Understanding 20and 20Applying 20Racial 20Identity 20Development 20Theory by F4wkcr


									"Effective participation by
members of all racial and ethnic
groups in the civic life of our
nation is essential if the dream of
one nation, indivisible, is to be
       Justice Sandra Day O'Connor
       Gruter v. Bollinger
       June 23, 2003
   Understanding and Applying
Racial Identity Development Theory:
   A Critical Skill for Educators
    Serving Students of Color.

             Tom Brown
  Rochester Institute of Technology

        September 12, 2008
            Today’s Workshop
Provide  an introduction to and overview of
Racial Identity Development Theory.

Considerrelationship of racial identity
development to in-class and out-of-class
development, learning, and persistence.

Encourage  further exploration in student
development theory and racial identity
development theory as a way of enhancing
educational effectiveness.
Multicultural competence as a
lifelong process—a sense of
social consciousness and
personal passion must be
present to continue the fight
against oppression.
   Identity Development in Diverse Populations
   Vasti Torres, Mary Howard-Hamilton, Diane
   Cooper, 2003
         Questions and Issues

What  is identity and why does it matter?
What are theories of identity development?
What is racial and minority identity
How can understanding identity development
enable educators to be more effective in their
work with multicultural students?
What are some practical implications and
applications for multicultural students?
                Key References
Identity   Development of Diverse Populations
                 Torres, Howard-Hamilton & Cooper, 2003

StudentDevelopment in College: Theory,
Research, and Practice.
                 Evans, Forney, Guido-DiBrito. 1998.
Why   Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together
in the Cafeteria? And Other Conversations
About Race.
                 Beverly Daniel Tatum, 1999
“Stereotypethreat and the intellectual test
performance of African Americans.”
                 Claude Steele, Journal of
                 Personality and Social Psychology, 1995.
Context and background…
It’s in colleges and in the
workplace where many people
have their first true experience
with people unlike themselves
and what this society makes
of such differences….
   Privilege, Power and Difference
   Allan G. Johnson, 2006
Our goals today

To support RIT’s commitment to
build a diverse and inclusive
campus community, wherein all
members are treated with
respect and dignity.
          RIT Values

Respect, Diversity, & Pluralism

Treat every person with dignity.
Demonstrate inclusion by
incorporating diverse
Imagine a school where all kinds of
people feel comfortable showing
up, secure in the knowledge that
they have a place they don’t have
to defend every time they turn
around, where they are encouraged
to do their best, and are valued for
               Johnson, 2006
Our goals today

To support RIT’s commitment to
create a campus environment
wherein all students have every
opportunity to achieve their
           RIT Values

Student Centeredness

Demonstrate and support the
importance of students as the
primary constituency of the
university and contribute directly
to student success.
Our goals today

To support the professional
development of RIT faculty and
staff as they seek to become
more culturally competent.
Cultural awareness: being sensitive to
issues related to culture, race, gender,
sexual orientation, social class, and
socio-economic factors.
Cultural competence: requires more
than acquiring knowledge…. It is
leveraging a complex combination of
knowledge, attitudes, and skills to
engage and intervene appropriately
and effectively across cultures.
        Latino 101, Maria Hernandez, 2007
Faculty, more than any other
group on campus, are in the
position to affect the success of
diverse students.
 Torres, Howard-Hamilton, & Cooper, 2003
Although faculty are formally
designated as teachers, there
are many circumstances where
others in the campus
community are also teachers.
         Professor Burns Crookston,
         University of Connecticut
An Inclusive Perspective

The Professional Faculty classification
comprises a large and diverse group
of positions such as administration,
academic advising, psychological
counselors to name a few.
Professional Faculty perform critical
roles in the education of students.
        Oregon State University report, 2002
Context and background…
If current population trends
continue, minority group
members will be 47% of US
population in 2050 compared
to 24% in 1990.
   US Census Bureau Projections
          There is Rapid Growth Among
         Groups Who Already Are Under-
           White   Represented
Native American



African American

                         0             2             4   6   8   10      12
   Projected Increase in the Population of 25-64 Year-Olds, 2000 to 2020

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Projections
New York state has the largest
Black population in the US.

New York also has the second
largest US Asian population.

The Hispanic population of New
York City increased 60%
between 1980-2000.
                                                                                                            Difference in Percentage of Workforce
                                                                                                              with Associates Degree or Higher:
                                                                                                                 Ages 25-34 Compared to 45-54

                                                                                                           Fra a
                                                                                                  Lu         Sp
                                                                                                      xem a in
                                                                                                           Po n
                                                                                                         Be nd
                                                                                                              l giu
                                                                                                         Ca m
                                                                                                          No a
                                                                                                         Po ay
                                                                                                              rt u
                                                                                                         Sw al
                                                                                                        De e n
                                                                                                                   al i
                                                                                              Un           Ice a
                                                                                                 it e
                                                                                                     d K la nd
                                                                                                          i ng
                                                                                                          Gr m
                                                                                                   Ne          ee
                                                                                                        th e ce
                                                                                                           Me y
                                                                                                                  xi c
                                                                                                          Fi n o
                                                                                                      w Z lan d
                                                                                                         Hu nd
                                                                                                           Tu y
Source: 2007 OECD Education at a Glance, www.oecd.org/edu/eag2007. Note: data are for 2005.

                                                                                                           Au y
                                                                                                    S            st
                                                                                              Slo witze ria
                                                                                                  va           rla
                                                                                              Cz k Re
                                                                                                 ec           pu
                                                                                                     hR            bl
                                                                                                 Un       e p ic
                                                                                                     it e ub lic
                                                                                                                            United States (0)

                                                                                                        Ge tes
                                                                                                                                                    attainment among younger workers.
                                                                                                                                                    where there is no increase in college
                                                                                                                                                    The U.S. is one of only two countries
These gaps threaten the health
      of our democracy.

Even those who don’t worry about
social cohesion have to be worried
about the trends… given which
groups are growing and which
ones aren’t.
  Not a “zero sum” game, with
     winners and losers….


Com = together
Petire = to seek

  Creating Unum from the Pluribus
RIT Diversity Strategic Objectives

Excellence Goal One: Increase the
6-year graduation rate for AALANA
students to 72% by 2012.

       Diversity at RIT Survey Report
       September 2006-June 2008
        RIT Graduation Rates*
        Entering Class of 2000

AllStudents                     60.8%
Asian American                  55.2
African American/Black          36.3
Hispanic/Latino/a               50.0
White                           63.1
                 * Cumulative graduation after 6 years
                 Source: Education Trust, 2008
There are within us
seeds of who we
might become.
       Thich Nhat Hanh
Students don’t have
interactions with
institutions, they have
encounters and interactions
with individuals.
 Critical Issues for Students of Color

Difference between college and previous
educational settings
“Minority”    for the first time
Lack   of mentors and role models
Attribution   Theory: Task vs. Ego Involvement
Issues   of identity development

                   Brown & Rivas, 1994, 1997
 Critical Issues for Students of Color

Difference between college and previous
educational settings
“Minority”    for the first time
Lack   of mentors and role models
Attribution   Theory: Task vs. Ego Involvement
Issues   of identity development

                   Brown & Rivas, 1994, 1997
           The role of theory

Theory is the result of the need we have
to make sense of life.

Theory allows us to reason and think
clearly about our intentions and how we
implement our actions in various
settings (e.g., classroom, residence
halls, meetings).
                Lee Anne Bell, 1997
Practice without a theoretical base
is not effective or efficient. A “fly
by the seat of your pants”
approach may sometimes result in
beneficial outcomes, but it is just
as likely to result in disaster….
        Student Development in College
        Nancy Evans, Deanna Forney,
        Florence Guido-DeBrito 1998
It is important for advisors to
have some understanding of
student development because a
student’s personal development
has a direct bearing on whether
s/he is ready to pursue academic
and personal goals.
              Howard K. Schein
              Giving Advice to Students, 1987
Understanding identity
development will help faculty
design and implement teaching
strategies that may enhance
the learning environment for
all students.
 Torres, Howard-Hamilton, & Cooper. 2003
Educators should have some
knowledge of the following theories:

    Student development theory
    Learning theory
    Decision-making theory
    Multicultural theory (e.g., MID)
    Personality theory
    Moral development theory
    Adult development theory

                   Gordon & Steele, 1995
Theories can’t tell us what
behaviors or changes are best
for students
Theories must be evaluated in
light of individual differences…
          Parker, Widick, and Knefelkamp, 1978
       Many kinds of diversity

Seven categories of “otherness”
    Race or ethnicity
    Affectional Orientation
    Socioeconomic Status
    Physical and Mental Ability
                      Beverly D. Tatum, 1997
     Categories of “otherness”
                 Beverly D. Tatum, 1997

“Otherness”                   Form of oppression
   Race/ethnicity               Racism/ethnocentrism
   Gender                       Sexism
   Religion                     Religious oppression
   Affectional Orientation      Heterosexism
   Socio-economic status        Classism
   Age                          Ageism
   Physical/Mental Ability      Ableism
People are usually less aware of
those areas of their identity where
they are in the dominant or
advantaged group.

In the absence of dissonance, the
dimension of identity which is taken
for granted escapes conscious
                 Beverly Tatum
Failure to understand
students’ ethnic and racial
identity development can
lead to inappropriate and
ineffective responses on
      Hardiman and Jackson, 1992
Ethnic/Racial Identity Development
The use of racial identity
theories is the first critical step
for faculty, administrators, and
students to develop the critical
multicultural competency of
    Identity Development of Diverse Populations
    Torres, Howard-Hamilton, Cooper, 2003
         What is development?

Not simply change, which is an altered condition
that could be positive or negative, or growth,
which refers to expansion that could be
favorable or unfavorable. (Sanford, 1967)

Development refers to the ways students grow,
progress, and increase their capabilities as a
result of being in college. (Rodgers 1990)
       Identity Development
Erik Erikson Identity: Youth and Crisis, 1968

 Identity formation is one of the central
 tasks of adolescence.

 Adolescents must resolve issues about
 the self in order to arrive at the stable
 sense of self described as achieved
According to Erikson,
ethnic identity is a process
located both in the core of the
individual and her/his communal

the final stage of human
development concerns coming to
terms with one’s cultural identity.
           Elise Smith, 1991
Developing competence

Managing emotions
Developing autonomy and interdependence

Establishing identity
Developing mature relationships

Developing purpose
Developing integrity

                        Arthur Chickering
The establishment of
identity is the core
developmental issue with
which students grapple
while they are in college.
              Arthur Chickering
Identity includes a sense of
one’s social and cultural
heritage, a clear self
concept, and a secure
sense of self.
       Chickering and Reisser, 1993
   Identity Development in
Who   am I now?

Who   was I before?

What   will I become?
 Theories of Identity Development
Josselson’sTheory of Identity
Development in Women.

Cass’s Model of Homosexual Identity
Formation for Persons Who Are Gay,
Lesbian, or Bisexual.

Schlossberg’s   Transition Theory for Adults.
   What is “racial identity”?

A sense of group or collective
identity based on one’s
perception that s/he shares a
common racial heritage with a
particular group.
                Janet Helms, 1993
      Theories of Ethnic and Racial
         Identity Development

Asian   (Kim, 1981, 2001; Huang, 1194)
Bi-racial   (Poston,1990; Root, 1998)
Black    (Cross 1971, 1991, 1995)
Latino/Hispanic    (Ruiz, 1990; Padilla 1995)
Native   American (Choney, et al 1995, Horse, 2001)
White   (Corvin and Wiggins, 1988; Helms, 1993)
   Deaf Cultural Identity—Neil Glickman, 1996
Culturally   hearing attitudes: idealization of hearing
ways of being, views deafness as a pathology.
Culturally   marginal: struggle with lack of belonging
to hearing or deaf cultures—isolation & bitterness.
Immersion:    embrace and potential idealization of
deaf identity and community, deprecation of hearing
persons and culture.
Bi-cultural   attitudes: recognition of strengths and
weaknesses of deaf and hearing cultures and
persons. Comfortable in both worlds.
    Identity Development in
        Beverly D. Tatum, Ph.D.

    “Why Are All the Black Kids
Sitting Together in the Cafeteria?”
   Identity Development in
       Beverly D. Tatum, Ph.D.

 “Why Are All the Black [Asian,
 Latino, Native American, deaf,
LGBTQ] Kids Sitting Together in
         the Cafeteria?”
Adolescents of color are more
likely to be actively engaged in
an exploration of their racial or
ethnic identity/identities than
are White adolescents.
What does it mean to be…
            Native American?
White people rarely give
much thought to being
      The Social Construction of Whiteness:
      White Women, Race Matters.
      Frankenberg, 1993
Our self perceptions are
shaped by the messages we
receive from those around us.

As our race comes to matter to
others, it comes to matter
more to us.
I went to school with kids I grew up with.
They always accepted me for who I was
and the fact that I’m Asian didn’t ever really
come up. Now, I’m in college and I’m a
“minority student,” and people have all
kinds of preconceived ideas about who I
am. They don’t know even know the
difference between a Filipino, a Chinese, or
a Korean. I find myself wanting to know
more about my ethnicity and sometimes I
get angry at how I’m being treated.
          First-year Asian American student
Identity development models
clarify the impact that being
socialized in a hostile
environment has on students
of color.
              Brown and Rivas, 1995
Students on campus who experience a
system of oppression every day have
tremendous difficulty maintaining
good grades, communicating with
classmates, connecting with faculty,
and feeling comfortable and feeling
comfortable calling their future alma
mater “home…”

            Taub and McEwen, 1992
The culture reflected on
predominantly white campuses is
one of the white majority,
regardless how many diversity
statements are published….
   Torres, Howard-Hooper, & Cooper, 2003
I knew this college would
be white, I just didn’t think
it would be this white!

       First-year Latina student
   Racial & Ethnic Identity

Hispanic/Latino/a students
must integrate three worlds:
Hispanic/Latino/a students must
integrate three worlds:

1.   Family and community
2.   The academic world
3.   The “self” which emerges from
     combining these worlds.

       Torres, Howard-Hamilton, & Cooper, 2003
Entre Dos Mundos

We assist Latino students to
succeed by assisting them to
develop and create their own
identities while balancing
disparate cultural demands.
   Cultural Identity Development in Latino Adolescents
   Bacallo & Snokoski, 2005
Minority Identity Development
        A Stage Model

Cross, 1971; Atkinson, Morten, and Sue, 1983
The Autobiography of
     Malcolm X

An Example of Minority
 Identity Development
Minority Identity Development
        A Stage Model

Cross, 1971; Atkinson, Morten, and Sue, 1983
     Model of Ethnic Identity
Unexamined Identity—race not salient

Ethnic Identity Search—seeking the
meaning of one’s ethnic group

Achieved Ethnic Identity—a clear, positive
sense of ethnic or racial identity
                            Jean Phinney, 1993
African American students are
more likely to find faculty
members remote,
discouraging, and
   Exploring Distinctions in Types of Faculty Interactions
   Among Black, Latino/a, and White College Students.
   Cole and Anaya, 2001.
One behavior that has a [positive]
impact on the responsiveness of
African American males is when
white faculty respond to the cultural
and/or racial content of their
comments rather than ignoring or
“not hearing” those comments.
   Addressing the Pitfalls of White Faculty/Black Male
   Student Communication.
   Lisa M. Gonsalves, 2002
Racial identity attitudes
influence students’ decisions
about classes, peers, faculty,
advisors, counselors, even the
extent to which they identify or
disidentify with academic
        Black Students Rates of Degree
         Completion by Ability Quartile
                (Test Scores and high school grades)

                              Completers                Departers

Lowest quartile                     17.2                    70.2
Second quartile                     29.2                    52.2
Third quartile                      35.1                    54.8
Highest quartile                    26.2                    61.3

Source: Undergraduate completion and persistence at four-year
        colleges and universities: Detailed findings.
        National Institute of Independent Colleges and Universities, 1990
           Stereotype Threat
   Arises when students of color find themselves in
    situations wherein negative stereotypes about
    their group could apply.

   Arises when students of color find themselves in
    situations where their performance could result
    in their being reduced to a stereotype, where
    they could be judged by a stereotype or where
    judgments about them could be made based on a

       Professor Claude M. Steele, Stanford University, 1995
Test of “ability” depressed Black
student performance relative to
White students…

“Ability” not a factor, but a task
to study how problems are
solved, Black student
performance matched that of
white students.
                    Steele, 1995
Even though students may be
highly prepared, the anxiety they
experience from worrying
whether their peers and teachers
believe stereotypes to be true is
distressful enough to lower
                  Roach, 2001
During the encounter and
immersion phases of racial identity
development, when the search for
identity leads toward a
stereotypical image of what it
means to “be Black or Latino”,
moving away from anything
thought to be “White” may also
lead to a decline in academic
Laboring under negative
stereotypes leads students
to disidentify with academic
achievement rather than
risk confirming negative
stereotypes that undermine
their sense of self…
          ACTING WHITE
The kids in the cafeteria “know” how
to “be” Black or Latino, but they have
absorbed stereotypical images of
Black and Latino youth from popular

Academic achievement is not part of
the stereotype or popular image of
Black and Latino youth.
Key Question:

How did academic
achievement come to be
viewed as a “White”
Key Question:

How do we change the
perspective that
achievement and success
are “White”?
Learning [African American]
history in college was of
great psychological
importance to Jon,
providing him with role
models he had been
missing in high school…
He was particularly inspired
by learning about the
intellectual legacy of Black
students at his own college.
             Beverly Tatum
The Search for Alternative Images
 Heroes and Sheroes:

    In the faculty/staff
    In the curriculum
    In the peer group
    In the community
    In the world
Expressions of Culture

Artwork, signs, programs promoted,
structural representation.

Because the majority is the
majority, they may not realize how
prevalent their culture is
articulated and how little diversity
is expressed.
                   Torres et al
Key Question

What heroes and sheroes of color
do I or could I incorporate into the
course(s) I teach, my advising, or
the activities for which I am
      Supporting the Identity
 Development of Students of Color

Understand    Minority Identity Development
Encourage courses related to students’
Know about and refer students to offices and
programs serving students of color on campus
Be familiar with campus organizations and
activities for students of color
Encourage students to seek out campus and
community mentors
                    Brown and Rivas 1995, 1997
Making a paradigm shift is
difficult for faculty, particularly if
they are asked to modify teaching
techniques and classroom
material to be more inclusive….It
is even more difficult when faculty
have been taught that traditional
westernized [education] is best

        Torres, Howard-Hooper, Cooper, 2003
   Creating inclusive classrooms
         Beverly Daniels Tatum
Establish clear guidelines for discussion
 No tolerance for racist, sexist,
   homonegative, ableist statements or
 Encourage respect for individuals’
 Encourage use of “I’ statements
 Model appropriate behavior and enforce
   ground rules, as necessary
   Creating inclusive classrooms
         Beverly Daniels Tatum
Create opportunities for self-generated
When students challenge material in texts
or lectures, provide opportunities for them
to have hands-on or immersion
assignments, which can allow them to move
beyond stereotypes and beliefs gleaned
from conscious and unconscious learning.
   Creating inclusive classrooms
         Beverly Daniels Tatum
Provide developmental models that may
allow them to explore their own processes.
When students challenge material in texts
or lectures, provide opportunities for them
to have hands-on or immersion
assignments, which can allow them to move
beyond stereotypes and beliefs gleaned
from conscious and unconscious learning.
Students are shocked and appalled
when they discover that there is so
much more to learn about the history
of diverse groups and that their
current level of education is woefully
inadequate. They realize that what
they were taught in elementary and
secondary school may have been
written to favor privileged groups.
        Torres, Howard-Hooper, Cooper, 2003
 White Identity Development: A Stage Model
Pre-exposure:   Naiveté about race
Acceptance: Internalized sense of
superiority over “others”
Resistance: Initial efforts to question or
resist racist messages
Redefinition: Takes responsibility for
her/his whiteness and opposing racism
Internalization: New white identity is
aware of racial and social injustices.
                    Rita Hardiman, 2001
The essence of a visionary
organization is the
translation of its core
ideology into everything it
         Collins and Porras, 2000
          RIT Values

Respect, Diversity, & Pluralism

Treats every person with
dignity. Demonstrates
inclusion by incorporating
diverse perspectives….




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