user may be involved with some activity of another
 app, e.g. web browser.
Android API – service control loop

Colored ovals: states of the service

Grey rectangles: callback methods written by developer

Typically, a service may be created, say, by an activity;
Alternatively, a service may be started and running in some
other context, and can announce its interface to other activities –
in this case, the activity may just connect itself to the service,
in Android, this is called “bind”-ing to the service.

Android components: Broadcast receivers

 Broadcast receivers are similar to interrupt handlers in normal OS
 BRs run in the background, listening for interrupts generated by other apps
 An application may have one or more BR‟s to handle interrupts.

 Examples of interrupts:
 - Incoming phone call
 - User changed language setting
 - Battery is low
 - User has transited from one time zone to different one
Android components: Content providers

 Content providers make some subset of an application‟s data available
 to other apps when requested

 Content providers are the only mechanism for apps to share data.
    Android application process
      Process can be multi-threaded  Android apps do not have a C-style “main”.

      Activities, services, broadcast receivers: activated by messages called intents.
      Content providers: activated by special objects called ContentResolvers.

      Depending on the state of the application, and the user‟s actions, the app
      may start (or terminate) some activity, or service, etc.

       Before Android can start an application component, it must know
        the name, location, and input types of the component  The manifest
                   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
Notepad app
                   <manifest package="" …>
(partial manifest) <application android:icon="@drawable/app_notes" android:label="@string/app_name" >
                      <activity android:name="NotesList" android:label="@string/title_notes_list">
                        <intent-filter> <action android:name="android.intent.action.MAIN" /> …
                             <action android:name="android.intent.action.VIEW" />
                             <action android:name="android.intent.action.EDIT" />
                              <action android:name="android.intent.action.PICK" /> …
Views in Android

 Most activities will present a „view‟ to the user, either to display some
 graphics, or to get some user-input.
 Thus each activity can create (instances) of one or more views. Each
 view has some graphical objects that either fill the complete screen,
 or a part of the screen.

 Each object in a view, i.e. the layout, is also described in XML
                             <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
   Notepad app
                             <view xmlns:android=""
   (layout of Note-Editor)
Android app development: summary

 The basic steps of developing an android app:

 - Develop UML class diagrams, activity diagrams, use-case diagrams …
 - Identify the activities, services, …
 - For each activity, decide the GUI and design it, store as resources.
 - Use the IDE (e.g. Eclipse), and program the Java code for each class
 - Test & debug the code using the android emulator
 - Upload the code on the mobile device.
Brief concluding remarks

 Mobile Operating Systems are in some ways similar to desktop OS,
 but there are several differences in details, and in usage.

 Mobile app development process is almost similar to normal app development,
 but issues such as compiled code size, memory usage and algorithm efficiency
 are much more important.

 Several modern mobile OS‟s are using xml as an integral part the programming
 language – e.g. Android (manifest, view layout), Palm Pre OS, …
References and Further Reading

Mobile OS wikipedia

Google android developer site

                                 Next: Project completion, Exam!
Case study: Hangman-style – „Save the bird‟ game

 We consider a game similar to the popular „Hangman‟ game, with the
 main difference being in the graphics (6 wrong guesses  shark eats bird)

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