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					SECTOR SKILLS PLAN
    2005–2010

       2009
    Version 1.0
                                              TABLE OF CONTENTS
FOREWORD                                                                                                 iii
ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THIS DOCUMENT                                                                      iv
1     CHAPTER 1: SECTOR PROFILE                                                                           1
    1.1     Defining the Isett Seta Sector                                                                1
       1.1.1 SIC Codes                                                                                    1
       1.1.2 Isett Company (Employer) Definition                                                          2
       1.1.3 Number of Companies and Employees in the Isett Sector                                        2
       1.1.4 Isett Seta Sub-Sectors                                                                       2
       1.1.5 Provincial Distribution of Employees and Sites                                               3
       1.1.6 Race, Gender and Disability Segmentation of Employees in the Sector                          4
       1.1.7 Major Group Segmentation of Employees in the Sector                                          6
    1.2     Drivers of Change                                                                            10
       1.2.1 Regulatory and Policy Issues                                                                10
       1.2.2 Other Changes Impacting on the Sector                                                       13
       1.2.3 Government Initiatives                                                                      15
2     CHAPTER 2: DEMAND FOR SKILLS                                                                       18
    2.1     Current Employment                                                                         18
       2.1.1 Growth in Employment in the Sector                                                        18
       2.1.2 Trend in Race, 2003 to 2009                                                               19
       2.1.3 Trend in Gender, 2003 to 2009                                                             19
    2.2     Demand for Skills from Isett Stakeholders                                                  20
       2.2.1 Introduction                                                                              20
       2.2.2 Assessment of Stakeholder 2009 ATR Data versus 2008 WSP Data                              20
       2.2.3 Summary of Demand (Number of Interventions) for Training Programmes, 2005 – 2009          21
       2.2.4 Cost of Training Programmes                                                               23
       2.2.5 Isett Stakeholder Number of Interventions in Training Programmes, by Size of Company, 2005 –
       2009 24
       2.2.6 Isett Stakeholder Number of Interventions in Training Programmes, by Gender, 2005 – 2009  24
       2.2.7 Isett Stakeholder Number of Interventions in Training Programmes, by Race, 2005 – 2009    25
       2.2.8 Demand for Training Programmes (Number of Interventions ) by Sub-Major, 2009              28
3     CHAPTER 3: SUPPLY OF SKILLS                                                                        30
    3.1     Introduction                                                                                 30
    3.2     Graduation Trends                                                                            30
    3.3     Isett‘s Contribution to Demand for Skills                                                    34
4     CHAPTER 4: SCARCE AND CRITICAL SKILLS                                                              35
    4.1     Introduction                                                                                 35
    4.2     Isett Involvement in Types of Training Programmes by NQF Level                               35
    4.3     Demand for Scarce Skills                                                                     37
       4.3.1 Introduction                                                                                37
       4.3.2 Demand for Scarce Skills, by Learning Programmes and NQF Level                              37
    4.4     Demand for Critical Skills                                                                   42
       4.4.1 Introduction                                                                                42
       4.4.2 Demand for Critical Skills, by Learning Programmes and NQF Level                            42
5   CHAPTER 5:          SMALL BUSINESS, ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES AND OTHER NSDS
PRIORITIES                                                                        51
    5.1     SMME Opportunities                                                                           51
       5.1.1 The ICT BEE on SMME                                                                         51
    5.2     Future Opportunities of Entrepreneurial Activity for SMMEs                                   51
    5.3     Adult Basic Education and Training (ABET) provision                                          52
    5.4     Stakeholder Capacity Building                                                                52
6     Summary                                                                                            53
                                      st
    6.1     The Isett Sector, as at 31 March 2009                                                        53
    6.2     Trends                                                                                       53
    6.3     Scarce and Critical Skills                                                                   53



Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                  Page i
                                     TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
Appendix A: Future Areas of Entrepreneurial Activity                           55
Appendix B: ICT TRENDS                                                         58
Appendix C: Description of the OFO and Scarce and Critical Skills              62
  Structure of the Organising Framework for Occupations (OFO)                  62
  Scarce and Critical Skills                                                   63
     Definition of Scarce and Critical Skills                                  63
     Identifying Scarce Skills against Current Occupations                     64




Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                       Page ii
FOREWORD
The Sector Skills Plan (SSP) from the Information Systems, Electronics and Telecommunications (Isett) Sector
Education & Training Authority (Seta) signifies the maturing relationship between the Isett Seta and its
stakeholders. As South Africa moves into its second decade as a democracy, we can identify clearly how our
transformation processes should link together to achieve a better quality of life for all.
Additionally the ISETT SETA is considering what research projects need to be initiated to enhance its ability to
project and reflect better on future trends and the impact of Convergence of technologies.
Notwithstanding the hurdles that must be cleared as we move forward, Isett Seta‘s SSP for 2005-2010 provides
the indicators against which our efforts will be evaluated. The need for technical, professional and management
skills is clearly identified and we will work together with employers, providers, government and the community to
channel appropriate resources into creating the pool of talent that will meet the need. Integrating this skills plan
into our own business plan and those of our partners will provide the formula for success.
The combined efforts from all stakeholders to produce this document are gratefully acknowledged. The following
deserves special reference:
        Department of Communication on behalf of Government;
        Special Interest Groups that serves on Isett Seta‘s Board;
        Industry, via representation on Isett Seta‘s Board;
        Organised Labour, also through representation on Isett Seta‘s Board;
        Other Stakeholders like the CSIR who provided valuable input and resources to produce this Sector
         Skills Plan.
Our thanks go to all the stakeholders whose collective wisdom has been incorporated into this document. This
sharing of knowledge is the catalyst for reaching South Africa‘s potential.




Oupa Mopaki                                               Lesaiye A Chiloane
CEO: Isett Seta                                           Chairperson of Isett Seta Board



                                                                   th
                                                          Date: 30 August 2009




Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                           Page iii
ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THIS DOCUMENT

    Abbreviation                                              Description
    ABET            Adult Basic Education and Training
    AsgiSA          Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa
    ATR             Annual Training Report
    BBBEE           Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment
    BEE             Black Economic Empowerment
    BPO             Business Process Outsourcing
    CAGR            Compound Annual Growth Rate
    CEO             Chief Executive Officer
    DBSA            Development Bank of Southern Africa
    DoC             The Department of Communications
    DoL             The Department of Labour
    ESSA            Employment Services for South Africa
    GDP             Gross Domestic Product
    HIV/AIDS        Human Immune Virus / Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
    HR              Human Resource
    HSRC            Human Sciences Research Council
    ICT             Information and Communications Technology
    Isett           Information Systems, Electronics and Telecommunications Technologies
    IT              Information Technology
    ITAC            Information Technology Acquisition Centre
    JIPSA           Joint Initiative on Priority Skills Acquisition
    MIS             Management Information Systems
    NQF             National Qualifications Framework
    NSDS            National Skills Development Strategies
    OECD            Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
    OFO             Organising Framework for Occupations
    OGS             On-line Grant System (Isett Seta system for electronic capturing of WSP and ATR data)
    PDI             Previously Disadvantaged Individual
    SASCO           South African Standard Classification of Occupations
    SAQA            South African Qualifications Authority
    SDF             Skills Development Facilitator
    SDL             Skills Development Levy
    Seta            Sector Education Training Authority
    SIC             Standard Industrial Classification
    SITA            State Information Technology Agency
    SMMEs           Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises
    SNO             Second National Operator
    SOP             Standard Operating Procedure
    SSP             Sector Skills Plan
    the dti         The Department of Trade and Industry
    US              United States
    VoIP            Voice-Over-Internet-Protocol
    WSP             Workplace Skills Plan




Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                    Page iv
1 CHAPTER 1: SECTOR PROFILE

1.1 Defining the Isett Seta Sector
1.1.1     SIC Codes
In terms of Regulation Gazette No. 8203, Vol. 477, No.27445, published on 31 March 2005, there were 37 SIC
codes allocated to Isett Seta. The majority of these SIC codes involve skills of a technical nature like
manufacturing, maintenance, installation, technology integration, repairs and also related research and
development skills.
During May 2007, it was further announced that the Director-General: Labour had approved the Standard
Operating Procedure (SOP) for Classification of Employers with Setas as well as the Inter-SETA transfer of
employers and levies amongst Setas. The SOP was also endorsed by the SETA Forum held on 21 May 2007.
Accompanying the relevant SOP documentation was also a document defining which Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) codes are now related to which Seta. Isett Seta‘s 36 SIC codes are defined as:
Table 1: Isett Seta SIC Code List
    SIC                                             Description
  CODE
  35791     Manufacture of alarm systems
  75200     Telecommunication
  75201     Wired telecommunication carriers
  75202     Television broadcasting, television and radio signal distribution
  75203     Cable networks and programme distribution
  75204     Telephone
  75205     Wireless telecommunication carriers except satellite
  75209     Television broadcasting
  75211     Telecommunications and wired telecommunication carriers
  75212     Paging
  75213     Cellular and other wireless telecommunications
  75214     Satellite telecommunications
  75215     Other telecommunications
  75216     Security systems services except locksmiths
  75217     Office automation, office machinery and equipment rental leasing including installation     and
            maintenance
  86001     Software publishers
  86002     Computer systems design and related services
  86003     Computer facilities management services
  86004     Electronic and precision equipment repair and maintenance
  86005     Computer rental and leasing
  86006     Computer programming services
  86007     Other computer related activities
  86008     Call centre systems development and installations activities
  36009     Computer system design services and integrated solutions
  86010     Consumer electronics repair and maintenance
  86011     Computer and office machine repair, maintenance and support services
  86012     Communication equipment repair and maintenance
  86013     Other electronic and precision equipment repair and maintenance
  86014     Repair and maintenance of electronic marine equipment
  87142     Research and development of electronic equipment and systems
  87143     Information technology import and product integration of pre-manufactured electronics IT    and
            telecommunications equipment
  87146     Research and development in the physical and engineering sciences
  87147     Electronics importation and product integration of pre-manufactured electronics IT          and
            telecommunications equipment
  87148     Telecommunications importation and product integration of pre-manufactured electronics IT   and
            telecommunications equipment
  96131     Providing radio and television transmission signal
  96133     Installation, maintenance and repair of tracking devices for cars
Source: Department of Labour


Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                   Page 1
1.1.2      Isett Company (Employer) Definition
Isett Seta defines its sector as comprising those organisations which:
                    Contribute towards the SDL fund.
                    Have an annual payroll exceeding R 500,000.
Note that the Isett Sector does not comprise all organisations in the Information and Communications
Technology (ICT) Sector, partly because of the reasons provided above, and because there are companies that
have defined themselves to be in other sectors, such as professional services, despite these companies being
recognised as ICT companies. There are also organisations, such as the banks, which have a large ICT skill
component but which belong to other industry sectors and Setas. The Isett Sector should therefore be viewed
as a sub-sector of the whole ICT Sector.

1.1.3    Number of Companies and Employees in the Isett Sector
The number of companies in the Isett Sector is 2,428, and the number of employees is estimated at 141,929.
The following table presents the segmentation based on size of company.
                                                                                                       st
Table 2: Segmentation of the Isett Sector by Company Size and Number of Employees, as at 31 March
2009
                                          Total Number Percentage of Total Number of Percentage of
                Company Size              of Companies  Companies      Employees      Employees
        Large, 150+ employees                  128          5.3%          92,967        65.5%
        Medium, 50 to 149 employees            240          9.9%          18,270        12.9%
        Small, 1 to 49 employees              2,060        84.8%          30,692        21.6%
        Total                                 2,428       100.0%         141,929        100.0%
         Source: Isett Seta OGS
The following figure presents the distribution of employees by size of company.
Figure 1: Distribution of Employees by Size of Company, 2009

                 Small, 30,692, 22%




  Medium, 18,270, 13%
                                                                                           Large, 92,967, 65%


                    Total Number of Employees: 141,929
    Source: Isett Seta OGS
Together, the large and medium size companies account for 78.4% of the employees employed in this sector.

1.1.4      Isett Seta Sub-Sectors
The Isett Seta is responsible for Skills Development in the following three sub-sectors:
                Information Systems (IT)
                Telecommunication Technologies
                Electronics
The distribution of employees, by sub-sector, is illustrated in the figure below.




Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                         Page 2
Figure 2: Distribution of Employees within Companies by Isett Seta Sub-Sector, 2009

                                                                                  Electronics, 21,196,
                                                                                          15%
            Telecoms, 45,449,
                  32%




                                                                                     IT, 75,284, 53%
                   Total Number of Employees: 141,929
          Source: Isett Seta OGS
The IT Sub-sector is the largest sub-sector within the Isett Sector, accounting for just over half of the number of
employees, followed by the Telecommunications Sub-sector which accounts for about one-third of the number
of employees.

1.1.5     Provincial Distribution of Employees and Sites
The following figure presents the provincial distribution of employees. These figures provide an indication of
how Isett Sector employees and company sites are distributed around the country.
Figure 3: Provincial Distribution of Employees, 2009
                                                                                North West, 1,380,
                                               Free State, 2,431, 2%                   1%
                   Northern Cape, 639,
                           0%                                                      Mpumalanga, 1,988,
            Eastern Cape, 4,458,                                                          1%
                    3%                                                                Limpopo, 1,155, 1%
                                                                                          KwaZulu-Natal,
                                                                                           11,616, 8%
          Western Cape,
           23,430, 17%




          Total Number of Employees: 141,929                                    Gauteng, 94,832, 67%

    Source: Isett Seta OGS
In terms of the number of employees, about two-thirds of the employees are employed within Gauteng, followed
by the Western Cape at 17%, KwaZulu-Natal at 8% and the Eastern Cape at 3%. The Isett Seta has offices in
all four of these provinces.
The stakeholders that submit ATR and WSP data comprise primarily of head offices of companies, with some
franchises submitting their own data. It is important for Isett to note this because in many instances this impacts
training programmes conducted through partnerships between Isett and companies, vis-à-vis the distribution of
the employees around the provinces. Training programme agreements are usually signed with head offices,
and while it may appear that these learners are therefore based in the province in which the head office resides,
in some instances these learners wind up being placed in the provinces. The following figure presents the
national distribution of the head offices, and is followed by a figure that presents the distribution of the number of
sites (head offices and branches) around the country.

Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                             Page 3
Figure 4: Provincial Distribution, Number of Head Offices, 2009


                        Northern Cape, 39,        Free State, 62, 3%      North West, 63, 3%
                               2%
                                                                                   Mpumalanga, 32, 1%
        Eastern Cape, 124,
                5%                                                                  Limpopo, 34, 1%
                                                                                               KwaZulu-Natal, 252,
                                                                                                     10%
 Western Cape, 530,
       22%




                                                                              Gauteng, 1,292, 53%
          Total Number of Head Offices: 2,428
    Source: Isett Seta OGS
Figure 5: Provincial Distribution, Number of Sites (Head Offices plus Branches), 2009


                                                    Free State, 115, 3%       North West, 100, 3%
                             Northern Cape, 59,
                                    2%                                              Mpumalanga, 78, 2%
              Eastern Cape, 209,
                      6%                                                                 Limpopo, 52, 2%

                                                                                               KwaZulu-Natal, 382,
  Western Cape, 713,
                                                                                                     11%
        21%




                                                               Gauteng, 1681, 50%
               Total Number of Sites: 3,389
    Source: Isett Seta OGS
Comparison of these two figures shows that there is slightly greater presence in the provinces than implied by
the distribution of head offices alone.

1.1.6      Race, Gender and Disability Segmentation of Employees in the Sector
The following figure presents the race distribution of employees in the Isett Sector.




Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                            Page 4
Figure 6: Race Distribution of Employees, 2009



                                                                                               African, 44,801, 32%

  White, 64,978, 46%




                                                                                          Coloured, 17,702,
                                                       Indian, 14,448, 10%                      12%

         Total Number of Employees: 141,929
    Source: Isett Seta OGS
In terms of race equity, the DoL is striving for a target of 85% black (African, Coloured and Indian).
The following table presents an estimate of the number of large, medium and small companies that fall within
various equity brackets.
The following figure presents the gender distribution of employees in the Isett Sector.
Figure 7: Gender Distribution of Employees, 2009



  Female, 50,231, 35%




                                                                                                 Male, 91,698, 65%


             Total Number of Employees: 141,929

    Source: Isett Seta OGS
In terms of gender equity, the DoL is striving for a target of 54% of employees to be female. The following table
presents an estimate of the number of large, medium and small companies that fall within various equity
brackets.
The following figure presents the people with disability distribution of employees in the Isett Sector.
Figure 8: People with Disability Distribution of Employees, 2009

                    With Disability, 675,
                           0.5%




                                                                               Without Disability,
                                                                                141,254, 99.5%
             Total Number of Employees: 141,929
      Source: Isett Seta OGS
Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                            Page 5
In terms of disability equity, the DoL is striving for a target of 4% people with disability to be employed within the
country. The following table presents an estimate of the number of large, medium and small companies that fall
within various equity brackets.

1.1.7       Major Group Segmentation of Employees in the Sector
The following figure presents the Major Group number of employees in the Isett Sector, segmented by gender.
Figure 9: Major Group by Gender, 2009

                                                        5,597
                   1 Managers                                                         15,477

                                                                             12,866
               2 Professionals                                                                                                    32,491

     3 Technicians and Trades                               6,121
             Workers                                                                                                 25,968

   4 Community and Personal           58
                                      144
       Service Workers
  5 Clerical and Administrative                                                                    18,419             Male
             Workers                                                 9,304                                            Female
                                                     4,713
               6 Sales Workers                       4,329

   7 Machinery Operators and          396
            Drivers                         2,100

                                            1,975
         8 Elementary Workers               1,972

                                  0            5,000            10,000        15,000           20,000       25,000       30,000    35,000
                                                                             Number of Personnel

        Source: Isett Seta OGS
Males are dominant in the managerial, professional, technician and trades worker, and machinery operator and
driver categories.
The following figure presents the Major Group number of employees in the Isett Sector, segmented by race.
Figure 10: Major Group by Race, 2009


                   1 Managers


               2 Professionals

     3 Technicians and Trades
             Workers
   4 Community and Personal
       Service Workers                                                                                           African
                                                                                                                 Coloured
  5 Clerical and Administrative
             Workers                                                                                             Indian
                                                                                                                 White
               6 Sales Workers

   7 Machinery Operators and
            Drivers

         8 Elementary Workers

                                  0                 5,000           10,000             15,000           20,000          25,000      30,000
                                                                             Number of Personnel
    Source: Isett Seta OGS
Whites are dominant in the managerial and professional categories.


Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                                                    Page 6
The following figure presents the Major Group number of employees in the Isett Sector, segmented by age.
Figure 11: Major Group by Age, 2009


                  1 Managers


              2 Professionals

    3 Technicians and Trades
            Workers

   4 Community and Personal
                                                                                                Under 35
       Service Workers
                                                                                                35 To 55
 5 Clerical and Administrative                                                                  Over 55
            Workers

             6 Sales Workers

   7 Machinery Operators and
            Drivers

       8 Elementary Workers


                                 0        5000          10000            15000          20000              25000
                                                          Number of Personnel
    Source: Isett Seta OGS
The signatories to the Draft ICT Charter set a target of 50% black people in senior management positions with
30% black women as a % of the former, by 2015. For the purposes of this assessment, ―senior management‖ is
viewed as Sub-Major category 11, namely ―Chief Executives, General Managers and Legislators‖. As may be
determined from the following table, the current situation shows that 25.3% (1,684) of total managers (6,650)
are black, up from the 21.6% of last year but still a long way from the target of 50%.
The signatories to the Draft ICT Charter also set a target of 65% of black people in other management positions
with black women being 30% of the former. For the purposes of this assessment, ―other management‖ is
viewed as Sub-Major categories 13 and 14, namely ―Specialist Managers‖ and ―Events, Hospitality, Retail and
Service Managers‖. As may be determined from the following table, the current situation shows that 34.4%
(4,957) of total managers (14,425) are black, also a long way from the target of 65%.
The following table reflects employees in the Isett Sector, by race, gender, disability status and occupational
category.




Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                      Page 7
Table 3: Number of Employees per Sub-Major Group, Segmented by Age, Race, Gender and With Disability, 2009
                                                                                     Under    35 To    Over    Male     Female   Disabled   African   Coloured   Indian   White     Total
                                                                                       35       55      55
 1 Managers                                                                           5,243   14,457   1,376   15,477    5,596        89      3,000      1,615    2,026   14,435    21,075
 11 Chief Executives, General Managers and Legislators                                1,093    4,960     597    5,410    1,239        50        819        359      506    4,967     6,650
 13 Specialist Managers                                                               3,797    9,048     750    9,554    4,041        35      2,053      1,158    1,417    8,968    13,595
 14 Events, Hospitality, Retail and Service Managers                                    353      449      29      513      316         4        128         98      103      500       830
 2 Professionals                                                                     23,567   20,164   1,625   32,490   12,866       150      9,716      3,796    4,842   26,998    45,354
 21 Arts and Media Professionals                                                         67       61       9       69       68         1         10          7       10      108       137
 22 Business, Human Resource, Marketing and Communication Management Professionals    5,030    4,988     395    5,734    4,678        63      2,059      1,009    1,141    6,204    10,412
 23 Design, Engineering, Science and Transport Professionals                          1,902    1,626     205    2,979      754         5        785        156      363    2,427     3,732
 24 Education Professionals                                                             299      197      20      311      205         3        150         23       11      333       516
 25 Health Professionals                                                                 35       92       4       69       62                   35         11        9       76       131
 26 ICT Professionals                                                                16,169   13,142     989   23,274    7,027        78      6,640      2,581    3,288   17,790    30,300
 27 Legal, Social and Welfare Professionals                                              65       58       3       54       72                   37          9       20       60       126
 3 Technicians and Trades Workers                                                    15,385   15,303   1,401   25,969    6,121       169     12,887      4,236    2,690   12,273    32,090
 31 Engineering, ICT and Science Technicians                                         10,406    6,679     925   13,791    4,221        98      6,318      2,104    1,689    7,900    18,011
 32 Automotive and Engineering Technicians and Trades Workers                           131      169      15      309        6         1        179         35        8       91       315
 33 Construction Trades Workers                                                          51       53       7      107        3                   96          8        3        4       111
 34 Electrotechnology and Telecommunications Trades Workers                           4,719    8,264     431   11,561    1,853        70      6,193      2,013      972    4,235    13,414
 35 Food Trades Workers                                                                   3        8       2        9        4                    6          7                          13
 36 Animal Attendants and Trainers                                                        7        8       1       16                            12                           4         16
 39 Other Technicians and Trades Workers                                                 68      122      20      176       34                   83        69       18       39        210
 4 Community and Personal Service Workers                                                77      108      18      144       59                  115        36       11       41        203
 41 Health and Welfare Support Workers                                                    8        7                4       11                    8         2        1        4         15
 42 Carers and Aides                                                                      5        1                         6                    3         3                            6
 43 Hospitality Workers                                                                  14       10       4        8       20                   19         4                  5        28
 44 Protective Service Workers                                                           48       83      13      128       16                   80        27       10        27       144
 45 Sports and Personal Service Workers                                                   2        7       1        4        6                    5                            5        10
 5 Clerical and Administrative Workers                                               14,931   11,555   1,236    9,303   18,419       195     10,213      5,260    3,087    9,163    27,723
 51 Office and Program Administrators                                                 2,853    3,086     306    2,016    4,229        84      1,860      1,035      660    2,690     6,245
 52 Personal Assistants and Secretaries                                                 727      901      61       56    1,633         1        398        223      132      936     1,689
 53 General Clerical Workers                                                          2,513    1,770     206    1,431    3,058        41      1,697        849      509    1,435     4,489
 54 Inquiry Clerks and Receptionists                                                  5,190    2,190     200    2,805    4,775        36      3,364      1,829      832    1,556     7,580
 55 Numerical Clerks                                                                  1,523    1,431     213      616    2,553        20        879        541      481    1,267     3,169
 56 Clerical and Office Support Workers                                                 337      372      58      347      417         6        424        133       54      153       766
 59 Other Administrative Workers                                                      1,788    1,805     192    2,032    1,754         7      1,591        650      419    1,126     3,785
 6 Sales Workers                                                                      4,826    3,957     257    4,329    4,713        19      2,784      1,237      959    4,060     9,042
 61 Sales Representatives and Agents                                                  2,562    1,882     146    2,381    2,210        16      1,121        624      485    2,360     4,591
 62 Sales Assistants and Salespersons                                                 1,409    1,711      96    1,332    1,884                1,020        455      327    1,414     3,216
 63 Sales Support Workers                                                               855      364      15      616      619         3        643        158      147      286     1,235
 7 Machinery Operators and Drivers                                                      902    1,369     227    2,099      396        10      1,824        342       94      234     2,495
 71 Machine and Stationary Plant Operators                                              149      224      25      241      157         5        219         81       11       86       397
 72 Mobile Plant Operators                                                                9       10       3       21                            19          2                          21
 73 Road and Rail Drivers                                                               269      733     150    1,144        7                  942        130      21       57      1,151
 74 Store Persons                                                                       475      402      49      693      232         5        644        129      62       91        926




Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                                                                                             Page 8
                                                 Under    35 To    Over    Male     Female   Disabled   African   Coloured   Indian   White     Total
                                                   35       55      55
 8 Elementary Workers                             1,478    2,166     301    1,970    1,976        12      3,080        563     113      189      3,947
 81 Cleaners                                        375      902     116      221    1,170         3      1,281         93       5       12      1,392
 82 Construction and Mining Workers                  93       89       5      181        7                  159         17       5        7        188
 83 Factory Process Workers                         368      422      64      478      376         4        474        234      79       65        854
 84 Farm, Forestry and Garden Workers                18       44       7       68        1         1         55         14                          69
 85 Food Preparation Assistants                      71      154      40       19      246         1        244         21                         265
 89 Other Elementary Workers                        553      555      69    1,003      176         3        867        184       24      105     1,179
 Total                                           66,409   69,079   6,441   91,781   50,146       644     43,619     17,085   13,822   67,393   141,929
  Source: Isett Seta OGS




Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                                                         Page 9
1.2 Drivers of Change
1.2.1     Regulatory and Policy Issues
There are several legislative, regulatory and policy issues that have a major impact on trends and growth in the
Isett Sector. Government is on record to encourage Public Private Partnerships, specifically to benefit SMMEs
and promote BEE Enterprises. The development and implementation of the ICT BEE Charter also contributes
to the acceleration of Employment Equity in the Isett Sector.
The restructuring of the Department of Communications (DoC), appointment of the Second National Operator
(SNO) and new legislation regulating Voice-Over-Internet-Protocol (VoIP) technology further provides for
increased employment opportunities and entrepreneurial initiatives.
The Legislation and Regulations below have an impact on the ICT industry

1.2.1.1   Convergence Bill (2005)
Aims/Objectives
To promote convergence in the broadcasting, broadcasting signal distribution and telecommunications sectors
and to provide the legal framework for convergence of these sectors; to make new provision for the regulation of
communications and network services; to provide for the granting of new licenses and for new social
obligations; to provide for the control of the radio frequency spectrum; to provide for the continued existence of
the Universal Service Agency; and to provide for matters incidental thereto.
Implications
                  Self-provision of facilities and re-selling of bandwidth will optimise capacity and result in
                   reduced prices for users.
                  More effective licensing and regulation will be enabled.
                  Will promote the acceleration in development of various application services like VoIP and
                   electronic commerce.

1.2.1.2   ICT Charter
Aims/Objectives
                  To support the objectives of the BBBEE Act and to promote its effective implementation in
                   the ICT Sector;
                  Bridge the ―digital divide‖ by actively promoting access to ICTs; stimulate and support growth
                   in the ICT Sector;
                  Advance economic and social transformation in the ICT Sector;
                  Contribute towards the reduction of unemployment and poverty alleviation;
                  Support skills development and training initiatives;
                  Foster equity and address the legitimate economic aspiration of all South Africans; and
                  Provide an enabling environment conducive to transparency, fairness, and consistency when
                   adjudicating on matters related to BEE in the ICT Sector.
Implications
                  Increased involvement of PDIs in the ICT Sector.
                  Opportunities for stake holding by PDIs in established businesses.
                  Improved access to ICT and thus stimulation in growth.
Isett Assessment
The latest version of the Draft ICT Charter, available at www.ictcharter.org.za, is entitled ―Draft Economic
Empowerment Charter for the ICT Sector‖, May 2005, comprises eleven chapters, three of which address skills
development and equity. These chapters are:
                  Chapter 7, Skills Development
                  Chapter 8, Employment Equity
                  Chapter 9, Management and Control
The Draft ICT Charter addresses the ten-year period 2006 to 2015.
In the following discussion of these three chapters, the text in bold italics depicts the text as stated in the Draft
ICT Charter, followed by normal text which presents Isett‘s comments.
Chapter 7, Skills Development states that:

Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                          Page 10
                  “Companies should develop mentoring programmes that target black employees
                   especially black designated groups in identified positions for succession planning”.
                   Isett has no data to assess whether companies have in fact developed mentoring
                   programmes, or, if so, how many companies have done so. Furthermore, Isett implemented
                   the OFO, as part of the ATR/WSP data input, for the first time in 2007/8. The OFO
                   occupation categorisation is a little different to the previous South African Standard
                   Classification of Occupations (SASCO) categorisation that was utilised.
                  “ICT career awareness programmes should be implemented at primary and secondary
                   school levels and such programmes should promote career opportunities in
                   mathematics and science”. The only project that Isett is aware of in this regard relates to
                   the ICT Technology Bus which tours primarily rural areas to generate an interest in ICTs
                   amongst the youth. The sponsors of this bus to date have been the Isett Seta, the Computer
                   Society of South Africa and Vodacom.
                  “Funding should be set aside by the ISETT and MAPPP SETA for high-level training;
                   the funding could be used in order to encourage various training organisations to
                   provide ICT training”. Funding is set aside by Isett for entry, intermediate and high level
                   skills. Isett works with employers and training providers in this regard.
                  “In line with the work of the Setas, companies should take Learners on for experiential
                   training in the sector”. Isett is very involved with companies through learnerships and
                   internships.
                  “The Charter Council should devise methods of providing rewards to companies that
                   provide post learnership permanent employment”. Isett would consider any reward
                   system that provides rewards to companies that provide post learnership permanent
                   employment.
The signatories to this charter have undertaken to:
                  “Commit 2% of payroll in addition to the current skills development levy for
                   investment in skills development of black people, black women, black youth and black
                   people with disabilities”. An assessment of this is presented in Chapter 2.
                  “Provide learnerships equivalent to 5% of employees”. An assessment of this is
                   performed in Chapter 2.
Chapter 8, Employment Equity, states that:
                  “The ICT Sector is committed to the principles of employment equity as enunciated in
                   the Employment Equity Act and is therefore committed to ensuring that BEE
                   accredited companies comply with the requirements of the Employment Equity (EE)
                                                                                                                 st
                   Act”. An assessment of how Isett stakeholder companies measured up to BEE, as at 31
                   March 2008, is presented in Section 1.1.6 above.
                  “The companies in the sector agree to develop clear job descriptions and set
                   performance criteria to ensure that people are not placed in positions, which give a
                   false impression of their positions, and to prevent window dressing”. Isett does not
                   currently request this data from its stakeholders.
                  “In supporting employment equity, companies will prioritise strategic positions or
                   jobs within their organisations for black candidates”. Isett does not currently request
                   this data from its stakeholders.
                  “Companies will incorporate diversity management and gender sensitivity
                   programmes in their induction programmes in order to address cultural and other
                   differences in their organisations, which programmes should also include
                   transformation initiatives”. Isett does not currently request this data from its stakeholders.
                  “Encourage enterprises that are exempt from compliance with the Employment Equity
                   Act, to submit employment equity data on a voluntary basis in order to assist with the
                   assessment of sector statistics”. Isett does not currently request this data from its
                   stakeholders.
The signatories to this charter have undertaken to:
                  “Comply fully with the Employment Equity Act as certified by the Department of
                   Labour”;
                  “Achieve a target of 50% black people in senior management positions with 30% black
                   women as a % of the former”. Isett notes that this is to be achieved by February 2015. An
                   assessment of this target is presented in Section 1.1.7.
                  “Achieve a target of 65% of black people in other management positions with black
                   women being 30% of the former”. Isett notes that this is to be achieved by February 2015.
                   An assessment of this target is presented in Section 1.1.7.

Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                         Page 11
Chapter 9, Management and Control, states that:
                       “The ICT Sector is committed to increased management and control of enterprises by
                        black people”. An assessment of management is, as stated above, presented in Chapter 2.
                        With regard to management control, Isett does not currently request this data from its
                        stakeholders.
                       “The sector is committed to the development of black management development
                        programmes that are widely available, affordable and easily accessible to ensure that
                        there is a larger pool of black managers to draw from”. Isett is unaware of any black
                        management development programmes that specifically target black managers, and does
                        not currently request this data from its stakeholders.
                       “Succession planning policies should be included in an enterprises‟ employment
                        equity plans and reports”. Isett does not currently request this data from its stakeholders.
                       “Each enterprise in the sector shall ensure that it has representative management and
                        control as provided for in this Charter”. Isett does not currently request this data from its
                        stakeholders.
                       “Companies shall strive to increase the number of black people, including black
                        women, black youth and people with disabilities in executive management and board
                        positions in the ICT Sector”.
The signatories to this charter have undertaken to:
                       “Commit to a target of 60% black people in the governing body with black women
                        comprising 50% of the former”. Isett does not currently request this data from its
                        stakeholders.

1.2.1.3       ICT R&D and Innovation Strategy
Aims/Objectives
                       Achieve global leadership in identified key scientific and technological domains.
                       Develop multi-disciplinary technologies, skills and methodologies to address areas of market
                        neglect, especially to eradicate the Digital Divide.
                       An indigenous ICT Sector that is developed, growing, innovative and competitive.
                       The smart proliferation of ICT within other sectors of the economy.
Implications
Closer monitoring of ICT performance as an industry through KPIs on Human Research Development,
Research, and Innovation.

1.2.1.4       Other Legislation
The following legislation also impacts on the Isett Sector:
                       Telecommunications Amendment Bill, No. 65 of 2001
                       Interception and Monitoring Prohibition Act, No.127 of 1992
                       Interception and Monitoring Prohibition Amendment Act, No.77 of 1995
                       Employment Equity Act, No. 55 of 1998
                       Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment Act, No. 53 of 2003.
The State Information Technology Agency (SITA) is tasked with ICT policy formulation and implementation.
The responsibility for all government IT procurement has been given to the Information Technology Acquisition
Centre (ITAC) since 01 of April 2002. This is an attempt by government to ensure that a certain percentage of
the Rand value of all government IT contracts is awarded to BEE companies. The purpose of this strategy is to
appoint vendors that supply government ICT services and products, thereby addressing the growth of BEE in
              1
South Africa.




1
    ICT in Government, Forge Ahead BMI-T and the Department of Communications, Vol. 1 Issue 1, October 2002

Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                                Page 12
1.2.2         Other Changes Impacting on the Sector

1.2.2.1 Technology
The boundaries between the ICT sub-sectors are increasingly becoming unobtrusive and seamless with a
computing environment that is becoming ubiquitous. There are three main technology groups that will dominate
                        2
the future ICT landscape :
           Mobile technologies, including wireless, wearables, Wi-Fi, ultra-wide band, smart phones and location-
            based services.
           Smart networked objects which include technologies like Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), Micro
            electro-mechanical systems MEMS, smart dust, digital link and embedded computing.
           Semantic connectivity, including technologies like Semantic Web, eXtensible Business Reporting
            Language (XBLR).
Note that the first group leans towards telecommunications (wireless applications in particular), the second
towards electronics, and the third towards information systems (particularly software).

1.2.2.2 Economic Environment
In their article ―OECD swipes at SA parastatals‖, published on the July 15 2008, Fin24.Com reported on OECD
findings, some of which impact on skills development and SMMEs, as presented below.
In a wide-ranging economic assessment, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD) recommended lessening state interference and adjusting labour law in an effort make the country more
globally competitive. It made specific reference to SA's state-owned behemoths including Eskom, Transnet and
Telkom - the latter of which it identified as "oligopolistic".
"The lack of competition and uncertain decision-making process in network industries impede efficient
development in terms of productivity and innovation, with negative spill-over effects for the whole economy," it
said. This, according to the OECD, is magnified by the concentration of ownership and the disproportionate
influence of conglomerates.
This competition shortfall extended to the small- and medium-sized enterprise (SME) sector - which the OECD
said was also being stifled. "The economy is rightly seen as suffering," it said.
SA's problems were "multi-faceted" but sound macroeconomic policies that lifted competition would "unleash
the enormous potential of South Africa's labour force," the OECD report said in its executive summary.
Commenting on the country's competitiveness, the report said the overall burden of regulation in SA was
"heavy". "Weak competition throughout the state-dominated sectors has translated into higher cost for firms
and citizens," it said.
In its article entitled ―SA sticks to growth rate of 6% by 2010‖, published in April 2008, Mail and Guardian Online
reported that Alan Hirsch, deputy head of the policy unit in the Presidency, said while the country's growth rate
will slow to 4% in 2008 in line with the Treasury's forecast, the 2010 target set by the government's economic
growth plan, the Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa (Asgisa), is unchanged.
"International conditions and the electricity factor mean that we will grow more slowly this year than we did last
year," Hirsch said at the release of the AsgiSA annual report for 2007.
South Africa's gross domestic product grew by 5% in 2007. The National Treasury forecast growth of 4% for
2008 in its budget in February, saying growth would slow because of weaker global conditions, slower
consumer spending on higher interest rates and power problems. Treasury Director General Lesetja Kganyago
had earlier this year said South Africa was unlikely to reach the 6% target by 2010.
The following factors have a bearing on skills development in that if companies are driven into cost cutting,
particularly if they are in or move into survival mode, it is likely that investment in skills development could be
impacted negatively.




2
    Benchmarking of Technology Trends and Technology Developments, Bluepeter, April 2004. Study conducted for the dti.

Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                                           Page 13
Interest Rates
Figure 12: The Prime Overdraft Rate of Banks (%)

     18



     16



     14



     12



     10



      8



      6



      4



      2



      0
          1/1/1990
                     1/7/1990
                                1/1/1991
                                           1/7/1991
                                                      1/1/1992
                                                                 1/7/1992
                                                                            1/1/1993
                                                                                       1/7/1993
                                                                                                  1/1/1994
                                                                                                             1/7/1994
                                                                                                                        1/1/1995
                                                                                                                                   1/7/1995
                                                                                                                                              1/1/1996
                                                                                                                                                         1/7/1996
                                                                                                                                                                    1/1/1997
                                                                                                                                                                               1/7/1997
                                                                                                                                                                                          1/1/1998
                                                                                                                                                                                                     1/7/1998
                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/1/1999
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           1/7/1999
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/1/2000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1/7/2000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/1/2001
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       1/7/2001
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/1/2002
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             1/7/2002
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/1/2003
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   1/7/2003
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/1/2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         1/7/2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/1/2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1/7/2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/1/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     1/7/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/1/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           1/7/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/1/2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1/7/2008
          Source: The South African Reserve Bank
Interest rates are still low when compared with several previous years.
Gross Domestic Product
In a report published by the OECD in July 2008, and reported by Xinhua, the OECD stated that power shortages
were a pressing economic problem for South Africa and threatened near-term growth prospects. "The loss of
output in the first quarter of 2008, together with the prospect of extended power shortages and outages at least
during the rest of 2008, has led economic forecasters to revise down their projections for real GDP growth this
year by between 0.5 and one percentage point," said the report. This had been "a blow" to financial market
sentiment towards South Africa. The government was "preparing" the population for the prospect of
substantially higher electricity prices, the report said. An initial price increase of 14.2% would not be enough to
cover the long-run costs of electricity production, and has since been increased to 27.5%.
Despite having followed a similar trend, growth in employment did not match the robust growth in economic
activity during recent years, as evidenced in the following figure. The average level of formal non-agricultural
employment rose by 2.7% in 2007, following increases of 2.9% in 2006 and 1.1% in 2005. However, in the
second half of 2007, employment growth decelerated considerably according to the enterprise-based Quarterly
                                                                         3
Employment Statistics (QES) survey by Statistics South Africa (Stats SA) .




3
    South African Reserve Bank, Quarterly Bulletin, June 2008, page 11

Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Page 14
Employment in the formal non-agricultural sector of the economy increased at a seasonally adjusted and
annualised rate of 1.7% in the third quarter of 2007 followed by 1.2% in the fourth quarter – the lowest rate of
increase in almost three years. The slower pace of employment gains in the third and fourth quarter of 2007
was mainly caused by a slowdown in employment growth in the private sector, as employment growth in the
public sector remained relatively strong.
                                  4
As shown in the next table , the unemployment rate has been improving over the past six years. Nevertheless,
Asgisa‘s target of halving unemployment by 2014 remains ambitious. It is uncertain whether this data includes
the effects of foreign immigrants.




1.2.3         Government Initiatives

1.2.3.1       Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa (AsgiSA)
The following has been extracted from the ―Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa (AsgiSA),
A Summary‖, issued by the Office of the Presidency, the Republic of South Africa. As will be observed from
these extracts, this initiative will have a major impact on the demand for ICT skills in the country.
The South African Government was mandated in 2004 to halve poverty and unemployment by 2014, an
objective that is achievable based on the following observations at that time:
                        Growth averaged about 3% from 1994 – 2004 and has exceeded 4% per year since 2004,
                         reaching about 5% in 2005. 2006 and 2007 remained in the 5% region.
                        Expectations for the current strong performance were high — forecasts by banks and ratings
                         agencies indicated expectations of growth continuing at around 4,5% in the medium term.
                         The recent effects of fuel price increases and the increase in the cost of electricity, among
                         other factors, are likely to have a negative impact on these forecasts.
                        Business confidence was very high. The Rand Merchant Bank/Bureau for Economic
                         Research business confidence index, with 86% of firms expected the continuation of
                         improving business conditions, has remained at high levels for an extended period. Of late
                         though, it appears that confidence is not as high, as reflected by comparing the SARB
                         forecast for inflation presented in June 2008 and June 2007, shown in the following two


4
    South African Reserve Bank, Quarterly Bulletin, June 2008, page 12

Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                            Page 15
                    tables. The more recent forecast for 2008 and 2009 is decidedly worse than the forecast
                    presented in 2007.




                   Inflows of foreign capital have been exceptionally high since 2003, with an inflow of R80
                    billion (about US$13 billion) into the JSE share market between the beginning of 2005 and
                    the first quarter of 2006. In the same period, South Africa also had several very large inward
                    foreign direct investment transactions. Overall, 2006 however saw an outflow of about R 4
                    billion, but this turned around in 2007 to an inflow of about R 40 billion, and the SARB June
                    2008 Quarterly Bulletin showed an inflow on R 40 billion in the first quarter of 2008 alone.
Targets of Accelerated and Shared Growth
Government‘s investigations, supported by some independent research, indicated that the growth rate needed
to achieve these social objectives is around 5% on average between 2004 and 2014. Realistically assessing
the capabilities of the economy and the international environment, AsgiSA set a two-phase target. In the first
phase, between 2005 and 2009, South Africa is seeking an annual growth rate that averages 4.5% or higher. In
the second phase, between 2010 and 2014, South Africa is seeking an average growth rate of at least 6% of
gross domestic product (GDP).
Infrastructure Investment
Government has already begun to ramp up public-sector investment. At one point public sector investment fell
below 4% of GDP. In recent years, it rose above 6%.
Electronic communications as a key commercial and social infrastructure will be one focus of priority attention.
Education and Skills Development
Government recognises that for both the public infrastructure and the private investment programmes to
succeed, the single greatest impediment is shortage of skills – including professional skills such as engineers
and scientists; managers such as financial, personnel and project managers; and skilled technical employees
such as artisans and IT technicians. The AsgiSA responses range from medium-term educational interventions
to raise the level of skills in areas needed by the economy to immediate measures to acquire the skills needed
for the implementation of AsgiSA projects.
In the latest OECD economic assessment of SA, Bizcommunity.com reported that BUSA (Business Unity South
Africa) welcomed the overall thrust of the OECD's economic assessment of SA as reflecting a realistic grasp of
the socio-economic priorities that should prevail in helping to shape the future economic and business
environment in the country.
From a business perspective, while some of the recommendations may require further robust debate, the crux
of the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) appraisal correctly supports AsgiSA
(Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative - South Africa), makes key recommendations for its bolstering, and
above all, strongly urges its speedy implementation. The persistence of very high unemployment, concentrated
in one segment of the population, even in the face of several recent years of robust economic growth, gives
urgency to the promotion of labour-intensive growth through AsgiSA.

1.2.3.2   Joint Initiative on Priority Skills Acquisition (JIPSA)
The Joint Initiative on Priority Skills Acquisition (JIPSA) is a committee, launched at the same time as Asgisa,
with the specific task to identify urgent skills needs and quick and effective solutions.


Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                        Page 16
At the launch of JIPSA, Deputy President, Phumsile Mlambo-Ngcuka said they will talk to unemployed students
who have studied at universities or colleges; retired experts; and people from other countries who have useful
skills for our economy. They can pass their knowledge on to those who need it. As part of JIPSA, trainees are
sent to other countries to get special skills. One of JIPSA‘s aims is also to find ways of helping unemployed
students who have finished their studies, to find jobs.
JIPSA will look at developing scarce skills in the following areas:

                  Engineering and planning skills for jobs in transport, communications and energy;
                  Engineering projects for cities and towns needed by municipalities;
                  Management and planning skills in education, health and municipalities;
                  Teacher training for mathematics, science, information and communications technology and
                   language skills.

1.2.3.3   The South African e-Skills Council
The South African e-Skills Council is a partnership between government, the private sector, educators and other
established government institutions that provide strategic advice on ICT-related skills issues. The e-Skills
Council is to provide advice on programmes and services that can have a measurable impact on ICT related
skills development in the South Africa. Additionally, the e-Skills Council will ensure that there is a coordinated
plan to enhance government‘s vision of addressing skills shortage that is a major constrain to the country‘s
economic growth.
To achieve the above outlined purpose, e-Skills Council has to:
                  Give effect to the vision as set out by President Mbeki.
                  Inform the strategic direction of plans that address the skills shortage drawing on
                   international best practices.
                  Set targets for the ICT Institute in terms of the production of skills for job opportunities and
                   industry needs.
                  Provide direction on policy and regulatory impediments to achieving progress on the
                   acceleration of skills development in South Africa and make recommendations to the Inter-
                   Ministerial Committee on ISAD.
                  Advise the President on mechanisms to accelerate the building of a strong skills base in the
                   ICT sector and the retention thereof.
                  Explore and recommend means of ensuring that the existing public institutions in South
                   Africa are strengthened to become the quality centre of excellence in respect of ICT skills.
The e-Skills Council will be supported by the e-Skills Working Group. The Working Group is comprised of
representatives from South African stakeholders, namely government, ICT sector, academia, researchers and
civil society. The Isett Seta is a member of this working group.
The mandate of the e-Skills Working Group is to provide technical support to the work of the e-Skills Council
thereby ensuring effective and efficient functioning of the Council. The main objectives of the e-Skills Working
Group include, but not limited to:
                  Analyse the type of skills that are required by the ICT Industry in South Africa including future
                   skills needs, taking into consideration technology trends, global industry changes and
                   possible emerging markets.
                  Develop, market, and continuously review qualifications required to fulfil the various
                   requirement identified in (1) above or their equivalents.
                  Identify and approach the funders of the initiative.
                  Ensure commitment from Industry to provide job opportunities for graduates
                  Advise on possibilities of incentives for organizations that contribute the e-Skills Council and
                   Degree, e.g. incorporation of benefits into the Draft ICT Charter.
                  Provide an analysis of the implications for future industry skill needs of technology trends,
                   global industry changes, current and future challenges in the domestic economy and
                   possible emerging markets for the South African ICT industry.
                  Identify emerging gaps between the skill requirements of industry and current education and
                   training arrangements, and to identify possible mechanisms to enable the ICT skill needs of
                   industry to be more effectively met from within the South African education and training
                   system.




Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                         Page 17
2 CHAPTER 2: DEMAND FOR SKILLS

2.1 Current Employment
The following table presents the current employment within the Isett Sector.
                                                                                                                                st
Table 4: Segmentation of the Isett Sector by Company Size and Number of Employees, as at 31 March
2009
                                                Total Number Percentage of Total Number of Percentage of
                Company Size                    of Companies  Companies      Employees      Employees
        Large, 150+ employees                        128          5.3%          92,967        65.5%
        Medium, 50 to 149 employees                  240          9.9%          18,270        12.9%
        Small, 1 to 49 employees                    2,060        84.8%          30,692        21.6%
        Total                                       2,428       100.0%         141,929        100.0%
        Source: Isett Seta OGS

2.1.1       Growth in Employment in the Sector
The growth in employment in the Isett Sector is presented in the following table and figure.
Table 5: Growth of Employees in the Isett Sector, 2003 to 2009
                          2003-               2004-               2005-               2006-               2007-               2008-
                          2004                2005                2006                2007                2008                2009
Company Size    2003     Growth     2004     Growth     2005     Growth     2006     Growth     2007     Growth     2008     Growth     2009
Large           91,019     -4.6%    86,828     -5.3%    82,234      5.4%    86,661      0.9%    87,465     -0.5%    87,000      6.9%    92,967
Medium          15,760      4.3%    16,440      9.4%    17,982      2.6%    18,446      9.8%    20,257      1.3%    20,513    -10.9%    18,270
Small           38,352      2.6%    39,344    -15.6%    33,193     -6.4%    31,062      5.3%    32,710     12.1%    36,672    -16.3%    30,692
Total          145,131     -1.7%   142,612     -6.5%   133,409      2.1%   136,169      3.1%   140,432      2.7%   144,185     -1.6%   141,929
  Source: Isett Seta OGS
The table shows that 2009 experienced the first decline in employment in five years, with small companies
particularly being hit hard.
Figure 13: Growth of Employees in the Isett Sub-Sectors, 2003 to 2009

  80000
                                 Electronics           IT         Telecoms

  70000


  60000


  50000


  40000


  30000


  20000


  10000


        0
                2003               2004           2005               2006              2007               2008               2009

        Source: Isett Seta OGS
The Telecoms Sub-Sector experienced a decline in employment until 2005, after which it has experienced a
steady positive growth. The IT Sub-sector has experienced decline from 2003 to 2005, after which it

Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                                                 Page 18
experienced growth until 2008. In 2009 however, the IT Sub-sector again experienced decline. Interestingly,
the Electronics Sub-sector was the only sub-sector that experienced growth in 2009. having not faired that well
in prior years.

2.1.2     Trend in Race, 2003 to 2009

         80000
                                             Black   White

         70000


         60000


         50000


         40000


         30000


         20000


         10000


             0
                   2003       2004        2005       2006      2007       2008       2009

    Source: Isett Seta OGS
Over the period 2005 to 2008, black employment has experienced a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of
6.6%, whereas that of white employment has declined at a rate of 1.4%. Both categories however suffered a
decline of about 1.6% from 2008 to 2009.

2.1.3     Trend in Gender, 2003 to 2009

         100000                             Male      Female

          90000

          80000

          70000

          60000

          50000

          40000

          30000

          20000

          10000

              0
                    2003        2004        2005       2006       2007        2008          2009

    Source: Isett Seta OGS
Over the period 2005 to 2008, female employment has experienced a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of
4.4%, whereas that of male employment has experienced a CAGR of 1.7%. However, in 2009, male
employment declined by 2.8%, whereas female employment grew by 0.7%.


Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                     Page 19
2.2 Demand for Skills from Isett Stakeholders
2.2.1   Introduction
Where 2009 data is presented, this is a forecast based on WSP data received.

2.2.2   Assessment of Stakeholder 2009 ATR Data versus 2008 WSP Data
Where the actual number of learning interventions, as per the 2009 ATR data, differed from what was forecast
in 2008, as per the 2008 WSP data, SDFs were requested to provide reasons for this difference. Those
companies that experienced fewer learning interventions than forecast cited the following reasons for the
shortfall.
Table 6: Assessment of Comments from Stakeholder who experienced Fewer Learning Interventions
                                           Reason                                    Percentage of
                                                                                     Total Number
                                                                                     of Responses
           Awaiting formalization of accreditation                                           0.2%
           Budget Constraints                                                               18.9%
           Change in Company Objectives                                                     15.4%
           Change in Main Business Activities                                                2.0%
           Change in Technology                                                              3.3%
           Change of training objectives/staff development requirements                      0.6%
           Consolidation of numerous small courses into full day sessions                    0.1%
           Could not acquire appropriate new personnel                                       3.1%
           Could not secure appropriate dates with training provider(s)                      2.2%
           Course not available in South Africa in the required time frames                  0.1%
           Difficulties in finalising the Learnerships                                       0.1%
           Down Sizing                                                                       3.3%
           Economic Downswing                                                               10.3%
           Employee failed to register for the course                                        0.3%
           Incorrectly captured or omitted to capture learning programme in WSP              1.4%
           Industrial Relations                                                              0.3%
           Insufficient (appropriate) applicants                                             0.8%
           Internal Restructuring                                                            6.8%
           Lack of appropriate learning programmes available                                 0.1%
           Lack of Resources                                                                 0.1%
           Lack of understanding of types of Isett learning programmes                       0.5%
           Learner(s) switched to other type of learning programme                           2.6%
           Learners did not complete learning programme                                      0.9%
           Merger(s)                                                                         0.5%
           New Contracts/Project priorities                                                  2.0%
           Potential learners left company                                                   0.2%
           Staff Turnover                                                                    9.8%
           Time Constraints                                                                 13.1%
           Up Sizing                                                                         0.8%
              Source: Isett Seta OGS
Some additional comments that were made include:
       We could not find appropriate NQF aligned courses.
       We are currently in the process of our BBBEE Scorecard verification and discovered that the majority of
        short course interventions we had planned and in fact carried out do not meet the strict skills
        development criteria of the scorecard.
       With people on projects, it is often difficult to free up groups of people to attend short courses at the
        same time without compromising project delivery.
       Internal Restructuring - a new company was formed and staff members were transferred there.
       Internal restructuring due to client service and product demand.
       Focus on internal technical competence building.
       Company in process of being liquidated as from 01/04/2009. All staff transferred to another company.

Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                       Page 20
       Downsizing. All existing employees have already had this training.
       Could not secure appropriate dates with training provider(s), Could not find a provider.
       Budget Constraints. Although less people were trained, the expenditure was as planned.
       Industrial Relations. Staff were encouraged and given every opportunity to write the exams for which
        they were training, but failed to do so.
       Down Sizing of the foreign-based staff affected training budget allocation.
Those companies that conducted more learning interventions than forecast cited the following reasons.
Table 7: Assessment of Comments from Stakeholder who experienced a Greater Number of Learning
Interventions
                                            Reason                                         Percentage of
                                                                                           Total Number
                                                                                           of Responses
         Additional Training Skills Need Identified                                                7.3%
         Budget review allowed additional staff/learning programmes to be included                 7.4%
         Change in Company Objectives                                                             27.4%
         Change in Main Business Activities                                                        3.3%
         Change in Technology                                                                     11.2%
         Change of training objectives/staff development requirements                              4.2%
         Economic Upswing                                                                          0.8%
         Incorrectly captured or omitted to capture learning programme in WSP                      0.5%
         Internal Restructuring                                                                    4.8%
         Learner(s) switched to other type of learning programme                                   2.6%
         Merger(s)                                                                                 0.1%
         New Contracts                                                                             5.6%
         Personal development programmes performed better than expected                            0.9%
         Staff Turnover/New/Additional Staff Employed                                             15.1%
         Time Constraints                                                                          4.7%
        Source: Isett Seta OGS
Some additional comments that were made include:
       Change in Company Objectives - Greater emphasis on quick transfer of skills to staff to accommodate
        company's growth through "internal" training.
       Downsizing. Therefore had to skill the people left to take on additional responsibilities.
       Economic Downswing therefore rather concentrated on In-house training which is cheaper.
       BBBEE skills development requirements.
       New SDF encouraged training through the Academy.
       Investors in People requirements.
Despite difficulties experienced by some companies to reach their WSP targets with regard to training
interventions, all-in-all some 40,000 additional training interventions more than originally forecast were
conducted, as indicated in the following table. The large companies (greater than 150 employees) were the
largest contributors to this outcome.
Table 8: Net Number of Training Interventions, by Size of Company
                                 Number of Training         Number of Training
                 Company         Interventions fewer       Interventions greater
                    Size            than planned               than planned               Net
                 Large                       -10,186                    48,494           38,308
                 Medium                       -2,858                      4,724           1,866
                 Small                        -2,035                      2,242             207
                 Total                       -15,079                    55,460           40,381
                  Source: Isett Seta OGS

2.2.3   Summary of Demand (Number of Interventions) for Training Programmes, 2005 – 2009
The following three figures show the demand for various training programmes over the period 2005 to 2009.
The data for the period 2005 to 2008 is based on actual training undertaken within the Isett Sector, whereas the

Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                        Page 21
2009 data is a forecast, based on stakeholder WSPs. Note also that Isett did not differentiate between Abet and
End-User Computing in 2005 and 2006.
Figure 14: Demand for Abet, End-User Computing, Bursaries and Skills Programmes in the Isett Sector,
2005 – 2009
  20,000
                                                                                 Abet
                                     17,823              17,660
  18,000                                                                         End User Computing
                                                                                 Bursaries
  16,000                                                                         Skills Programmes
                                                                                                          15,559

  14,000


  12,000
                                                                                 12,068
                       10,584
  10,000


   8,000
                                   6,828                 6,923
                                             6,781
   6,000                                                                                                  6,157
               5,249
                                                                                 5,897
                       5,082
   4,000
                                                           2,343                 2,413
                                                                                                          2,566
   2,000
                                                           637                    326
          0                                                                                               285
               2005 ATR            2006 ATR            2007 ATR              2008 ATR             2009 WSP
  Source: Isett Seta OGS
Figure 15: Demand for 18.1 and 18.2 Learnerships and Internships in the Isett Sector, 2005 - 2009
  2,000
                                           1,923                                                           1,909
  1,800


  1,600                                                                           1,529
                                     1,456
                                                         1,379                       1,438
  1,400
                                                            1,288                                          1,280
  1,200
              1,110
                                     1,025                                           1,039
                                                            1,095
  1,000
                   969
                                                                                                           842
   800
                                                            Internships
                       676
   600                                                      Learnerships, 18.1
                                                            Learnerships, 18.2

   400


   200


     0
              2005 ATR             2006 ATR           2007 ATR               2008 ATR                 2009 WSP
  Source: Isett Seta OGS




Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                           Page 22
Figure 16: Demand for Short Courses in the Isett Sector, 2005 - 2009
  140,000
                                                                                          128,795
  120,000
                                                           109,388
  100,000
                                          87,362                                                            90,496
   80,000
                66,954
   60,000
                                                                     Short Courses
   40,000

   20,000

        0
                 2005 ATR                 2006 ATR            2007 ATR               2008 ATR         2009 WSP
  Source: Isett Seta OGS
The following observations are noted from the above figures:
       The Isett Sector will have conducted an estimate of 9,502 learnerships by April 2009, representing an
        average of about 2,375 per year. The signatories to the Draft ICT Charter committed to 5% of
        employees (approximately 7,200) completing learnerships over the ten-year period 2006 to 2015. This
        implies an average of about 720 per year, which is a significantly lower requirement than the current
        average of 2,375.
       Isett has always maintained that End-User Computing is more appropriate to the Isett Sector than Abet.
        This is supported by the 2007 and 2008 data which shows that only about one Abet training programme
        is conducted for every seventeen End-User Computing training programmes.
       About 1,356 Internships per year have been conducted by Isett stakeholders.
       Short Courses and Skills Programmes are the preferred training programmes of Isett stakeholders.
        This is in line with the perspective that, as technology changes, companies need to assist employees to
        upgrade their skills in order to maintain their competitive edge.

2.2.4   Cost of Training Programmes
The following table presents an analysis of the cost of training programmes, drawn from the 2008 ATR data.
The top part of the table shows the percentage distribution of training programmes per cost bracket. The
bottom part of the table shows the mode, median and average of the costs per training programme, where:
       The mode is the cost that appeared most frequently among the costs stated by Isett stakeholders, per
        training programme.
       The median in the middle cost, with half the costs stated by stakeholders being above this amount, and
        half below.
       The average is the sum of all the costs divided by the number of costs presented.
Table 9: Costs of Training Programmes, 2008
                                               End User             Learnerships, Learnerships, Short      Skills
                         ABET       Bursaries Computing Internships     18.1          18.2      Courses Programmes
  R 0- R 1,000               36%            4%      53%        11%             3%           8%      28%          12%
  R 1,001- R 4,000           46%           20%      36%          6%            6%           4%      38%          35%
  R 4,001- R 6,000           10%           17%       6%          6%            5%           6%      12%          14%
  R 6,001- R 8,000            3%           10%       1%          1%            5%           1%       7%          11%
  R 8,001- R 10,000           5%            8%       1%          2%            2%           1%       4%           6%
  R 10,001- R 20,000          0%           23%       3%          8%           52%           8%       7%          13%
  R 20,001- R 50,000          0%           12%       1%        39%            13%          40%       4%           7%
  >R 50,000                   0%            4%       0%        27%            14%          31%       1%           1%
  Mode                    R 2,021     R 15,000     R 100   R 60,000       R 17,711        R 725 R 1,000      R 3,500
  Median                  R 2,021      R 7,989   R 1,000   R 38,252       R 17,711     R 35,550 R 2,540      R 4,611
  Average                 R 2,459     R 13,344   R 2,015   R 40,351       R 33,001     R 40,372 R 5,570      R 8,437
  Source: Isett Seta OGS




Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                            Page 23
2.2.5     Isett Stakeholder Number of Interventions in Training Programmes, by Size of Company, 2005 –
          2009
The following table shows the number of employees that Isett stakeholders trained over the period 2005 to
2008, with 2009 stated as a forecast based on WSP data. The table is segmented by size of company.
Table 10: Isett Stakeholder Number of Interventions in Training Programmes, by Size of Company, 2005
– 2009
          Size of Company          Type of Learning       2005 ATR      2006 ATR     2007 ATR     2008 ATR      2009 WSP
                                      Intervention
                              ABET                             4,417         6,269         586           257          238
    Large                     Bursaries                        3,511         8,418       1,997         2,033        2,131
                              End User Computing                                         6,178         5,001        4,588
                              Internships                        862         1,758         880         1,238        1,589
                              Learnerships, 18.1                 350           839         738           813          471
                              Learnerships, 18.2                 714           847       1,007         1,291        1,033
                              Short Courses                   60,084        81,040      96,499       113,971       77,102
                              Skills Programmes                3,988         4,724      14,847         9,453       11,630
    Large Total                                               73,926       103,895     122,732       134,057       98,782
                              ABET                               428           371          49            44           18
    Medium                    Bursaries                        2,521         3,486         299           288          315
                              End User Computing                                           560           584        1,224
                              Internships                         90           109         162           121          157
                              Learnerships, 18.1                 148            47         462           131          268
                              Learnerships, 18.2                 395           178          93           192          197
                              Short Courses                    6,323         5,860       7,488         9,559        7,733
                              Skills Programmes                1,161         2,002       2,040         1,724        2,699
    Medium Total                                              11,066        12,053      11,153        12,643       12,611
                              ABET                               237           188           2            25           29
    Small                     Bursaries                        4,552         5,919          47            92          120
                              End User Computing                                           185           312          345
                              Internships                         17            56          53            79          163
                              Learnerships, 18.1                 178           570          88            85          103
                              Learnerships, 18.2                   1                       279            46           50
                              Short Courses                      547           462       5,401         5,210        5,661
                              Skills Programmes                  100            55         773           887        1,228
    Small Total                                                5,632         7,250       6,828        6,736         7,699
    Grand Total                                               90,624       123,198     140,713      153,436       119,092
    % Large to Grand Total                                      82%           84%         87%          87%           83%
    % Medium to Grand Total                                     12%           10%          8%           8%           11%
    % Small to Grand Total                                       6%            6%          5%           4%            6%
        Source: Isett Seta OGS
As will be observed from the table above, the vast majority of learning interventions are conducted by the large
companies.

2.2.6     Isett Stakeholder Number of Interventions in Training Programmes, by Gender, 2005 – 2009
The following table shows the number of employees that Isett stakeholders trained over the period 2005 to
2008, with 2009 stated as a forecast based on WSP data. The table is segmented by size of company, type of
learning programme and gender.
Table 11: Isett Stakeholder Number of Interventions in Training Programmes, by Gender, 2005 – 2009
     Company Size      Training Programme        Gender     2005 ATR     2006 ATR     2007 ATR      2008 ATR      2009 WSP
   Large               ABET                     Male            2,236        3,671          457            92             85
                                                Female          2,181        2,598          129           165            153
                       Bursaries                Male            2,010        5,287        1,108         1,090          1,248
                                                Female          1,501        3,131          889           943            883
                       End User Computing       Male                                      4,735         2,965          2,767
                                                Female                                    1,443         2,036          1,821
                       Internships              Male              508        1,007          503           642            786
                                                Female            354          751          377           596            803
                       Learnerships, 18.1       Male              193          560          429           490            249
                                                Female            157          279          309           323            222
                       Learnerships, 18.2       Male              358          399          523           560            553
                                                Female            356          448          484           731            480
                       Short Courses            Male           40,362       54,054       63,551        71,489         50,785
                                                Female         19,722       26,986       32,948        42,482         26,317
                       Skills Programmes        Male            2,535        3,077       10,141         5,910          6,854
                                                Female          1,453        1,647        4,706         3,543          4,776
   Large Male                                                  48,202       68,055       81,447        83,238         63,327
   Large Female                                                25,724       35,840       41,285        50,819         35,455



Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                                    Page 24
    Company Size     Training Programme    Gender   2005 ATR    2006 ATR    2007 ATR    2008 ATR    2009 WSP
   Medium            ABET                 Male            230         184          23          30            9
                                          Female          198         187          26          14            9
                     Bursaries            Male          1,654       2,341         146         159          185
                                          Female          867       1,145         153         129          130
                     End User Computing   Male                                    250         298          698
                                          Female                                  310         286          526
                     Internships          Male             61          70         115          88          103
                                          Female           29          39          47          33           54
                     Learnerships, 18.1   Male             73          29         262          95          171
                                          Female           75          18         200          36           97
                     Learnerships, 18.2   Male            239         103          56         108           91
                                          Female          156          75          37          84          106
                     Short Courses        Male          3,916       3,838       4,882       6,287        5,065
                                          Female        2,407       2,022       2,606       3,272        2,668
                     Skills Programmes    Male            761       1,322       1,260       1,200        1,826
                                          Female          400         680         780         524          873
   Medium Male                                          6,934       7,887       6,994       8,265        8,148
   Medium Female                                        4,132       4,166       4,159       4,378        4,463
   Small             ABET                 Male            116         108           0           4           14
                                          Female          121          80           2          21           15
                     Bursaries            Male          3,155       4,182          33          80           92
                                          Female        1,397       1,737          14          12           28
                     End User Computing   Male                                     89         128          175
                                          Female                                   96         184          170
                     Internships          Male             12         41           31          50          102
                                          Female            5         15           22          29           61
                     Learnerships, 18.1   Male            103        285           48          49           71
                                          Female           75        285           40          36           32
                     Learnerships, 18.2   Male              1                     124          24           25
                                          Female            0                     155          22           25
                     Short Courses        Male            295         288       3,465       3,380        3,772
                                          Female          252         174       1,936       1,830        1,889
                     Skills Programmes    Male             51          42         565         604          848
                                          Female           49          13         208         283          380
   Small Male                                           3,733       4,946       4,355       4,319        5,099
   Small Female                                         1,899       2,304       2,473       2,417        2,600
   Total             ABET                 Male          2,582       3,963         480         126          108
                                          Female        2,500       2,865         157         200          177
                     Bursaries            Male          6,819      11,810       1,287       1,329        1,525
                                          Female        3,765       6,013       1,056       1,084        1,041
                     End User Computing   Male              0           0       5,074       3,391        3,640
                                          Female            0           0       1,849       2,506        2,517
                     Internships          Male            581       1,118         649         780          991
                                          Female          388         805         446         658          918
                     Learnerships, 18.1   Male            369         874         739         634          491
                                          Female          307         582         549         395          351
                     Learnerships, 18.2   Male            598         502         703         692          669
                                          Female          512         523         676         837          611
                     Short Courses        Male         44,573      58,180      71,898      81,156       59,622
                                          Female       22,381      29,182      37,490      47,584       30,874
                     Skills Programmes    Male          3,347       4,441      11,966       7,714        9,528
                                          Female        1,902       2,340       5,694       4,350        6,029
   Total Male                                          58,869      80,888      92,796      95,822       76,574
   Total Female                                        31,755      42,310      47,917      57,614       42,518
  Source: Isett Seta OGS
Generally, there is more training being conducted amongst males than females, with the ratio female to total at
around 36% for 2009. This is close to the 35% of women in the sector, which implies that there is no real
preference towards improving the skills of employed women.

2.2.7   Isett Stakeholder Number of Interventions in Training Programmes, by Race, 2005 – 2009
The following table shows the number of employees that Isett stakeholders trained over the period 2005 to
2008, with 2009 stated as a forecast based on WSP data. The table is segmented by size of company, type of
learning programme and race.




Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                      Page 25
Table 12: Isett Stakeholder Number of Interventions in Training Programmes, by Race, 2005 – 2009
      Company Size     Training Programme    Gender    2005 ATR    2006 ATR    2007 ATR    2008 ATR    2009 WSP
  Large                ABET                 African        1,926       1,334         184         228          228
                                            Coloured         982         568          16          10            7
                                            Indian           795       1,552         328           2            1
                                            White            714       2,815          58          17            2
                       Bursaries            African        1,513       3,166         997       1,014        1,035
                                            Coloured         501         868         300         349          337
                                            Indian           436         947         255         250          316
                                            White          1,061       3,437         445         420          443
                       End User Computing   African                                2,377       2,005        1,906
                                            Coloured                                 705         618          655
                                            Indian                                   982         575          669
                                            White                                  2,114       1,803        1,358
                       Internships          African          660       1,477         668       1,063        1,305
                                            Coloured          33          63          45          44           96
                                            Indian            79         118          84          75          101
                                            White             90         100          83          56           87
                       Learnerships, 18.1   African          161         374         451         508          279
                                            Coloured          46         182         131         121           56
                                            Indian            28          67          65          63           70
                                            White            115         216          91         121           66
                       Learnerships, 18.2   African          624         722         816       1,144          689
                                            Coloured          49          83         127          73          117
                                            Indian            28          32          35          36           76
                                            White             13          10          29          38          151
                       Short Courses        African       18,618      26,920      35,123      40,400       26,008
                                            Coloured       8,294      12,136      14,174      21,552       12,759
                                            Indian         6,975       9,311      10,927      12,032        8,575
                                            White         26,197      32,673      36,275      39,987       29,760
                       Skills Programmes    African          995       1,092       4,066       3,116        3,950
                                            Coloured         420         561       2,313       1,255        1,636
                                            Indian           570         573       2,143       1,316        1,516
                                            White          2,003       2,498       6,325       3,766        4,528
  Large African                                           24,497      35,085      44,682      49,478       35,400
  Large Coloured                                          10,325      14,461      17,811      24,022       15,663
  Large Indian                                             8,911      12,600      14,819      14,349       11,324
  Large White                                             30,193      41,749      45,420      46,208       36,395
  Medium               ABET                 African          104         141          14          33           18
                                            Coloured          59          43           8           4            0
                                            Indian            54          37           0           0            0
                                            White            211         150          27           7            0
                       Bursaries            African          572         693         200         182          175
                                            Coloured         262         362          14          17           20
                                            Indian           122         242          13          16           22
                                            White          1,565       2,189          72          73           98
                       End User Computing   African                                  197         163          246
                                            Coloured                                  51          80           84
                                            Indian                                    66          72          104
                                            White                                    246         269          790
                       Internships          African           71          75         132          97          117
                                            Coloured           1           3           1           6           10
                                            Indian             4          14           8           4           11
                                            White             14          17          21          14           19
                       Learnerships, 18.1   African          118          27         250          47          111
                                            Coloured          23           9          47           9           23
                                            Indian             3           2          15           6           14
                                            White              4           9         150          69          120
                       Learnerships, 18.2   African          322         167          59         160          173
                                            Coloured          41           4          10          30           12
                                            Indian            31           2           9           2           10
                                            White              1           5          15           0            2
                       Short Courses        African        1,135       1,097       1,621       2,281        1,862
                                            Coloured         675         566         697         976          810
                                            Indian           619         659         695         878          777
                                            White          3,894       3,538       4,475       5,424        4,284
                       Skills Programmes    African          298         469         521         392          829
                                            Coloured         105         162         248         226          205
                                            Indian           166         237         217         191          274
                                            White            592       1,134       1,054         915        1,391
  Medium African                                           2,620       2,669       2,994       3,355        3,531
  Medium Coloured                                          1,166       1,149       1,076       1,348        1,164
  Medium Indian                                              999       1,193       1,023       1,169        1,212
  Medium White                                             6,281       7,042       6,060       6,771        6,704



Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                         Page 26
     Company Size      Training Programme    Gender    2005 ATR    2006 ATR    2007 ATR    2008 ATR    2009 WSP
  Small                ABET                 African           51          55           1          24           21
                                            Coloured          15          13           1           0            2
                                            Indian            19          20           0           0            0
                                            White            152         100           0           1            6
                       Bursaries            African          839       1,150          17          56           70
                                            Coloured         227         404           5           5           10
                                            Indian           374         438           5           4            4
                                            White          3,112       3,927          20          27           36
                       End User Computing   African                                   47         167          118
                                            Coloured                                  12          10           17
                                            Indian                                    22          19           43
                                            White                                    104         116          167
                       Internships          African           13         32           43          54          114
                                            Coloured           0          4            1           7           21
                                            Indian             1          4            2           6            8
                                            White              3         16            7          12           20
                       Learnerships, 18.1   African          159        433           59          48           37
                                            Coloured           3         55            3           8            5
                                            Indian             2         42            0           5            9
                                            White             14         40           26          24           52
                       Learnerships, 18.2   African            1                     273          38           36
                                            Coloured           0                       1           3            2
                                            Indian             0                       2           5           11
                                            White              0                       3           0            1
                       Short Courses        African           59          98       1,040       1,063        1,277
                                            Coloured          41          33         371         364          403
                                            Indian            37          38         450         385          477
                                            White            410         293       3,540       3,398        3,504
                       Skills Programmes    African           13           2         163         188          317
                                            Coloured           6           2          35          70           94
                                            Indian             4           2          67          48           86
                                            White             77          49         508         581          731
  Small African                                            1,135       1,770       1,643       1,638        1,990
  Small Coloured                                             292         511         429         467          554
  Small Indian                                               437         544         548         472          638
  Small White                                              3,768       4,425       4,208       4,159        4,517




Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                         Page 27
      Company Size           Training Programme        Gender      2005 ATR        2006 ATR    2007 ATR      2008 ATR      2009 WSP
  Total                      ABET                     African         28,252          39,524      49,319        54,471         40,921
                                                      Coloured        11,783          16,121      19,316        25,837         17,381
                                                      Indian          10,347          14,337      16,390        15,990         13,174
                                                      White           40,242          53,216      55,688        57,138         47,616
                             Bursaries                African          2,081           1,530         199           285            267
                                                      Coloured         1,056             624          25            14              9
                                                      Indian             868           1,609         328             2              1
                                                      White            1,077           3,065          85            25              8
                             End User Computing       African          2,924           5,009       1,214         1,252          1,280
                                                      Coloured           990           1,634         319           371            367
                                                      Indian             932           1,627         273           270            342
                                                      White            5,738           9,553         537           520            577
                             Internships              African              0               0       2,621         2,335          2,270
                                                      Coloured             0               0         768           708            756
                                                      Indian               0               0       1,070           666            816
                                                      White                0               0       2,464         2,188          2,315
                             Learnerships, 18.1       African            744           1,584         843         1,214          1,536
                                                      Coloured            34              70          47            57            127
                                                      Indian              84             136          94            85            120
                                                      White              107             133         111            82            126
                             Learnerships, 18.2       African            438             834         760           603            427
                                                      Coloured            72             246         181           138             84
                                                      Indian              33             111          80            74             93
                                                      White              133             265         267           214            238
                             Short Courses            African            947             889       1,148         1,342            898
                                                      Coloured            90              87         138           106            131
                                                      Indian              59              34          46            43             97
                                                      White               14              15          47            38            154
                             Skills Programmes        African         19,812          28,115      37,784        43,744         29,147
                                                      Coloured         9,010          12,735      15,242        22,892         13,972
                                                      Indian           7,631          10,008      12,072        13,295          9,829
                                                      White           30,501          36,504      44,290        48,809         37,548
  Total African                                                        1,306           1,563       4,750         3,696          5,096
  Total Coloured                                                         531             725       2,596         1,551          1,935
  Total Indian                                                           740             812       2,427         1,555          1,876
  Total White                                                          2,672           3,681       7,887         5,262          6,650
                                                                      28,252          39,524      49,319        54,471         40,921
                                                                      11,783          16,121      19,316        25,837         17,381
                                                                      10,347          14,337      16,390        15,990         13,174
                                                                      40,242          53,216      55,688        57,138         47,616
  Source: Isett Seta OGS
Generally, there is more training being conducted amongst blacks than whites, with the ratio black to total at
around 60% for 2009, up from 51% in 2008.

2.2.8    Demand for Training Programmes (Number of Interventions ) by Sub-Major, 2009
Table 13: Demand (Number of Interventions ) for Training Programmes by Sub-Major, 2009
             Sub-Major                ABET       Bursaries   End    Intern-        Learner- Learner- Short     Skills            Grand
                                                             User    ships          ships,   ships, Courses Programmes           Total
                                                            Compu-                   18.1     18.2
                                                             ting
 11 Chief Executives, General                           133     163                     43                 1,730          517     2,586
 Managers and Legislators
 13 Specialist Managers                                 320       507          1        50                 7,968         1,469   10,315
 14 Events, Hospitality, Retail and                      15        27                             2          492           113      649
 Service Managers
 21 Arts and Media Professionals                          1         1                                         46             5       53
 22 Business, Human Resource,                5          191       703     209           90        6        5,035         2,124    8,363
 Marketing and Communication
 Management Professionals
 23 Design, Engineering, Science                        271       117     111           43                 1,575          504     2,621
 and Transport Professionals
 24 Education Professionals                               1                             10                172               23      206
 25 Health Professionals                                  4         10                                     68               11       93
 26 ICT Professionals                        1          343      1,015    407          142      294    17,820            3,750   23,772
 27 Legal, Social and Welfare                             3                 9                              37                6       55
 Professionals
 31 Engineering, ICT and Science             9          243      1,433    564          219      553        6,980         2,407   12,408
 Technicians
 32 Automotive and Engineering                           29                    2                  2          57            24       114
 Technicians and Trades Workers
 33 Construction Trades Workers                                     3                   20                   28             5        56



Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                                            Page 28
             Sub-Major                 ABET   Bursaries   End     Intern- Learner- Learner-  Short    Skills     Grand
                                                          User     ships   ships,   ships, Courses Programmes Total
                                                         Compu-             18.1     18.2
                                                          ting
 34 Electrotechnology and                 5          282       91       98       14       57  22,393         616 23,556
 Telecommunications Trades
 Workers
 35 Food Trades Workers                                                  2                                             2
 36 Animal Attendants and Trainers                                                               1                     1
 39 Other Technicians and Trades                                 7                              39           5        51
 Workers
 41 Health and Welfare Support                                                                   2           2        4
 Workers
 42 Carers and Aides                                      1                                                            1
 43 Hospitality Workers                                          4                               1           8        13
 44 Protective Service Workers            2               3              3      2               42           1        53
 45 Sports and Personal Service                                                                  1                     1
 Workers
 51 Office and Program                    1          281       415      62     19      69     9,537        857   11,241
 Administrators
 52 Personal Assistants and                           18       121       6      2              442         284      873
 Secretaries
 53 General Clerical Workers             53          188       278     229     14      23       946        304    2,035
 54 Inquiry Clerks and Receptionists     20           52       284      21     42     142     5,317        534    6,412
 55 Numerical Clerks                                  36       190       8     11               767        155    1,167
 56 Clerical and Office Support           7            7        29             20       1       308         76      448
 Workers
 59 Other Administrative Workers         20           34       163      15     11      12     1,610        291    2,156
 61 Sales Representatives and             1           57       137      28     23       3     4,268        655    5,172
 Agents
 62 Sales Assistants and                                  4    185      23      7       1      885         284    1,389
 Salespersons
 63 Sales Support Workers                              8        76      64     20      60      490         274      992
 71 Machine and Stationary Plant                      12        40              5              205          90      352
 Operators
 72 Mobile Plant Operators                1           10         3                               3           2       19
 73 Road and Rail Drivers                 1                     15              3              114          28      161
 74 Store Persons                         8               2     51              1      10      225          40      337
 81 Cleaners                             60               1     18              2       1      121          27      230
 82 Construction and Mining                                                                     32           4       36
 Workers
 83 Factory Process Workers              13               4     58             28       7      436          44      590
 84 Farm, Forestry and Garden             2                                                                           2
 Workers
 85 Food Preparation Assistants          64                       6       6                      27           1     104
 89 Other Elementary Workers             12           12          7      41     1       37      276          19     405
 Grand Total                            285        2,566      6,157   1,909   842    1,280   90,496      15,559 119,094
  Source: Isett Seta OGS




Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                              Page 29
3 CHAPTER 3: SUPPLY OF SKILLS

3.1 Introduction
This chapter focuses on the supply of ICT skills and qualifications into the South African economy, and reviews
the availability of skills in South Africa. The data presented in this chapter is largely drawn from the SAQA
publication ―Trends in the Public Higher Education in South Africa, 1995 to 2004‖, ISBN 978-0-9802638-1-7,
date of publication: March 2007.

3.2 Graduation Trends
The concept ―graduation trends” refers to the number of qualifications conferred within a specific academic year,
irrespective of the previous qualifications attained by the learners. Learners who had achieved more than one
qualification in the period reflected in the statistics were counted each time they achieved a new qualification.
There are two main skill areas of skills supply into the ICT Sector. The one relates to electrical and electronic
engineers, and the other relates to computer science and information technology qualifications. Although the
electrical engineering qualification is not included within the definition of ICT, due to a lack of further sub-
segmentation, the electrical engineering qualification will be included as part of ICT in this chapter. Electrical
and electronic engineering, computer science and information technology qualifications will therefore be referred
to as ICT qualifications.
The following table presents the number of electrical and electronic engineering qualifications conferred on
graduates in each year from 1995 to 2004.
Table 14: Graduation, Engineering-Electrical and Electronic by Qualification
 Qualification                                       1995   1996   1997   1998   1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004
 National Diploma - Level 6                           931    888    760    840    711    554    720    887    944   1033
 First Degree - Level 6                                 1      0      1      2     22     11     10      7      7     13
 National Higher/Post Graduate Diploma - Level 7      318    124     51     22     50     55     33     35      8     10
 First Degree (including B Tech) - Level 7            494    414    421    615    477    502    481    578    635    626
 Honours Degree - Level 7                              29     22     19     20     23     30     29     32     39     63
 Master's Degree/Diploma - Level 8                     89     70    106    101     97     85     81    114    152    149
 Doctoral Degree/Laureatus Diploma - Above Level 8     23     12     11     11     13     13     14      9     14     11
 Total                                               1885   1530   1369   1611   1393   1250   1368   1662   1799   1905
                Source: Trends in the Public Higher Education in South Africa, 1995 to 2004, SAQA
The following table presents the number of computer science and information technology qualifications
conferred on graduates in each year from 1995 to 2004.
Table 15: Graduation, Computer Science and Information Technology by Qualification
 Qualification                                       1995   1996   1997   1998   1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004
 National Diploma - Level 6                           597    643    811    773    740    845   1066   1295   1382   1509
 First Degree - Level 6                               125    184    214    278    313    394    664    783    766    658
 National Higher/Post Graduate Diploma - Level 7       60     34     20     20     25     32     44     40     62     17
 First Degree (including B Tech) - Level 7             22     36     71     91     80    103    157    279    349    534
 Honours Degree - Level 7                             109    122    154    193    169    164    196    254    203    213
 Master's Degree/Diploma - Level 8                     41     25     30     35     33     30     60     67    101     77
 Doctoral Degree/Laureatus Diploma - Above Level 8      4      3      9      6     10      4      8      3      5      8
 Total                                                958   1047   1309   1396   1370   1572   2195   2721   2868   3016
                Source: Trends in the Public Higher Education in South Africa, 1995 to 2004, SAQA
The following table presents the sum of the number of electrical and electronic engineering, computer science
and information technology qualifications conferred on graduates in each year from 1995 to 2004.
Table 16: Graduation, Engineering-Electrical and Electronic, Computer Science and Information
Technology by Qualification
 Qualification                                       1995   1996   1997   1998   1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004
 National Diploma - Level 6                          1528   1531   1571   1613   1451   1399   1786   2182   2326   2542
 First Degree - Level 6                               126    184    215    280    335    405    674    790    773    671
 National Higher/Post Graduate Diploma - Level 7      378    158     71     42     75     87     77     75     70     27
 First Degree (including B Tech) - Level 7            516    450    492    706    557    605    638    857    984   1160
 Honours Degree - Level 7                             138    144    173    213    192    194    225    286    242    276
 Master's Degree/Diploma - Level 8                    130     95    136    136    130    115    141    181    253    226
 Doctoral Degree/Laureatus Diploma - Above Level 8     27     15     20     17     23     17     22     12     19     19
 Total                                               2843   2577   2678   3007   2763   2822   3563   4383   4667   4921
                Source: Trends in the Public Higher Education in South Africa, 1995 to 2004, SAQA
The following table presents the sum of the number of electrical and electronic engineering, computer science
and information technology qualifications conferred on graduates in each year from 1995 to 2004.

Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                                  Page 30
Table 17: Graduation, ICT Qualifications by Race and Gender
               Gender              1995     1996    1997   1998     1999     2000    2001     2002   2003     2004
               Female - African      47      123     150    239      234      251     386      594    791      859
               Male - African       232      442     418    640      612      591     770     1167   1348     1445
               Total - African      279      565     568    879      846      842    1156     1761   2139     2304
               Female - Coloured     17       41      28     42       52       61      87       76     78       77
               Male - Coloured       95      130     121    112      137      149     188      212    224      233
               Total - Coloured     112      171     149    154      189      210     275      288    302      310
               Female - Indian       63       49      64     58       85       81     114      153    134      152
               Male - Indian        176      172     193    187      197      215     283      376    364      387
               Total - Indian       239      221     257    245      282      296     397      529    498      539
               Female - White       287      228     247    251      226      251     301      331    294      264
               Male - White        1918     1389    1447   1472     1213     1223    1434     1473   1434     1502
               Total - White       2205     1617    1694   1723     1439     1474    1735     1804   1728     1766
               Female - Unknown       1        0       0      1        2        0       0        0      0        0
               Male - Unknown         7        3      10      7        5        0       0        1      0        2
               Total - Unknown        8        3      10      8        7        0       0        1      0        2
               Female - Total       415      441     489    591      599      644     888     1154   1297     1352
               Male - Total        2428     2136    2189   2418     2164     2178    2675     3229   3370     3659
               Total               2843     2577    2678   3009     2763     2822    3563     4383   4667     4921
              Source: Trends in the Public Higher Education in South Africa, 1995 to 2004, SAQA
The following figure presents the ICT qualifications conferred on graduates in each year from 1995 to 2004, by
race. This figure shows that the number of white graduates since 1996 has remained relatively steady. Indian
and Coloured graduates have grown over this period, at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 11.8%
and 7.7% respectively. In contrast, the number of African graduates has increased dramatically since 1996,
showing a CAGR of 19.2%.
Figure 17: Graduation, ICT Qualifications by Race

                2500

                                                                  African
                                                                  Coloured
                                                                  Indian
                2000
                                                                  White



                1500




                1000




                 500




                   0
                       1995    1996       1997     1998    1999      2000     2001     2002      2003       2004


              Source: Trends in the Public Higher Education in South Africa, 1995 to 2004, SAQA
Figure 18 below presents a comparison of the number of ICT graduates to the full complement (all fields) of
graduates nationally. The 1995 to 2004 data has been normalised against its value in 1995, and therefore
provides an indication of growth in numbers relative to what its value was in 1995.




Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                                       Page 31
Figure 18: Graduation, Relative Growth in Race of Graduates

                                           9


                                           8                 African, All Fields
                                                             African, ICT
                                           7                 Coloured, All Fields
                Ratio of Year(n) to 1995                     Coloured, ICT
                                           6                 Indian, All Fields
                                                             Indian, ICT
                                           5                 White, All Fields
                                                             White, ICT
                                           4


                                           3


                                           2


                                           1


                                           0
                                                   1995   1996    1997      1998     1999     2000     2001      2002      2003          2004


              Source: Trends in the Public Higher Education in South Africa, 1995 to 2004, SAQA
From this figure above, it can be seen that the numbers of African ICT graduates has grown dramatically in
relation to African graduates across all fields, implying that Africans are viewing ICT as an attractive career
choice.
Similarly, the picture on gender, presented in the figure below, shows that female ICT graduates also view the
ICT Sector as being attractive. Female ICT graduates experienced a CAGR of 15.0% over the period 1996 to
2004, whereas male ICT graduates experienced a CAGR of 7.0%. The ratio of female to male ICT graduates in
2004 was however 1:2.7.
Figure 19: Graduation, ICT Qualifications by Gender

                          4000


                          3500
                                                                      Female
                                                                      Male
                          3000


                          2500


                          2000


                          1500


                          1000


                                           500


                                               0
                                                   1995   1996    1997     1998     1999    2000     2001     2002      2003      2004


              Source: Trends in the Public Higher Education in South Africa, 1995 to 2004, SAQA
Figure 20 below presents a comparison of the number of ICT graduates to the full complement (all fields) of
graduates nationally. The 1995 to 2004 data has been normalised against its value in 1995, and therefore
provides an indication of growth in numbers relative to what its value was in 1995.




Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                                                                  Page 32
Figure 20: Graduation, Relative Growth in Gender of ICT Graduates

                                              3.5


                                               3
                                                                              Female, All Fields
                                                                              Female, ICT
                                              2.5

                   Ratio of Year(n) to 1995
                                                                              Male, All Fields
                                                                              Male, ICT
                                               2


                                              1.5


                                               1


                                              0.5


                                               0
                                                      1995     1996       1997      1998     1999     2000     2001      2002      2003      2004


              Source: Trends in the Public Higher Education in South Africa, 1995 to 2004, SAQA
The figure above shows that the numbers of female ICT graduates has grown dramatically in relation to female
graduates across all fields, implying that females are viewing ICT as an attractive career choice.
The following table presents the number of ICT qualifications by NQF level across the period 1995 to 2004.
Table 18: Graduation, ICT Qualifications by NQF Level,
             NQF Level                                       1995      1996      1997      1998     1999     2000     2001      2002      2003   2004
             Level 6                                         1654      1715      1786      1893     1786     1804     2460      2972      3099   3213
             Level 7                                         1032       752       736       961      824      886      940      1218      1296   1463
             Level 8 and above                                157       110       156       153      153      132      163       193       272    245
             Total                                           2843      2577      2678      3007     2763     2822     3563      4383      4667   4921
              Source: Trends in the Public Higher Education in South Africa, 1995 to 2004, SAQA
Using the above data, Figure 21 below presents a comparison of the number of ICT graduates to the full
complement (all fields) of graduates nationally, by NQF level. The 1995 to 2004 data has been normalised
against its value in 1995, and therefore provides an indication of growth in numbers relative to what its value
was in 1995.
Figure 21: Graduation, Relative Growth in NQF Level of ICT Graduates

                                2
                                                                    Level 6, All Fields
                                                                    Level 6, ICT
                   1.8                                              Level 7, All Fields
                                                                    Level 7, ICT
                                                                    Level 8 and above, All Fields
                   1.6
                                                                    Level 8 and above, ICT


                   1.4


                   1.2


                                1


                   0.8


                   0.6
                                                    1995     1996      1997      1998       1999     2000      2001     2002      2003       2004


                   Source: Trends in the Public Higher Education in South Africa, 1995 to 2004, SAQA
A number of observations can be made from the table above:
                  Level 6 qualifications in ICT have been growing at a faster rate (CAGR = 8.2%, 1996 to
                   2004) when compared to all other level 6 qualifications (1.6%).


Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                                                                          Page 33
                  Level 7 qualifications in ICT have also been growing at a faster rate (CAGR = 8.7%, 1996 to
                   2004) when compared to all other level 7 qualifications (5.7%).
                  The CAGRs at level 8 and above are similar, with the CAGR of the ICT qualifications being
                   10.5%, against that of ―All Field‖ qualifications being 9.5%. It should be noted though that
                   the number of ICT graduates at this level took a dive in 2004, a point of concern for the
                   sector.

3.3 Isett’s Contribution to Demand for Skills
                                                                                                      st
The following tables summarise Isett‘s contribution to demand for skills, for the period April 2005 to 31 March
2009.
                NSDS TARGET 2.7 (Employed)
                Actual number of workers who have entered ABET Level 4              6,716
                No. of workers that have achieved ABET Level 4                      4,404

                NSDS Target 2.8 (Employed)
                Total no of workers that have entered learning programmes           3.017
                Total no of workers that have completed learning programmes         2,145


                                      Learnership 4.1 (Unemployed)
                                  Year        Entered Completed           Placed
                            2005-2006          1,994       6,219           2,573
                            2006-2007          1,514       1,304             627
                            2007-2008          1,404       1,008             673
                            2008-2009          1,447       1,097             767
                            Total              6,359       9,628           4,640

                                         Internship 4.2 (Unemployed)
                            Year                Entered Completed         Placed
                            2006-2007             1,363       1,238         212
                            2007-2008             1,187         301         286
                            2008-2009               381         248         222
                            Total                 2,931       1,787         720




Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                     Page 34
4 CHAPTER 4: SCARCE AND CRITICAL SKILLS

4.1 Introduction
The current and forecast supply of skills was discussed in detail in Chapter 3 and the demand for skills by
industry was presented in Chapter 2. This Chapter is based on the requirements for Scarce and Critical Skills.
The following definitions of Scarce and Critical Skills apply:
SCARCE SKILLS refer to those occupations in which there are a scarcity of qualified and experienced people,
currently or anticipated in the future, either (a) because such skilled people are not available or (b) they are
available but do not meet employment criteria.
CRITICAL SKILLS, on the other hand, refer to specific key or generic and ―top up‖ skills within an occupation.
A more detailed description of Scarce and Critical Skills is presented in Appendix C: Description of the OFO and
Scarce and Critical Skills.
This chapter is split into two main areas, involving differentiation between Scarce Skills and Critical Skills, the
former relating to opportunities for recruitment, and the later relating to further upskilling of personnel in current
existing occupations.
The data presented in this chapter represents a summary of data gathered from WSPs submitted to the Isett
Seta during April to June 2009.
Note that the findings presented below relate only to those 865 companies that submitted WSPs in 2009, as
opposed to the 2,428 companies in the Isett Sector. It should also be noted that these 865 companies
represent around 122,000 out of the 142,000 employees (86%) in the Isett Sector. For this reason, the data
presented below should be viewed as being slightly conservative.
Unless otherwise stated, all data in this chapter represents number of interventions.
In this chapter, three time frames are presented, these being:
                          Immediate – these are immediate vacancies as at end – March 2009
                      
                                                            st               st
                           Anticipated need for the period 1 April 2009 to 31 March 2010
                      
                                                            st               st
                           Anticipated need for the period 1 April 2010 to 31 March 2011
                      
                                                            st               st
                           Anticipated need for the period 1 April 2011 to 31 March 2012

4.2 Isett Involvement in Types of Training Programmes by NQF Level
In terms of skills development, Isett‘s responsibilities cover the certain training programmes and certain NQF
levels, as defined by the Department of Labour. The following table defines the various training programmes.
Table 19: Types of Training Programmes
   Learning Programme    Abbre-                           Description                              Learning Site
           Types         viation
Generic Diplomas,          Ed    Theoretical knowledge provided by an institutional          Classroom based
Degrees, Certificates            provider
Technical Qualifications   TQ General theoretical knowledge provided by an                   Mainly classroom based but
and Technical Programmes   TP    institutional provider and experiential learning with an    includes simulation and may
                                 employer or simulated environment                           include workplace learning
Internship                  I    A workplace or practical component is required in           A compulsory or statutory
Articles                    A    addition to a general theoretical knowledge based           workplace component of a
Licensing Requirements      L    qualification (institutional provider) in order to obtain   qualification
                                 registration as a professional or licensed to practise
Learnerships               Ls    An occupationally directed programme resulting in a         Mainly workplace based but
Apprenticeships (Section   Ap    registered qualification and that requires an agreement     includes classroom learning
13)                              and/or contract
Skills Programmes          SP An occupationally directed programme, registered by a          Workplace and classroom
                                 SETA, which is presented by an accredited provider and
                                 when completed will constitute a credit towards an NQF
                                 registered qualification
Short Courses and          SC Any learning or development programme that may or              Classroom or simulated or
Continuing Professional   CPD may not lead to credits towards an NQF registered              classroom and simulated
Development                      qualification
Work experience for        WE Work experience provided by a workplace for                    Workplace only
unemployed graduates (in         unemployed graduates (in scarce skills)
scarce skills)


Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                                Page 35
In order to better distinguish between Skills Programmes and Short Courses, it should be noted that Isett views
Short Courses as training programmes that may lead to credits but have no workplace component, whereas
Skills Programmes do lead to credits and have a workplace component.
The various NQF Levels that Isett is involved with, segmented by the various training programmes, is presented
in the following table.
Table 20: Types of Training Programmes by NQF Level
                                                                                       NQF Level
                                                                             1    2   3 4 5 6         7     8
          Ap - Apprenticeships (Section 28) NON RPL                                   √ √ √ √         √     √
          CPD - Continuing Professional Development                                      √ √
          Ed - Generic, Diplomas, Degrees, Certificates
          I - Internship                                                                  √   √   √   √     √
          L - Licensing Requirements                                                  √   √   √   √   √     √
          Ls - Learnerships                                                           √   √   √   √   √
          SC - Short Courses                                                          √   √   √   √   √     √
          SP - Skills Programmes                                                  √   √   √   √   √   √     √
          TP - Technical Programmes                                                   √   √   √   √   √
          TQ - Technical Qualifications                                               √   √   √   √   √
          WE - Work Experience for unemployed graduates (in scarce skills)                √   √   √   √     √
Isett has the following registered Learnerships:
 No                          Learnership Title                       NQF     SAQA ID       DoL Registration
                                                                     Level                       No.
  1       Systems Development (Commerce Development)                   5         48872    12 Q12002525131 5
  2       Systems Development (Fourth Generation Language              5         48872    12 Q12002424131 5
          Programming)
  3       GUI-Based Applications for End-User Computing               3          61591    12 Q12002040130 3
  4       Masters in Information Engineering                          7          49530    12 Q12001800180 7
  5       Systems Development (Multi-Media Development)               5          48872    12 Q12002228131 5
  6       Systems Development                                         5          48872    12 Q12002624131 5
          (Object Oriented Programming)
   7      Systems Development (Procedural Programming)                5          48872    12 Q12002124131 5
   8      Solutions Development / Programming                         5          48872    12 Q12001500120 5
   9      Systems Development                                         4          24294    12 Q00001737181 4
  10      Systems Support (Desktop)                                   5          48573    12 Q12001400120 5
  11      Systems Support Engineer                                    5          48573    12 Q12001100120 5
  12      Technical Support                                           4          24293    12 Q00001645175 4
  13      Telecommunications Practitioner                             4                   12 Q12001200135 4
  14      Telecommunication Network Operations                        4          59057    12 Q12002758132 4
  15      Website Development                                         5          48872    12 Q12002325131 5
  16      Diploma :Technology Management and Innovation               6          59450    12 Q12002800240 6
  17      Certificate :Technology Management and Innovation           5          59449    12 Q12002900120 5
  18      Master of Philosophy: Management of Technology and          8          59469    12 Q12003000240 8
          Innovation (MOTI)
  19      Doctor of Philosophy :Management of Technology and          8          59489    12 Q12003100240 8
          Innovation (MOTI)
  20      National Certificate: Business Analysis                     6          63909            Pending
  21      National Certificate: Business Analysis Support Practice    5          63769            Pending
The training programmes reflected in the table above can be reduced by treating:
          Continuing Professional Development as Short Courses (non-unit standard);
          Licensing Requirements as Apprenticeships;
          Technical Programmes and Technical Qualifications as Learnerships; and
          Work Experience as Internships.




Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                            Page 36
4.3 Demand for Scarce Skills
4.3.1   Introduction
Scarce skills represent a demand for personnel currently unavailable for occupations in companies. Scarce
skills therefore represent opportunities for unemployed people.

4.3.2   Demand for Scarce Skills, by Learning Programmes and NQF Level
The following table summarises the demand for scarce skills, segmented by type of learning programme.
Table 21: Summary of Demand for Scarce Skills, by Learning Programmes
                                                                      st           st
             Type of Learning Programme                    Immed-     1 April 1 April     Immed-     Immed-
                                                            iate to   2010 to   2011 to    iate to    iate to
                                                             31st       31st     31st       31st       31st
                                                            March      March    March      March      March
                                                             2010      2011      2012       2011       2012
 Ap - Apprenticeships (Section 28) NON RPL, Total                  11         4         7         15         22
 Ed - Generic, Diplomas, Degrees, Certificates, Total             898       435      449      1,333      1,782
 I - Internship, Total                                            313       145      142         458        600
 Ls - Learnerships, Total                                         978       434      536      1,412      1,948
 SC - Short Courses, Total                                        604       258      343         862     1,205
 SP - Skills Programmes, Total                                    322       145      100         467        567
 Grand Total                                                   3,126      1,421    1,577      4,547      6,124
   Source: Isett Seta OGS
By March 2011, there is demand for some 4,547 learning programmes, about 31% (1,412) being learnerships
and 10% (458) being internships. Demand for short courses and skills programmes are about 19% (862) and
10% (467) respectively.
The following table provides more detail on the demand for scarce skills, segmented by type of learning
programme and NQF Level.
Table 22: Demand for Scarce Skills, by Type of Learning Programmes and NQF Level
                                                                              st          st
          Type of Learning Programme                     NQF      Immed- 1 April 1 April Immed- Immed-
                                                         Level     iate to   2010 to 2011 to   iate to   iate to
                                                                    31st      31st     31st     31st      31st
                                                                   March     March    March    March     March
                                                                    2010      2011    2012      2011      2012
 Ed - Generic, Diplomas, Degrees, Certificates          Level 3            3        1        1         4         5
                                                        Level 5         158        72       88      230       318
                                                        Level 6         390      188      205       578       783
                                                        Level 7         113        52       32      165       197
                                                        Level 8         194      105        98      299       397
                                                        Level 4           40       17       25        57        82
 Ed - Generic, Diplomas, Degrees,                                       898      435      449     1,333     1,782
 Certificates, Sub-Total
 I - Internship                                         Level 3          2            1          1         3          4
                                                        Level 5        146           59         51       205        256
                                                        Level 6        126           68         56       194        250
                                                        Level 7          4            2          8         6         14
                                                        Level 4         35           15         26        50         76
 I - Internship, Sub-Total                                             313          145        142       458        600
 Ls - Learnerships                                      Level 3          6            1          5         7         12
                                                        Level 5        262          109        127       371        498
                                                        Level 6        364          160        120       524        644
                                                        Level 7         31            1         10        32         42
                                                        Level 8         29           22          9        51         60
                                                        Level 4        286          141        265       427        692
 Ls - Learnerships, Sub-Total                                          978          434        536     1,412      1,948
 SC - Short Courses                                     Level 3         10            2          4        12         16
                                                        Level 5        224          118        126       342        468
                                                        Level 6        157           56         91       213        304
                                                        Level 7         38           15         21        53         74
                                                        Level 8         11            6          4        17         21

Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                             Page 37
                                                                                    st            st
           Type of Learning Programme                     NQF        Immed- 1 April 1 April Immed- Immed-
                                                          Level       iate to   2010 to 2011 to   iate to   iate to
                                                                       31st      31st     31st     31st      31st
                                                                      March     March    March    March     March
                                                                       2010      2011    2012      2011      2012
                                                         Level 4           164        61       97      225       322
 SC - Short Courses, Sub-Total                                             604       258     343       862     1,205
 SP - Skills Programmes                                  Level 3             12        5        3        17        20
                                                         Level 5           222        82       75      304       379
                                                         Level 6             15        5        7        20        27
                                                         Level 8             45       41        5        86        91
                                                         Level 4             28       12       10        40        50
 SP - Skills Programmes, Sub-Total                                         322       145     100       467       567
 Total                                                                   3,115     1,417   1,570     4,532     6,102
  Source: Isett Seta OGS
The following table provides the demand for scarce skills over the next three years, segmented by type of
learning programme and occupation.
Table 23: Demand for Scarce Skills, by Learning Programmes and Occupation
          Type of Learning Programme                                             Occupation                                   Immed-
                                                                                                                               iate to
                                                                                                                                31st
                                                                                                                               March
                                                                                                                                2012
 Ed - Generic, Diplomas, Degrees, Certificates   111101 Director (Enterprise / Organisation) (Skill Level 5)                          1
                                                 111201 Corporate General Manager (Skill Level 5)                                   14
                                                 131102 Sales and Marketing Manager (Skill Level 5)                                 16
                                                 132201 Finance Manager (Skill Level 5)                                               2
                                                 132401 Policy and Planning Manager (Skill Level 5)                                   4
                                                 132501 Research and Development Manager (Skill Level 5)                              6
                                                 132602 Programme or Project Manager (Skill Level 4)                                13
                                                 133201 Engineering Manager (Skill Level 5)                                         74
                                                 133504 Operations Manager (Non Manufacturing) (Skill Level 5)                        1
                                                 135102 ICT Project Manager (Skill Level 5)                                         30
                                                 139906 Quality Assurance Manager (Skill Level 5)                                     1
                                                 149201 Call or Contact Centre Manager (Skill Level 5)                                8
                                                 149202 Customer Service Manager (Skill Level 5)                                      4
                                                 221101 Accountant (General) (Skill Level 5)                                          1
                                                 221102 Management Accountant (Skill Level 5)                                         1
                                                 221204 Internal Auditor (Skill Level 5)                                              1
                                                 222301 Financial Investment Advisor (Skill Level 5)                                  1
                                                 223201 ICT Trainer (Skill Level 5)                                                   1
                                                 224101 Actuary (Skill Level 5)                                                     37
                                                 224102 Mathematician (Skill Level 5)                                                 5
                                                 224103 Statistician (Skill Level 5)                                                25
                                                 224301 Economist (Skill Level 5)                                                     3
                                                 224701 Management Consultant (Skill Level 5)                                         5
                                                 224702 Organisation and Methods Analyst (Skill Level 5)                              8
                                                 225103 Marketing Practitioner (Skill Level 5)                                        1
                                                 225202 ICT Business Development Manager (Skill Level 5)                              2
                                                 225401 Sales Representative / Salesman (Industrial Products) (Skill Level 5)         4
                                                 232404 Web Designer (Skill Level 5)                                                  2
                                                 233101 Chemical Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                             4
                                                 233201 Civil Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                                9
                                                 233202 Civil Engineering Technologist (Skill Level 5)                                2
                                                 233301 Electrical Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                         16
                                                 233401 Electronics Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                       108
                                                 233402 Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering Technologist (Skill          48
                                                 Level 5)
                                                 233501 Industrial Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                           8
                                                 233502 Mechanical Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                         87
                                                 233901 Aeronautical Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                       46
                                                 233904 Marine Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                               1
                                                 234201 Chemist (Skill Level 5)                                                       2
                                                 234303 Environmental Research Scientist (Skill Level 5)                              3
                                                 234402 Geophysicist (Skill Level 5)                                                  6
                                                 234503 Biochemist (Skill Level 5)                                                    2
                                                 234504 Biotechnologist (Skill Level 5)                                               4
                                                 234903 Meteorologist (Skill Level 5)                                                 3
                                                 261101 ICT Business Analyst (Skill Level 5)                                       144
                                                 261102 Systems Analyst (Skill Level 5)                                             78


Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                                          Page 38
                                                 261202 Web Developer (Skill Level 5)                                        5
                                                 261301 Analyst Programmer (Skill Level 5)                                  14
                                                 261302 Developer Programmer (Skill Level 5)                               205
                                                 261303 Software Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                  131
                                                 262101 Database Administrator (Skill Level 5)                              15
                                                 262102 ICT Security Specialist (Skill Level 5)                             22
                                                 262103 Systems Administrator (Skill Level 5)                               35
                                                 263101 Computer Network and Systems Engineer (Skill Level 5)              141
                                                 263102 Network Administrator (Skill Level 5)                               18
                                                 263103 Network Analyst (Skill Level 5)                                     53
                                                 263202 ICT Support Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                57
                                                 263203 ICT Systems Test Engineer (Skill Level 5)                            2
                                                 263204 Applications Support Manager (Skill Level 5)                         7
                                                 263205 Technical Support Services Manager (Skill Level 5)                   6
                                                 263301 Telecommunications Engineer (Skill Level 5)                         35
                                                 263302 Telecommunications Network Engineer (Skill Level 5)                 14
                                                 272409 Linguist (Skill Level 5)                                             1
                                                 312302 Electrical Engineering Technician (Skill Level 4)                    1
                                                 312401 Electronic Engineering Draftsperson (Skill Level 4)                  2
                                                 312402 Electronic Engineering Technician (Skill Level 4)                   30
                                                 313101 Hardware Technician (Skill Level 4)                                  4
                                                 313102 ICT Customer Support Officer (Skill Level 4)                         2
                                                 313104 Computer Systems Technician (Skill Level 4)                         48
                                                 313105 Telecommunications Computer Systems Technician (Skill Level 4)      40
                                                 511102 Program or Project Administrators (Skill Level 3)                    1
                                                 541101 Inbound Contact Centre Consultant (Skill Level 2)                   20
                                                 541302 Contact Centre Resource Planner (Skill Level 3)                      4
                                                 551201 Bookkeeper (Skill Level 2)                                           1
                                                 591104 Sales Clerk / Officer (Skill Level 3)                                1
                                                 611302 Sales Representative (Business Services) (Skill Level 2)            25
 Ed - Generic, Diplomas, Degrees, Certificates                                                                           1,782
 Total
 I - Internship                                  221101 Accountant (General) (Skill Level 5)                                  61
                                                 225103 Marketing Practitioner (Skill Level 5)                                 4
                                                 233105 Metallurgical Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                16
                                                 233401 Electronics Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                  42
                                                 261101 ICT Business Analyst (Skill Level 5)                                  30
                                                 261102 Systems Analyst (Skill Level 5)                                       56
                                                 261301 Analyst Programmer (Skill Level 5)                                     6
                                                 261302 Developer Programmer (Skill Level 5)                                  22
                                                 262101 Database Administrator (Skill Level 5)                                24
                                                 263101 Computer Network and Systems Engineer (Skill Level 5)                129
                                                 263102 Network Administrator (Skill Level 5)                                 14
                                                 263201 ICT Quality Assurance Engineer (Skill Level 5)                        16
                                                 263202 ICT Support Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                  65
                                                 263302 Telecommunications Network Engineer (Skill Level 5)                    1
                                                 312402 Electronic Engineering Technician (Skill Level 4)                      3
                                                 313101 Hardware Technician (Skill Level 4)                                   12
                                                 313102 ICT Customer Support Officer (Skill Level 4)                          55
                                                 313104 Computer Systems Technician (Skill Level 4)                            3
                                                 342301 Business Machine Mechanic (Skill Level 3)                              4
                                                 342404 Telecommunications Technician (Skill Level 3)                          7
                                                 511102 Program or Project Administrators (Skill Level 3)                      1
                                                 531101 General Clerk (Skill Level 2)                                          1
                                                 551101 Accounts Clerk (Skill Level 2)                                         1
                                                 552201 Credit or Loans Officer (Skill Level 2)                                4
                                                 611302 Sales Representative (Business Services) (Skill Level 2)               1
                                                 621201 ICT Sales Assistant (Skill Level 1)                                    8
                                                 621902 Rental Salesperson (Skill Level 1)                                    14
 I - Internship Total                                                                                                        600
 Ls - Learnerships                               131102 Sales and Marketing Manager (Skill Level 5)                            1
                                                 131103 Sales Manager (Skill Level 5)                                          1
                                                 132101 Corporate Services Manager (Skill Level 5)                             1
                                                 132501 Research and Development Manager (Skill Level 5)                       1
                                                 132602 Programme or Project Manager (Skill Level 4)                           1
                                                 133201 Engineering Manager (Skill Level 5)                                   29
                                                 133202 Engineering Maintenance Manager (Skill Level 5)                        6
                                                 135102 ICT Project Manager (Skill Level 5)                                   69
                                                 149202 Customer Service Manager (Skill Level 5)                               6
                                                 212405 Technical Writer (Skill Level 5)                                       4
                                                 223201 ICT Trainer (Skill Level 5)                                           15
                                                 223301 Training and Development Professional (Skill Level 5)                  4
                                                 224103 Statistician (Skill Level 5)                                           3
                                                 224204 Records Manager (Skill Level 5)                                       35
                                                 225104 Market Campaign Analyst (Skill Level 5)                                5
                                                 225201 ICT Account Manager (Skill Level 5)                                    2

Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                                     Page 39
                                           225202 ICT Business Development Manager (Skill Level 5)                          5
                                           225203 ICT Sales Representative (Skill Level 5)                                 63
                                           232302 Industrial Designer (Skill Level 5)                                       1
                                           233101 Chemical Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                         1
                                           233104 Materials Engineering Technologist (Skill Level 5)                        1
                                           233106 Metallurgical Engineering Technologist (Skill Level 5)                    4
                                           233401 Electronics Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                      4
                                           233402 Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering Technologist (Skill        6
                                           Level 5)
                                           233504 Industrial Engineering Technologist (Skill Level 5)                        1
                                           233505 Mechanical Engineering Technologist (Skill Level 5)                        4
                                           261101 ICT Business Analyst (Skill Level 5)                                      36
                                           261102 Systems Analyst (Skill Level 5)                                           35
                                           261202 Web Developer (Skill Level 5)                                             13
                                           261301 Analyst Programmer (Skill Level 5)                                         5
                                           261302 Developer Programmer (Skill Level 5)                                      29
                                           261303 Software Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                         55
                                           262101 Database Administrator (Skill Level 5)                                    13
                                           262102 ICT Security Specialist (Skill Level 5)                                   58
                                           262103 Systems Administrator (Skill Level 5)                                      2
                                           263101 Computer Network and Systems Engineer (Skill Level 5)                    106
                                           263102 Network Administrator (Skill Level 5)                                      8
                                           263103 Network Analyst (Skill Level 5)                                           45
                                           263201 ICT Quality Assurance Engineer (Skill Level 5)                            43
                                           263202 ICT Support Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                     396
                                           263203 ICT Systems Test Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                 13
                                           263205 Technical Support Services Manager (Skill Level 5)                        17
                                           263302 Telecommunications Network Engineer (Skill Level 5)                       31
                                           312402 Electronic Engineering Technician (Skill Level 4)                          5
                                           313101 Hardware Technician (Skill Level 4)                                       12
                                           313102 ICT Customer Support Officer (Skill Level 4)                              27
                                           313104 Computer Systems Technician (Skill Level 4)                               63
                                           313105 Telecommunications Computer Systems Technician (Skill Level 4)            15
                                           313201 Radio Communications Technician (Skill Level 4)                            8
                                           313202 Telecommunications Field Engineer (Skill Level 4)                        500
                                           313204 Telecommunications Technical Officer or Technologist (Skill Level 4)      12
                                           321205 Motor Mechanic (General) (Skill Level 3)                                   1
                                           322303 Welder / Welder (First Class) (Skill Level 3)                              2
                                           323402 Toolmaker (Skill Level 3)                                                  3
                                           323501 Millwright (Skill Level 3)                                                 3
                                           341101 Electrician (General) (Skill Level 3)                                      5
                                           342101 Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Technician (Skill Level 3)              4
                                           342301 Business Machine Mechanic (Skill Level 3)                                 20
                                           342303 Electronic Equipment Trades Worker (Skill Level 3)                         3
                                           342304 Electronic Instrument Trades Worker (General) (Skill Level 3)             21
                                           342404 Telecommunications Technician (Skill Level 3)                              8
                                           511201 Office Administrator (Skill Level 3)                                       4
                                           531101 General Clerk (Skill Level 2)                                              3
                                           541303 Contact Centre Forecast Analyst (Skill Level 3)                            4
                                           551201 Bookkeeper (Skill Level 2)                                                 1
                                           599401 Human Resources Clerk (Skill Level 2)                                      2
                                           611302 Sales Representative (Business Services) (Skill Level 2)                   4
                                           621201 ICT Sales Assistant (Skill Level 1)                                       40
 Ls - Learnerships Total                                                                                                 1,948
 SC - Short Courses                        111201 Corporate General Manager (Skill Level 5)                                 15
                                           131102 Sales and Marketing Manager (Skill Level 5)                                4
                                           131103 Sales Manager (Skill Level 5)                                             57
                                           132102 Resources Manager (Skill Level 5)                                          1
                                           132302 Business Training Manager (Skill Level 5)                                  2
                                           132602 Programme or Project Manager (Skill Level 4)                               7
                                           133504 Operations Manager (Non Manufacturing) (Skill Level 5)                     1
                                           134302 FET College Principal (Skill Level 5)                                      1
                                           135102 ICT Project Manager (Skill Level 5)                                       22
                                           139908 Office Manager (Skill Level 4)                                            64
                                           149202 Customer Service Manager (Skill Level 5)                                  22
                                           221101 Accountant (General) (Skill Level 5)                                       1
                                           223201 ICT Trainer (Skill Level 5)                                                1
                                           224103 Statistician (Skill Level 5)                                               1
                                           225103 Marketing Practitioner (Skill Level 5)                                     4
                                           225201 ICT Account Manager (Skill Level 5)                                       33
                                           225202 ICT Business Development Manager (Skill Level 5)                          23
                                           225203 ICT Sales Representative (Skill Level 5)                                  60
                                           225403 Sales Representative (Educational Products and Services) (Skill            4
                                           Level 5)
                                           232403 Multimedia Designer (Skill Level 5)                                       1
                                           233301 Electrical Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                       2

Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                                   Page 40
                                           233302 Electrical Engineering Technologist (Skill Level 5)                         1
                                           233401 Electronics Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                       10
                                           233502 Mechanical Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                         3
                                           233601 Mining Engineer (excluding Petroleum) (Skill Level 5)                       2
                                           234201 Chemist (Skill Level 5)                                                     1
                                           234303 Environmental Research Scientist (Skill Level 5)                            1
                                           261101 ICT Business Analyst (Skill Level 5)                                       87
                                           261102 Systems Analyst (Skill Level 5)                                            21
                                           261202 Web Developer (Skill Level 5)                                               4
                                           261301 Analyst Programmer (Skill Level 5)                                         23
                                           261302 Developer Programmer (Skill Level 5)                                      116
                                           261303 Software Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                          59
                                           262101 Database Administrator (Skill Level 5)                                     14
                                           262102 ICT Security Specialist (Skill Level 5)                                    21
                                           262103 Systems Administrator (Skill Level 5)                                      15
                                           263101 Computer Network and Systems Engineer (Skill Level 5)                      83
                                           263201 ICT Quality Assurance Engineer (Skill Level 5)                              3
                                           263202 ICT Support Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                       20
                                           263203 ICT Systems Test Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                 107
                                           263204 Applications Support Manager (Skill Level 5)                               18
                                           311401 Chemistry Technician (Skill Level 4)                                       12
                                           312202 Civil Engineering Technician (Skill Level 4)                                4
                                           312302 Electrical Engineering Technician (Skill Level 4)                          16
                                           312502 Mechanical Engineering Technician (Skill Level 4)                           4
                                           313102 ICT Customer Support Officer (Skill Level 4)                               26
                                           313104 Computer Systems Technician (Skill Level 4)                                 7
                                           313105 Telecommunications Computer Systems Technician (Skill Level 4)            122
                                           313203 Telecommunications Network Planner (Skill Level 4)                          1
                                           341101 Electrician (General) (Skill Level 3)                                       4
                                           342301 Business Machine Mechanic (Skill Level 3)                                  20
                                           342304 Electronic Instrument Trades Worker (General) (Skill Level 3)               8
                                           342404 Telecommunications Technician (Skill Level 3)                               7
                                           511102 Program or Project Administrators (Skill Level 3)                           1
                                           521101 Personal Assistant (Skill Level 3)                                          5
                                           531101 General Clerk (Skill Level 2)                                               3
                                           541401 Call or Contact Centre Agent (Skill Level 1)                                2
                                           542101 Receptionist (General) (Skill Level 2)                                      1
                                           551201 Bookkeeper (Skill Level 2)                                                  1
                                           591104 Sales Clerk / Officer (Skill Level 3)                                       1
                                           591201 Dispatching and Receiving Clerk / Officer (Skill Level 3)                   3
                                           611302 Sales Representative (Business Services) (Skill Level 2)                   22
 SC - Short Courses Total                                                                                                 1,205
 SP - Skills Programmes                    131103 Sales Manager (Skill Level 5)                                               2
                                           132201 Finance Manager (Skill Level 5)                                             1
                                           132301 Personnel / Human Resource Manager (Skill Level 5)                          1
                                           132602 Programme or Project Manager (Skill Level 4)                                4
                                           133601 Supply and Distribution Manager (Skill Level 5)                            10
                                           221101 Accountant (General) (Skill Level 5)                                        4
                                           223201 ICT Trainer (Skill Level 5)                                                19
                                           223301 Training and Development Professional (Skill Level 5)                       2
                                           225201 ICT Account Manager (Skill Level 5)                                         3
                                           225203 ICT Sales Representative (Skill Level 5)                                    2
                                           225302 Marketing / Communication Strategist (Skill Level 5)                        1
                                           225401 Sales Representative / Salesman (Industrial Products) (Skill Level 5)      18
                                           233402 Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering Technologist (Skill         18
                                           Level 5)
                                           261101 ICT Business Analyst (Skill Level 5)                                       19
                                           261301 Analyst Programmer (Skill Level 5)                                          8
                                           261302 Developer Programmer (Skill Level 5)                                       42
                                           261303 Software Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                          19
                                           262101 Database Administrator (Skill Level 5)                                      2
                                           262102 ICT Security Specialist (Skill Level 5)                                     5
                                           263101 Computer Network and Systems Engineer (Skill Level 5)                      21
                                           263201 ICT Quality Assurance Engineer (Skill Level 5)                              1
                                           263202 ICT Support Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                       18
                                           312402 Electronic Engineering Technician (Skill Level 4)                           5
                                           313102 ICT Customer Support Officer (Skill Level 4)                                8
                                           313104 Computer Systems Technician (Skill Level 4)                               122
                                           342301 Business Machine Mechanic (Skill Level 3)                                   2
                                           342401 Cabler (Data and Telecommunications) (Skill Level 3)                       16
                                           511102 Program or Project Administrators (Skill Level 3)                           1
                                           599301 Debt Collector (Skill Level 2)                                             98
                                           611302 Sales Representative (Business Services) (Skill Level 2)                   95
 SP - Skills Programmes Total                                                                                               567
 Grand Total                                                                                                              6,102
  Source: Isett Seta OGS

Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                                    Page 41
In particular, with regard to Learnerships, the following table is a re-arrangement of the Learnership data above
to provide a ranking of the top twenty occupations that require development of Scarce Skills via Learnerships,
based on the total demand over the next three years. The occupations highlighted in Bold are the occupations
which are specifically ICT oriented. All but two of these occupations require ICT technical skills, as indicated in
Bold.
Table 24: Ranking of the Top Twenty Scarce Skill Occupations
                                                       Occupation                                      Immed-
                                                                                                        iate to
                                                                                                         31st
                                                                                                        March
                                                                                                         2012
                      313202 Telecommunications Field Engineer (Skill Level 4)                              500
                      263202 ICT Support Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                           396
                      263101 Computer Network and Systems Engineer (Skill Level 5)                          106
                      135102 ICT Project Manager (Skill Level 5)                                             69
                      225203 ICT Sales Representative (Skill Level 5)                                        63
                      313104 Computer Systems Technician (Skill Level 4)                                     63
                      262102 ICT Security Specialist (Skill Level 5)                                         58
                      261303 Software Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                               55
                      263103 Network Analyst (Skill Level 5)                                                 45
                      263201 ICT Quality Assurance Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                  43
                      621201 ICT Sales Assistant (Skill Level 1)                                             40
                      261101 ICT Business Analyst (Skill Level 5)                                            36
                      224204 Records Manager (Skill Level 5)                                                 35
                      261102 Systems Analyst (Skill Level 5)                                                 35
                      263302 Telecommunications Network Engineer (Skill Level 5)                             31
                      133201 Engineering Manager (Skill Level 5)                                             29
                      261302 Developer Programmer (Skill Level 5)                                            29
                      313102 ICT Customer Support Officer (Skill Level 4)                                    27
                      342304 Electronic Instrument Trades Worker (General) (Skill Level 3)                   21
                      342301 Business Machine Mechanic (Skill Level 3)                                       20
                     Source: Isett Seta OGS

4.4 Demand for Critical Skills
4.4.1    Introduction
Critical skills represent the demand for learning programmes for currently employed personnel.

4.4.2    Demand for Critical Skills, by Learning Programmes and NQF Level
The following table summarises the demand for scarce skills, segmented by type of learning programme.
Table 25: Summary of Demand for Critical Skills, by Learning Programmes
                                                               Number of Critical Skill (Top-Up) Training Interventions
         Type of Learning Programme                Immed-      1st April 1st April     1st April   Immed-       Immed-      Immed-
                                                   iate (as    2009 to    2010 to       2011 to     iate to      iate to     iate to
                                                    at 31st      31st      31st           31st       31st         31st        31st
                                                    March       March     March          March      March        March       March
                                                     2009)       2010      2011           2012       2010         2011        2012
 Ed - Generic, Diplomas, Degrees, Certificates           257         218       210           304         475          685         989
 I - Internship                                           39          15        15             35         54           69         104
 Ls - Learnerships                                       383         360       368           532         743        1,111       1,643
 SC - Short Courses                                      661         667       460           794       1,328        1,788       2,582
 SP - Skills Programmes                                  317         232       208           197         549          757         954
 Total                                                 1,657       1,492     1,261         1,862       3,149        4,410       6,272
 Totals as specified in the 2008 Sector Skills         3,242       1,804     2,252
 Plan                                                 (2008)
  Source: Isett Seta OGS
In terms of satisfying the demand for Critical (Top-Up) Skills, the main points to note from the table above are:
        The greatest demand for type of learning programme lies with Short Courses which account for 41% of
         total demand over the next three years, followed by Learnerships at 26%.
        Demand for Internships account for less than 2% of total demand over the next three years.
        The immediate number of top-up skill interventions required (2009: 1,657) is significantly lower to that
         specified a year ago (3,242). Similarly, the top-up skill interventions required for the following two years
         are also significantly lower than what was forecast by stakeholders last year for the same periods.
The following table provides an indication of which occupations require Critical Skills, and the extent thereof.

Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                                         Page 42
Table 26: Summary of Demand for Critical Skills, by Occupation
                                                                           Number of Critical Skill (Top-Up) Training Interventions
                             Occupation                                Immed- 1st April        1st      1st    Immed- Immed- Immed-
                                                                       iate (as 2009 to       April    April iate to iate to iate to
                                                                        at 31st    31st     2010 to 2011 to 31st         31st    31st
                                                                        March     March       31st     31st     March March March
                                                                         2009)    2010      March March 2010            2011     2012
                                                                                              2011     2012
 111101 Director (Enterprise / Organisation) (Skill Level 5)                    9         8        11        4      17      28       32
 111201 Corporate General Manager (Skill Level 5)                             41        41         42       24      82     124      148
 131102 Sales and Marketing Manager (Skill Level 5)                           10          3         2        6      13      15       21
 131103 Sales Manager (Skill Level 5)                                                     1                  7       1        1       8
 132101 Corporate Services Manager (Skill Level 5)                              3         2         1        6       5        6      12
 132102 Resources Manager (Skill Level 5)                                                 1                          1        1       1
 132201 Finance Manager (Skill Level 5)                                         1                                    1        1       1
 132301 Personnel / Human Resource Manager (Skill Level 5)                      3                            1       3        3       4
 132401 Policy and Planning Manager (Skill Level 5)                             2         2         3        1       4        7       8
 132501 Research and Development Manager (Skill Level 5)                        1                            4       1        1       5
 132602 Programme or Project Manager (Skill Level 4)                          10          4         3       13      14      17       30
 133201 Engineering Manager (Skill Level 5)                                     7         6         6        7      13      19       26
 133202 Engineering Maintenance Manager (Skill Level 5)                         3         1         1        3       4        5       8
 133502 Production / Operations Manager (Manufacturing) (Skill Level                                         1                        1
 5)
 133504 Operations Manager (Non Manufacturing) (Skill Level 5)                                             3                         3
 134302 FET College Principal (Skill Level 5)                                 1                                    1        1        1
 135102 ICT Project Manager (Skill Level 5)                                  32         20       19       53      52       71      124
 139908 Office Manager (Skill Level 4)                                       16         16       16               32       48       48
 149201 Call or Contact Centre Manager (Skill Level 5)                        2          2        2       2        4        6        8
 149202 Customer Service Manager (Skill Level 5)                             12          5               17       17       17       34
 149903 Facilities Manager (Skill Level 4)                                                                2                          2
 Total, Managers                                                            153        112     106      154      265      371      525
 212405 Technical Writer (Skill Level 5)                                     11          2       3                13       16       16
 221101 Accountant (General) (Skill Level 5)                                  2                                    2        2        2
 222302 Financial Investment Manager (Skill Level 5)                          1                                    1        1        1
 223101 Human Resource Advisor (Skill Level 5)                                1                                    1        1        1
 223201 ICT Trainer (Skill Level 5)                                           6          6        4        8      12       16       24
 223301 Training and Development Professional (Skill Level 5)                 5                            9       5        5       14
 224103 Statistician (Skill Level 5)                                          3          3        3        2       6        9       11
 224204 Records Manager (Skill Level 5)                                      10         10       10        3      20       30       33
 224301 Economist (Skill Level 5)                                             1                                    1        1        1
 224702 Organisation and Methods Analyst (Skill Level 5)                      2                           2        2        2        4
 225103 Marketing Practitioner (Skill Level 5)                               12          5        5       4       17       22       26
 225201 ICT Account Manager (Skill Level 5)                                  19         21       20      48       40       60      108
 225202 ICT Business Development Manager (Skill Level 5)                      7          6        5      10       13       18       28
 225203 ICT Sales Representative (Skill Level 5)                             30         98       18     125      128      146      271
 225302 Marketing / Communication Strategist (Skill Level 5)                             1                         1        1        1
 225401 Sales Representative / Salesman (Industrial Products) (Skill          7          2        2                9       11       11
 Level 5)
 225403 Sales Representative (Educational Products and Services)              1          1        1        1        2       3        4
 (Skill Level 5)
 232101 Architect (Skill Level 5)                                                                          1                         1
 232401 Graphic Designer (Skill Level 5)                                      7                                     7       7        7
 232601 Urban and Regional Planner (Skill Level 5)                                                         1                         1
 233105 Metallurgical Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                2          3        3        2        5       8       10
 233201 Civil Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                                                     2                         2
 233301 Electrical Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                  14         16       10       20      30       40       60
 233401 Electronics Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                 20         13       17       17      33       50       67
 233402 Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering                       10         10       10       11      20       30       41
 Technologist (Skill Level 5)
 233501 Industrial Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                   2                            3       2        2        5
 233502 Mechanical Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                  14         16       17       23      30       47       70
 233901 Aeronautical Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                10         10       10       11      20       30       41
 234201 Chemist (Skill Level 5)                                               2                            3       2        2        5
 234202 Food Technologist (Skill Level 5)                                                                  1                         1
 234303 Environmental Research Scientist (Skill Level 5)                      1                            2        1       1        3
 234501 Biologist (General) (Skill Level 5)                                                                1                         1
 234503 Biochemist (Skill Level 5)                                                                         3                         3
 234504 Biotechnologist (Skill Level 5)                                                                    2                         2
 234507 Microbiologist (Skill Level 5)                                                                     1                         1
 234903 Meteorologist (Skill Level 5)                                         1                            2        1       1        3
 249101 Education or Training Advisor (Skill Level 5)                         1                                     1       1        1
 249102 Education or Training Reviewer (Skill Level 5)                                                    3                          3
 261101 ICT Business Analyst (Skill Level 5)                                111         98       92     117      209      301      418
 261102 Systems Analyst (Skill Level 5)                                      29         27       30      25       56       86      111
 261202 Web Developer (Skill Level 5)                                         7          2        1       3        9       10       13

Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                                          Page 43
                                                                          Number of Critical Skill (Top-Up) Training Interventions
                            Occupation                                Immed- 1st April        1st      1st    Immed- Immed- Immed-
                                                                      iate (as 2009 to       April    April iate to iate to iate to
                                                                       at 31st    31st     2010 to 2011 to 31st         31st    31st
                                                                       March     March       31st     31st     March March March
                                                                        2009)    2010      March March 2010            2011     2012
                                                                                             2011     2012
 261301 Analyst Programmer (Skill Level 5)                                   13          8         3        4      21       24      28
 261302 Developer Programmer (Skill Level 5)                                168      165        150      141      333      483     624
 261303 Software Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                    86        96       112        83     182      294     377
 262101 Database Administrator (Skill Level 5)                               15        13         10       18      28       38      56
 262102 ICT Security Specialist (Skill Level 5)                              17        14         13       53      31       44      97
 262103 Systems Administrator (Skill Level 5)                                17          3         3        8      20       23      31
 263101 Computer Network and Systems Engineer (Skill Level 5)                95      101        109        81     196      305     386
 263102 Network Administrator (Skill Level 5)                                  3         4         2       20       7        9      29
 263103 Network Analyst (Skill Level 5)                                      14        12         12       11      26       38      49
 263201 ICT Quality Assurance Engineer (Skill Level 5)                         4         3         3        6       7       10      16
 263202 ICT Support Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                 88      101        114        90     189      303     393
 263203 ICT Systems Test Engineer (Skill Level 5)                            25        84         35       76     109      144     220
 263204 Applications Support Manager (Skill Level 5)                         12        15         19        8      27       46      54
 263205 Technical Support Services Manager (Skill Level 5)                     6         4         5        7      10       15      22
 263301 Telecommunications Engineer (Skill Level 5)                          10          9         9       12      19       28      40
 263302 Telecommunications Network Engineer (Skill Level 5)                  22        15         13     155       37       50     205
 Total, Professionals                                                       944      997        873    1,239    1,941    2,814   4,053
 311907 Textile or Fabrics Technical Officer (Skill Level 4)                   3         4         4        3       7       11      14
 312302 Electrical Engineering Technician (Skill Level 4)                              25                  25      25       25      50
 312402 Electronic Engineering Technician (Skill Level 4)                      6         6         6        5      12       18      23
 313101 Hardware Technician (Skill Level 4)                                  19        12         15        7      31       46      53
 313102 ICT Customer Support Officer (Skill Level 4)                         58        31         24       37      89      113     150
 313104 Computer Systems Technician (Skill Level 4)                         102        63         63       50     165      228     278
 313105 Telecommunications Computer Systems Technician (Skill                10        10         10        5      20       30      35
 Level 4)
 313201 Radio Communications Technician (Skill Level 4)                      2          2                 2       4        4        6
 313202 Telecommunications Field Engineer (Skill Level 4)                    2          4        4        4       6       10       14
 313204 Telecommunications Technical Officer or Technologist (Skill          8          8        7       14      16       23       37
 Level 4)
 341101 Electrician (General) (Skill Level 3)                                2          1        1        2       3        4        6
 341102 Electrician (Special Class) (Skill Level 3)                          1          1        1        2       2        3        5
 342301 Business Machine Mechanic (Skill Level 3)                           30                                   30       30       30
 342404 Telecommunications Technician (Skill Level 3)                       25         27      29       25       52       81      106
 Total, Technicians and Trade Workers                                      268        194     164      181      462      626      807
 511102 Program or Project Administrators (Skill Level 3)                    6          2       2       20        8       10       30
 511201 Office Administrator (Skill Level 3)                                 5                           5        5        5       10
 521101 Personal Assistant (Skill Level 3)                                   1                                    1        1        1
 531101 General Clerk (Skill Level 2)                                        1                            3       1        1        4
 532101 Data Entry Operator (Skill Level 2)                                 67                           50      67       67      117
 541101 Inbound Contact Centre Consultant (Skill Level 2)                   30         30       30        3      60       90       93
 541301 Contact Centre Real Time Advisor (Skill Level 3)                    15         15       10       30      30       40       70
 541302 Contact Centre Resource Planner (Skill Level 3)                      1                   1        2       1        2        4
 541401 Call or Contact Centre Agent (Skill Level 1)                                                     67                        67
 542101 Receptionist (General) (Skill Level 2)                               2          2        2        3       4        6        9
 551101 Accounts Clerk (Skill Level 2)                                       3                            3       3        3        6
 551201 Bookkeeper (Skill Level 2)                                           1         25                31      26       26       57
 551301 Payroll Clerk (Skill Level 2)                                                                     3                         3
 591104 Sales Clerk / Officer (Skill Level 3)                                                             1                         1
 591106 Warehouse Administrator / Clerk (Skill Level 3)                                                   1                         1
 591201 Dispatching and Receiving Clerk / Officer (Skill Level 3)                                         3                         3
 599301 Debt Collector (Skill Level 2)                                       3         30       30               33       63       63
 Total, Clerical and Administrative Workers                                135        104       75     225      239      314      539
 611302 Sales Representative (Business Services) (Skill Level 2)           135         56       24      35      191      215      250
 611307 Sales Representative (Photographic Equipment and Supplies)           8          2        2      13       10       12       25
 (Skill Level 2)
 621101 Sales Assistant (General) (Skill Level 1)                                                         5                         5
 621201 ICT Sales Assistant (Skill Level 1)                                 14         16       17       10      30       47       57
 Total, Sales Workers                                                      157         74       43       63     231      274      337
 732101 Delivery Driver (Vehicle) (Skill Level 2)                                      11                        11       11       11
 Total, Machinery Operators and Drivers                                                11                        11       11       11
 Total                                                                   1,657      1,492    1,261   1,862    3,149    4,410    6,272
  Source: Isett Seta OGS
In terms of satisfying the demand for Critical (Top-Up) Skills, the greatest demand for Critical Skills lies in the
                                                                      st
category of Professionals (65% of Total number of interventions to 31 March 2012).




Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                                         Page 44
The following table is a re-arrangement of the table above to provide a ranking of the top forty occupations that
require development of critical skills, based on the total demand over the next three years. The occupations
highlighted in Bold are the occupations which are specifically ICT oriented.
Table 27: Ranking of the Top Forty Occupations where there is Demand for Critical Skills
                                           Occupation                                              Immediate to
                                                                                                    31st March
                                                                                                       2012
   261302 Developer Programmer (Skill Level 5)                                                              624
   261101 ICT Business Analyst (Skill Level 5)                                                              418
   263202 ICT Support Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                                              393
   263101 Computer Network and Systems Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                             386
   261303 Software Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                                                 377
   313104 Computer Systems Technician (Skill Level 4)                                                       278
   225203 ICT Sales Representative (Skill Level 5)                                                          271
   611302 Sales Representative (Business Services) (Skill Level 2)                                          250
   263203 ICT Systems Test Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                                         220
   263302 Telecommunications Network Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                               205
   313102 ICT Customer Support Officer (Skill Level 4)                                                      150
   111201 Corporate General Manager (Skill Level 5)                                                         148
   135102 ICT Project Manager (Skill Level 5)                                                               124
   532101 Data Entry Operator (Skill Level 2)                                                               117
   261102 Systems Analyst (Skill Level 5)                                                                   111
   225201 ICT Account Manager (Skill Level 5)                                                               108
   342404 Telecommunications Technician (Skill Level 3)                                                     106
   262102 ICT Security Specialist (Skill Level 5)                                                            97
   541101 Inbound Contact Centre Consultant (Skill Level 2)                                                  93
   233502 Mechanical Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                                                70
   541301 Contact Centre Real Time Advisor (Skill Level 3)                                                   70
   233401 Electronics Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                                               67
   541401 Call or Contact Centre Agent (Skill Level 1)                                                       67
   599301 Debt Collector (Skill Level 2)                                                                     63
   233301 Electrical Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                                                60
   551201 Bookkeeper (Skill Level 2)                                                                         57
   621201 ICT Sales Assistant (Skill Level 1)                                                                57
   262101 Database Administrator (Skill Level 5)                                                             56
   263204 Applications Support Manager (Skill Level 5)                                                       54
   313101 Hardware Technician (Skill Level 4)                                                                53
   312302 Electrical Engineering Technician (Skill Level 4)                                                  50
   263103 Network Analyst (Skill Level 5)                                                                    49
   139908 Office Manager (Skill Level 4)                                                                     48
   233402 Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering Technologist (Skill Level                           41
   5)
   233901 Aeronautical Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                                                41
   263301 Telecommunications Engineer (Skill Level 5)                                                          40
   313204 Telecommunications Technical Officer or Technologist (Skill Level 4)                                 37
   313105 Telecommunications Computer Systems Technician (Skill Level 4)                                       35
   149202 Customer Service Manager (Skill Level 5)                                                             34
   224204 Records Manager (Skill Level 5)                                                                      33
  Source: Isett Seta OGS
Of all types of Critical Skills training interventions required over the next three years, it is estimated that about
67% relate to ICT technical skills and about 15% relate to soft skills.
The following table provides insight as to the types of Critical Skills that are required within these top forty
occupations. The number of forecast training interventions per type of Critical Skill over the next three years is
also presented. The information in brackets next to the type of Critical Skill provides a further indication as to
the types of specialities stated by stakeholders. This table provides useful input to the developers of learning
programmes as to the types of Critical Skills that should be included within the curricula of the learning
programmes.




Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                           Page 45
Table 28: Types of Critical Skills Required Within the Top Forty Occupations
                                                                          Required Critical Skills                     Immed
                                                                                                                       -iate to
                       Occupation                                                                                        31st
                                                                                                                       March
                                                                                                                         2012
                                                    Business Acumen (Finance, Sales, Marketing)                              18
                                                    Business Management                                                      55
 111201 Corporate General Manager (Skill Level 5)   Customer Operations/Strategic Business Planning                          63
                                                    Specialist Managers                                                       8
                                                    Staff retention                                                           4
                                                    ICT Skills Update                                                         8
                                                    Leadership                                                                6
                                                    Networking (IP, LAN, Protocol, Security, Planning, Wireless, SQL)        50
                                                    People Management Skills                                                 21
 135102 ICT Project Manager (Skill Level 5)
                                                    Project/Programme Management                                             20
                                                    Security Solutions Managers                                              10
                                                    Solution development, design                                              8
                                                    Writing Skills, Business                                                  1
 139908 Office Manager (Skill Level 4)              Strategic and Operational                                                48
                                                    ITIL Service Delivery Certification                                      30
 149202 Customer Service Manager (Skill Level 5)    Sales (Customer Relationship Management, Communication, Technical,        4
                                                    Electronics)
 224204 Records Manager (Skill Level 5)             Cataloguing                                                              33
                                                    Accounts Management                                                      12
                                                    Business Acumen (Finance, Sales, Marketing)                              42
                                                    Coaching, Mentoring, Leadership                                          12
                                                    ITIL Foundation                                                          10
 225201 ICT Account Manager (Skill Level 5)
                                                    Processes RMA & Deliveries, ERP,CRM knowledge                             0
                                                    Product Knowledge                                                        13
                                                    Project/Programme Management                                              2
                                                    Telecommunications (Support, Convergence, Office Automation)             17
                                                    Accounts Management                                                    160
                                                    Business Acumen (Finance, Sales, Marketing)                              25
                                                    Computer Systems                                                          9
                                                    Leadership                                                                1
 225203 ICT Sales Representative (Skill Level 5)
                                                    Presentation                                                             40
                                                    Product Knowledge                                                        12
                                                    Sales (Customer Relationship Management, Communication, Technical,       24
                                                    Electronics)
                                                    Development and Systems Engineers                                        12
 233301 Electrical Engineer (Skill Level 5)         Leadership                                                               20
                                                    Research                                                                 28
                                                    Electronics                                                              25
                                                    Electronics (Sensitive Equipment, Fault Finding, Repair)                 12
                                                    ICT Skills Update                                                         3
 233401 Electronics Engineer (Skill Level 5)        Linux, Java certification                                                 5
                                                    Medium Voltage Applications                                               6
                                                    Networking (IP, LAN, Protocol, Security, Planning, Wireless, SQL)         3
                                                    Systems Engineering                                                      13
                                                    Computer Engineering Technologists                                       40
 233402 Electronics and Telecommunications
                                                    Wireless (3G, 4G, UMTS, WMAX, WLAN, GPRS, Radio Propagation,              1
 Engineering Technologist (Skill Level 5)
                                                    Satellite, Remote Sensing, RF, Testing))
                                                    Impact of Heavy Vehicles on Roads specifically                            1
                                                    Mechanical Engineering                                                   20
 233502 Mechanical Engineer (Skill Level 5)
                                                    Mechatronics                                                             21
                                                    Research                                                                 28
                                                    Aerodynamics                                                             40
 233901 Aeronautical Engineer (Skill Level 5)
                                                    Not Defined                                                               1




Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                                   Page 46
                                                                      Required Critical Skills                        Immed
                                                                                                                      -iate to
                      Occupation                                                                                        31st
                                                                                                                      March
                                                                                                                        2012
                                                 Applications                                                                2
                                                 Architecture (Security, Single View)                                       14
                                                 Business Acumen (Finance, Sales, Marketing)                                80
                                                 Business Analysis (Performance, Process, Systems, Research)                74
                                                 C# Developer, Programmer (J2EE, WPF, WCP, SOA, OOP, Progress,               2
                                                 HTML)
                                                 Client interface                                                           8
                                                 Commercial, Business                                                       5
                                                 Consulting                                                                80
                                                 Engineering (ICT)                                                         17
                                                 ICT and Retail Business knowledge                                         14
 261101 ICT Business Analyst (Skill Level 5)     ICT Skills Update                                                          9
                                                 JWalk Basic Short term Insurance                                           1
                                                 Methodology                                                               10
                                                 Negotiation & Conflict Management                                          8
                                                 Operating Systems, Database and Migration SAP                             38
                                                 Presentation, Writing                                                      8
                                                 SAP (F1,HCM,PM/MM, STT)                                                    2
                                                 Solution development, design                                               4
                                                 Systems Development                                                        2
                                                 Time Management                                                           17
                                                 Unified Modelling Language                                                18
                                                 Writing Skills, Technical                                                  5
                                                 Business Analysis (Performance, Process, Systems, Research)               25
                                                 Delphi Programming                                                         1
                                                 Infrastructure, data centre, large solutions                               8
                                                 Oracle (12g, Metasolve Developer, PI/SQL, DBA, Siebel, ERP,               15
 261102 Systems Analyst (Skill Level 5)
                                                 Functional and Technical Roles)
                                                 Product and Systems knowledge                                             21
                                                 Product Knowledge                                                          1
                                                 Signal Analyst                                                            40
                                                 Analytical and Problem Solving                                             4
                                                 Business Management                                                        1
                                                 C# and C++ Developer, Programmer (Lotus Notes, Software, SQA, SQL,        42
                                                 System, Visual Basic)
                                                 C# Developer, Programmer (J2EE, WPF, WCP, SOA, OOP, Progress,             67
                                                 HTML)
                                                 C++ Programmer (Perl, JavaScript)                                          8
                                                 Coding and Information Systems tertiary background                         0
                                                 Delphi Programming                                                         4
                                                 EMC Documentation                                                         13
                                                 ERP (Microsoft Ax)                                                         2
                                                 ICT Skills Update                                                          7
                                                 Oracle (12g, Metasolve Developer, PI/SQL, DBA, Siebel, ERP,               13
                                                 Functional and Technical Roles)
 261302 Developer Programmer (Skill Level 5)
                                                 Programmers/Developers with I-SLEX banking experie                       350
                                                 Programming (VB net, C#, C++, MCSD, Transact)                              0
                                                 Programming in SQL 2006                                                    3
                                                 Programming, Developer (ASP, Database, Ecommerce, GIS, Intranet,          10
                                                 Java, Flash, Multithreading, 4GL)
                                                 Smart Training : Technology                                                8
                                                 Software Application Specific Certification                               23
                                                 Software Applications                                                      2
                                                 Software Architecture                                                      2
                                                 Software Development                                                      23
                                                 Sun Java Certified; Sun Java Certified Software Ar                        15
                                                 Systems Development                                                        4
                                                 Technical Specification Training                                          10
                                                 Test (Open Source)                                                        13




Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                               Page 47
                                                                           Required Critical Skills                      Immed
                                                                                                                         -iate to
                     Occupation                                                                                            31st
                                                                                                                         March
                                                                                                                           2012
                                                     Architecture (Security, Single View)                                      24
                                                     Business Acumen (Finance, Sales, Marketing)                                6
                                                     C# Developer, Programmer (J2EE, WPF, WCP, SOA, OOP, Progress,             87
                                                     HTML)
                                                     C++ Programmer (Perl, JavaScript)                                         5
                                                     Design; SOA                                                              15
                                                     Hansen Application Skills                                                17
                                                     ICT Business Intelligence and MIS                                         5
                                                     ICT Skills Update                                                         2
 261303 Software Engineer (Skill Level 5)            Linux; symantec netbackup; solaris;vmware                                 6
                                                     Microsoft (MCDST, MCITP,MCSD, MCSE, MCDBA, Transact SQL)                 18
                                                     Programming, Developer (ASP, Database, Ecommerce, GIS, Intranet,          2
                                                     Java, Flash, Multithreading, 4GL)
                                                     Security Systems                                                          1
                                                     Software                                                                 10
                                                     Software and Technical Skills                                             9
                                                     Software Application Specific Certification                             159
                                                     Software Architecture                                                     2
                                                     Software Development                                                      9
                                                     Data Manipulation                                                         4
                                                     Database Management, SQL & Progress                                       2
                                                     ICT Skills Update                                                         8
                                                     Implement, design and improve processes                                   8
 262101 Database Administrator (Skill Level 5)       My SQL/ Database Administration                                           7
                                                     Networking (IP, LAN, Protocol, Security, Planning, Wireless, SQL)         1
                                                     Oracle (12g, Metasolve Developer, PI/SQL, DBA, Siebel, ERP,              17
                                                     Functional and Technical Roles)
                                                     Unix and Linux systems                                                    9
                                                     ICT Skills Update                                                        46
                                                     Information Security                                                      2
 262102 ICT Security Specialist (Skill Level 5)      Networking (IP, LAN, Protocol, Security, Planning, Wireless, SQL)        40
                                                     Production and IT based production                                        1
                                                     Security Specialist                                                       8
                                                     Applications Support (Exchange, SQL)                                     18
                                                     Backup Support (Net backup)                                              18
                                                     Cisco (CCIE, CCNA, CCNP, Voice)                                          43
                                                     Citrix                                                                   29
                                                     Exchange                                                                  4
                                                     Internal Training                                                         1
                                                     Linux Project management                                                  1
                                                     Microsoft (MCDST, MCITP,MCSD, MCSE, MCDBA, Transact SQL)                  4
 263101 Computer Network and Systems Engineer (Skill
                                                     MS, Linux, Cisco, Novel                                                   4
 Level 5)
                                                     Networking (IP, LAN, Protocol, Security, Planning, Wireless, SQL)       134
                                                     Product and Systems knowledge                                            18
                                                     Research                                                                 28
                                                     SAN                                                                      18
                                                     Software and Technical skills, internal processes                         1
                                                     Solution Atchitects and System Integrators                                7
                                                     Telecommunications (Support, Convergence, Office Automation)             40
                                                     VmWare                                                                   18
                                                     Analytical and Problem Solving                                           40
 263103 Network Analyst (Skill Level 5)              Microsoft (MCDST, MCITP,MCSD, MCSE, MCDBA, Transact SQL)                  3
                                                     Networking (IP, LAN, Protocol, Security, Planning, Wireless, SQL)         6




Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                                     Page 48
                                                                              Required Critical Skills                       Immed
                                                                                                                             -iate to
                      Occupation                                                                                               31st
                                                                                                                             March
                                                                                                                               2012
                                                          Apple Server Specialist                                                   0
                                                          Avaya (Voice)                                                             1
                                                          C# and C++ Developer, Programmer (Lotus Notes, Software, SQA, SQL,        9
                                                          System, Visual Basic)
                                                          Cisco (CCIE, CCNA, CCNP, Voice)                                          27
                                                          Communication (Interpersonal)                                            56
                                                          Desktop Support                                                          26
                                                          Engineering (ICT)                                                         3
                                                          Financial Markets                                                        24
                                                          IBM (Informix Developers, AIX)                                            3
                                                          IP Routing , Linux and Unix                                               8
                                                          Microsoft (MCDST, MCITP,MCSD, MCSE, MCDBA, Transact SQL)                 57
 263202 ICT Support Engineer (Skill Level 5)
                                                          Networking (IP, LAN, Protocol, Security, Planning, Wireless, SQL)         4
                                                          Nortel Voice                                                              1
                                                          Packaging/imaging                                                         8
                                                          SCCM 2007, MCSE 2003, MS Visio                                            0
                                                          Specialist OSS/BSS                                                       20
                                                          Supplier Accreditation                                                   68
                                                          Support Architect                                                         8
                                                          Technical Support                                                         5
                                                          Telecommunications (Support, Convergence, Office Automation)              9
                                                          Wireless (3G, 4G, UMTS, WMAX, WLAN, GPRS, Radio Propagation,             55
                                                          Satellite, Remote Sensing, RF, Testing))
                                                          Writing Skills, Technical                                                 1
                                                          Microsoft (MCDST, MCITP,MCSD, MCSE, MCDBA, Transact SQL)               100
                                                          Testing (Computer Systems)                                               11
 263203 ICT Systems Test Engineer (Skill Level 5)
                                                          Unified Modelling Language                                                9
                                                          Writing Skills, Business                                               100
                                                          Analytical and Problem Solving                                           14
                                                          ICT Skills Update                                                         4
                                                          Project/Programme Management                                              5
 263204 Applications Support Manager (Skill Level 5)
                                                          Quality Assurance, Client Relations                                      14
                                                          SLA                                                                      14
                                                          Web Development (ASP LEVEL 5)                                             3
                                                          Engineering (ICT)                                                        20
                                                          Microsoft (MCDST, MCITP,MCSD, MCSE, MCDBA, Transact SQL)                  0
 263301 Telecommunications Engineer (Skill Level 5)       Software Architecture                                                    12
                                                          Wireless (3G, 4G, UMTS, WMAX, WLAN, GPRS, Radio Propagation,              8
                                                          Satellite, Remote Sensing, RF, Testing))
                                                          Cisco (CCIE, CCNA, CCNP, Voice)                                          20
                                                          Field                                                                    10
                                                          ICT Skills Update                                                        40
 263302 Telecommunications Network Engineer (Skill
                                                          Juniper                                                                  25
 Level 5)
                                                          Networking (IP, LAN, Protocol, Security, Planning, Wireless, SQL)      100
                                                          Product Knowledge                                                         4
                                                          Project Management and Change Management                                  6
 312302 Electrical Engineering Technician (Skill Level 4) Electronics                                                              50
                                                          C# and C++ Developer, Programmer (Lotus Notes, Software, SQA, SQL,        4
                                                          System, Visual Basic)
                                                          ICT Skills Update                                                        13
 313101 Hardware Technician (Skill Level 4)               Microsoft (MCDST, MCITP,MCSD, MCSE, MCDBA, Transact SQL)                 14
                                                          Networking (IP, LAN, Protocol, Security, Planning, Wireless, SQL)         5
                                                          Product and Systems knowledge                                            16
                                                          Product Knowledge                                                         1




Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                                         Page 49
                                                                             Required Critical Skills                        Immed
                                                                                                                             -iate to
                      Occupation                                                                                               31st
                                                                                                                             March
                                                                                                                               2012
                                                       Analytical and Problem Solving                                               1
                                                       Call Centre, Help Desk, Receptionist                                        14
                                                       Communication (Interpersonal)                                                4
                                                       Consulting                                                                  15
                                                       Customer Service                                                            18
                                                       Delphi Programming                                                           4
                                                       Design and Develop Outcomes                                                  3
                                                       Desktop Support                                                              3
                                                       Engineering (ICT)                                                           20
                                                       ICT Skills Update                                                           28
 313102 ICT Customer Support Officer (Skill Level 4)   ITIL v3 Expert                                                               1
                                                       ITIL v3 Practitioner                                                        12
                                                       Microsoft (MCDST, MCITP,MCSD, MCSE, MCDBA, Transact SQL)                    11
                                                       Online Assessment Development Tool Training                                  2
                                                       Online Content Development Tool Training                                     1
                                                       Product and Systems knowledge                                                1
                                                       Product Knowledge                                                            2
                                                       SAP (F1,HCM,PM/MM, STT)                                                      3
                                                       Software and Technical Skills                                                2
                                                       Support Specialist                                                           5
                                                       Telecommunications (Support, Convergence, Office Automation)                 0
                                                       Architecture (Security, Single View)                                         4
                                                       Automation Testing                                                          34
                                                       Call Centre, Help Desk, Receptionist                                         0
                                                       Computer Engineering Technologists                                           4
                                                       Computer Systems                                                            33
                                                       Fault Finding and Computer PC Maintenance, IT Systems                        1
                                                       Field                                                                       22
                                                       ICT Skills Update                                                           41
 313104 Computer Systems Technician (Skill Level 4)    Methodology                                                                 21
                                                       Microsoft (MCDST, MCITP,MCSD, MCSE, MCDBA, Transact SQL)                     1
                                                       Networking (IP, LAN, Protocol, Security, Planning, Wireless, SQL)            4
                                                       Programming, Developer (ASP, Database, Ecommerce, GIS, Intranet,             2
                                                       Java, Flash, Multithreading, 4GL)
                                                       SMS                                                                         5
                                                       Technical Test Analyst                                                     27
                                                       Testing (Computer Systems)                                                 69
                                                       Web and Application Developers; Programmers;                               10
 313105 Telecommunications Computer Systems            Telecommunications (Support, Convergence, Office Automation)               35
 Technician (Skill Level 4)
                                                        Networking (IP, LAN, Protocol, Security, Planning, Wireless, SQL)         34
 313204 Telecommunications Technical Officer or         Telecommunications (Support, Convergence, Office Automation)               1
 Technologist (Skill Level 4)                           Wireless (3G, 4G, UMTS, WMAX, WLAN, GPRS, Radio Propagation,               2
                                                        Satellite, Remote Sensing, RF, Testing))
                                                        Analytical and Problem Solving                                             6
                                                        Electrical Engineering Light Current                                      14
                                                        Electro Technology Light Current                                          10
 342404 Telecommunications Technician (Skill Level 3)
                                                        Electronics (Sensitive Equipment, Fault Finding, Repair)                  68
                                                        Fibre Splicing                                                             4
                                                        Telecommunications (Support, Convergence, Office Automation)               4
 532101 Data Entry Operator (Skill Level 2)             ICT Skills Update                                                        117
 541101 Inbound Contact Centre Consultant (Skill Level Customer Service                                                           93
 2)
                                                        Call Centre, Help Desk, Receptionist                                      45
 541301 Contact Centre Real Time Advisor (Skill Level
                                                        Wireless (3G, 4G, UMTS, WMAX, WLAN, GPRS, Radio Propagation,              25
 3)
                                                        Satellite, Remote Sensing, RF, Testing))
                                                        Claim Assessing, Language & Literacy, Teamwork, ICT                        2
 541401 Call or Contact Centre Agent (Skill Level 1)
                                                        Language (French, German, Italian)                                        65
 551201 Bookkeeper (Skill Level 2)                      Accounting/Bookkeeping (ACCPAC, Pastel)                                   57
 599301 Debt Collector (Skill Level 2)                  Debt Collection                                                           63
                                                        Customer Service                                                           5
                                                        ICT Skills Update                                                         29
 611302 Sales Representative (Business Services) (Skill
                                                        Product Knowledge                                                         15
 Level 2)
                                                        Sales (Customer Relationship Management, Communication, Technical,       201
                                                        Electronics)
                                                        Product and Systems knowledge                                             18
                                                        Product Knowledge                                                          1
 621201 ICT Sales Assistant (Skill Level 1)             Sales (Customer Relationship Management, Communication, Technical,        37
                                                        Electronics)
                                                        Telephone Sales                                                            1
  Source: Isett Seta OGS

Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                                       Page 50
5 CHAPTER 5: SMALL BUSINESS, ENTREPRENEURIAL
    OPPORTUNITIES AND OTHER NSDS PRIORITIES

5.1 SMME Opportunities
5.1.1   The ICT BEE on SMME
The ICT BEE Charter declares clearly that support of SMMEs is one of the most important drives: ―An
entrepreneurial focus is key to the success of any BEE strategy and it logically follows that all efforts must be
made to foster and encourage the development of an entrepreneurial society. A new entrepreneurial class will
ultimately create jobs for their families and communities that will further positively impact on socio-economic
development and growth.‖
―The creation of sustainable black SMME enterprises has succeeded in creating a new group of black business
leaders. The model, where ownership and control are combined with entrepreneurial skills training, resulted in
the creation of sustainable business enterprises. Although not at sufficient levels, this has, over the first 10
years of democracy in South Africa, resulted in job creation in some of the most under-serviced communities in
South Africa.‖
The parties to the Charter declare: ―In respect of the challenges enunciated in the preceding Part B we, the
parties to this Charter, commit ourselves to procure our best endeavours and to also act in good faith in order
to:
               substantially increase participation by black entrepreneurs in the sector;
               create a supportive environment that will ensure the development of a sustainable black
                entrepreneurship base, including the targeting of entrepreneurial skills development for black
                women, the youth and the disabled;
               establish a viable, sustainable and globally competitive entrepreneurial base;
               promote and support better co-ordination and co-operation between and amongst technology
                incubators, government, state owned enterprises, the private sector and incubated companies,
                ensuring that such activities are regional and engage with marginalised communities;
               encourage the creation and sustainability of SMMEs, especially black SMMEs; and
               create employment.‖
The future areas of entrepreneurial activity in the ICT Sector are tabulated in Appendix A. Because of the
pervasive nature of ICT, the areas of entrepreneurial activity are listed in terms of applications rather than sub-
sectors of ICT. Note that the estimated number of potential entrants in the next 5 years is not provided. Such
information would have to be gathered through primary research.

5.2 Future Opportunities of Entrepreneurial Activity for SMMEs
The dti has conducted a number of Customised Sector Programmes in the Electro-technical Industry covering
sub-sectors such as ICT and Electronics. Future opportunities of entrepreneurial activity identified in this
document (Appendices A & B) are based mostly on these studies.
These areas are identified in terms of ‗Applications‘ rather the ICT sub-sectors. This is because of the pervasive
nature of ICT and the increasing convergence between ICT sub-sectors. The identified areas are by no means
exhaustive but are nevertheless regarded as the most promising areas with regards to providing opportunities
for SMMEs. The identified applications are:
                        Wireless Application
                              Enterprise Solutions: ERP, Telematics,/Data Collection, etc
                              Personal: Mobile Cash Personalised Interface, etc.
                              Content: Video Downloading and streaming, Geospatial, etc.
                        Human Language Technologies (HLT): Technologies that assist the disabled like
                         Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) and Voice-enabled access
                        Healthcare Applications: Telemedicine applications and communication tools are but a
                         few examples
                        Open Source Software: The appointment of vendors of open source software by the
                         State Information Technology Agency (SITA) points to the concern by government from
                         being tied to proprietary implementation.
Additionally, there has been a tendency in the telecommunications sub-sector to outsource various levels of
their services capability as can be seen in the negative growth employment figures presented in chapter 2. In
reality the requirement for these skills have not decreased but has moved to the SMME parts of the industry, in

Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                         Page 51
line with government BEE and SMME development requirements. Specific occupations form part of the Major
category Technicians and Trade workers and specific occupations that may be impacted are:
                  Radio-communications Technicians
                  Telecommunications Field Engineers
                  Telecommunications Technical Officer or Technologist
                  Cabler (Data and Telecommunications)
                  Telecommunications Cable Jointers
                  Telecommunication Lines worker / Telecommunications Line Mechanics
                  Telecommunications Technicians

5.3 Adult Basic Education and Training (ABET) provision
ABET in ICT refers mainly to basic computer training. The sector has no pressing need for ABET as the skills
levels required for the sector go much beyond basic computer literacy. However, there is a need, across
sectors, for computer literacy for the end-user. This aspect of training falls under the ambit of the ETDP Seta
and each sector must address it through its appropriate Seta.

5.4 Stakeholder Capacity Building
Stakeholders in the Isett Seta environment range from the Seta itself, to constituencies covering levy payers,
training providers, assessors, etc. The stakeholder capacity building needs therefore vary. It is therefore
imperative to commission impact assessment studies from time to time, e.g. an impact assessment of
learnerships provided by service providers could identify areas where service providers fall short and need
capacity building.




Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                     Page 52
6 Summary

6.1 The Isett Sector, as at 31st March 2009
       As at end-March 2009, the number of companies in the Isett Sector was 2,428, and the number of
        employees is estimated at 141,929.
       Of the 141,929 employees, 65.5% (92,967) were employed in large companies (companies having 150
        or more employees), 12.9% in medium companies (50 to 149 employees), and 21.6% in small
        companies (1 to 49 employees).
       The IT Sub-sector is the largest sub-sector within the Isett Sector, accounting for 53% (75,284) of the
        number of employees, followed by the Telecommunications Sub-sector which accounts for 32%
        (45,449) of the number of employees. The Electronics sub-sector accounts for the remaining 15%
        (21,196) of employees.
       In terms of the number of employees, 67% (94,832) of the employees are employed within Gauteng,
        followed by the Western Cape at 17% (23,430), KwaZulu-Natal at 8% (11,616) and the Eastern Cape at
        3% (4,458). The Isett Seta has offices in all four of these provinces.
       In terms of race equity, the DoL is striving for a target of 85% black (African, Coloured and Indian). As
        at end-March 2009, 54% of employees were black.
       In terms of gender equity, the DoL is striving for a target of 54% of employees to be female. As at end-
        March 2009, 35% of employees were female.
       In terms of disability equity, the DoL is striving for a target of 4% people with disability to be employed
        within the country. As at end-March 2009, 0.5% (675) of employees were people with disabilities.

6.2 Trends
       The Isett Sector will have conducted an estimate of 9,502 learnerships by April 2009, representing an
        average of about 2,375 per year. The signatories to the Draft ICT Charter committed to 5% of
        employees (approximately 7,200) completing learnerships over the ten-year period 2006 to 2015. This
        implies an average of about 720 per year, which is a significantly lower requirement than the current
        average of 2,375.
       Isett has always maintained that End-User Computing is more appropriate to the Isett Sector than Abet.
        This is supported by the 2007 and 2008 data which shows that only about one Abet training programme
        is conducted for every seventeen End-User Computing training programmes.
       About 1,356 Internships per year have been conducted by Isett stakeholders.
       Short Courses and Skills Programmes are the preferred training programmes of Isett stakeholders.
        This is in line with the perspective that, as technology changes, companies need to assist employees to
        upgrade their skills in order to maintain their competitive edge.

6.3 Scarce and Critical Skills
Table 29: Summary of Demand for Scarce Skills, by Learning Programmes
                                                                     st           st
             Type of Learning Programme                  Immed-     1 April 1 April     Immed-     Immed-
                                                          iate to   2010 to   2011 to    iate to    iate to
                                                           31st       31st     31st       31st       31st
                                                          March      March    March      March      March
                                                           2010      2011      2012       2011       2012
 Ap - Apprenticeships (Section 28) NON RPL, Total                11         4         7         15         22
 Ed - Generic, Diplomas, Degrees, Certificates, Total           898       435      449      1,333      1,782
 I - Internship, Total                                          313       145      142         458        600
 Ls - Learnerships, Total                                       978       434      536      1,412      1,948
 SC - Short Courses, Total                                      604       258      343         862     1,205
 SP - Skills Programmes, Total                                  322       145      100         467        567
 Grand Total                                                 3,126      1,421    1,577      4,547      6,124
   Source: Isett Seta OGS
Table 30: Summary of Demand for Critical Skills, by Learning Programmes
                                                         Number of Critical Skill (Top-Up) Training Interventions
         Type of Learning Programme             Immed-   1st April 1st April     1st April   Immed-       Immed-    Immed-


Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                                 Page 53
                                                 iate (as    2009 to    2010 to    2011 to    iate to    iate to    iate to
                                                  at 31st     31st       31st       31st       31st       31st       31st
                                                  March      March      March      March      March      March      March
                                                   2009)      2010       2011       2012       2010       2011       2012
 Ed - Generic, Diplomas, Degrees, Certificates         257       218        210        304         475        685        989
 I - Internship                                         39         15         15         35         54         69        104
 Ls - Learnerships                                     383       360        368        532         743      1,111      1,643
 SC - Short Courses                                    661       667        460        794       1,328      1,788      2,582
 SP - Skills Programmes                                317       232        208        197         549        757        954
 Total                                               1,657     1,492      1,261      1,862       3,149      4,410      6,272
 Totals as specified in the 2008 Sector Skills       3,242     1,804      2,252
 Plan                                               (2008)
  Source: Isett Seta OGS




Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                                 Page 54
Appendix A: Future Areas of Entrepreneurial Activity

 Area            Sub-area         Small Business Entrepreneurial   Examples                                               Brief description of most applicable
                                  Activity                                                                                background, knowledge, skills or
                                                                                                                          expertise the entrant would need to
                                                                                                                          have or develop in order to be
                                                                                                                          successful
 Wireless        Enterprise       CRM, ERP, Knowledge              Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA) technology              UMTS architecture and services, ERP and
 Applications    Solutions        Management, SCI, UMA             provides access to GSM and GPRS mobile                 CRM systems, object-oriented
 (see Appendix                                                     services over unlicensed spectrum technologies,        programming
 B)                                                                including Bluetooth and 802.11. By deploying UMA
                                                                   technology, service providers can enable
                                                                   subscribers to roam and handover between cellular
                                                                   networks and public and private unlicensed
                                                                   wireless networks using dual-mode mobile
                                                                   handsets. With UMA, subscribers receive a
                                                                   consistent user experience for their mobile voice
                                                                   and data services as they transition between
                                                                   networks.
                                  Asset Management                 Tracking of medical equipment in large hospitals       Database design and development
                                  Field Sales Automation           Mobile selling of airtime/electricity vouchers         Web-based CRM, object-oriented
                                                                                                                          programming, electronics design and
                                                                                                                          manufacturing
                                  Data Collection/Telematics       Monitoring ARV patients in their respective areas.     Database design and development,
                                                                   Collation of information into a centralized database   networks
                 Personal         Mobile Cash                      Using cellular phone as a debit/credit card            Networks, wireless communication
                                                                                                                          technologies, privacy & security
                                  Personalized Interface           Personalization is a toolbox of technologies and       User interface design, CRM, Databases,
                                                                   application features used in the design of an end-     web servers, real-time programming, data
                                                                   user experience. Features classified as                mining tools, privacy & information
                                                                   ‗personalization‘ are wide-ranging, from simple        security
                                                                   display of the end-user‘s name on a web page, to
                                                                   complex catalogue navigation and product
                                                                   customization based on deep model of user‘s
                                                                   needs and behaviours. Note that there are
                                                                   generally 5 categories of personalization: link,
                                                                   content, context, authorized and humanized.




Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                                                                                       Page 55
 Area            Sub-area          Small Business Entrepreneurial    Examples                                                Brief description of most applicable
                                   Activity                                                                                  background, knowledge, skills or
                                                                                                                             expertise the entrant would need to
                                                                                                                             have or develop in order to be
                                                                                                                             successful
                                   Location-based Services           An example would be someone using their                 Wireless communication standards,
                                                                     Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) based phone         Databases, GIS, Position Technologies
                                                                     to search for a restaurant. The LBS application         (e.g. GSM, GPS, etc), Programming
                                                                     would interact with other location technology           platforms (e.g. Java, .NET, etc.)
                                                                     components to determine the user‘s location and
                                                                     provide a list of restaurants within a certain
                                                                     proximity to the mobile user. Another example is
                                                                     location-based emergency service application that
                                                                     pinpoints your location and relays it the appropriate
                                                                     authorities.
                                   Healthcare                        Sending an sms to an AVR patient to take                Wireless communication standards,
                                                                     medication                                              Databases
                                   Mobile Payment                    Typical usage entails the user electing to make a       Authentication and authorization
                                                                     mobile payment, being connected to a server via         technology, Databases, wireless
                                                                     the mobile device to perform authentication and         communication standards, networks
                                                                     authorization, and subsequently being presented
                                                                     with confirmation of the completed transaction.
                                   Ticketing/Reservations            Enables customers to purchase, order, receive and       Decoding, Databases, networks
                                                                     check tickets any time and anywhere. Mobile
                                                                     ticketing makes the mobile phone the ticket. The
                                                                     code received from the phone is decoded at
                                                                     access control.
                 Content           Gaming, Video Downloading and     Streaming of live broadcast news or sports onto a       Streaming media and servers, video
                                   Streaming                         handheld device                                         programming, media formats
                                   Music                             Downloading of music onto handheld device like          Media formats, data formats
                                                                     cell phones
                                   Information Services              Provision of directory information via sms.             Databases, media formats
 Human           Spoken            Automatic Speech Recognition      The ability of a computer system to recognize a         Internet-Accessible Speech Recognition
 Language        Language          (ASR)                             speech signal (sound) and to identify the               Technology
 Technologies    Input,                                              phones/phonemes of an utterance. This can
 (HLT) (see      Language                                            particularly impact on illiteracy, language barriers
 Appendix B,     Generation,                                         and disability.
 Figure E-0-6)   Multilingualism
                                   Voice-enabled access (to the      A system taking voice requests for internet             Internet-Accessible Speech Recognition
                                   internet)                         searches. This, also, can particularly impact on        Technology
                                                                     illiteracy, language barriers and disability.
                                   Voice activated e-mail response   A system developed to read e-mail messages upon         Internet-Accessible Speech Recognition
                                                                     vocal request. This can particularly impact on          Technology
                                                                     illiteracy, language barriers and disability.




Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                                                                                        Page 56
 Area             Sub-area        Small Business Entrepreneurial         Examples                                             Brief description of most applicable
                                  Activity                                                                                    background, knowledge, skills or
                                                                                                                              expertise the entrant would need to
                                                                                                                              have or develop in order to be
                                                                                                                              successful
 Healthcare       Telemedicine    Video and audio streaming              Streaming of live surgical operations for tele-      Streaming media and servers, video
 (See Appendix                    solutions                              education purposes                                   programming, media formats
 B, Fig E-0-6)
                  Other           Communication tools such as            Nursing Listserves can provide nurses with a         Listserves, databases
                                  Listserves, Usenet News Groups,        means to communicate and exchange relevant
                                  and other web and internet-related     information.
                                  applications
                                  Remote monitoring, particularly for    Monitoring of a pacemaker remotely                   telemetry technologies
                                  home-based care
 Open Source      Middleware      There is a gap between principles      Consolidation of information (project information,   Application programming interfaces
 Software                         and practice. Many popular             KPIs, etc) centrally by government for decision
 (OSS)                            middleware services use                support
 (See Appendix                    proprietary implementations
 B, Figure E-0-                   (making applications dependent on
 1)                               a single vendor‘s product) and thus
                                  limiting interoperability. The costs
                                  of using middleware technology
                                  (i.e., license fees) in system
                                  development are entirely
                                  dependent on the required
                                  operating systems and the types of
                                  platforms. In this regards, OSS can
                                  provide a cost-effective alternative




Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                                                                                       Page 57
Appendix B: ICT TRENDS
The figure below shows 7 quadrants – Government, Skills, Financial Markets, Technology, Infrastructure, and
Other Environmental Factors. The figure shows levers that need to be pulled to improve South African
economic status. Under technology, webservices and opensource software are one of the areas or levers that
can unlock South Africa‘s potential.
Figure 22: South African Value Matrix




            Source: Africa Analysis. Research into the South African Software Market, Report Release 2. Report conducted for the dti.

Note: Webservices and Opensource Software offer the best value.
Figure 23: Market Status: Enterprise Solutions
Error! Objects cannot be created from editing field codes.
Source: Africa Analysis. Report: Wireless Applications in South Africa. Study conducted for the dti.

In the figure above, the pointers above the graph illustrate various ICT applications and where they are in terms
of maturity. The [pointers below are for the global market. The areas/applications with pervasive opportunities
are those at the early stages in the lifecycle i.e. in the Development, Introduction and Growth phases. The
applications in the maturity phases are characterised by major players in the industry, leaving very little room for
SMME to enter the industry.
Figure 24: Market Status: Personal
               Error! Objects cannot be created from editing field codes.
                    Source: Africa Analysis

In the figure above, the pointers above the graph illustrate various ICT applications and where they are in terms
of maturity. The [pointers below are for the global market. The areas/applications with pervasive opportunities
are those at the early stages in the lifecycle i.e. in the Development, Introduction and Growth phases. The
applications in the maturity phases are characterised by major players in the industry, leaving very little room for
SMME to enter the industry.
Figure 25: Market Status: Content
                    Error! Objects cannot be created from editing field codes.
                    Source: Africa Analysis

In the figure above, the pointers above the graph illustrate various ICT applications and where they are in terms
of maturity. The pointers below are for the global market. The areas/applications with pervasive opportunities
are those at the early stages in the lifecycle i.e. in the Development, Introduction and Growth phases. The
applications in the maturity phases are characterised by major players in the industry, leaving very little room for
SMME to enter the industry.



Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                                             Page 58
The table below show three drivers for advancement in wireless applications – social responsibility, revenue,
and necessity. What this table suggest is that applications can be created by assessing customer-needs
(technology-pull) and thereby identifying various market segments.
Table 31: Wireless Applications Market Segmentation
                               Error! Objects cannot be created from editing field codes.
                     Source: Africa Analysis

The table shows three drivers for advancement in wireless applications – social responsibility, revenue, and
necessity. What this table suggest is that applications can be created by assessing customer-needs
(technology-pull) and thereby identifying various market segments.
The diagram below illustrates various applications and the potential impact on the ICT industry as well as South
Africa‘s ability to respond in adapting or employing these technologies. Technologies that are pervasive in
terms of their potential impact on the industry and South Africa has the highest ability to respond to them are the
                                                                                st
have the most potential for entrepreneurial activity. These are located in the 1 quadrant (i.e. upper right corner
of the diagram): Mobile, Wireless, HLT, OSS, and to some extent Telemedicine and Geomatics.
Figure 26: Technology Impact Analysis Grid




Source: Benchmarking of Technology Trends and Technology Development, the dti, 2004. Report prepared by Bluepeter.

Notes: HLT, Mobile, Wireless, Telemedicine, Geomatics and OSS are the technologies with the best economic potential.


Major changes are taking place in how we access the Internet and how we make use of it. As a result, the
Internet‘s reach, capabilities and potential achievements are high on the policy agenda in OECD and non-OECD
          5
countries .
The Internet is making economic activity more efficient, faster, and cheaper, and extending social interaction in
unparalleled ways. Increasingly, the largest productivity gains for businesses come from using online networks
in some form. The multinational food giant Nestlé, for example, now receives all of its orders directly from
supermarkets over the Internet. The shipping company UPS used online networks to optimise its delivery
routes, saving 12 million litres of fuel in 2006 from nearly 100 000 trucks.
The Internet has also brought unprecedented user and consumer empowerment as well as opportunities for
new innovative and social activities. Individuals have greater access to information, which facilitates
comparisons and creates downward pressure on prices. Internet users are extremely active, creating new
content themselves and interacting in new ways.
The Internet is quickly permeating all economic and social domains, and most public policy areas. For instance,
e-government has become the prime tool for supporting government functions and interaction with citizens and
businesses. Healthcare systems are increasingly making use of the Internet and online networks to increase
affordability, quality and efficiency, through electronic patient record systems, remote patient monitoring and
healthcare delivery, along with improved diagnostics and imaging technologies. Educational performance is
found to be correlated with home access to, and use of, computers – all other things being equal. Moreover,


5
    OECD Policy Brief, June 2008

Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                                       Page 59
environmentally-friendly technologies based on the Internet in buildings and transport systems and alternative
power generating systems can help address climate change and improve energy efficiency.
Before the rapid development of the Internet, separate systems – telephone, television and video, individual
computer systems – stored and transmitted voice, video and data. Today, these systems are converging onto
the Internet. In addition to convergence of network platforms, convergence is also taking place at several other
levels: at the content level with Video on Demand (VoD) and television over Internet Protocol networks (IPTV);
at the business level, with companies offering combined television, Internet and telephone services to
subscribers; and at the device level, with multi-purpose devices that can combine email, telephone and Internet,
for example.
Beyond the current Internet, a set of new technologies such as radio frequency identification (RFID) and
location-based technologies are predicted to enable new innovative applications and cause the network to
evolve into an ―Internet of Things‖. In the longer term, small wireless sensor devices embedded in objects,
equipment and facilities are likely to be integrated with the Internet through wireless networks that will enable
interconnectivity anywhere and at anytime. The future uses and capacities of technologies that bridge the
physical and virtual worlds are expected both to bring economic benefits and raise new societal challenges.
An ―Internet of things‖ is predicted to be able to help individuals in their daily tasks and enhance business
processes, supply chain management and quality assurance. It will enable distance monitoring of ambient
conditions (e.g. temperature, pressure) and be used in a myriad of new applications, in areas such as
healthcare and environmental monitoring. However, concerns relating to the invisibility of data collection and to
the ability to trace and profile individuals could be exacerbated if tags and readers become pervasive and are
combined with sensors and networks.
Another pressing need for policy makers is to better understand the role and contribution of the Internet and
other information and communications technology in driving productivity and economic growth, and as a
platform for innovation, increased collaboration and shared creation. There is also a need to analyse the
economic, social and cultural impacts of emerging Internet technologies, applications and services, including
virtual worlds, sensor-based networks and social networking platforms.
In addition, more should be done to promote more open and competitive markets for goods and services, and to
meet the challenges of transforming government and the public sector so that they are more efficient,
transparent and accountable. Further research is also needed into the impact of Internet and related ICTs in
addressing climate change and improving energy efficiency and into translating these findings into policy action.
As the global reach of the Internet increases, it is necessary to ensure that co-operation on regulatory
enforcement expands as well. OECD governments have already developed policy frameworks to assist in
cross-border co-operation on law enforcement in the areas of consumer protection, spam (unwanted e-mail)
and privacy. More work is needed to improve cross-border co-operation, broaden access to information, and
combat threats to the security and stability of the Internet, as well as assessing the impact of changing
technologies, markets and user behaviour on our concept of privacy, security and consumer empowerment.
Finally, to craft appropriate policies, a broad range of information is required. Being able to better measure and
assess the growth and performance of the Internet is one vital piece of information. The Internet still represents
a ―black box‖ of unknowns for many stakeholders, despite its status as an increasingly critical infrastructure in
many countries. There is also a need to improve statistical systems to measure the changing use of the Internet
and related ICT networks by individuals and businesses in order to provide reliable information on evolving uses
and the impact of the Internet on economic performance and social well-being.
Internet-related policies should be crafted with the input of business, government, civil society and technical
experts. The participation of all stakeholders is needed to develop and implement policies and principles.
Evolving towards an inclusive multi-stakeholder approach is the starting point for good governance in the
information society. An effective and innovative multi-stakeholder approach is needed for government, the
private sector, the Internet technical community, civil society and individual users to jointly shape the policy
environment for the future of the Internet economy.
The communications sector is undergoing significant changes, with the emergence of a number of platforms
                                                    6
available to provide a different range of services . Some of these platforms are complementary, others are
competitive, or can provide a valid substitute for some of the services provided. Up to now, the most important
communications platform in OECD countries has been the public switched telecommunication network (PSTN)
which provides access to all households and buildings across most countries. This universality in providing
access has also meant that the network has generally been designated as the one for universal service.



6
 OECD, Convergence And Next Generation Networks, DSTI/ICCP/CISP(2007)2/FINAL, prepared as a background document for the ICCP-
organised Ministerial meeting on The Future of the Internet Economy.

Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                                  Page 60
The changes taking place in the PSTN are considerable. For over 100 years copper has been used as the
transmission technology in the local loop to connect each home and building to the telecommunication network.
Copper is increasingly being replaced by fibre in the local loop while packet-based technology using the Internet
Protocol is replacing existing circuit-based switching technologies. These changes require policy makers to
review and reassess existing regulations and policy frameworks and ensure that legacy frameworks do not
hamper convergence, investment and choice in the market place. New technologies and services can bring
significant benefits to end users but care must be exercised to maintain effective competition in
telecommunication markets and to prevent the exertion of market power, which would reduce the benefits.
       It is expected that significant investment will take place in bringing fibre closer to users as
        telecommunication operators upgrade the local loop. This will have important benefits in increasing
        speeds and allowing for the development and transmission of new services. There are concerns,
        however, that the new fibre networks deployed by incumbent telephone companies may create a
        challenge to maintain effective competition in markets. Regulators need to examine the options that
        they can use to ensure competition. This could take place inter alia either through access to facilities,
        access to passive facilities, or through policies promoting inter-modal competition.
       The rollout of fibre networks has increased the importance of rights of way and access to ducts and
        poles for new entrants. As a large part of the cost of deploying fibre networks is in civil works,
        appropriate policies should be in place to ensure fair and non-discriminatory access to ducts, poles and
        rights of way for market players. Policy makers also need to examine how to ensure better access by
        new entrants to existing resources to promote facilities-based competition.
       The convergence of video, voice and data on next generation networks can lead to more competition in
        individual markets for each of these services. In addition, increasing competitive pressure on mobile
        carriers is coming from the IP world. On the other hand, the trend towards horizontal integration of
        infrastructures, market and services could lead to strengthening of market power as there may be
        relatively few companies that can package voice, video and data services in a single bundled offer to
        end users.
       The migration towards Next Generation Networks (NGN) changes the network topology which
        potentially involves several structural changes, such as a reorganisation of core network nodes and
        changes in the number of network hierarchy levels. The shift to IP networks also raises questions of
        whether interconnection frameworks need to be revised, such as a shift to use interconnect frameworks
        which have been successful in developing Internet markets.
       The roll-out of higher capacity networks, such as through fibre in the local loop, could create
        asymmetries in access between urban and rural and remote areas. Questions arise as to whether
        alternative technologies may be used to provide high speed access to rural and remote areas. In
        addition, the question of whether new network developments should be reflected in universal service
        obligations also needs reviewing.
       The range of technologies making demands on spectrum, such as HDTV, mobile TV or 3G services, is
        growing rapidly. This raises the question of the need to change current spectrum allocation and
        management and to flexibly reassign unused and underused spectrum to users who will use it most
        efficiently.




Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                       Page 61
Appendix C: Description of the OFO and Scarce and Critical Skills

Structure of the Organising Framework for Occupations (OFO)
The OFO has been introduced to simplify and standardise the categorisation of occupations. The OFO is a
skill-based coded classification system, which encompasses all occupations in the South African context. The
structure of the OFO is presented in Figure 27 below.
                                       Figure 27: Structure of the OFO




With reference to Figure 27, note that occupations are categorised according to Major Group (one digit code),
Sub-Major Group (two digit code), Minor Group (three digit code), and Unit Group (four digit code). Occupations
(six digit code) are subdivisions of the unit groups and can further be broken down into specialisations or jobs.
An example of this structure is shown in Figure 28 below.
                                  Figure 28: Example of the OFO Structure




As will be noted from Figure 27 and Figure 28, occupations are further segmented into ―Jobs‖ or
―Specialisations‖. Hence, it is important to note that a „job/specialisation‟ and „occupation‟ are not the same.
The following definitions are applied:
              ―Occupation‖ is seen as a set of jobs or specialisations whose main tasks are characterised by a
               high degree of similarity.



Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                       Page 62
              ―Job/Specialisation‖ is seen as a set of roles and tasks (as indicated in Figure 27) designed to
               be performed by one individual for an employer (including self-employment) in return for payment
               or profit.
The occupations identified in the OFO therefore represent a category that could encompass a number of jobs
or specialisations.
Occupations are classified according to two main criteria: skill level and skill specialisation, where skill is
used in the context of competency rather than a description of tasks or functions.
The skill level of an occupation is related to competent performance of tasks associated with an
occupation. Skill level is therefore an attribute of an occupation, not of individuals in the labour force and can
operationally be measured by:
              the level or amount of formal education and/or training (e.g. NQF level);
              the amount of previous experience in a related occupation; and
              the amount of on-the job training
usually required to perform the set of tasks required for that occupation competently. It is therefore possible to
make a comparison between the skill level of an occupation and the normally required educational level on the
NQF as well as entry, intermediate and advanced levels referred to in the NSDS. This comparison is illustrated
in Figure 29 below.
When determining the skill level of an occupation, the question to ask therefore is ―What is the skill level (e.g.
NQF level) required for this occupation to be performed competently?‖
Figure 29 provides an estimated comparison of the skill level of the Major Groups in relation to the NQF levels
as well as entry, intermediate and advanced level skills. It must be noted that the NQF levels especially are a
rough estimation and could vary as they are an indication of qualification level and not necessarily the skill level
associated with competent performance.
Figure 29: Comparison between skill levels covered by Major Groups in OFO and NQF and NSDS levels
                    NSDS   NQF   OFO         Major Occupational Groups in OFO


                           8
                     A                   1. MANAGERS                2. PROFESSIONALS
                     D
                                 1
                     V
                     A     7
                     N
                     C
                     E
                     D     6     2
                                                                     4.              3.
                                                                 COMMUNITY      TECHNICIANS
                     I                 5. CLERICAL                              AND TRADES
                     N
                                                                    AND
                                       AND ADMINI-                               WORKERS
                     T     5            STRATIVE
                                                                 PERSONAL
                     E                                            SERVICE
                                 3      WORKERS
                     R                                            WORKERS
                     M
                     E     4                         6. SALES
                     D                               WORKERS
                                                                                    7.
                                                                                MACHINERY
                           3     4                                              OPERATORS
                     E                                                             AND           8.
                     N                                                           DRIVERS      LABOURERS
                     T                                                                           AND
                     R     2                                                                   ELEMEN-
                     Y                                                                           TARY
                                                                                               WORKERS
                                 5
                           1


The skill specialisation of an occupation is a function of the field of knowledge required, tools and
equipment used, materials worked on, and goods or services provided in relation to the tasks performed.

Scarce and Critical Skills
Definition of Scarce and Critical Skills
The following definitions of Scarce and Critical Skills apply:
SCARCE SKILLS refer to those occupations in which there are a scarcity of qualified and experienced people,
currently or anticipated in the future, either (a) because such skilled people are not available or (b) they are
available but do not meet employment criteria. This scarcity can arise from one or a combination of the
following, grouped as relative or absolute:

Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                            Page 63
                  Absolute scarcity: suitably skilled people are not available, for example:
                    A new or emerging occupation, i.e. there are few, if any, people in the country with the
                     requisite skills (qualification and experience) and education and training providers have yet to
                     develop learning programmes to meet the skills requirements.
                    Firms, sectors and even the country are unable to implement planned growth strategies and
                     experiencing productivity, service delivery and quality problems directly attributable to a lack of
                     skilled people.
                    Replacement demand would reflect an absolute scarcity where there are no people enrolled or
                     engaged in the process of acquiring the skills that need to be replaced.
                  Relative scarcity: suitably skilled people available but do not meet other employment criteria, for
                   example:
               1. Geographical location, i.e. people unwilling to work outside of urban areas.
               2. Equity considerations, i.e. there are few if any candidates with the requisite skills
                  (qualifications and experience) from specific groups available to meet the skills requirements
                  of firms and enterprises.
               3. Replacement demand would reflect a relative scarcity if there are people in education and
                  training (formal and work-place) who are in the process of acquiring the necessary skills
                  (qualification and experience) but where the lead time will mean that they are not available in
                  the short term to meet replacement demand.
CRITICAL SKILLS, on the other hand, refer to specific key or generic and ―top up‖ skills within an occupation.
In the South African context there are two groups of critical skills:
                   a) Key or generic skills, including (in SAQA-NQF terminology) critical cross-field outcomes.
                      These would include cognitive skills (problem solving, learning to learn), language and
                      literacy skills, mathematical skills, ICT skills and working in teams.
                   b) Particular occupationally specific ―top-up‖ skills required for performance within that
                      occupation to fill a ―skills gap‖ that might have arisen as a result of changing technology or
                      new forms of work organisation.
Both scarce and critical skills must be identified at the occupational level, with scarce skills being considered
against the occupation itself and critical skills being reflected as specific skills within the occupation.

Identifying Scarce Skills against Current Occupations
Scarce and critical skill shortages are identified by gathering and analysing information in respect of:
           1. Hard-to-fill vacancies or long-term vacancies: The South African average across occupations
              is around 56 days from advertisement to appointment. This is in sharp contrast to the USA norm,
              which is around 30 days, differences in labour legislation and practices notwithstanding. The
              proposal is that enterprises should report possible scarcity when they have been unable to fill a
              position and that position has been advertised as vacant for more than 3 months / 60 working
              days and where the reasons for not being able to fill the position reflect or are related to one of
              the following:
                       a. No appropriately qualified people available, e.g. new occupation, new qualification
                          required.
                       b. No appropriately experienced people available, e.g. qualification available but
                          experience and application in the work place is a key employer requirement.
                       c.   No appropriately qualified and/or experienced people available from target groups e.g.
                            women mining engineers.
           2. Sourcing skills from outside of the country: Where there is hard or anecdotal evidence that
              key employers in the sector are recruiting skilled workers outside of the country to fill specific
              occupations.
           3. Higher wages: Where there is hard or anecdotal evidence that the lack of skilled people has
              resulted in skilled workers demanding higher wages or employers paying a premium for skill.
           4. Lower productivity levels: Where enterprises or sub-sectors are reporting that scarce or critical
              skills shortages are being reflected in lower quality, productivity or service delivery measures. For
              example, there is greater wastage, more machine down time, more mistakes, greater need for
              supervision, more work having to be done over to correct mistakes.

Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                              Page 64
           5. Lower productivity growth: Where within enterprises, sub-sectors, sectors and even nationally
              there is less expenditure on innovation, R&D, less product or service value added.




Isett Seta Sector Skills Plan 2009 Version 1.0                                                  Page 65

				
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