ArcGIS by t4Wsc73



Document Source: ArcNews Online Spring 2004

ArcGIS 9

ArcGIS Desktop

Building on the strength of previous
releases, ArcGIS 9 adds important
capabilities not previously available.
ArcGIS 9 Desktop includes a
comprehensive geoprocessing framework
and toolkit for creating and executing
complex GIS procedures. Other highlights
include improved annotation, labeling, and
geodatabase interoperability. In addition,
the ArcGIS extensions grow their offerings
with the new ArcGlobe 3D application in
ArcGIS 3D Analyst; ArcReader
customization via ArcGIS Publisher; and
two new extensions, Maplex for ArcGIS
and ArcGIS Data Interoperability.

With the introduction of two new products,
ArcGIS Engine and ArcGIS Server,
developers have the ability to deploy
solutions as independent applications on
the desktop or as Web services. In this issue
of ArcNews, you will find a special section
detailing the features of ArcGIS 9.

Use ModelBuilder, a visual modeling application for building geoprocessing work flows to
determine floodplain encroachment and inundation areas. (Map2Map graphics courtesy of
San Antonio River Authority & Coalition Members, DigitalGlobe, and Tele Atlas.)

New Geoprocessing Framework

ArcGIS 9 Desktop provides a complete geoprocessing framework and set of tools for
ArcView, ArcEditor, and ArcInfo. Geoprocessing tools range from common GIS operations,
such as overlay, buffer, and data management, to more advanced operations for raster
processing, topology, and schema definitions. Traditionally, ArcInfo Workstation and ARC
Macro Language (AML) have been used for these tasks.

The geoprocessing framework is common for ArcView, ArcEditor, and ArcInfo, although the
number of tools available within each product varies. ArcView supports a core set of simple
data loading and translation tools as well as approximately 40 fundamental analysis tools.
ArcEditor augments this set with tools for geodatabase creation and loading. ArcInfo
supplies approximately 200 tools including all geoprocessing functionality that has been
available in ArcInfo Workstation. ArcInfo supports advanced analysis and complex work
flows. Additional geoprocessing tools are supplied by ArcGIS extensions. For example,
ArcGIS Spatial Analyst and ArcGIS 3D Analyst add more than 200 tools such as those for
raster modeling and terrain analysis.

The geoprocessing tools in ArcGIS 9 Desktop can be used in a number of ways and work
with all supported data formats including geodatabase feature classes. The same operations,
commands, or tools can run within dialogs, interactively in visual models, or quickly via
command line input or can be integrated into multipart scripts or applications for advanced

Improved Annotation and Labeling

Another major focus of ArcGIS 9 is on significantly improving the user experience when
creating, editing, and managing labels and geodatabase annotation. A new set of tools
enables users to centrally manage all labels, reducing the time and effort in creating
cartographic labels. In addition, there are new tools for managing geodatabase annotation,
allowing users to simply and easily update and create annotation. The geodatabase has also
been upgraded to support more advanced text formatting and annotation.

Enhanced Raster Support

ArcGIS 9 includes significant enhancements to raster management, query, and visualization.
A new user interface is introduced to explore and create raster data. Users have the option to
mosaic large rasters into a single raster or manage rasters as a series of tiles. Tiled rasters can
store attribute information, making it possible to perform spatial-based queries and selections
for corridor analysis or data updates. Raster data can also be associated and stored with
vector features, allowing for hot linked rasters such as house photographs on a locator map.
In addition, overall raster display is faster and better.

Learn about key enhancements to the ArcGIS extensions and geodatabase interoperability in
the accompanying articles. Also visit

Providing a Complete GIS Platform

Recent developments in computing—
the growth of the Internet, advances
in database management system
(DBMS) technology, object-oriented
programming, mobile computing,
and wide GIS adoption—have led to
an evolving vision and role for GIS.
The ArcGIS product line was built to
satisfy these changing requirements
to deliver a scalable, comprehensive
GIS platform. This platform
encompasses a set of products that contain generic GIS components known as ArcObjects
(see below) and is structured around the geodatabase, the core model for organizing
geographic information.

The ArcGIS 9 Family of Products

ArcGIS 9 is an integrated collection of GIS software products for building a complete GIS.
The fundamental architecture of ArcGIS enables users to deploy GIS functionality and
business logic wherever it is needed on desktops, on servers, over the Web, or in the field:

Desktop GIS—ArcReader, ArcView, ArcEditor, ArcInfo, and the ArcGIS extensions are a
scalable suite of products for authoring, sharing, managing, and publishing geographic

Embedded GIS—ArcGIS Engine is a complete library of embeddable GIS components and
tools packaged together for developers to build new, or extend existing, custom desktop
applications. Using ArcGIS Engine, developers can embed GIS functions into existing
applications, such as industry specific products and commercial productivity applications
(e.g., Microsoft Word and Excel), as well as build focused custom applications for delivering
GIS to many users in their organizations.

Server GIS—ArcGIS Server, ArcIMS, and ArcSDE are used to create and manage server-
based GIS applications that share geographic knowledge within larger organizations and with
many other users on the Internet. ArcGIS Server is an application server that includes a
shared library of GIS software objects to build serverside GIS applications in enterprise and
Web computing frameworks. ArcIMS is a scalable Internet map server for GIS publishing of
maps, data, and metadata through open Internet protocols. ArcSDE is an advanced spatial
data server for managing geographic information in a myriad of relational database
management systems.

Mobile GIS—ArcPad, coupled with wireless mobile devices that are GPS enabled, is
increasingly used for focused data collection and GIS information access in the field.

ArcObjects: Shared GIS Components

ArcGIS 9 is based on a common modular component-based library of shared GIS software
components called ArcObjects. Each of the ArcGIS product architectures built with
ArcObjects represents alternative application development containers for GIS software
developers including desktop GIS (ArcGIS Desktop), embedded GIS (ArcGIS Engine), and
server GIS (ArcGIS Server). Together ArcGIS Desktop, ArcGIS Server, and ArcGIS Engine
become a comprehensive GIS development platform for deploying GIS functionality

Geographic Information Model

The geodatabase is the core geographic information model for organizing GIS data into
thematic layers and spatial representations. The geodatabase is a comprehensive series of
application logic and tools for accessing and managing GIS data. The geodatabase
application logic is accessible in client applications (ArcGIS Desktop), server configurations
(ArcGIS Server), and logic-embedded custom applications (ArcGIS Engine).

The geodatabase was designed as an open, simple geometry storage model. The geodatabase
is open to many possible storage mechanisms and can be implemented using a multiuser or
personal DBMS or XML, and it is not tied to a single DBMS vendor.

Announcing ArcGIS Data Interoperability

Jointly developed by ESRI and ESRI
Canada Limited Business Partner Safe
Software (Surrey, British Columbia,
Canada), the Data Interoperability
extension for ArcGIS 9 Desktop eliminates
barriers for data sharing by providing state-
of-the-art direct data access, data
transformation, and export capabilities.
This development will allow ArcGIS
Desktop users to easily use and distribute
data in many formats.

ESRI is committed to providing
                                                Directly read more than 65 data formats such as GML,
technologies that are based on open             MicroStation Design, and MapInfo MID/MIF in ArcGIS
standards to serve customers and promote        Desktop.
the sharing of geographic data. This new product enables true data interoperability between
organizations regardless of industry, application, or format. ESRI has worked with Safe
Software, a provider of spatial data transformation solutions, to fully integrate its powerful
tools within ArcGIS Desktop.

The ArcGIS Data Interoperability extension works with ArcView, ArcEditor, and ArcInfo
and provides
   o Direct read access to more than 65 spatial data formats including Autodesk
       DWG/DXF, GML, Intergraph GeoMedia Warehouse, MapInfo MID/MIF,
       MicroStation Design, Oracle and Oracle Spatial, and XML
   o Export capabilities to more than 50 spatial data formats
   o A semantic data translation engine with 120 specialized transformers to diagram and
       model custom spatial data formats
   o Integration with the new geoprocessing framework and ModelBuilder to enable data
       format manipulation within GIS models

The ArcGIS Data Interoperability extension enables users to directly read, display, and
analyze the data, utilizing all the available tools in ArcGIS Desktop. Using the Data
Interoperability extension, users can also create custom data format readers that directly
support data in nonstandard formats in ArcGIS. For example, a custom data source can be
built that reads a GML file, selects and renames important attributes, splits data into multiple
layers, and writes the data layers into a geodatabase. Once defined, this custom data source
can be used over and over again in ArcGIS Desktop just like any other data source.
ArcGIS Data Interoperability is an optional extension to ArcView, ArcEditor, and ArcInfo
and will be available after the initial ArcGIS 9 release.

ArcGIS 3D Analyst

The ArcGIS 3D Analyst extension at ArcGIS 9 improves in two major areas, 3D
visualization and 3D symbology. It still retains all the same functionality that many GIS
users have enjoyed throughout the years, but adds integrated tools to enhance the 3D
visualization experience.

New at the 9 release within the ArcGIS 3D Analyst extension is ArcGlobe, a whole-earth 3D
visualization application. ArcGlobe enables users to manage and visualize—at a global or
local scale—many gigabytes of data that can be seamlessly merged on-the-fly into a single
fast visualization experience. ArcGlobe also integrates with the new geoprocessing
framework, allowing tools, models, and scripts to be executed within this highly dynamic

ArcGIS 3D Analyst also adds support for using 3D symbols in a number of ways. The most
common use will be the representation of GIS features using 3D symbols. This can be done
by using 3D objects such as houses or cars as the symbology for point features, grass or
water for polygon features, and tubes or textured lines for line features. ArcScene and
ArcGlobe both support these new 3D symbols.

For more information on ArcGIS 3D Analyst and ArcGlobe, visit

Maplex for ArcGIS Provides Advanced Text and Label Placement

High-quality labeling is a time-consuming
task and can create a bottleneck in the map
production process. Since the release of
ArcGIS, its users have requested advanced
label placement and annotation
management functionality with an intuitive
graphic user interface and powerful conflict
resolution to create labels and symbols for
map features.

ESRI has satisfied this need by providing
Maplex for ArcGIS, an automated high-
quality cartographic text placement and
                                               ArcGIS advanced automated labeling using the Maplex for
labeling extension for ArcView, ArcEditor,     ArcGIS extension (data courtesy of IHS Energy).
and ArcInfo.

Maplex for ArcGIS uses the proven Maplex text placement engine to produce high-quality
cartographic and automated labeling for digital and hard-copy maps. Its advanced settings for
text placement include placement priority, text formatting, and conflict resolution. Maplex
for ArcGIS greatly reduces map production time and enhances cartographic quality.
With Maplex for ArcGIS users can

   o   Reduce manual editing time using intelligent annotation placement.
   o   Control, to a greater degree, the spacing of words and characters.
   o   Automatically resolve label conflicts in smaller spaces.
   o   Select from new placement styles for polygons.
   o   Indicate special placement for lines that represent street features.

Maplex for ArcGIS brings professional cartographic labeling tools to the ArcGIS Desktop
environment and dramatically improves the map production process. For more information,

ArcReader and ArcGIS Publisher at Version 9

ArcReader is a free, easy-to-use desktop product that allows everyone to view, explore, and
print published map files (PMF). PMFs are created with ArcGIS Publisher, an extension to
ArcView, ArcEditor, and ArcInfo, which converts ESRI map documents (MXD) to PMF

At version 9, ArcGIS Publisher offers a new ActiveX developer control called the
ArcReaderControl. With this component, developers with an ArcGIS Publisher license can
create custom applications that view, explore, print, and export PMF files. Developers can
build custom ArcReader software-like viewers and can embed a custom viewer in other
applications with no royalty fees.

Deployment of custom viewers built with the ArcReaderControl requires ArcReader 9 to be
installed on the target computer. ArcReader can be downloaded from

Other new functionality in ArcGIS Publisher includes wizard driven utilities that facilitate
packaging map data with PMF files and new application and security settings. For more
information on ArcGIS Publisher, visit

Deploy ArcObjects Anywhere With ArcGIS 9

ArcGIS provides a complete system for developing desktop and server applications that
allows developers to
    o Embed GIS and mapping functionality in other applications.
    o Build and deploy custom desktop applications.
    o Configure/Customize ArcGIS products such as ArcView, ArcEditor, and ArcInfo.
    o Extend the ArcGIS architecture and data model.
    o Build Web services and server-based applications.


Through a carefully planned evolution, ArcGIS has come to be based on a modular, scalable,
cross platform architecture comprising libraries of software components called ArcObjects.
ArcObjects are platform-independent software components, written in C++, that provide
services to support GIS applications, either on the desktop in the form of thick and thin
clients or on a server for Web and traditional client/server deployments. Because this
architecture supports a number of unique ArcGIS products with specialized requirements, all
ArcObjects are designed and built to support a multiuse scenario.
Libraries of appropriate ArcObjects are packaged into Developer Kits for ArcGIS, providing
a common developer experience across ArcGIS Desktop, ArcGIS Engine, and ArcGIS

ArcGIS Development and Deployment Options

Developers can customize ArcGIS Desktop with common object model (COM)-compliant
languages such as Visual Basic. The extensive Windows-based user interfaces for ArcGIS
Desktop require the use of COM and .NET environments.

With ArcGIS Engine and ArcGIS Server, developers have the ability to deploy ArcGIS
solutions as independent applications on the desktop or as Web services across an Intranet or
the Internet.

ESRI offers developers flexibility in implementing ArcGIS. Developers can choose from
three deployment platforms (ArcGIS Desktop, ArcGIS Engine, and ArcGIS Server), four
development environments (Java, .NET, C++, and COM), and deploy applications on a
variety of UNIX and Windows operating systems.

Build on Common Foundations

Many ArcObjects that make up ArcGIS are used within all ArcGIS products. This
commonality of function between ArcGIS products is important for developers to
understand, since it means that when working in a particular category much of the
development effort can be transferred among the ArcGIS products.

The ArcGIS architecture provides rich functionality to the developer, but it is not a closed
system. The ArcGIS architecture is extendable by developers external to ESRI. ArcGIS
provides many possibilities for the sharing and reuse of ArcObjects created by ESRI, users,
and others in the GIS community.

ArcGIS Architecture's Focus

   o   Modularity—The ArcGIS architecture is divided into a number of logical libraries so
       developers can use and deliver only the libraries they need.
   o   Extensibility—Users can add geospatial functionality specific to an organization's
       particular needs.
   o   Scalability—ArcObjects perform effectively in all supported operating environments
       from single user desktop applications to multiuser server applications.
   o   Standards and Interoperability—ArcGIS Server and ArcGIS Engine support
       multiple operating systems, database management systems, and development
       environments in addition to numerous GIS and data standards.
   o   Compatibility—The ArcObjects in ArcGIS 9 remain equivalent, both functionally
       and programmatically, to the ArcObjects in previous releases of ArcGIS.
   o   Flexibility—Users can deploy GIS functionality on the server (ArcGIS Server) in
       custom applications (ArcGIS Engine) or in commercial off-the-shelf products
       (ArcView, ArcEditor, and ArcInfo).

For more information on ArcObjects, visit

Developing Custom Applications with ArcGIS Engine

ArcGIS Engine is a set of embeddable cross platform
ArcObjects, ArcGIS software's underlying components,
used to build custom GIS and mapping desktop
applications or add new functionality to existing
applications. ArcGIS Engine applications can vary from
simple map viewers to custom GIS editing and analysis
programs. It is important to note that with ArcGIS
Engine, the map displays can be either an incidental or
central element in the application. This feature makes
ArcGIS Engine particularly well suited to vertical
market applications.

This follow-on article provides an overview of
                                                          Developing an ArcGIS Engine Java application in Eclipse.
developing applications with ArcGIS Engine.

ArcGIS Engine Developer Kit

Developers build applications with the ArcGIS Engine Developer Kit and deliver those programs to end
users via licensed ArcGIS Engine Runtime software. The ArcGIS Engine Developer Kit includes
resources to support comprehensive development tasks. An integrated help system is provided for several
application program interfaces (APIs) (common object model [COM], Java, .NET, and C++) along with
object model diagrams and samples for each part of ArcGIS Engine.

The ArcGIS Engine Developer Kit provides access to a large collection of ArcObjects components and
includes visual developer controls for creating high-quality mapping user interfaces. These visual
components are available as ActiveX controls, JavaBeans, and .NET Windows controls. The ArcGIS
Engine Developer Kit controls can be combined with other controls and components to create customized
user interfaces, displays, and reports.

What Developers Can Do With ArcGIS Engine

As a developer, you can implement these and many other functions in programs built with the ArcGIS
Engine Developer Kit:
   o Display a map with multiple map layers such as roads, streams, and boundaries.
   o Pan and zoom throughout a map.
   o Identify features on a map by clicking on them.
   o Search for features on a map.
   o Draw images from aerial photography or satellite imagery.
   o Draw graphic features such as points, lines, circles, and polygons.
   o Draw descriptive text.
   o Select features along lines and inside boxes, areas, polygons, and circles.
   o Select features within a specified distance of other features.
   o Find and select features with a Structured Query Language (SQL) expression.
   o Render features with thematic methods such as value map, class breaks, and dot density.
   o Dynamically display real-time or time series data.
   o Find locations on a map from street address or intersection.
   o Transform the coordinate system of map data.
   o Perform geometric operations on shapes to create buffers; calculate differences; or find
                                                                                                     - 10 -

       intersections, union, or inverse intersections of shapes.
   o   Manipulate the shape or rotation of a map.
   o   Create and update geographic features and their attributes.
   o   Interact with personal and enterprise geodatabases.

Developing With ArcGIS Engine

Developers build ArcGIS Engine applications in their chosen integrated development environment (IDE)
such as
   o Delphi and Visual Studio for Windows developers
   o JBuilder, Eclipse, and Sun ONE Studio for Java developers

Developers register the ArcGIS Engine Developer
components with their IDE and then create a forms-
based application, adding in ArcGIS Engine
components and writing code to build their application
logic. For example, a developer can build a focused GIS
mapping application by adding a map control, a table of     GIS clients can range from simple browser access to professional
contents control, and selected toolbars to their            GIS desktops such as ArcView and ArcInfo.

Although a simple application can be built with just the high-level controls, practical applications of the
ArcGIS Engine require knowledge of the different object libraries that compose the ArcGIS Engine.

Developer Tools

The ArcGIS Developer Kit includes three key collections of GIS logic:
   o Controls—Controls are visual user interface components for ArcGIS that you can embed in your
      applications. For example, a Map control and a Table of Contents control can be added to a
      custom application to present interactive maps.
   o Toolbars and tools—Toolbars contain collections of GIS tools for interacting with maps and
      geographic information in your application. Examples of tools include Pan, Zoom, Identify, and
      Selection tools. Tools are presented in the application interface on a toolbar. Tools simplify the
      process of building custom applications by providing a rich set of commonly used functions.
      Developers can simply drag and drop selected tools into their application interfaces.
   o Object Libraries—Object libraries are logical collections of programmable ArcObjects
      components, ranging from a geometry library to mapping, GIS data source, and geodatabase
      libraries. Programmers use these libraries in IDEs on a variety of platforms to develop application
      code that ranges from simple to advanced. These same libraries form the basis of ArcGIS Desktop
      and ArcGIS Server and can be accessed through most commonly used development environments
      (for example Visual Basic, .NET, C++, Java, and COM).

Deploying ArcGIS Engine Applications

Once built, ArcGIS Engine applications can be installed on two types of ArcGIS seats:
   o ArcGIS Engine seats that are embedded to run ArcGIS Engine applications
   o Existing ArcGIS Desktop seats (that is, seats running ArcView, ArcEditor, or ArcInfo) that are
      equipped to run ArcGIS Engine applications
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An ArcGIS Runtime installation CD-ROM is included with the ArcGIS Engine media kit and can be
installed and configured on many computers. A keycode file is required to enable ArcGIS Engine
capabilities on each computer. Optional extensions to ArcGIS can also be enabled by adding a line to the
keycode file.

Visit for more information including a comprehensive white paper detailing
more development and deployment options for ArcGIS Engine.

Open Geodatabase Interchange Using XML

Geodatabase XML is ESRI's open mechanism for information interchange between
geodatabases and other external systems. New at ArcGIS 9, ESRI openly publishes and
maintains the complete geodatabase schema and content as an XML specification and
provides example implementations to illustrate how users can share data updates between
heterogeneous systems.

Geodatabase XML Specification

The openly published Geodatabase XML Specification allows applications to send and
receive XML data streams including
    o Exchange of complete lossless data sets
    o Exchange of change-only (delta) record sets to pass updates and changes
    o Exchange and sharing of full or partial geodatabase schemas
    o Interchange of simple feature sets (much like shapefile interchange)

Users of ArcGIS 9 can export all or any part of a geodatabase, such as individual feature data
sets, feature classes, and tables, to an export file in XML format. The specification
encompasses all geodatabase data types, and the exchange format allows complete export,
change-only export (i.e., disconnected editing), and schema-only export. Within ArcGIS
Desktop, geodatabase export and import are performed in the ArcCatalog application within
ArcView, ArcEditor, and ArcInfo.

This openly published specification allows other applications to import and export data in a
geodatabase friendly format. We expect other non-ArcGIS applications to import the XML
file to their native formats and then export back to XML format after editing is complete. By
providing a way to exchange geodatabase information, users can publish data models and
share geodatabase data sets in a completely open and interoperable environment.

Widespread Adoption

ArcGIS 9 Desktop users can easily share all or any part of a geodatabase using functionality
built within the ArcCatalog application. Users in the wider GIS community will be able to
participate in this same data sharing using the openly published Geodatabase XML
Specification. As a result, we expect to see widespread adoption of the geodatabase format in
a manner similar to the shapefile format after its specification was openly published.
                                               - 12 -

ArcGIS 9 Expands Serverside GIS Capabilities
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                                                                                                      - 14 -

With the release of ArcGIS 9, ESRI takes a
significant step toward broad use of geospatial
technology across the enterprise by expanding the
tools available for creating and managing server-
based GIS applications. In addition to new
capabilities and additional extensions for ArcIMS
and enhancements to ArcSDE, ESRI is introducing
ArcGIS Server, an enterprise GIS application
server. New features offered with each of these
products are described below.

ArcGIS Server

ArcGIS Server is a platform for building enterprise
                                                                            the depth of ESRI's GIS capabilities,
GIS applications that are centrally managed, support ArcGIS Server exposesof using editing tools within a browser as
                                                     shown in this example                                        to
multiple users, include advanced GIS functionality,  specify conservaton plan areas.
and are built using industry standards. ArcGIS
Server manages comprehensive GIS functionality, such as maps, locators, and software objects, for
use in central server applications.

"ArcGIS Server will change the way we do business. It provides a platform for delivering GIS capabilities to a

much larger audience than was previously possible. That, by itself, is a fabulous move for us."

                                                                       Kenneth Gorton, GIS Manager, American Forests

Developers can use ArcGIS Server to build Web applications, Web services, and other enterprise
applications, such as Enterprise JavaBeans (EJBs), that run within standard .NET and J2EE Web
servers. ArcGIS Server is also accessed by desktop applications that interact with the server in a
client-server mode. ArcGIS Server administration is
performed using ArcGIS Desktop, which can be
used to access ArcGIS Server over a LAN or the

End users can access ArcGIS Server applications
using a range of clients including browsers,
desktops, or mobile devices. Because the processing
occurs on the server, the end user does not
necessarily need to have any GIS expertise to use
and benefit from an ArcGIS Server application. For
example, by simply typing an address into a form
displayed in a browser, a gas utility call center
employee could set in motion a network trace that
indicates which gas line is having problems and
which gas valve potentially needs to be shut off.
With one more click, the call center could find out
which customers need to be notified in the event of
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a shutoff. In other words, ArcGIS Server makes it possible for GIS to become a seamless part of the
work flow within an organization.

Because ArcGIS Server is based on ArcObjects, it exposes the depth of ESRI's GIS capabilities. These
capabilities include mapping, geocoding, spatial queries, editing, tracing, and high-end analysis. The
ArcObjects components that are available to developers via ArcGIS Server make it possible to build
GIS capabilities that are as simple or complex as desired.

ArcGIS Server leverages the data, maps, and work that GIS professionals build with ArcGIS Desktop.
The applications developed using ArcGIS Server will provide the opportunity to create and serve up a
whole class of advanced GIS server applications. Many users will add ArcGIS Server to their
environments and leverage their GIS investments across their organizations.

The main elements of an ArcGIS Server implementation are

     o   The GIS server, which hosts and runs the server objects. The GIS server consists of a server
         object manager and one or more server object containers.

     o   The Web server or Web application server, which hosts Web applications and Web services
         that use the objects running in the GIS server.

     o   Web browsers, which end users use to connect to Web applications running in the Web server.

     o   Desktop GIS applications, which can connect over HTTP to GIS Web services running in the
         Web server or directly to GIS servers over a local area network (LAN).

ArcGIS Server adheres to information technology standards, providing maximum interoperability and
compatibility with enterprise architectures using a variety of popular programming languages,
development environments (e.g., Java, .NET), commercial applications servers, and database
management systems.

"Our whole client base consists of nontraditional GIS users. The server-based architecture of ArcGIS Server

allows us to create a front end that is customized and optimized for these end users. By simplifying the GIS

and making it easier to use, we can more broadly deploy GIS so that it is used on a daily basis."

                                                                  Brian L. Haslam, President, Azteca Systems, Inc.

The standards-based approach, as well as extensive functionality and the ability to deal with terabytes
of data, make ArcGIS Server ideal for providing GIS capabilities to a wide range of distributed users.

For more information on ArcGIS Server, visit

                                                                                         - 16 -

In addition to expanded support for the ArcIMS core capabilities of serving maps, data, and
metadata over the Web, ArcIMS 9 will also support some new options for data delivery,
tracking, and the creation of GIS portals.

The new ArcIMS Data Delivery extension makes dissemination of data easy and open. This
extension enables users to easily select, export, and deliver data in multiple formats and
projections from a centralized Internet map server. It gives users and administrators the
ability to publish data in all the standard spatial formats used within the industry.

During the ArcIMS 9 time frame, ESRI also plans to release Tracking Server. This toolkit
will provide a way for ArcIMS users to collect real-time data from many data sources and
formats and then send it to Web and desktop clients including ArcGIS Tracking Analyst.

ArcIMS 9 also supports the GIS Portal Toolkit. This toolkit is a technology and services
solution for implementing local, regional, national, and Global Spatial Data Infrastructure
(GSDI) portals. GIS portals organize content and services such as directories, search tools,
community information, support resources, data, and applications. The GIS Portal Toolkit is
built using industry standards including TCP/IP and HTTP for accessing services and ISO
19115 for storing metadata. Data is stored in industry-standard database management
systems and can be requested and served in all widely used GIS standards such as Z39.50,
Geography Markup Language (GML), Web Map Service (WMS), and Web Feature Service

With the release of ArcIMS 9, ESRI expands the core capabilities of ArcIMS with support
for the ArcIMS ArcMap Server on the Solaris operating system. ArcIMS ArcMap Server was
first introduced with ArcIMS 4 and allows users to take advantage of the advanced data
access and cartographic capabilities offered in ArcMap by publishing ArcMap documents
(MXD files) on the Internet.

Also included in ArcIMS 9 will be enhanced support for the .NET development environment
through a .NET Link, an enhanced ActiveX Connector, image and feature streaming,
improved messaging for system administrators, and numerous quality and performance

For more information on ArcIMS, visit


In addition to serving spatial data to the ArcGIS Desktop (ArcView, ArcEditor, and ArcInfo)
and through ArcIMS, ArcSDE 9 will be the key component to managing a multiuser spatial
database in relation to the new ArcGIS Server product. Users will be able to add ArcGIS
Server to their ArcSDE environment and leverage their investment in a geodatabase across
their organizations. ArcSDE will also be a significant element in the architecture of ArcGIS
Engine desktop applications that require access to multiuser geodatabases, either directly or
through ArcGIS Server.

ArcSDE has undergone major enhancements at version 9, the most significant of which is its
vastly improved administration and performance. Other major highlights include support for
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compressing versioned databases while users are still connected to the database; a new
spatial database model for SQL Server; additional platform support for HP-UX, Red Hat
Linux Advanced Server with IBM DB2, and Sun Solaris; direct connect functionality with
DB2 and Informix; partial Pyramid updates with raster data sets, allowing faster updating of
large images; JPEG 2000 compression support for raster data; and an improved Java
application programming interface that now includes raster functions. The release also
includes OpenGIS Simple Features Specification for SQL Well Known Binary (WKB)
geometry storage for ArcSDE 9, Oracle, and SQL Server as well as OpenGIS Simple
Features Specification for SQL Spatial Type geometry storage for DB2 and Informix.

For more information on ArcSDE, visit

Complete System for Raster Data Management

There is currently a trend within the GIS user
community—ranging from federal agencies to
other government agencies, private industry, and
the public—toward more sophisticated uses of
raster data, including land and natural resource
planning, floodplain analysis, economic and
community development, environmental
protection, and emergency management. In
addition, many organizations are struggling with
economic pressures to provide cost-effective
solutions for storing, managing, and distributing
their growing data collections. At the same time,
they are facing internal and external requirements for achieving greater return on their data
investments by offering wider organizational and public access.

All of this adds up to a growing recognition that there is a need for a raster data information
infrastructure that provides for improved storage and management and offers more efficient access
and distribution. Today, organizations are searching for solutions that provide easy integration of
raster data with vector-based data and for tools to effectively search these vast and growing collections
of photos and images.

The combination of ArcGIS 9 Desktop products with ArcSDE 9 and ArcIMS 9 provides an out-of-the-
box solution to store, manage, update, access, analyze, and distribute collections of photos, aerial
photographs, satellite images, and digital elevation models as well as other types of raster data such as
scanned documents, maps, and CAD drawings. Organizations around the world have leveraged the
ease of use and scalability of geodatabase (GDB) rasters to build and serve raster data sets many
terabytes in size.

ArcSDE is a core component of ESRI's enterprise geodatabase raster data management system,
enabling organizations to store their raster data and the related metadata in a relational database
management system (DBMS) for fast, online, multiuser access to continuous raster data.
The ability of an organization to store and manage the actual pixels and related metadata in a DBMS
                                                                                              - 18 -

using standard relational tables means that now the same storage, indexing, and spatial search
functions can be used to store, query, and retrieve both raster and vector data. Moreover, when an
organization moves its raster data into a DBMS, it extends all of the DBMS tools for recovery,
backup, security, fail over, and replication to the raster data collection. This, in turn, means that just as
ArcSDE first enabled organizations to store and manage their vector data in the leading relational
databases, including IBM DB2, IBM/Informix, Microsoft SQL Server, and Oracle, along with the rest
of their core data, ArcSDE also offers open access and information technology standards to raster

ArcSDE is unique in that it was designed from the ground up to store and manage large collections of
raster data in a DBMS, providing a fast, scalable platform for multiuser access. ArcSDE provides
support for quickly loading all raster data formats supported by ArcGIS Desktop; options for storing
raster data with no compression or with data compression (recommended) using lossless, LZ77
compression or lossy, JPEG and JPEG 2000 compression; "pyramids" (a series of reduced resolution
representations of each raster data set) for improved display performance; and caching for fast
redisplay. ArcSDE 9 provides the ability to quickly update imagery already stored in the database with
the use of partial pyramid updates. In addition, ArcSDE 9 with ArcIMS 9 provides a solution for
distributing raster data over Intranets and the Internet, and it also provides the core building blocks for
creating e-government and e-commerce spatial distribution portals.

For smaller organizations, or for those without a requirement for fast multiuser access to the raster
holdings, a personal GDB can also act as a raster data repository. Data stored on disk is referenced by
the GDB tables to create a seamless data experience. In cases where disconnected editing is being
used, raster imagery can also be checked out of the enterprise GDB along with the vector data to a
personal GDB.

Even when there is not a requirement for the actual raster data to be stored in a DBMS (e.g., with
historic aerial photos or unprocessed satellite image collections that are stored using binary files, near-
line storage, or tape silos), the combination of ArcSDE with ArcCatalog, the ArcGIS Desktop
application, and the ArcIMS Metadata Server provides powerful tools to allow organizations to create,
manage, and publish metadata along with subsampled "thumbnail" images. They can also create image
footprints that enable users to quickly search large raster data collections based on any combination of
geographic extent, content type, data format, or keyword.

In summary, ArcSDE offers an approach in which raster data can now be stored and managed in a
DBMS along with an organization's vector and other core data. The combination of ArcGIS 9 Desktop
with ArcSDE 9 and ArcIMS 9 is positioned to provide the core infrastructure needed for raster data
management. New functionality available with the latest release makes it faster and easier than ever to
get started with a fast, reliable repository of raster information.

For more information, visit, call ESRI at 1-800-447-9778, or call your ESRI
regional office (to locate your regional office, visit Outside the United States,
contact your local ESRI distributor; see

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