1960 – 1963

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					             1960 – 1963

The Kennedy Years
Let‟s Recap…
   What themes do you remember from the 1950s
    that were different than eras before?
1960 Election
   The Candidates:
     Richard   Milhous Nixon
       Republican

     John   Fitzgerald Kennedy
       Democrat
1960 Election
   Issues coming into the election:
     Cold  War continues….
     Missile Gap

     Cuba goes Communist

     the Economy

     Experience
       Nixon   was VP for IKE
     Religion
       Kennedy‟s   Catholic
1960 Election
   Both parties used television in their campaigns
   Agreed to have first presidential debate on TV

   The Results…
      Radio listeners thought Nixon won

      TV viewers thought Kennedy won
1960 Election
   Kennedy won!
   JFK becomes 35th President
     By   the closest margin in 20th century history
       (two-tenths   of a percent of the popular vote)
Who were the Kennedy‟s?
   Prominent Irish-American Family in politics and govt.
   America‟s “royal family”
         Joseph Patrick Kennedy (father)
           Millionaire   by age 35
         Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy (mother)
           Started   Special Olympics
         9 Kennedy children
           including   Robert Kennedy & Edward “Ted” Kennedy
Who were the Kennedy‟s?
   From left to right, John,
    Bobby and Ted.
Who were the Kennedy‟s?
   John F. Kennedy
     Harvard   graduate
     Navy veteran from WWII

     Journalist

     U.S. Representative „47-‟53

     U.S. Senator „53-‟61

     Wrote Profiles in Courage

     V.P. Candidate in 1956
Who were the Kennedy‟s?
   John & Jackie
     Married    Sept. 1953

   Children
     Caroline  (born 1957)
     John Jr. (1960-1999)

     Patrick (1963)
Who were the Kennedy‟s?
   Jacqueline “Jackie” Lee Bouvier as First Lady
     Became hugely popular in the 1960s
     Was known for here style and elegance
       Would   often set trends for fashion in for „60s women
     Remodeled    the Interior of the White House
Kennedy Administration
   Inaugural Address
     Calls on all citizens to take a more active role in making
      the nation a better place

“And so, my fellow Americans, ask not what your
  country can do for you – ask what you can do for
  your country.”
Kennedy Administration
   His Cabinet
     “the best and the brightest”
     Included his brother, Bobby as Attorney General
Kennedy Administration
   New Frontier
   Domestic Policy
     Deficitspending
     Lower taxes

     Create new jobs (hopefully)
Kennedy Administration
   Military Policy
     Ike– Massive retaliation & brinkmanship
     JKF – Flexible response
       Building up conventional troops/weapons to allow for a
        limited war without nuclear weapons
       Increased defense spending
       Special Forces/Green Berets
       Tripled overall nuclear capabilities

     Goal   = containment
Peace Corps
   Program of volunteer assistance to developing
     Asia,   Africa, Latin America
   Work with schools, governments, & non-profits in
    areas of education, business, I.T., agriculture, and
    the environment
Space Race
   Sputnik I & Sputnik II (1957)
   Soviet satellites that orbit the earth
     Sputnik   II carried dog, Laika

    U.S. bounces back???
Space Race
   NASA (National Aeronautics and
    Space Administration)
     formed   October 1958
   Set up in Cape Canaveral, FL

   Monkeys in Space
     1958 – Baker and Able
     1961 - Ham
Space Race

   May 1961, Kennedy declares “this
    nation should commit itself to achieving the
    goal, before this decade is out, of landing a
    man on the Moon and returning him back
    safely to the earth. No single space project in
    this period will be more impressive to
    mankind, or more important for the long-
    range exploration of space; and none will be
    so difficult or expensive to accomplish.”
Crises of the Cold War
   Cuba
     FidelCastro led revolution to overthrow dictator Batista
     By 1959, he brought communism to Cuba

     1961, welcomed aid fro U.S.S.R.

     Castro seized 3 U.S & British oil refineries
     Castro confiscates $770 million in U.S. property in
      sugar crop land
     Congress erected trade barriers against Cuban sugar
Crisis of the Cold War
   Bay of Pigs
     Ike gave CIA permission to secretly train Cuban exiles
      for an invasion of Cuba
       (hoped   to trigger mass revolt to overthrow Castro)
     Kennedy   decides to go ahead with Ike‟s plan
     April 17, 1961
       1300-1500     exiles supported by U.S. military landed on the
        island‟s southern coast (the Bay of Pigs)
Crisis of the Cold War
   Bay of Pigs
     Invasion  landed and faced 25,000 Cuban troops
      backed by Soviet defenses
     U.S. failed to knock out Cuban air force and support
      troops with air strikes
     Many exiles killed, other imprisoned

     Overall, a COMPLETE FAILURE!!
Crisis of the Cold War
   Bay of Pigs
     JFK negotiated release of 1,113 surviving commandos
     Many settled in Miami with hopes of one-day returning
      to a “free Havana”

     Bay   of Pigs was a political disaster for JFK
Crisis of the Cold War
   Berlin
     11 years after airlift, 3 million East Berliners (20% of
      pop.) fled to West Berlin
     Khrushchev threatened to seal off West Berlin

     Midnight Aug. 12-13, 1961
       Barbed  wire fence went up in the dead night
       Stretched hundreds of miles
       Telephone lines cut
Crisis of the Cold War
   The Berlin Wall
     East & West Berlin are separated
      for 28 years
     Where you slept on Aug. 12 was
      where you stayed….for decades.
     Families, friends, and lovers were
     Later replaced

    with concrete wall
Crisis of the Cold War
   Impact
     Iron Curtain becomes a Wall
     W. Berlin was free, well-industrialized economy

     E. Berlin was communist with a poor economy
       75  people killed trying to the cross the wall
       over its 28 years
Crisis of the Cold War
   “Mr. Gorbachev, tear down
    this wall!”
            Ronald Reagan 1987
   With fall of the Soviet Union,
    the Berlin Wall came down
    November 1989

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