ocr_13450_sm_gce_unit_g453 by qtRl7C1X

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									                                          Support Material

                                   GCE Physical Education
                                 OCR Advanced GCE in Physical Education: H554
                                                                        Unit: G453


This Support Material booklet is designed to accompany the OCR Advanced GCE
specification in Physical Education for teaching from September 2008.
Contents
Contents                                     2
Introduction                                 3
Scheme of Work                               5
Sample Lesson Plan                          47
Other forms of Support                      54




2 of 55                  GCE Physical Education
Introduction

Background

A new structure of assessment for A Level has been introduced, for first teaching from September
2008. Some of the changes include:

     The introduction of stretch and challenge (including the new A* grade at A2) – to ensure that
      every young person has the opportunity to reach their full potential
     The reduction or removal of coursework components for many qualifications – to lessen the
      volume of marking for teachers
     A reduction in the number of units for many qualifications – to lessen the amount of
      assessment for learners
     Amendments to the content of specifications – to ensure that content is up-to-date and
      relevant.

OCR has produced an overview document, which summarises the changes to Physical Education.
This can be found at www.ocr.org.uk, along with the new specification.

In order to help you plan effectively for the implementation of the new specification we have
produced this Scheme of Work and Sample Lesson Plans for Physical Education These Support
Materials are designed for guidance only and play a secondary role to the Specification.



Our Ethos

All our Support Materials were produced „by teachers for teachers‟ in order to capture real life
current teaching practices and they are based around OCR‟s revised specifications. The aim is for
the support materials to inspire teachers and facilitate different ideas and teaching practices.

Each Scheme of Work and set of sample Lesson Plans is provided in:

     PDF format – for immediate use
     Word format – so that you can use it as a foundation to build upon and amend the content to
      suit your teaching style and students‟ needs.

The Scheme of Work and sample Lesson plans provide examples of how to teach this unit and the
teaching hours are suggestions only. Some or all of it may be applicable to your teaching.

The Specification is the document on which assessment is based and specifies what content and
skills need to be covered in delivering the course. At all times, therefore, this Support Material
booklet should be read in conjunction with the Specification. If clarification on a particular point is
sought then that clarification should be found in the Specification itself.




GCE Physical Education                                                                             3 of 55
A Guided Tour through the Scheme of Work

          = Innovative Teaching Idea
          All the teaching idea contained in the SOW are innovative, but the icon is used to
          Highlight exceptionally innovative ideas.

          = Stretch & Challenge Activity
          This icon is added at the end of text when there is an explicit opportunity to offer
          Stretch and Challenge.

          = ICT Opportunity
          This icon is used to illustrate when an activity could be taught using ICT
          facilities.




4 of 55                                                                     GCE Physical Education
Physical Education H554: G453 Historical Studies
Suggested            2 hours    Topic:     Popular recreation in pre-industrial Britain and its impact on contemporary participation and performance
teaching time
                                                                            Suggested teaching and
Topic outline             Learning outcome                                                                             Resources                       Points to note
                                                                            learning activities
Popular recreation        Candidates should be able to:                        Overview of course/ pictures              Advance PE for OCR –           Whenever possible
                           Describe characteristics (including                Time line quiz                             A2                              candidates should be
                             simple/natural, occasional, local, wagering,      primary research of candidates‟           PE and the study of sport       encouraged to compare then
                             violence/cruelty, simple unwritten rules,          relatives/friends/neighbours               – Davis, Bull, Roscoe           and now as higher order
                             courtly/popular, rural, occupational)                                                         and Roscoe                      examinations questions will
                                                                               Practical „role play‟ of various
                           Explain social and cultural factors which                                                     Manly and Muscular              require this.
                                                                                activities e.g. smock race, grinning
                             influenced the nature and development of           contest, whistling match et5c.             Diversion – Tony Money         Candidates should find it
                             popular recreations.                                                                                                         beneficial if the first few
                                                                               Candidates to answer examination-          Use of visual images
                           Explain how popular recreation impacted on                                                     wherever possible:              lessons are spent
                                                                                style question related to this topic
                             physical competence and health of                                                             Laminated pictures              consolidating understanding of
                                                                               Begin glossary of key words.                                               characteristics and societal
                             participants.                                                                                Slide shows
                                                                                                                                                           determinants.
                           Describe the varying opportunities for                                                        Video (eg The People‟s
                             participation.                                                                                                               Impact of class an important
                                                                                                                           Game)
                                                                                                                                                           concept to understand at this
                           Explain the impact of popular recreation on
                                                                                                                                                           stage.
                             contemporary participation and performance.
                                                                                                                                                          Note links to summer fairs,
                           Make reference to case study activities.
                                                                                                                                                           village fetes and surviving
                                                                                                                                                           ethnic sports (AS
                                                                                                                                                           contemporary) today.




        = Innovative teaching idea                                                  = Stretch and challenge opportunity                                                = ICT opportunity
                                                                                    idea
GCE Physical Education                                                                                                                                                            5 of 55
Physical Education H554: G453 Historical Studies
Candidates should be able to contrast the post-industrial social and cultural factors relating to rational recreation with pre-industrial social and cultural
factors relating to popular recreation.
Suggested              2 hours         Topic:            Rational recreation in post-industrial Britain and its impact on contemporary participation and performance
teaching time
                                                                                                          Suggested teaching
Topic outline          Learning outcome                                                                                                   Resources               Points to note
                                                                                                          and learning activities
Rationalised           Candidates should be able to:                                                         Time line activity -           PE Review:             Emphasis on
sports and              Describe the characteristics of rational recreation (including respectability,       including cards of key          Volume 2                examination technique
                          regularity, regionalization, codification, more controlled wagering)                societal determinants eg        Number 1 –              for comparing and
pastimes
                        Understanding of how these characteristics differed from the characteristics         Saturday half day/ impact       article and task:       contrasting e.g.
                          of popular recreation.                                                              rail travel/ impact of          „Was the                comparing popular
                                                                                                              literacy on the                 Industrial              recreations with rational
                        Explain how Social and cultural factors which influenced the nature and
                                                                                                              emergence of                    revolution also a       recreations or the
                          development of rationalised sports and pastimes ref:.
                                                                                                              rationalised sports and         sporting                societal features that
                           The industrial revolution and associated urban and agrarian revolutions.          recreations.                    revolution?‟            impacted on them.
                           Emergence of urban middle class.                                                 Match up games to              Match up cards/        Reminder to flag up key
                           Changes in work conditions that improved health and affected                      consolidate                     games                   societal influences both
                              participation.                                                                  characteristics and                                     in the past and present
                           Increase in free time for industrial working class.                               societal determinants.                                  that limited / encouraged
                           The transport revolution and impact of the railways.                             Candidates to answer                                    and continue to limit /
                                                                                                              examination-style                                       encourage involvement
                           Changing views of the Church towards sport and recreation.
                                                                                                              question related to this                                in physical activity e.g.
                           Amateurism and professionalism.                                                                                                           impact of variety of
                                                                                                              topic.
                           The place and status of women in Victorian Britain; increased                                                                             transport links including
                              participation by middle class women by end of the nineteenth century.                                                                   cheap internal and
                        Explain how rational recreation impacted on physical competence and                                                                          European flights today.
                          health of participants.
                        Describe the varying opportunities for participation.
                        Make reference to case study activities.
                        Explain the impact of rational recreation on contemporary participation and
                          performance.




          = Innovative teaching idea                                                    = Stretch and challenge opportunity                                                  = ICT opportunity
                                                                                        idea
6 of 55                                                                                                                                                               GCE Physical Education
Physical Education H554: G453 Historical Studies
Suggested          2 hours           Topic:           Nineteenth century public schools and their impact on the development of physical activities and young
teaching time                                         people both then and now
                                                                        Suggested teaching and
Topic outline             Learning outcome                                                                 Resources                Points to note
                                                                        learning activities
Nineteenth century        Candidates should be able to:                       to answer examination-style                              Some „Clarendon Schools‟
public schools             Describe the characteristics (fee paying,          question related to this topic.                           give tours with reference to A
                             endowed, boys, boarding, gentry, non-local,                                                                 Level PE study.
                             controlled by trustees, Spartan)
                           Explain the impact of these schools on the
                             development of case study activities with
                             particular reference to participation and
                             healthy lifestyles both then and now.
                           Demonstrate knowledge and understanding
                             of the Clarendon Report.




        = Innovative teaching idea                                                  = Stretch and challenge opportunity                               = ICT opportunity
                                                                                    idea
GCE Physical Education                                                                                                                                           7 of 55
Physical Education H554: G453 Historical Studies
Suggested           2 hours            Topic:            The developmental stages of athleticism in nineteenth century public schools
teaching time
                                                                                                 Suggested teaching and learning                                                 Points
Topic outline                  Learning outcome                                                                                                         Resources
                                                                                                 activities                                                                      to note
The three                      Candidates should be able to:                                     Pictures of key Clarendon Schools – identification        Pictures of key
developmental stages            Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the three            of key characteristics and analysis of impact on           Clarendon Schools.
of athleticism                    developmental stages as a reflection of societal change        development of sports and games.                          Clips from Tom
                                  and the civilising process                                      Candidates to answer examination-style                   Brown‟s Schooldays
                                Explain the evolving nature, status, organisation, technical        question related to this topic.                        video.
                                  development, social relationships and values of the schools
                                  and their sports and games through the stages.
                                Evaluate critically the three developmental stages of
                                  athleticism on the development of physical activities and
                                  young people both then and now.
Stage one (bullying and        Candidates should be able to:                                        Wall chart or A3 revision chart of three stages.
brutality)                      Explain the emergence of a sporting culture in individual
                                  schools as a result of activities brought in to schools by
                                  boys (melting pot) and the natural facilities available.
Stage two (Dr Arnold           Candidates should be able to:                                        Write an obituary to Dr Arnold: to include -
and social control)             Explain the Impact of Dr Thomas Arnold of Rugby School              what were his aims; did he achieve
                                  (1826-1842) as a reforming Headmaster (his aims,                   them? how?
                                  strategies, influence and impact)                                 Research into other public school
                                Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of Muscular                 headmasters. what was their contribution and
                                  Christianity (definition and values).                              how did it compare to that of Arnold?




          = Innovative teaching idea                                                     = Stretch and challenge opportunity                                               = ICT opportunity
                                                                                         idea
8 of 55                                                                                                                                                            GCE Physical Education
Physical Education H554: G453 Historical Studies
Suggested            2 hours                     Topic:                     The developmental stages of athleticism in nineteenth century public schools
teaching time
                                                                                            Suggested teaching and learning
Topic outline                  Learning outcome                                                                                                   Resources   Points to note
                                                                                            activities
Stage three (the „cult‟ of     Candidates should be able to demonstrate knowledge and          Prepare case study of „a public schoolboy‟ at
athleticism)                   understanding of::                                               this time including: home, school, university,
                                Athleticism – definition and values.                           career to illustrate key concepts and diffusion
                                „Melting pot‟ influence of universities and                    of sports and games.
                                the standardisation of rules                                  Candidates to answer examination-style
                                                                                                question related to this topic.
                                Role and impact of games-playing Oxbridge graduates
                                  returning to their schools.
                                The influence and impact of ex Public School boys on the
                                  spread of team games / rational recreations.




         = Innovative teaching idea                                                  = Stretch and challenge opportunity                                      = ICT opportunity
                                                                                     idea
GCE Physical Education                                                                                                                                                  9 of 55
Physical Education H554: G453 Historical Studies
Suggested             2 hours                                 Topic:                                 Case studies
teaching time
                                                                                                     Suggested teaching
Topic outline         Learning outcome                                                                                                Resources Points to note
                                                                                                     and learning activities
                      For each case study activity candidates should be able to, with reference         PowerPoint presentations,
                      to the content specific to each activity:                                          written accounts, group
                       Discuss increases in participation and increased physical                        work,
                          competence.
                       Analyse the activity as popular recreation
                       Assess the influence of nineteenth century public schools on the
                          development of the activity
                       Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the activity as rational
                          recreation.
                       Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of both participation and
                          barriers to participation in the activity today.
Bathing and              Pop Rec: recreation, survival, health and the initial development of          Candidates to answer
swimming                  competitive swimming.                                                          examination-style question
                         Public schools: values and status.                                             related to this topic.
                         Rat Rec: Bathing in urban industrial towns; Wash and Bath house
                          Acts and the impact on healthy lifestyles; hygiene and prevailing social
                          conditions; the organisation of amateur swimming and formation of the
                          ASA.
                         Factors that have helped develop bathing and swimming in the UK
                          and the impact of these factors on contemporary participation and
                          performance.




           = Innovative teaching idea                                                      = Stretch and challenge opportunity                                   = ICT opportunity
                                                                                           idea
10 of 55                                                                                                                                                   GCE Physical Education
Physical Education H554: G453 Historical Studies
Suggested              2 hours                                 Topic:                                Case studies
teaching time
                                                                                                     Suggested teaching
Topic outline          Learning outcome                                                                                               Resources Points to note
                                                                                                     and learning activities
Athletics                 Pop Rec: types and nature of activities associated with community            Candidates to answer
                           events, rural sports and festivals, commercial fairs and wakes, view of       examination-style question
                           the church.                                                                   related to this topic.
                          Pedestrianism (its nature, development and status)
                          the emergence of athletics.
                          Public schools: hare and hounds, steeplechase, athletic sports days;
                           values and status; impact of Exeter College, Oxford.
                          Rat Rec: The emergence of amateur athletics and opportunities for
                           working class involvement; amateurism, professionalism and the
                           exclusion clause.
                          Factors that have helped develop athletics in the UK and the impact of
                           these factors on contemporary participation and performance.
Football                  Pop Rec: mob games                                                           Candidates to answer                       Refer back to AS contemporary
                          Public schools: football and rugby : values and status                        examination-style question                  studies. spectatorism and
                          Rat Rec: amateurism and professionalism; broken time payments; the            related to this topic.                      participation today : impact,
                           split between association football and rugby football; spectatorism vs.                                                   influence, issues.
                           participation and the importance of the game in urban communities.
                          Factors that have helped develop football in the UK and the impact of
                           these factors on contemporary participation and performance.
Cricket                   Pop Rec: significance of class on participation;                             Candidates to answer                       Compare to today.
                          Public schools: values, status and organisaiton.                              examination-style question
                          Rat Rec: William Clarke X1; amateurism and professionalism.                   related to this topic.
                          Factors that have helped develop cricket in the UK and the impact of
                           these factors on contemporary participation and performance.




            = Innovative teaching idea                                                     = Stretch and challenge opportunity                                           = ICT opportunity
                                                                                           idea
GCE Physical Education                                                                                                                                                            11 of 55
Physical Education H554: G453 Historical Studies
Suggested             2 hours                                 Topic:                                Case studies
teaching time
                                                                                                    Suggested teaching
Topic outline         Learning outcome                                                                                               Resources Points to note
                                                                                                    and learning activities
Tennis                   Pop Rec: Real tennis as an exclusive, elitist pre-industrial activity;       Candidates to answer                       Note why different to other popular
                         Public schools: Tennis and other striking games (fives, raquets,              examination-style question                  recreations.
                          squash) – their status and organisation.                                      related to this topic.                     Compare to today.
                         Rat Rec: Lawn tennis as a middle class invention; tennis as a social                                                     Real tennis today?
                          occasion and as a vehicle for the emancipation of women and their
                          participation in sport.
                         Factors that have helped develop tennis in the UK and the impact of
                          these factors on contemporary participation and performance.




           = Innovative teaching idea                                                      = Stretch and challenge opportunity                                         = ICT opportunity
                                                                                           idea
12 of 55                                                                                                                                                      GCE Physical Education
Physical Education H554: G453 Historical Studies
Suggested                 2 hours                        Topic:                                       Drill, physical training and Physical Education in state schools with
teaching time                                                                                         particular reference to its impact upon participation and the
                                                                                                      promotion of healthy lifestyles both then and now.
                                                                                                      Suggested teaching and                                       Points
Topic outline                   Learning outcome                                                                                            Resources
                                                                                                      learning activities                                          to note
                                    Candidates should be able to consider both the reasons for the      Emphasis on examination requirements to compare and contrast styles and
                                     change from one approach, the next and the effects of each           methods and reasons for change.
                                     change both then and now and identify differences between each
                                     of the following and what occurs in State Schools today.
The 1902 Model Course           Candidates should be able to:                                            Practical role plays of each stage      Laminated cards of
                                 Describe objectives, content and methodology;                           possibly with candidates as              each era – write-on
                                 Explain reasons for implementation; role of Colonel Malcolm Fox;        „instructors‟ or teachers having         on key points.
                                                                                                          planning the session.
                                 Explain reasons for rapid replacement (need for healthy lifestyle
                                   for urban working class young people)
The 1933 syllabus               Candidates should be able to:                                            Practical role play
                                 Describe objectives, content, methodology, reputation,
                                 Explain reasons for replacement.
The 1950s – Moving and          Candidates should be able to:                                            Practical role play
Growing and Planning the         Describe objectives, content and methodology;
Programme                        Explain the influence of WW2 on the use of apparatus and the
                                   building of gymnasia leading to increased involvement in and
                                   effectiveness f physical activity for young people.




        = Innovative teaching idea                                                   = Stretch and challenge opportunity                                            = ICT opportunity
                                                                                     idea
GCE Physical Education                                                                                                                                                       13 of 55
Physical Education H554: G453 Historical Studies
Suggested                    2 hours                         Topic:                                          Drill, physical training and Physical Education in state schools with
teaching time                                                                                                particular reference to its impact upon participation and the
                                                                                                             promotion of healthy lifestyles both then and now.
                                                                                                             Suggested teaching and                                       Points
Topic outline                      Learning outcome                                                                                                Resources
                                                                                                             learning activities                                          to note
The 1970s and 80s                  Candidates should be able to:                                                Candidates to answer examination-
                                    Explain the impact of industrial action on opportunity and                  style question related to this topic.
                                      provision for young people to participate in physical activity in
                                      state schools as part of a lifelong involvement in a balanced,
                                      active and healthy lifestyle ;impact on extra curricular activities
                                    Describe the aims of the National Curriculum for Physical
                                      Education.
                                    Evaluate critically the impact on Physical Education in state
                                      schools.




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14 of 55                                                                                                                                                     GCE Physical Education
Physical Education H554: Comparative Studies
Suggested            5 hours             Topic:                 Cultural context of UK, USA and Australia
teaching time
Topic outline                 Learning outcome                  Suggested teaching and learning                   Resources               Points to note
                                                                activities
Candidates should be able to compare the USA and Australia with the UK with reference to the content as detailed for cultural context; Physical Education
and school sport; mass participation; and sport and the pursuit of excellence.
Cultural             For each country, candidates should           Setting the scene.                               A2 PE for OCR          Individual centres will decide whether to teach the
context              be able to demonstrate knowledge              Mind mapping review of the UK (AS                 (Heinemann)             comparative studies option country by country or
                     and understanding of:                          Contemporary Studies) ref: Physical              Advanced PE             theme by theme.
                      Historical determinants                      Education and school sport; mass                  and Sport              The cultural context should be established and
                      Geographical determinants                    participation; sporting excellence;               (Stanley Thornes)       clearly understood by candidates as it underpins the
                      Government policy                           Picture montage: For USA and Australia           PE and the study        whole course.
                      Commercialisation of sport                   use travel brochures and other                    of sport – Davis       Throughout this unit candidates need to compare
                                                                    resources to illustrate cultural context of       et al.                  what they learn and understand about USA and
                      Social determinants
                                                                    each country with annotations.                   Travel brochures,       Australia with UK – parts of the examination question
                      Values
                                                                   Start set of key word cards for each              guide books and         will require this critical analysis/ comparison.
                     Candidates should be able to                   country,                                          images.
                     evaluate critically the influence of the
                                                                   Exam-style question.                             Map and flags.
                     cultural context on:
                                                                   Prepare comparative revision chart fort
                      PE and school sport
                                                                    his topic.
                      Mass participation (particularly
                         among young people.
                      Sport and the pursuit of
                         excellence.




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                                                                                             idea
GCE Physical Education                                                                                                                                                                     15 of 55
Physical Education H554: Comparative Studies
Suggested 8        Topic:                                                                               Physical Education and school sport in USA and Australia compared
teaching     hours                                                                                      with UK
time
Topic outline   Learning outcome                                                                        Suggested teaching             Resources            Points to note
                                                                                                        and learning activities
Physical                Health, fitness and obesity levels in young people; status of and attitudes       Research obesity levels       Video               Websites of High Schools in
education and            towards Physical Education in schools; testing and measuring;                      in USA                         resources            USA may be helpful.
                         „curriculum crisis,‟ strategies to promote Physical Education.                    Prepare and give talk /        easy to source
school sport -
                        Equality; Title IX (benefits, drawbacks and impact on participation);              presentation on values         for USA High
USA                      young disabled people and adapted PE programmes.                                   of summer camps in USA         School sport
                        Outdoor Education: Summer Camps for young people (types and values;               Exam-style question            eg Remember
                         emphasis on promoting physical activity and healthy, active and                                                   the Titans.
                         balanced lifestyles); impact of environmental factors.
                        High School (inter-mural) Sport – organisation, status and ethos;
                         incentives for young participants and coaches.
                        Intra-mural school sport and its role in promoting participation in physical
                         activity ( its organisation, status and ethos)
Physical                Case study of the State of Victoria.                                              Research and do                                    Candidates should be familiar
education and           Fitness, skill and participation levels among young people.                        PowerPoint or OHT                                   with the different organisations
                        Sport Education and Physical Education Project (SEPEP); Physical                   presentation on each of:                            and initiatives illustrated with
school sport -                                                                                              SEPEP, PASE,                                        letters and numbers: title IX,
Australia                Education and Sport Education (PASE): their role in encouraging active
                         participation and lifelong involvement by young people.                            exemplary schools etc.                              WASP, SEPEP,PASE, AIS,
                                                                                                                                                                ASC, UKSI, UK Sport.
                        Key features and functions of: exemplary schools; fundamental skills
                         programme; sports leader programmes; state award schemes (e.g. de
                         Courbertin Award); school club links; sports linkage scheme; sports
                         person in schools project; sports search; teacher games.
                        Outdoor Education: impact of environmental factors, status in schools.
Comparison           Ccompare PE and sport in school in the USA and Australia with the UK and              Exam-style question.
                     in UK candidates should be able to:                                                   Prepare comparative
                      Describe organisation, status and ethos and inter- and intra-school sport.           revision chart fort his
                      Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of health, fitness and obesity               topic.
                         levels among young people.                                                        Exam-style question
                      Outline contemporary initiatives to promote PE and school sport.



           = Innovative teaching idea                                                       = Stretch and challenge opportunity                                                = ICT opportunity
                                                                                            idea
16 of 55                                                                                                                                                              GCE Physical Education
Physical Education H554: Comparative Studies
Suggested            4 hours              Topic:              Mass participation (particularly among young people)in USA and Australia compared with UK
teaching time
Topic outline          Learning outcome                                                          Suggested teaching and               Resources   Points to note
                                                                                                 learning activities
Mass                   Candidates should be able to demonstrate knowledge and                                                                        Research midnight basket ball
participation          understanding of:                                                                                                              leagues in UK.
(particularly           Participation rates
among young             National fitness levels
people) - USA           Strategies to promote participation and ensure lifelong
                          involvement and healthy lifestyles.
                        Amateur sports clubs (lack of tradition)
                        Community recreation: midnight leagues and other
                          contemporary community initiatives.
                        Contemporary initiatives: Time Out for Better Sports for Kids /
                          Hook a Kid on Golf.
Mass                      Participation rates.
participation             National fitness levels.
(particularly             Promotion by the government of regular participation in physical
among young                activity; role of the Australian Sports Commission (ASC).
people) -                 „More Active Australia‟ and club participation.
Australia                 Adapted games for young people.

Comparison                Compare mass participation in the USA and Australia to the UK            Exam-style question.
                           and in the UK candidates should be able to refer to participation        Prepare comparative
                           rates, national fitness levels, strategies to promote participation       revision chart fort his topic.
                           and to ensure lifelong involvement and healthy lifestyles                Exam-style question




           = Innovative teaching idea                                                       = Stretch and challenge opportunity                                   = ICT opportunity
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17 of 55                                                                                                                                                  GCE Physical Education
Physical Education H554: Comparative Studies
Suggested               8 hours                         Topic:                                             Sport and the pursuit of excellence in the USA and Australia
teaching time                                                                                              compared with UK
Topic outline                 Learning outcome                                                             Suggested teaching and learning             Resources        Points
                                                                                                           activities                                                   to note
Sport and the pursuit            Little League (participation in competitive sport for young people).        Create „pathway‟ to excellence chart with key       Video clips:
of excellence - USA              Pathways to professional sport (the College system; scholarships,            words and phrases.                                   Super Bowl,
                                  special admit programmes; the Pro-Draft)                                    Case study research of                               Draft.
                                 Equality and discrimination: history of WASP domination; African             contemporary ethnic sports
                                  Americans (discrimination and contemporary success); tokenism;               starts. analyse reasons for success including
                                  stacking and centrality; the „glass ceiling‟ and contemporary ethnic         opportunity, provision and esteem.
                                  sport stars; opportunity, provision and esteem.
                                 Case study of the „big four‟ American sports with reference to
                                  origins, nature of game, impact of universities, sport as an industry,
                                  the relationship between high level sport, sponsorship and the media
                                  (golden triangle) and the concept of „sport space‟
Sport and the pursuit            The Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) – structure and function.           Group research projects of different styles of
of excellence -                  Alternative „pathways‟ into professional sport (the draft system in          football in Australia.
Australia                         Australian Rules Football and Rugby League)
                                 Case studies of cricket, rugby League, Rugby Union, Association
                                  football, Australian Rules.
                                 Equality and discrimination:
                                 Sport and gender: contemporary equality and high status of women
                                  in high level sport in Australia.
                                 Sport and people with disabilities: high status; Paralympic
                                  involvement.




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18 of 55                                                                                                                                                              GCE Physical Education
Physical Education H554: Comparative Studies
Suggested            8 hours                         Topic:                                          Sport and the pursuit of excellence in the USA and Australia
teaching time                                                                                        compared with UK
Topic outline              Learning outcome                                                          Suggested teaching and learning             Resources        Points
                                                                                                     activities                                                   to note
Comparison                    Compare the pursuit of excellence in the USA and Australia with the      Exam-style question.
                               UK. In the UK.                                                           Prepare comparative revision chart for his
                              Candidates should be able to:                                             topic.
                              explain opportunity, provision and esteem (UK Sport; UKSI, and the       Exam-style question. Mark another student‟s
                               increasing commercialization of sport)                                    answer using mark scheme or students self
                                                                                                         mark own work perhaps before handing in for
                                                                                                         formal teacher assessment.




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GCE Physical Education                                                                                                                                              19 of 55
Physical Education H554: G453 Sports Psychology
Suggested                                                                                                                         Section B Scientific Options Option B1 – Sports
                     30 hours                              Topic:
teaching time                                                                                                                     Psychology
Topic outline        Learning Outcomes                     Suggested teaching and homework activities                             Suggested resources                       Points to note
3 hours                 Demonstrate knowledge and            Introduction to the social science of psychology with use of          Advanced PE and Sport -                  Although Hollander
Individual               understanding of the theories         different types of evidence to form hypotheses.                        Honeybourne, Hill and Moors.              not specified in the
aspects of               of personality: trait                Students to be given a variety of sports psychology research          OCR Advanced PE A2 –                      spec – students
performance              perspectives (the                     summaries to evaluate and assess how psychology can help               various.                                  should use his
that influence           characteristics of                    and hinder sports behaviour.                                          Psychological Dynamics of                 model as an
                         extroversion/introversion,                                                                                                                            example of
young people‟s                                                 Students to use questionnaires to gather evidence re                   Sport – D Gill.
                         neuroticism/stability, Type           personality characteristics – with peers and / or sportspeople.                                                  trait/interactionist
participation                                                                                                                        Applying Psychology to Sport –
                         A/Type B); social learning            The use of profiling should be the basis for further discussion                                                  theory and be able
and aspirations.                                                                                                                      Woods.
                         perspectives; interactionist          on links between personality and sports performance and                                                          to explain using
Active and               approaches.                                                                                                 Personality questionnaires from:          practical examples.
                                                               adopting a balanced, active and healthy lifestyle.
healthy lifestyle.      Explain the effects of                                                                                      www.sportsconfidence.biz/SPQ
                                                              The results of the profiles are analysed by students to draw out       _sample_report.pdf (includes
Personality and          personality profiling on the          problems such as low ecological validity or too many demand            profile of Tiger Woods)
its importance           adoption of balanced, active          characteristics.
in effective             and healthy lifestyles.                                                                                     Eysenck‟s Personality
                                                              Traits related to the elite sportspeople through individual case       Questionnaire:
performance             Evaluate critically personality       studies.
and to following         profiling in sport.                                                                                         www.ddrc.org/downloads/poster
a balanced.                                                   Trait perspectives via readings on Eysenck and Cattell.                s07_04/UHMS_personality
                                                              Interactionist based on Hollander. Students to draw                   www.personalitypage.com
                                                               Hollander‟s model and then relate this to sports performance /
                                                                                                                                     www.pponline.co.uk
                                                               behaviour.
                                                                                                                                     www.myskillsprofile.com
                                                              Students to present their findings from their questionnaires and
                                                               to make judgements about the links between personality and            www.thesportselite.com/articles/l
                                                               sports behaviours.                                                     earning.html




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20 of 55                                                                                                                                                                  GCE Physical Education
Physical Education H554: G453 Sports Psychology
Suggested                                                                                                                           Section B Scientific Options Option B1 – Sports
                    30 hours                                 Topic:
teaching time                                                                                                                       Psychology
Topic outline       Learning Outcomes                        Suggested teaching and homework activities                             Suggested resources                    Points to note
2 hours                Describe and explain the                Explore students‟ own attitudes via a discussion and draw from        Advanced PE and Sport –               Relate attitudes not
                        nature of attitudes,                     them the factors that make up an attitude. Introduce the triadic       Honeybourne, Hill and Moors.           just to performance
Individual             Inconsistencies and prejudice            model as a structure.                                                 OCR Advanced PE A2 –                   but also to lifestyle
aspects of              in sporting situations;                 Practical with students involved in a number of different              various.                               choice and
                       Explain the origins of attitudes,        practicals including dance, competitive activities and non-           Motivation in Sport and Exercise       persistence in
performance                                                                                                                                                                    active participation.
                        and their influence on                   competitive activities – observe and record behaviours.                – Roberts.
that influence
young people‟s          performance and lifestyles              Draw on observations from teacher or peers to explore the             Exercise Psychology – Willis
participation           (including the effects of                sources of attitudes.                                                  and Campbell.
and aspirations.        socialisation);                         Introduce the concept of socialisation. Students to link              Attitudinal surveys related to
                       Describe the components of               behaviour / choices in sport with socialisation influences.            sport:
                        attitudes (cognitive, affective,        Use questionnaires to gather evidence re lifestyles and               http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publi
Attitudes and           behavioural);                            attitudes to sports.                                                   cations/2006/09/29134901/3
their influence
                       Evaluate critically attitudes           Students to make presentations of findings identifying factors        www.wsf.org.uk/documents/Mus
on performance          (and behaviour) in sport and             affecting attitudes and what can be done to change attitudes to        lim_women_in_Sport.pdf
and lifestyles.         lifestyle choice;                        healthy lifestyles.
                       Describe methods of changing            Visiting speaker from Sports Development to find out how the
                        attitudes from negative to               attitudes of target groups can be changed or enhanced.
                        positive to promote                      Students to make psychological links.
                        participation in physical activity      Reading and note taking on cognitive dissonance theory.
                        and a balanced, active and
                                                                Students to work on individual case studies to identify
                        healthy lifestyle;
                                                                 strategies to change attitudes and to recognise the influence of
                       Demonstrate knowledge and                cognitive dissonance.
                        understanding of the concept
                        of cognitive dissonance to
                        change attitudes.
2 hours                Atkinson and McClelland‟s               Text reading and note taking on Atkinson and McClelland‟s             Advanced PE and Sport -
                        theory of achievement                    theory of achievement motivation.                                      Honeybourne, Hill and Moors.
Individual
                        motivation (need to achieve             Students to identify the characteristics of approach behaviours       OCR Advanced PE A2 – various
                        and need to avoid failure).              and avoidance behaviours.                                             Psychological Dynamics of
aspects of




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GCE Physical Education                                                                                                                                                                     21 of 55
Physical Education H554: G453 Sports Psychology
Suggested                                                                                                                  Section B Scientific Options Option B1 – Sports
                     30 hours                         Topic:
teaching time                                                                                                              Psychology
Topic outline        Learning Outcomes                Suggested teaching and homework activities                           Suggested resources                    Points to note
performance             Sport-specific achievement      Observing video of a team game and or observing live sport –         Sport – D Gill.
that influence           motivation (e.g.                 qualititative evidence gathering by students on motivational        Applying Psychology to Sport –
young people‟s           competitiveness).                behaviours.                                                          Woods.
participation                                            Link with AS work on motivation and the influences of
and aspirations.                                          motivation in sport.
                                                         Case studies of two elite sportspeople per student. Each to
Achievement                                               make a poster presentation on motivational behaviour.
motivation and                                           Role-play and or the use of written scenarios to encourage
its effect on                                             students to recognise strategies to encourage need to achieve
performance                                               behaviours rather than need to avoid failure.
and on following                                         Exploration of the concept of competitiveness and whether this
an active and                                             is nature and / or nurture. Influences explored on
healthy lifestyle.                                        competitiveness.
                                                         Students to design a leaflet encouraging need to achieve
                                                          behaviour to follow a healthy lifestyle.




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22 of 55                                                                                                                                                        GCE Physical Education
Physical Education H554: G453 Sports Psychology
Suggested                                                                                                                              Section B Scientific Options Option B1 – Sports
                     30 hours                                 Topic:
teaching time                                                                                                                          Psychology
Topic outline        Learning Outcomes                        Suggested teaching and homework activities                               Suggested resources                    Points to note
2 hours                 Discuss reasons for success             Students to be involved in a brief sports competition for               Advanced PE and Sport -
                         and failure in physical activity.        example a relay.                                                         Honeybourne, Hill and Moors.
Individual              Explain Weiner's model (locus           Reasons for the outcomes (winning / losing) are then recorded.          OCR Advanced PE A2 –
aspects of               of causality and stability              Class explore whether thee reasons are valid and what                    various.
performance              dimensions).                             characterizes them.                                                     Motivation in Sport and Exercise
that influence          Justify the use of attributional        Introduction to causal attribution and its links with motivation.        – Roberts.
young people‟s           retraining.                             Students to view video of managers / coaches giving reasons             Psychological Dynamics of
participation           Demonstrate knowledge and                for their team‟s performances.                                           Sport – Gill.
and aspirations.         understanding of strategies for         Students to draw and understand Weiner‟s model of attribution           Foundations of Sport & Exercise
                         the promotion of mastery-                and to use this model to place other attributions.                       Psychology – R Cox.
                         orientation and the avoidance                                                                                 
Attribution                                                      Link mastery orientation and learned helplessness with                   Some articles related to
                         of learned helplessness; to                                                                                       attribution:
theory and the                                                    attribution.
                         raise self esteem and to
impact of                                                        Questionnaire to be given to younger pupils about the reasons           www.sshs.ex.ac.uk/textdocs/
                         develop positive behaviours
attribution on                                                    for being involved in sport or otherwise. Class discussion               psych_pubs.pdf
                         towards lifetime involvement in
performance              physical activity.                       about how the negative reasons related to learned                       https://intranet.psychology.
and sustaining                                                    helplessness could be changed through attributional retraining.          bangor.ac.uk
                        Evaluate critically the effects of
a balanced,              attribution theory on                   Visiting clinical psychologist or sports psychologist to give talk      www.pponline.co.uk/encyc/
active and               performance and on sustaining            on the importance of self-esteem in developing positive and              psychology
healthy lifestyle.       a balanced, active and healthy           healthy behaviours.                                                     For case studies from sports
                         lifestyle.                              Extended examination – style question to encourage a piece of            performers
                                                                  extended writing that evaluates critically the effects of                and their reasons for winning
                                                                  attribution on performance and sustaining a healthy lifestyle.           and or losing:
                                                                                                                                          http://news.bbc.co.uk/
                                                                                                                                           sport1/hi/academy/default.stm
2 hours                 Describe the nature of                  Drawing on students‟ own experiences / video evidence and               Advanced PE and Sport -
                         aggression and assertion.                newspaper reports identify aggressive tendencies in sport.               Honeybourne, Hill and Moors.
Individual
                        Define channeled aggression.            Identify a clear definition of aggression and assertion with            OCR Advanced PE A2 –
aspects of
performance             Explain the causes of                    practical examples.                                                      various.




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GCE Physical Education                                                                                                                                                                     23 of 55
Physical Education H554: G453 Sports Psychology
Suggested                                                                                                                          Section B Scientific Options Option B1 – Sports
                     30 hours                              Topic:
teaching time                                                                                                                      Psychology
Topic outline        Learning Outcomes                     Suggested teaching and homework activities                              Suggested resources                       Points to note
that influence           aggressive behaviour.                Students to have a list of incidents for them to recognise either      Foundations of Sport & Exercise
young                   Evaluate critically theories of       aggressive or assertive behaviour.                                      Psychology – R Cox.
people‟s                 aggression (instinct theories;       Reading on causes of aggression from the texts.                        Collect newspaper / magazine
participation            frustration-aggression               Each student to have responsibility of presenting either a              cuttings of aggressive incidents
                         hypothesis; aggressive-cue            nature or a nurture theory – lead to class debate on whether            in sport for analysis.
and                      hypothesis (Berkowitz); social        aggression is learned or it is instinctive.                            Various:
aspirations.             learning theories).                  Review the main theories by grouping behaviours under each.            www.kidsfirstsoccer.com/violenc
                        Describe methods of                  Students to draw up a self-help sheet for those in sport who            e.htm
Aggression               eliminating aggressive                cannot channel their aggressive tendencies – leading to an             www.selfhelpmagazine.com/arti
and its impact           tendencies of performers and          identification of the main strategies to control aggression.            cles/sports/violence.htm
                         explain the effects of these
upon                                                          Links to be made with operant conditioning from the AS                 http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/f
                         methods on the adoption of
performance              active and healthy lifestyles.
                                                               course.                                                                 unny_old_game/1494252.stm
and
behaviour.




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24 of 55                                                                                                                                                                   GCE Physical Education
Physical Education H554: G453 Sports Psychology
Suggested                                                                                                                       Section B Scientific Options Option B1 – Sports
                    30 hours                              Topic:
teaching time                                                                                                                   Psychology
Topic outline       Learning Outcomes                     Suggested teaching and homework activities                            Suggested resources                 Points to note
3 hours                Describe the nature of a             Students to research case studies of successful teams to             Advanced PE and Sport -
                        group/team (mutual                    identify success factors.                                             Honeybourne, Hill and Moors.
                        awareness, interaction,              Reflection on own team experiences – what makes a good               OCR Advanced PE A2 –
Group                   common goal).                         team in sport?                                                        various.
dynamics of            Demonstrate knowledge and            Students to observe a high level team game and note the              Sports Psychology a self help
performance             understanding of Steiner‟s            characteristics of the teams.                                         guide – Bull.
and audience            model of group performance           Students to draw Steiner‟s model and reflect on the faults that      CD Rom Switch on to Sports
effects that            (awareness of problems                for barriers to optimizing team performance.                          Psychology – Mace.
influence               associated with productivity of
                                                             Link Steiner with Ringelmann research and draw from this the         Case studies from the BBC
young                   a group/team).
                                                              concept of social loafing and its causes.                             Sport Academy web site:
people‟s               Demonstrate knowledge and
                                                             Through reading and research students to present thoughts            http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/
                        understanding of motivational
participation,                                                about negative influences on behaviour that may lead to               hi/academy/default.stm
                        factors (social loafing);
aspirations             coordination/cooperation
                                                              dysfunctional behaviour. Review research that shows some
and lifestyles.                                               link between sport and combating crime and unhealthy
                        factors (Ringlemann effect)
                                                              lifestyles.
                        and explain the negative
                        influences on behaviour that         Via team building exercises peers to observe behaviour in
Groups and                                                    teams. For example groups have to agree a new sport type
                        cause dysfunctional behaviour
teams – their                                                 „game‟ with appropriate equipment. This can be an experience
                        and avoidance of an active
impact upon             and healthy lifestyle.                that shows how group dynamics operate and also introduce
performance            Explain the factors affecting
                                                              the concept of leadership.
and the                 the formation and                    Reflection on outdoor activities in groups and how group
pursuit of              development of a cohesive             members interacted under situations of stress.
balanced,               group/team.                          Students to complete an extended type examination-style
active and                                                    question on the formation of a group and what influences its
healthy                                                       performance.
lifestyles.            Explain the factors affecting     
                        participation in a group/team.
                       Explain group and team
                        effects on behaviour (related




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GCE Physical Education                                                                                                                                                           25 of 55
Physical Education H554: G453 Sports Psychology
Suggested                                                                                                                         Section B Scientific Options Option B1 – Sports
                     30 hours                                Topic:
teaching time                                                                                                                     Psychology
Topic outline        Learning Outcomes                       Suggested teaching and homework activities                           Suggested resources                       Points to note
                         to balanced, active and
                         healthy lifestyles).
3 hours                 Demonstrate knowledge and              Team exercises with different prescribed leaders and others         Advanced PE and Sport -
                         understanding of effective              with emerging leaders. Students to observe / video reflect on        Honeybourne, Hill and Moors
Group
                         leadership and explain its              how and why a leader emerges.                                       OCR Advanced PE A2 – various
dynamics of
                         effects on lifestyle behaviour;        Case studies on leaders in sport – to be presented to the rest      Sports Psychology a self help
performance             Describe the characteristics of         of the group – what qualities do these leaders share?                guide – Bull
and audience             leaders (autocratic/task               Role-play different types of leader in different situations to      Sports Psychology: Concepts
                         oriented; democratic/social-            introduce concept of autocratic / democratic leadership.             and Applications – Cox
effects that
                         oriented; laissez-faire);              Students to draw and explain Chelladurai‟s multi-dimensional
influence young                                                                                                                      Psychology in Practice – Woods
people‟s                Demonstrate knowledge and               model by using examples from their own experiences in sport.        CD Rom Switch on to Sports
                         understanding of emergent              Students to answer an extended examination – style question
participation,                                                                                                                        Psychology – Mace
                         and prescribed leaders;                 on the theories of leadership and how they relate to sports
aspirations and                                                                                                                      Case studies from the BBC
lifestyles.             Evaluate critically leadership          performance and also how the effects of leadership can               Sport Academy web site:
                         theories (trait; social learning;       influence lifestyle choice.
                         interactionist theories);                                                                                   http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/a
Leadership and                                                                                                                        cademy/default.stm
                        Demonstrate knowledge and
the role of a            understanding of Chelladurai‟s
leader in                multi-dimensional model of
physical                 leadership and explain the
activities.              effect of leadership
                         expectations on performance
                         and the adoption of a
                         balanced, active and healthy
                         lifestyle.
3 hours                 Demonstrate knowledge and              Students to carry out a series of brief experiments on sports       Advanced PE and Sport -                  Illustration of the
                         understanding of the positive           performance in isolation and with an audience and with               Honeybourne, Hill and Moors               effects of an
Group
                         (facilitation) and negative             competitive and non-competitive coactors e.g. standing broad        OCR Advanced PE A2 – various              audience on the




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26 of 55                                                                                                                                                                  GCE Physical Education
Physical Education H554: G453 Sports Psychology
Suggested                                                                                                                          Section B Scientific Options Option B1 – Sports
                    30 hours                                 Topic:
teaching time                                                                                                                      Psychology
Topic outline       Learning Outcomes                        Suggested teaching and homework activities                            Suggested resources                 Points to note
dynamics of             (inhibition) effects (audience           jump for gross actions and aiming activities for complex fine        Sports Psychology a self help     performance of
performance             and co-actors) on                        actions. The effects of an audience to be experienced and             guide – Bull                      complex fine skills
and audience            performance, participation and           reflected upon by students.                                          Sports Psychology: Concepts       can be shown
effects that            lifestyle;                              Visiting speaker / or interviews with a sports performer who          and Applications – Cox            through card
influence young        Demonstrate knowledge and                reflects on coping with an audience.                                                                    sorting into suits.
people‟s                understanding of links with             Make links to arousal theories from AS unit. Students to draw                                           A number of
participation,          levels of arousal, and the               out arousal graphs in relation to the effects of an audience.                                           different conditions
aspirations and         heightening of the dominant                                                                                                                      can be simulated
                                                                Identify other effects such as proximity and audience size.
lifestyles.             response (Zajonc);                                                                                                                               for example with
                                                                Students to identify coping strategies for different types of                                           hostile crowd or
                       Explain causes and effects of            sports performer.
                        evaluation apprehension;                                                                                                                         supportive crowd –
Social                                                                                                                                                                   results will provide
facilitation and       Demonstrate knowledge and
                                                                                                                                                                         discussion points
inhibition – the        understanding of strategies to
                                                                                                                                                                         about the link
                        combat the effects of social
effects of an                                                                                                                                                            between arousal /
                        inhibition in practical activities
audience and                                                                                                                                                             attentional control
                        (the use of selective attention
other                                                                                                                                                                    and performance.
                        and mental rehearsal) and in
participants on                                                                                                                                                          If card sorting or
                        following a balanced, active
performance                                                                                                                                                              the like is used it is
                        and healthy lifestyle.
and lifestyle                                                                                                                                                            important to relate
behaviours.                                                                                                                                                              findings eventually
                                                                                                                                                                         to sports activities.
                                                                                                                                                                         Students must not
                                                                                                                                                                         use card sorting as
                                                                                                                                                                         a practical example
                                                                                                                                                                         ina written
                                                                                                                                                                         examination
                                                                                                                                                                         response.
2 hours                Demonstrate knowledge and               2 hours                                                              Advanced PE and Sport -
The impact of           understanding of the                    Use of case study training diaries to recognise the application       Honeybourne, Hill and Moors
                        importance and relevance of




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GCE Physical Education                                                                                                                                                               27 of 55
Physical Education H554: G453 Sports Psychology
Suggested                                                                                                                         Section B Scientific Options Option B1 – Sports
                     30 hours                               Topic:
teaching time                                                                                                                     Psychology
Topic outline        Learning Outcomes                      Suggested teaching and homework activities                            Suggested resources                       Points to note
mental                   goal setting to sport (including       of goal setting in sport.                                            OCR Advanced PE A2 – various
preparation for          participation, persistence and        Students to make links with task persistence and confidence.         Sports Psychology a self help
physical                 performance).                         Students to construct their own goal setting for their assessed       guide – Bull
activities on the       Explain factors affecting the          activity showing the use of short term and long term goals.          CD Rom Switch on to Sports
effectiveness            setting of goals („SMARTER‟           Reinforcement of SMARTER goal setting and students to                 Psychology – Mace
and efficiency of        principle).                            collect practical examples.                                          Case studies from the BBC
performance.            Evaluate critically the use of        Each student to present their findings and are critically             Sport Academy web site:
                         short/intermediate/long term           analysed by others in the group as well as self-evaluation of        http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/a
                         goals and
Goal setting –                                                  the goals set.                                                        cademy/default.stm
                         process/performance/product
impact upon              goals to improve performance
performance              and participation in physical
and the                  activity.
development
and sustaining
of a balanced,
active and
healthy
lifestyle.
3 hours                 Demonstrate knowledge and             Students to draw Vealey‟s model and to explain using sports          Advanced PE and Sport -
                         understanding of sports                examples.                                                             Honeybourne, Hill and Moors
The impact of
                         confidence (Vealey), and the          Reading the Honeybourne text will give insight into Vealey‟s         OCR Advanced PE A2 – various
                         concepts of trait sports               trait sports confidence and competitiveness.                         Sports Psychology a self help
mental
                         confidence, competitiveness           Students to reflect on their own confidence levels in different       guide – Bull
preparation for          orientation, and state sports
physical                                                        situations in and out of sport.                                      Sports Psychology: Concepts
                         confidence.
activities on the                                              Students to complete self report questionnaires re self-              and Applications – Cox
                        Demonstrate knowledge and
effectiveness                                                   confidence to identify factors that affect confidence and the        Psychology in Practice - Woods
                         understanding of self-efficacy         relationship between trait and state confidence.




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28 of 55                                                                                                                                                                  GCE Physical Education
Physical Education H554: G453 Sports Psychology
Suggested                                                                                                                          Section B Scientific Options Option B1 – Sports
                    30 hours                                Topic:
teaching time                                                                                                                      Psychology
Topic outline       Learning Outcomes                       Suggested teaching and homework activities                             Suggested resources                     Points to note
and efficiency of       (Bandura) explaining the               Students to draw Bandura‟s self-efficacy model and to apply it         CD Rom Switch on to Sports
performance.            influence of performance                to a sports situation.                                                 Psychology – Mace
                        accomplishments, vicarious             Exam style question to explain Bandura‟s model.                       Related articles:
                        experiences, verbal                    To identify strategies to use at a local leisure centre to raise       http://www.thesportjournal.org/2
Self confidence
                        persuasion, and emotional               the confidence of individuals in a traditionally non-sporting          003Journal/Vol6-
and its impact          arousal.                                client group.                                                          No3/confidence.asp
on
                       Explain the effects self-efficacy                                                                             http://www.sportsconfidence.biz/
performance,
                        on performance and in                                                                                         http://www.psywww.com/mtsite/
participation in
                        sustaining a balanced, active                                                                                  selfconf.html
physical activity       and healthy lifestyle.
and in raising                                                                                                                        www.brianmac.demon.co.uk
self esteem.
The impact of          Demonstrate knowledge and              Students to do initial readings in texts. Students to assess          Advanced PE and Sport -
mental                  understanding of cue                    their own attentional styles and discuss how these change              Honeybourne, Hill and Moors
preparation for         utilisation (Easterbrook) and           depending on the situation and the position they are playing in       OCR Advanced PE A2 – various
                        explain the links with arousal;         sport.                                                                Exercise Psychology – Willis
physical
                       Demonstrate knowledge and              Link cue utilisation with arousal by referring back to arousal         and Campbell
activities on           understanding of attentional            theories and operant conditioning visited in AS course.
the                                                                                                                                   Applying Psychology to sport –
                        styles (broad/narrow,                  Students to observe part of a videoed sports team‟s                    Wood
effectiveness           internal/external - Nideffer).          performance or an individual player for example a tennis player       Sport Motivation – Hodge (on
and efficiency                                                  in a Wimbledon match and to identify aspects of cue utilisation        peak performance)
of                                                              that are evident.
                                                                                                                                      Case studies from the BBC
performance.                                                   Read and make notes on Nideffer‟s attentional styles theory            Sport Academy web site:
                                                                from the texts.
                                                                                                                                      http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/a
Attentional                                                    List the appropriate style by using continua for different             cademy/default.stm
                                                                positions in a team game of their choice.
control and its
                                                               Identify the links between internal and external attention and
impact upon                                                     confidence / well-being and peak flow.
effective
                                                               Use case study of elite runners / rowers / cyclists (found on
performance.                                                    BBC Sport Academy web site) and assess how she uses




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GCE Physical Education                                                                                                                                                                  29 of 55
Physical Education H554: G453 Sports Psychology
Suggested                                                                                                      Section B Scientific Options Option B1 – Sports
                     30 hours            Topic:
teaching time                                                                                                  Psychology
Topic outline        Learning Outcomes   Suggested teaching and homework activities                            Suggested resources            Points to note
                                             attention in races to maintain concentration but to ignore
                                             muscular pain.
                                            Examination style question on the use of attentional styles and
                                             links.




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30 of 55                                                                                                                                    GCE Physical Education
Physical Education H554: G453 Sports Psychology
Suggested                                                                                                                         Section B Scientific Options Option B1 – Sports
                    30 hours                                 Topic:
teaching time                                                                                                                     Psychology
Topic outline       Learning Outcomes                        Suggested teaching and homework activities                           Suggested resources                     Points to note
3 hours                Demonstrate knowledge and               Refer to previous learning on arousal. Extend understanding         Advanced PE and Sport -
                        understanding of activation              by group work on applying variables to the inverted U theory         Honeybourne, Hill and Moors
                        and arousal and explain their            such as personality, ability and types of task.                     OCR Advanced PE A2 – various
The impact of           relationship with personality,          Read in texts to prepare notes on peak flow. Students to            Motivation in Sport and Exercise
mental                  ability level and complexity of          identify their own peak flow experiences and what factors            – Roberts.
preparation for         task;                                    contributed.                                                        Exercise Psychology – Willis
physical               Demonstrate knowledge and               Visiting speaker talking about how anxiety is managed and            and Campbell
activities on           understanding of peak flow               their own peak flow experiences and how to maximize their           Stress and Performance in Sport
the                     experience and the zone of               effects.                                                             – Jones and Hardy
                        optimum functioning theory           
effectiveness                                                    Completion of an anxiety questionnaire to identify the various      Applying Psychology to Sport –
                        (Hanin);                                 sources of anxiety.
and efficiency                                                                                                                        Woods
                       Describe the nature, and                Heart rate checks when shown a range of photos / images /
of                      explain influences of, anxiety;                                                                              Sports Psychology A self-help
performance                                                      stories that will make links between perception and anxiety.         Guide – Bull
                        state/trait distinction;
                                                                Discriminate between state and trait anxiety by using sports        Gold Minds– B Miller (mental
                       Demonstrate knowledge and                situations to analyse the type of anxiety eg a penalty in
                        understanding of anxiety                                                                                      preparation)
Emotional                                                        football. Seek to make relationships between the two via the
                        management techniques:                                                                                       Case studies:
control and its                                                  SCAT test.
                        cognitive techniques (mental                                                                                 http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/a
impact upon                                                     Visiting yoga teacher / therapist to run a session with the
                        rehearsal/imagery, positive                                                                                   cademy/default.stm
performance                                                      students about stress management. Students to write a
                        self talk, thought stopping,                                                                              
and in                                                           critique and to link to psychological theories.
                        rational/positive thinking) and
sustaining a            somatic techniques                      Case studies on how top athletes prepare for competition –
                        (progressive muscular                    identify their techniques and how these can be learned.
balanced,
active and              relaxation, biofeedback                 Students to write an extended exam style answer to a question
                        relaxation);                             that links the control of anxiety to improving performance and
healthy                                                          or to increase participation for a healthy lifestyle.
lifestyle.
                       Evaluate critically anxiety
                        management techniques in
                        improving performance,
                        participation in physical activity




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GCE Physical Education                                                                                                                                                                 31 of 55
Physical Education H554: G453 Sports Psychology
Suggested                                                                                                           Section B Scientific Options Option B1 – Sports
                     30 hours                            Topic:
teaching time                                                                                                       Psychology
Topic outline        Learning Outcomes                   Suggested teaching and homework activities                 Suggested resources            Points to note
                         and in sustaining a balanced,
                         active and healthy lifestyle.




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32 of 55                                                                                                                                         GCE Physical Education
Physical Education H554: G453 Biomechanics
Suggested           4 hours            Topic:            Linear Motion in Physical Activity
teaching time
Topic outline                 Suggested teaching and homework activities                           Suggested resources                             Points to note
Newton‟s Laws of          Recap of basic Biomechanics from AS Anatomy &                              Sporting action pictures from internet or    These texts can be used
Motion, describing         Physiology specification.                                                   newspapers that students can use to           throughout the teaching of this
linear motion, graphs of  Application of Newton‟s Laws of Motion in relation to different             identify the use of Newton‟s Laws.            unit.
motion, momentum           types of physical activity.                                                                                              Advanced PE for OCR A2
                                 Students to work in groups to present one activity to the rest                                                     Heinemann.
                                  of the group, to include an application of each of Newton‟s
                                                                                                                                                    PE and the Study of Sport.
                                  Laws.
                                                                                                                                                    Mosby.
                                 Observe a performer completing a 100m sprint (a) in a               Outdoor space.
                                                                                                                                                    Mechanics of Sports Performance.
                                  straight line in one direction (b) as shuttle runs of 2x50m         Video camera.
                                  sprints and 4x25m sprints.                                                                                        Feltham Press.
                                 Students discuss and define mass, distance, displacement,                                                         An Introduction to Sports
                                  speed, velocity and acceleration for each occasion.                                                                Mechanics.
                                 Complete a practical investigation of a 100m sprint, recording      Outdoor 100m space                           Sports Coach UK.
                                  split times at every 20m. One student sprints 100m with             Measuring tape, stop watches, cones.         www.brianmac.co.uk has
                                  others at 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100m. All students start their         See www.brianmac.co.uk/sprints for 20m        information that can be used
                                  stop watches on “go” and stop them when the sprinter                 split times of elite performers or            throughout the teaching of this
                                  passes them.                                                         www.hsi.net for 10m split times for elite     unit.
                                 Plot a distance/time and speed/time graph to interpret results       performers.                                  „Biomechanics‟ Boulton-Hawker
                                  and calculate acceleration.                                                                                        Films DVD provides a good
                                 Compare results to split times of an elite performer.                                                              overview of all topics covered.




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GCE Physical Education                                                                                                                                                          33 of 55
Physical Education H554: G453 Biomechanics
Suggested             6 hours            Topic:            Force in Physical Activity
teaching time
                                 Suggested teaching and homework
Topic outline                                                                                  Suggested resources                                  Points to note
                                 activities
Introduction to force, net          Discussion on the impact of force in different types of      Paper, pens, clip art/pictures/photographs.       Refer back to work undertaken in
force, types of force,               physical activity and examples of its effect.                                                                    AS to do with the effect of size,
free body diagrams,                 Design and produce a poster showing the effects a                                                                direction and position of
impulse.                             force can have in one physical activity. Identify and                                                            application of force on a body.
                                     explain the net force.                                                                                          At A2, students should get used to
                                    Students observe an elite performer in their chosen          Video footage of elite performers in different     giving examples from the same
                                     activity. At three / four different moments in time,          activities, Sky Sports Channels.                   activity to show the effects of a
                                     they sketch a free body diagram to show all the                                                                  force. It is good practice for this to
                                     forces acting on that performer at the chosen                                                                    be their assessed activity in unit 4.
                                     moment. They comment on vertical forces, horizontal
                                     forces and net force in each example.
                                    An investigation into impulse and its link with              Outside or indoor space, paper and pens.            This is a slightly more demanding part
                                     increasing and decreasing momentum. Students                                                                       of the specification and explanation of
                                     carry out a vertical jump, a sprint start and a 100m                                                               force as a vector quantity may be
                                     sprint. Using their knowledge of force, they sketch,                                                               required, i.e. the importance of
                                     interpret and explain force/time graphs for each of                                                                direction in relation to the resultant
                                     these activities.                                                                                                  force.




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34 of 55                                                                                                                                                             GCE Physical Education
Physical Education H554: G453 Biomechanics
Suggested 6     Topic:                                                                             Fluid Mechanics in Physical Activity
teaching  hours
time
Topic outline       Suggested teaching and homework activities                                     Suggested resources                      Points to note
Air resistance,        In pairs / groups, students research the latest aerodynamic                   Access to computer and                Focus research on swimming, sprinting and
drag, fluid             technology behind sports clothing and equipment used by elite                  internet.                              cycling aerodynamics.
friction,               performers who need to minimise air resistance/drag/fluid friction.
                        They present their findings to the rest of the class.
projectiles, lift
force, Bernoulli       Investigation into the flight paths of projectiles with different cross-      Outside space, a variety of             Students should be able to use their previous
                        sectional areas, surface characteristics and masses.                           projectiles e.g. golf ball, beach        knowledge on force to help with this.
principle, spin,
Magnus effect.         Discussion on how the above characteristics affect flight paths.               ball, tennis ball, wind-flow ball,
                       Free body diagram sketches of the forces acting on the projectiles at          short tennis ball, football, shot
                        various points during flight. Introduction to the parallelogram of             put, table tennis ball, frisbee,
                        forces.                                                                        discus, javelin etc.

                       Using a sheet of A4 paper (landscape) make two folds,                         A4 paper, desk.                         The Bernouilli principle can also be used to explain
                        approximately 6cm from either side of the paper to make a three-                                                        why papers get “sucked” out of an open car
                        sided “house”. Stand the “house” on a flat table and blow hard                                                          window when travelling at speed.
                        underneath the “roof”. Observe and explain what happens.
                       Observe different types of spin in sport and comment on its effect on                                                  For the effect of spin on bounce, it is good practice
                                                                                                      Video clips of elite tennis
                        flight path and bounce. Discussion on the advantages of being able                                                      to draw the ball in contact with the ground and
                                                                                                       players / golfers using top spin,
                        to impart spin to a ball in different sports.                                                                           mark on it the direction of spin and the direction of
                                                                                                       backspin, sidespin
                       Design and produce a poster explaining each of the four different                                                       the friction force.
                        types of spin used in sport.




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GCE Physical Education                                                                                                                                                                       35 of 55
Physical Education H554: G453 Biomechanics
Suggested             2 hours            Topic:              Stability
teaching time
                                 Suggested teaching and homework
Topic outline                                                                                     Suggested resources                                     Points to note
                                 activities
Centre of mass and its              Students carry out a critical evaluation of the                 Photographs/pictures of elite high jumpers using     Refer back to work undertaken in
use in different sporting            techniques used in high jump and make a direct                   the Fosbury flop technique.                           AS to do with centre of mass and
                                     comparison between the efficiency of the Fosbury                                                                       the effect of changes in its position
techniques, line of
                                     flop and the scissor technique. They explain their                                                                     and its relationship with the base
gravity, base of support,            findings making reference to the position of the
maximising and                                                                                                                                              of support.
                                     centre of mass in relation to the body and the high
minimising stability in              jump bar.
sport.                              A practical investigation into the stability of the three       Outdoor or indoor space.
                                     positions in a sprint start; “on your marks”, “set”, “go”.
                                    Students produce a continuum of sports techniques,              Photographs / pictures of performers in different      These positions can be linked back to
                                     either illustrated or just named, from least stable to           sporting positions – either static or dynamic.          increasing and decreasing momentum.
                                     most stable. They should suggest reasons why the
                                     performers would want to stable or unstable at this
                                     point.
                                    By means of a presentation explain to the rest of the
                                     group the principles behind maximising and
                                     minimising stability.




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36 of 55                                                                                                                                                                  GCE Physical Education
Physical Education H554: G453 Biomechanics
Suggested         1 hour             Topic:             Lever Systems
teaching time
                             Suggested teaching and homework
Topic outline                                                                               Suggested resources                                   Points to note
                             activities
Components of a lever           In the gym, students analyse the lifting phase of a           Resistance machines / free-weights / dumbbells.    Safety considerations / warm ups
system, types of lever           variety of strength exercises, e.g. bicep curls, leg                                                               and cool downs.
systems and examples             curls, heel raises, triceps extensions. For each
                                 exercise, they identify the position of the fulcrum,
from human movement              load and effort and relate each to the human body.
and sport, advantages            They relate their finding to the class of lever system
and disadvantages of             working and comment on the advantages and
different lever systems,         disadvantages of this type of lever system. Each
moments of force.                student can write up their findings on a sheet of A4
                                 for display in the classroom.




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GCE Physical Education                                                                                                                                                          37 of 55
Physical Education H554: G453 Biomechanics
Suggested             4 hours            Topic:            Angular Motion in Physical Activity
teaching time
                                 Suggested teaching and homework
Topic outline                                                                                 Suggested resources                                      Points to note
                                 activities
Initiating rotation, axes           Students identify the principle axis of rotation about      Video clip of a trampolining routine.                 It is good practice for students to
of rotation, describing              which the movements take place during a                                                                             always identify the axis of rotation
                                     trampolining routine.                                                                                               about which a sporting body is
angular motion, moment
of inertia, angular                 Students are given a list of terms used to describe         List of angular motion v linear motion                 rotating before trying to apply their
                                     angular motion and the linear equivalent. Using this         terminology.                                           knowledge of moment of inertia
momentum.                            terminology they devise analogues of Newton‟s                                                                       and angular momentum.
                                     Laws of Motion, giving examples from angular
                                     motion for each.
                                    Students observe the changes in rate of spin of an
                                     ice skater, the rate of rotation of a                       Variety of video clips showing sporting
                                     gymnast/trampolinist/diver and the rate of turn of a         applications of the law of conservation of angular
                                     slalom skier. In groups they critically evaluate one         momentum.
                                     performer that uses the principle of conservation of
                                     angular momentum to alter their rate of angular
                                     motion. Each group presents their findings to the rest
                                     of the class.




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38 of 55                                                                                                                                                              GCE Physical Education
Physical Education H554: G453 Biomechanics
Suggested          5 hours            Topic:            Critical Evaluation of the quality, effectiveness and efficiency of performance in selected physical activities
teaching time
                              Suggested teaching and homework
Topic outline                                                                                Suggested resources                                        Points to note
                              activities
A critical evaluation of         Students are shown a video clip / picture /                   Video clips / photographs / pictures of elite           This is an opportunity for the
effective performace in           photograph of elite performers running - this could            performers in all of the different types of physical     students to synthesise their
running skills, jumping           be sprinting, jogging, dodging etc. On a sheet of A3,          activities listed.                                       biomechanical understanding.
                                  entitled “running Activities”, they compile a table of
skills, throwing skills,                                                                                                                                 For each of the types of physical
                                  applications explaining the use of the theoretical
hitting/kicking skills,                                                                                                                                   activity listed on the left in the
                                  components of Newton‟s Laws, linear motion, force,
rotating skills.                  impulse, stability, levers, moment of inertia in the
                                                                                                                                                          specification, students should be
                                  chosen activity. Towards the end of the lesson, each                                                                    able to apply the biomechanical
                                  student or group can share their findings with the                                                                      theory listed on the right. As a
                                  rest of the class.                                                                                                      guideline, one hour could be spent
                                 This is repeated with jumping, throwing,
                                                                                                                                                          on each type of physical activity
                                  hitting/kicking, and rotating activities.                                                                               which will also work as a revision
                                                                                                                                                          exercise.




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GCE Physical Education                                                                                                                                                                39 of 55
Physical Education H554: G453 Exercise and Sport Physiology
Suggested              7 hours          Topic:            Energy Concepts
teaching time
Topic outline                           Suggested teaching and homework activities                             Suggested resources             Points to note
Energy Concepts; role of ATP,              Use of role play to explain the role of ATP and the need for          „Physiology of Sport and       These texts can be used throughout the
methods of ATP resynthesis,                 constant re-synthesis.                                                 Exercise‟ J.H Wilmore           teaching of this unit.
the energy continuum and the               Analysis of different activities to explain the need for three         and D.L. Costill, Human        Advanced PE for OCR A2 Heinemann.
                                            different methods of re-synthesis in relation to intensity and         Kinetics.                      Advanced PE and Sport A level Nelson
recovery process.
                                            duration of activity.                                                                                 Thornes.
                                           Students to work in groups to present one of the energy               Marieb Interactive             http://www.eis2win.co.uk/ and
                                            systems to the rest of the group, to include positive and              Physiology                      www.pponline.org.uk have information that
                                            negative aspects of the system related to physical                     CDROM.                          can be used throughout the teaching o this
                                            performance.                                                                                           unit.
                                           Complete a player analysis in terms of levels of                      Video footage of               „The Science Behind Lance Armstrong‟
                                            intensity/duration of work during a game. Assess the                   performers at elite level       Discovery Channel DVD provides a good
                                            contribution of each energy system during the match and                e.g. use of sky TV player       overview of all topics covered.
                                            prepare report on findings. Where possible compare the                 cam.
                                            results with that of an elite performer.                              Video, stop watch.
                                           Identify all the cellular changes that take place as a result of      Indoor or outdoor space.
                                            physical activity. Discuss how these changes can be                   Measuring tape, stop
                                            reversed.                                                              watch and heart rate
                                           Complete a practical investigation into the length of recovery         monitor.
                                            time needed to complete a 10x10m shuttle run three times
                                            without an increase in time taken.
                                           Research and discuss how the location of the host city for a
                                            major sporting competition can have an impact on
                                            performance and recovery.




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40 of 55                                                                                                                                                             GCE Physical Education
Physical Education H554: G453 Exercise and Sport Physiology
Suggested           4 hours            Topic:             Aerobic Capacity
teaching time
Topic outline            Suggested teaching and homework activities                               Suggested resources                     Points to note
Aerobic Capacity;           Students complete an aerobic test that will provide a predicted         Multi-stage fitness test or            A PAR-Q should be completed by each student
definition, methods          VO2 max. Compare the results of the class and suggest reasons            equivalent, CD player and               before they take part in a fitness test. They
                             for individual differences. Compare with elite athletes e.g. Lance       measuring tape.                         should be fully informed of the test protocol and
of evaluation,
training methods,
                             Armstrong VO2 max 85ml/kg/min.                                          Heart rate monitor, PAR-Q test          that they can stop the test at any time. Parental
                                                                                                      and Borgs RPE scale.                    permission for students under 18 is advised.
energy system
used, physiological         Students use heart rate monitors whilst they perform different          Heart rate monitors.                   Heart rate responses can also be used as
adaptations to               types of training and use target training heart rates to determine                                               additional data for AS groups.
                             intensity. Students write a log of their results and compare
training and design          performances giving reasons for individual differences.
of training
                            If possible use interface heart rate monitors. Repeat activity
programmes.                  after aerobic training and compare graphs.
                                                                                                     http://news.bbc.co.uk/sportacade
                            Research and then compare VO2 max of marathon runners with
                                                                                                      my/
                             elite rowers. Write and present a report to the rest of the group.
                                                                                                      spl/hi/pop_ups/4/vo2_max/html/9.s
                                                                                                      tm information on Paula Radcliffe
                                                                                                      and James Cracknell.
                            Identify the physiological adaptations that will take place as a        Paper, pens, clip art/pictures.        Information can be used as a starter activity for
                             result of aerobic training and say how each adaptation will help                                                 a future lesson as students play e.g. „just a
                             to improve a performers VO2 max. Produce a revision poster for                                                   minute‟, charades or blockbuster.
                             the classroom.




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GCE Physical Education                                                                                                                                                                 41 of 55
Physical Education H554: G453 Exercise and Sport Physiology
Suggested             4 hours            Topic:             Strength
teaching time
Topic outline                    Suggested teaching and homework activities                            Suggested resources                         Points to note
Strength; types of                  In a practical session use different test protocols to assess        www.brianmac.demon.co.uk for strength      Refer back to work undertaken in AS
strength, methods of                 the different types of strength. Decide which tests should be         test protocols.                             related to fibre type.
evaluation, training                 performed first and why. Measure the circumference of the            Free weights, multi-gym, grip
                                     muscles used. Analyse the results from the class and give             dynamometer, vertical jump board, NCF
methods, energy                      reasons for individual differences.                                   sit-up test, tape measure.
systems used,
physiological                       In a practical session individual students lead different types      Mats, multi-gym, free weights, ankle
adaptations to training              of strength training based on their own training for their            weights, pulleys/parachutes, benches.
                                     sport. Students must explain their choice of training.
and design of training
programmes                          Use of role play to explain the neural adaptations to                Mats, multi-gym, free weights, ankle       Some students may already be doing
                                     strength training.                                                    weights, pulleys/parachutes, benches.       strength training for their chosen
                                    Produce two posters, one outlining aerobic adaptations to                                                         activity.
                                     muscle and one anaerobic adaptations to energy specific
                                     strength training programmes.
                                    Students devise and implement a training programme
                                     specific to the strength requirements of their sport.
                                    Consider the strength training requirements of
                                    A decathlon or heptathlon.




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42 of 55                                                                                                                                                           GCE Physical Education
Physical Education H554: G453 Exercise and Sport Physiology
Suggested          3 hours            Topic:              Flexibility
teaching time
                              Suggested teaching and homework
Topic outline                                                                                    Suggested resources                         Points to note
                              activities
Flexibility; definition,         Practical investigation into the range of movement at             360 degree angle measurer/goniometer.      Refer back to work undertaken in AS
methods of evaluation,            selected joints. Discuss findings and relate to                   Sit and reach box.                          to do with joints and muscles.
training methods,                 structure of joint, flexibility training, muscle mass etc.
physiological                    Critically evaluate the use of the sit and reach test to
                                  evaluate flexibility.
adaptations to training
and design of training
programmes




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GCE Physical Education                                                                                                                                                        43 of 55
Physical Education H554: G453 Exercise and Sport Physiology
Suggested             3 hours            Topic:             Body Composition
teaching time
Topic outline                    Suggested teaching and homework activities                         Suggested resources                                 Points to note
Body composition;                   Where possible students should analyse their own body             Skin fold calipers, Bio-electric impedence       The NHS direct site
definition, different                composition and should critically evaluate the methods             analysis, tape measure and weigh scales.          www.nhsdirect.nhs.uk ) outlines
methods of assessment,               of evaluation by discussing reliability and validity.                                                                that BMI, “Is general advice for
energy requirements for             Critically evaluate the use of BMI to monitor obesity in                                                             adults only. It does not apply to
                                     primary age children.                                                                                                children. It does not apply to
different activities, daily
                                                                                                                                                          pregnant women or breastfeeding
calorific requirements                                                                                                                                    women. Also your BMI may not be
and health implications                                                                                                                                   accurate if you are a weight-trainer
of being overweight.                Students should calculate their BMR and then add on               Calculate your BMR at www.bmi-
                                                                                                                                                          or an athlete, if you are over the
                                     calorific requirements based on activity levels by using           calculator.net/bmr-calculator/
                                                                                                                                                          age of 60 or you have a long-term
                                     METS (to include training days). Each student should              Dietary guidelines and food labelling.            health condition”.
                                     then estimate their daily calorific intake. Working in pairs      www.food.gov.uk
                                     the other student then evaluates the input v output data
                                     with reference to nutritional content, energy systems                                                                 MET values for activities are given in
                                     used and recovery.                                                                                                     most Exercise Physiology text books
                                                                                                                                                            e.g. „Exercise Physiology‟ by Powers
                                    Students to give presentation on how physical activity            http://healthlink.mcw.edu/article/984434798.
                                                                                                                                                            and Howley by Mc Graw Hill.
                                     will help prevent obesity and weight related health                htm outlines health problems related to
                                     problems to lower school pupils.                                   obesityl
                                    Students write nutritional and activity fact sheets for           http://hcd2.bupa.co.uk childhood obesity link
                                     either lower school children or parents.                           to inactivity




           = Innovative teaching idea                                                        = Stretch and challenge opportunity                                                 = ICT opportunity
                                                                                             idea
44 of 55                                                                                                                                                                 GCE Physical Education
Physical Education H554: G453 Exercise and Sport Physiology
Suggested         2 hours            Topic:           Application of the Principles of training
teaching time
                             Suggested teaching and homework
Topic outline                                                                             Suggested resources                                   Points to note
                             activities
Application of the              Students complete an analysis of their current level        http://sportsmedicine.about.com/cs/conditioning    This topic ties together the
principles of training;          of fitness and compare it with the demands of their          articles related to the application of training     previous four topic areas and is a
periodisation and the            sport. They then plan and follow a training                  principles.                                         synthesis of knowledge and
planning of a personal
                                 programme. Students should be encouraged to keep            www.pponline.co.uk advice on how to plan a          understanding rather than a new
                                 a training diary.                                            training programme.                                 topic area.
health and fitness
programme.




        = Innovative teaching idea                                                      = Stretch and challenge opportunity                                           = ICT opportunity
                                                                                        idea
GCE Physical Education                                                                                                                                                         45 of 55
Physical Education H554: G453 Exercise and Sport Physiology
Suggested teaching               3 hours                  Topic:                                                      Ergogenic aids
time
Topic outline                    Suggested teaching and homework activities                                           Suggested resources                           Points to note
Ergogenic aids; the                    Students research the performers who have tested positive for drugs in           www.ukathletics.net/anti-                  Background information
positive and negative                   the previous twelve months. Compile a table of results showing the                doping/drug-information-database/           regarding ergogenic aids
                                        activity, type of drug, enhancement properties and ban given.                     UK athletics drug information base.         can be found on most
effects of each aid, the
legal status and the                   Students role play a coach/performer scenario where the coach is trying          www.wada-ama.org world anti-doping          NGB websites and on
                                        to convince the performer to take a particular drug.                              agency.                                     international sites such as
critical evaluation of
                                       As a group discuss the difficulties organisers of the 2012 London                                                             the International Cycling
each aid.                               Olympics will face in light of gene doping.                                                                                   Union.
                                                                                                                                                                     http://www.uci.ch

                                       Provide information on the different nutritional advice given for different      http://www.ais.org.au/nutrition/index.a
                                        sports. Students analyse the different diets and relate it to the energy          sp Australian Institute of sport has
                                        systems used and fitness components relied on by the performer.                   fact sheets to download on nutrition
                                       Present a report to the rest of the group to explain the                          for several different sports and
                                        reasons for and benefits of post exercise intravenous                             research on ice baths related to
                                        fluid administration.                                                             recovery time.
                                       Or alternatively the use of ice baths to promote recovery.
                                       Practical investigation into the use of resistance aids in training.             Parachutes, pulleys, ankle weights,
                                       Produce a table identifying the different resistance aids available, who          crash mats, stop watches and heart
                                        would use them and to what effect.                                                rate monitors.




           = Innovative teaching idea                                                          = Stretch and challenge opportunity                                                = ICT opportunity
                                                                                               idea
46 of 55                                                                                                                                                                   GCE Physical Education
            Sample Lesson Plan: Physical Education 7832
Sample Lesson Plan
G453 Historical Studies
The impact of the industrial revolution on sport.

Lesson length is assumed to be one hour

Learning Objectives for the lesson

Objective          Students to understand the impact of the industrial revolution on participation
                   and performance in sport.
Objective          Students to be able to explain the extent to which different variables impacted
                   on increased popularity of sports, participation in them, and made a
                   contribution to balanced healthy lifestyles with reference to case study
                   activities.
Objective          Students to understand how contemporary participation and performance are
                   affected by similar variables of time, transport, Sunday trading etc.

Recap of previous experience and prior knowledge

Warm up activity as outlined below.

Content
Time               Content
7 minutes          In 2s.Match up „game‟ Review of characteristics of rational sports and
                   pastimes linked to the social and cultural factors that influenced their nature
                   and development.
15minutes          Individually: Read any suitable text book section on the topic or article in Vol
                   2 No 1 pg 10 of PE Review magazine (September 2006).
15 minutes         In 2s: To check your knowledge and understanding of the topic:
                   Create a chart with each of the following headings (social factors).
                    Improved transport.
                    Reduced working hours/Saturday half day.
                    Urbanisation.
                    Improved law and order.
                    Improved literacy.
                    Influence of the Church.
                    Public baths and wash houses.
                    RSPCA.




GCE Physical Education                                                                         47 of 55
 Time         Content
              Now assign each of the following phrases to the most appropriate heading/s.
               Working class had somewhere to wash their clothes.
               Fewer people involved in baiting and blood sports.
               Association football grew in popularity.
               Factory owners organised trips to seaside.
               People could read about their teams.
               No space to play traditional games.
               Overcrowding led to disease.Numbers of spectators increased.
               Sunday school and parish football teams developed.
               Approved of rational and respectable sports.
               Encouraged watch or playing sport, which kept the working class out of the
                 pubs.
               Leagues, cups and other competitions grew.
               Technology enabled printing of cheap newspapers which increased interest
                 in sport.
               A general set of rules needed.
               Outdoor activities e.g. hill walking developed as people could get to the
                 countryside.
               Public parks established by local governments.
               Specialist sporting newspapers established.
               Reduction of violent sports.
               Middle-class amateur swimming developed.
              Lead to the development of seaside resorts.
 10 minutes   As an individual decide (with evidence) which of the factors had the greatest
              impact on participation, performance and the creation of more balanced,
              healthy lifestyles as well as on the development of sports and pastimes in the
              nineteenth century.
              Pair up and if you have different – each person to argue their case and agree
              on one factor as a pair.
              Merge groups to become fours and repeat the process – again with evidence
              and argument and agree on one factor as a four.
               Improved transport.
               Reduced working hours/Saturday half day.
               Urbanisation.
               Improved law and order.
               Improved literacy.
               Influence of the Church.
               Public baths and wash houses.
 8 minutes    What about today? Class discussion on impact of transport, work
              commitments, urbanisation, law and order etc on contemporary participation
              and performance and the maintenance of balanced healthy lifestyles.




48 of 55                                                                GCE Physical Education
Consolidation

Time               Content
5 minutes          Teacher (or student) from front.
                   Feedback from pair and share activity and of class discussion.




GCE Physical Education                                                              49 of 55
Sample Lesson Plan: Physical Education
7832
Sample Lesson Plan
G453 Comparative Studies
Title: Australian case studies.
Lesson length is assumed to be one hour – this is lesson one of a two-hour project. Preparation
time outside class contact time also required.

Learning Objectives for the lesson
 Objective        Students to know and understand about four different codes of football in
                  Australia (see section „sport and the pursuit of excellence‟ in Australia).
 Objective        Students to be able to compare each of the games in Australia and the UK as
                  follows:
                    UK                                       Australia
                     Rugby League (high level                Rugby League (as an inclusive
                      competitions; history of                 game; inter-state (State of Origin)
                      professionalism; north/south             competitions; class appeal;
                      divide).                                 professionalism; tri-nations
                     Rugby Union (as middle-class             competition; geographical
                      game; professionalism and                focus/location).
                      commercialism; influence of             Rugby Union (as „colonial‟
                      Rugby World Cup).                        middle-class game;
                     Association football (history as         professionalism and
                      a working class game;                    commercialism; influence of
                      amateurism & professionalism;            Rugby World Cup).
                      contemporary popularity –               Association football (history as
                      spectator and media interest).           a marginalised game;
                                                               contemporary popularity).


                           Australian Rules football (cultural and ethnic diversity; appeal for both
                            players and spectators); plus (AS work) Australian Rules football
                            (origins, factors which shaped its development including commercialism
                            and impact of media).
 Objective        Students to understand how each of these games might: encourage students
                  be physically active as part of a balanced, active healthy lifestyle and how high
                  levels of performance are achieved.




50 of 55                                                                        GCE Physical Education
Recap of previous experience and prior knowledge.
    Quick recap - students to answer the following questions:
    What is meant by the terms opportunity, provision and esteem?
    What is the role of both UK Sport and the UK Sports Institute (UKSI)?
    In what ways has become increasingly commercialised in the UK in recent years?

Content
Time               Content
10 minutes         Warm up activity to recap knowledge. Teacher stresses need to be able to
                   compare what we learn about other countries and what is happening in the UK.
15 minutes              Group organisation and briefing.
                        7 groups each to prepare PowerPoint (or any other style presentation as
                         agreed) on their assigned game.
                        2 groups to do rugby league (1 in Aus, I in UK), 2 groups to do rugby union
                         (1 in Aus, I in UK), 2 groups to do association football (1 in Aus, I in UK), 1
                         group to do Australian rules football.
                        Research method and resource briefing by teacher.
30 minutes         Group research and planning with teacher advice and input group by group.
5 minutes          De-brief on progress made in relation to lesson objectives.
                   Agree on what needs to be done in study/preparation time prior to next lesson.


Consolidation

Time               Content
unspecified        In non-contact time merge AUS and UK information (not for Australian Rules)
                   and prepare presentation.


Following lesson: group presentations.




GCE Physical Education                                                                            51 of 55
Sample GCE Lesson Plan
G453 Exercise and Sport Physiology
Obesity: A Twenty First Century Epidemic?
OCR recognises that the teaching of this qualification will vary greatly from school to school and
from teacher to teacher. With that in mind, this lesson plan is offered as a possible approach but
will be subject to modifications by the individual teacher.

Lesson length is assumed to be one hour,


Learning Objectives for the lesson
 Objective 1      Students able to explain the term body composition.
 Objective 2      Students able to describe different methods of assessing body composition.
 Objective 3      Students can calculate BMI and understand the advantages and
                  disadvantages of using BMI data.
 Objective 4      Students know and understand the health implications of being overweight or
                  obese.


Insert Recap of previous experience and prior knowledge
     Students will have some knowledge of obesity from lessons taught in PHSE
      and GCSE PE.

Content
 Time             Content
 5 minutes        Warm up activity. Students work in pairs. Using the notes made from the
                  previous homework they explain the term body composition and agree a written
                  explanation which they then present to another pair.
 10 minutes       Show the students the powerpoint presentation of the spread of obesity across
                  America. http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/trend/maps/ Initiate
                  discussion. Are students alarmed at the spread in obesity? What might be the
                  causes of such an increase? Will the UK follow similar trends? How valid is the
                  use of BMI to assess obesity?
                  End discussion by showing trends in obesity in the UK www.statistics.gov.uk
                  and show government PSA target for 2010 www.dh.gov.uk
 5 minutes        Describe ways of assessing body composition; skin fold callipers, bio-electric
                  impedence analysis, BMI.




52 of 55                                                                       GCE Physical Education
Time              Content
10 minutes        Depending on the attitudes and sensibilities of the group, assessment of body
                  composition could take place with students calculating their BMI (nb. ask
                  students to be aware of the height and weight before the lesson) and
                  comparing results with other methods (if equipment is available). However data
                  can be given to the students in order for BMI calculations to be made. Compare
                  results to BMI norm tables so students know what is considered to be
                  overweight or obese.
10 minutes        Present height and weight data of well known athletes e.g.Jona Lomu, age 18,
                  height 1.96m and weight 120kgs, BMI 31.25 (obese). Discuss limitations of
                  using BMI when considering an athlete‟s body composition. Visit
                  www.nhsdirect.nhs.uk and discuss other limitations. As a class decide on the
                  best way of assessing body composition.
10 minutes        Students work in small groups with access to internet. Each group is given a
                  medical condition related to obesity to research e.g. cardiovascular disease,
                  type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, cancer. Access sites such as
                  www.nutrition.org.uk.


Consolidation
Time                Content
10 minutes          Each group to report back their findings to the rest of the class. Using a table
                    students make notes on each condition.


Homework
Re visit www.nutrition.org.uk and make notes on how energy is measured, basal metablic rate and
energy balance. Measure your own BMR by visiting www.bmi-calculator.net/bmr-calculator




GCE Physical Education                                                                         53 of 55
Other forms of Support
In order to help you implement the new Physical Education specification effectively, OCR offers a
comprehensive package of support. This includes:



OCR Training

Get Ready…introducing the new specifications
A series of FREE half-day training events are being run during Autumn 2007, to give you an
overview of the new specifications.

Get Started…towards successful delivery of the new specifications
These full-day events will run from Spring 2008 and will look at the new specifications in more
depth, with emphasis on first delivery.

Visit www.ocr.org.uk for more details.



Mill Wharf Training

Additional events are also available through our partner, Mill Wharf Training. It offers a range of
courses on innovative teaching practice and whole-school issues - www.mill-wharf-training.co.uk.



e-Communities

Over 70 e-Communities offer you a fast, dynamic communication channel to make contact with
other subject specialists. Our online mailing list covers a wide range of subjects and enables you to
share knowledge and views via email.

Visit https://community.ocr.org.uk, choose your community and join the discussion!



Interchange

OCR Interchange has been developed to help you to carry out day to day administration functions
online, quickly and easily. The site allows you to register and enter candidates online. In addition,
you can gain immediate a free access to candidate information at you convenience. Sign up at
https://interchange.ocr.org.uk

Published Resources
OCR offers centres a wealth of quality published support with a fantastic choice of „Official
Publisher Partner‟ and „Approved Publication‟ resources, all endorsed by OCR for use with OCR
specifications.

54 of 55                                                                        GCE Physical Education
Publisher partners
OCR works in close collaboration with three Publisher Partners; Hodder, Heinemann and Oxford
University Press (OUP) to ensure centres have access to:

      Better published support, available when you need it, tailored to OCR specifications
      Quality resources produced in consultation with OCR subject teams, which are linked to
       OCR‟s teacher support materials
      More resources for specifications with lower candidate entries
      Materials that are subject to a thorough quality assurance process to achieve endorsement

Hodder is the publisher partner for OCR GCE Physical Education.




Hodder is producing the following resources for OCR GCE Physical Education for first teaching in
September 2008:

Graham Thompson, Nesta Wiggins-James, Rob James OCR PE for AS (2008)
ISBN:9780340958681

Graham Thompson, Nesta Wiggins-James, Rob James OCR PE for AS Dynamic Learning
Network Edition CD-ROM (2008) ISBN:9780340958698

Also

OCR PE for A2 and OCR PE for A2 Dynamic Learning edn CD ROM




Approved publications
OCR still endorses other publisher materials, which undergo a thorough quality assurance process
to achieve endorsement. By offering a choice of endorsed materials, centres can be assured of
quality support for all OCR qualifications.




Endorsement
OCR endorses a range of publisher materials to provide quality support for centres delivering its
qualifications. You can be confident that materials branded with OCR‟s “Official Publishing Partner”
or “Approved publication” logos have undergone a thorough quality assurance process to achieve
endorsement. All responsibility for the content of the publisher‟s materials rests with the publisher.

These endorsements do not mean that the materials are the only suitable resources available or
necessary to achieve an OCR qualification. Any resource lists which are produced by OCR shall
include a range of appropriate texts.




GCE Physical Education                                                                         55 of 55

								
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