"Effective participation by members of all racial and ethnic groups in the civic life of our nation is essential if the dream of one nation, indivisible, is to be realized…." Justice Sandra Day O'Connor Gruter v. Bollinger June 23, 2003 Understanding and Applying Racial Identity Development Theory: A Critical Skill for Educators Serving Students of Color. Tom Brown Rochester Institute of Technology September 12, 2008 email@example.com www.tbrownassociates.com Today’s Workshop Provide an introduction to and overview of Racial Identity Development Theory. Considerrelationship of racial identity development to in-class and out-of-class development, learning, and persistence. Encourage further exploration in student development theory and racial identity development theory as a way of enhancing educational effectiveness. Multicultural competence as a lifelong process—a sense of social consciousness and personal passion must be present to continue the fight against oppression. Identity Development in Diverse Populations Vasti Torres, Mary Howard-Hamilton, Diane Cooper, 2003 Questions and Issues What is identity and why does it matter? What are theories of identity development? What is racial and minority identity development? How can understanding identity development enable educators to be more effective in their work with multicultural students? What are some practical implications and applications for multicultural students? Key References Identity Development of Diverse Populations Torres, Howard-Hamilton & Cooper, 2003 StudentDevelopment in College: Theory, Research, and Practice. Evans, Forney, Guido-DiBrito. 1998. Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria? And Other Conversations About Race. Beverly Daniel Tatum, 1999 “Stereotypethreat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans.” Claude Steele, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1995. Context and background… It’s in colleges and in the workplace where many people have their first true experience with people unlike themselves and what this society makes of such differences…. Privilege, Power and Difference Allan G. Johnson, 2006 Our goals today To support RIT’s commitment to build a diverse and inclusive campus community, wherein all members are treated with respect and dignity. RIT Values Respect, Diversity, & Pluralism Treat every person with dignity. Demonstrate inclusion by incorporating diverse perspectives…. Imagine a school where all kinds of people feel comfortable showing up, secure in the knowledge that they have a place they don’t have to defend every time they turn around, where they are encouraged to do their best, and are valued for it…. Johnson, 2006 Our goals today To support RIT’s commitment to create a campus environment wherein all students have every opportunity to achieve their goals. RIT Values Student Centeredness Demonstrate and support the importance of students as the primary constituency of the university and contribute directly to student success. Our goals today To support the professional development of RIT faculty and staff as they seek to become more culturally competent. Cultural awareness: being sensitive to issues related to culture, race, gender, sexual orientation, social class, and socio-economic factors. Cultural competence: requires more than acquiring knowledge…. It is leveraging a complex combination of knowledge, attitudes, and skills to engage and intervene appropriately and effectively across cultures. Latino 101, Maria Hernandez, 2007 Faculty, more than any other group on campus, are in the position to affect the success of diverse students. Torres, Howard-Hamilton, & Cooper, 2003 Although faculty are formally designated as teachers, there are many circumstances where others in the campus community are also teachers. Professor Burns Crookston, University of Connecticut An Inclusive Perspective The Professional Faculty classification comprises a large and diverse group of positions such as administration, academic advising, psychological counselors to name a few. Professional Faculty perform critical roles in the education of students. Oregon State University report, 2002 Context and background… If current population trends continue, minority group members will be 47% of US population in 2050 compared to 24% in 1990. US Census Bureau Projections There is Rapid Growth Among Groups Who Already Are Under- White Represented Native American Latino Asian African American 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Millions Projected Increase in the Population of 25-64 Year-Olds, 2000 to 2020 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Projections New York state has the largest Black population in the US. New York also has the second largest US Asian population. The Hispanic population of New York City increased 60% between 1980-2000. Difference in Percentage of Workforce with Associates Degree or Higher: Ages 25-34 Compared to 45-54 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Ko re Fra a nce Ire lan d Lu Sp xem a in bo urg Ja pa Po n la Be nd l giu Ca m na d No a rw Po ay rt u g Sw al ed De e n nm ark Au str al i Un Ice a it e d K la nd i ng do Gr m Ne ee th e ce rla nd s Ita l Me y xi c Fi n o Ne w Z lan d ea la Hu nd ng ar Tu y rke Source: 2007 OECD Education at a Glance, www.oecd.org/edu/eag2007. Note: data are for 2005. Au y S st Slo witze ria va rla nd Cz k Re ec pu hR bl Un e p ic it e ub lic dS ta United States (0) Ge tes rm an y attainment among younger workers. where there is no increase in college The U.S. is one of only two countries These gaps threaten the health of our democracy. Even those who don’t worry about social cohesion have to be worried about the trends… given which groups are growing and which ones aren’t. Not a “zero sum” game, with winners and losers…. COMPETE Com = together Petire = to seek Creating Unum from the Pluribus RIT Diversity Strategic Objectives Excellence Goal One: Increase the 6-year graduation rate for AALANA students to 72% by 2012. Diversity at RIT Survey Report September 2006-June 2008 RIT Graduation Rates* Entering Class of 2000 AllStudents 60.8% Asian American 55.2 African American/Black 36.3 Hispanic/Latino/a 50.0 White 63.1 * Cumulative graduation after 6 years Source: Education Trust, 2008 There are within us seeds of who we might become. Thich Nhat Hanh Students don’t have interactions with institutions, they have encounters and interactions with individuals. Critical Issues for Students of Color Difference between college and previous educational settings “Minority” for the first time Lack of mentors and role models Attribution Theory: Task vs. Ego Involvement Issues of identity development Brown & Rivas, 1994, 1997 Critical Issues for Students of Color Difference between college and previous educational settings “Minority” for the first time Lack of mentors and role models Attribution Theory: Task vs. Ego Involvement Issues of identity development Brown & Rivas, 1994, 1997 The role of theory Theory is the result of the need we have to make sense of life. Theory allows us to reason and think clearly about our intentions and how we implement our actions in various settings (e.g., classroom, residence halls, meetings). Lee Anne Bell, 1997 Practice without a theoretical base is not effective or efficient. A “fly by the seat of your pants” approach may sometimes result in beneficial outcomes, but it is just as likely to result in disaster…. Student Development in College Nancy Evans, Deanna Forney, Florence Guido-DeBrito 1998 It is important for advisors to have some understanding of student development because a student’s personal development has a direct bearing on whether s/he is ready to pursue academic and personal goals. Howard K. Schein Giving Advice to Students, 1987 Understanding identity development will help faculty design and implement teaching strategies that may enhance the learning environment for all students. Torres, Howard-Hamilton, & Cooper. 2003 Educators should have some knowledge of the following theories: Student development theory Learning theory Decision-making theory Multicultural theory (e.g., MID) Personality theory Moral development theory Adult development theory Gordon & Steele, 1995 Theories can’t tell us what behaviors or changes are best for students Theories must be evaluated in light of individual differences… Parker, Widick, and Knefelkamp, 1978 Many kinds of diversity Seven categories of “otherness” Race or ethnicity Gender Religion Affectional Orientation Socioeconomic Status Age Physical and Mental Ability Beverly D. Tatum, 1997 Categories of “otherness” Beverly D. Tatum, 1997 “Otherness” Form of oppression Race/ethnicity Racism/ethnocentrism Gender Sexism Religion Religious oppression Affectional Orientation Heterosexism Socio-economic status Classism Age Ageism Physical/Mental Ability Ableism People are usually less aware of those areas of their identity where they are in the dominant or advantaged group. In the absence of dissonance, the dimension of identity which is taken for granted escapes conscious attention. Beverly Tatum Failure to understand students’ ethnic and racial identity development can lead to inappropriate and ineffective responses on campus. Hardiman and Jackson, 1992 Ethnic/Racial Identity Development The use of racial identity theories is the first critical step for faculty, administrators, and students to develop the critical multicultural competency of awareness. Identity Development of Diverse Populations Torres, Howard-Hamilton, Cooper, 2003 What is development? Not simply change, which is an altered condition that could be positive or negative, or growth, which refers to expansion that could be favorable or unfavorable. (Sanford, 1967) Development refers to the ways students grow, progress, and increase their capabilities as a result of being in college. (Rodgers 1990) Identity Development Erik Erikson Identity: Youth and Crisis, 1968 Identity formation is one of the central tasks of adolescence. Adolescents must resolve issues about the self in order to arrive at the stable sense of self described as achieved identity. According to Erikson, ethnic identity is a process located both in the core of the individual and her/his communal culture… the final stage of human development concerns coming to terms with one’s cultural identity. Elise Smith, 1991 DEVELOPMENTAL TASKS FOR TRADITIONAL-AGED STUDENTS Developing competence Managing emotions Developing autonomy and interdependence Establishing identity Developing mature relationships Developing purpose Developing integrity Arthur Chickering The establishment of identity is the core developmental issue with which students grapple while they are in college. Arthur Chickering Identity includes a sense of one’s social and cultural heritage, a clear self concept, and a secure sense of self. Chickering and Reisser, 1993 Identity Development in Adolescence? Who am I now? Who was I before? What will I become? Theories of Identity Development Josselson’sTheory of Identity Development in Women. Cass’s Model of Homosexual Identity Formation for Persons Who Are Gay, Lesbian, or Bisexual. Schlossberg’s Transition Theory for Adults. What is “racial identity”? A sense of group or collective identity based on one’s perception that s/he shares a common racial heritage with a particular group. Janet Helms, 1993 Theories of Ethnic and Racial Identity Development Asian (Kim, 1981, 2001; Huang, 1194) Bi-racial (Poston,1990; Root, 1998) Black (Cross 1971, 1991, 1995) Latino/Hispanic (Ruiz, 1990; Padilla 1995) Native American (Choney, et al 1995, Horse, 2001) White (Corvin and Wiggins, 1988; Helms, 1993) Deaf Cultural Identity—Neil Glickman, 1996 Culturally hearing attitudes: idealization of hearing ways of being, views deafness as a pathology. Culturally marginal: struggle with lack of belonging to hearing or deaf cultures—isolation & bitterness. Immersion: embrace and potential idealization of deaf identity and community, deprecation of hearing persons and culture. Bi-cultural attitudes: recognition of strengths and weaknesses of deaf and hearing cultures and persons. Comfortable in both worlds. Identity Development in Adolescence Beverly D. Tatum, Ph.D. “Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria?” Identity Development in Adolescence Beverly D. Tatum, Ph.D. “Why Are All the Black [Asian, Latino, Native American, deaf, LGBTQ] Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria?” Adolescents of color are more likely to be actively engaged in an exploration of their racial or ethnic identity/identities than are White adolescents. What does it mean to be… Asian? Black? Latino? Native American? White people rarely give much thought to being White. The Social Construction of Whiteness: White Women, Race Matters. Frankenberg, 1993 Our self perceptions are shaped by the messages we receive from those around us. As our race comes to matter to others, it comes to matter more to us. I went to school with kids I grew up with. They always accepted me for who I was and the fact that I’m Asian didn’t ever really come up. Now, I’m in college and I’m a “minority student,” and people have all kinds of preconceived ideas about who I am. They don’t know even know the difference between a Filipino, a Chinese, or a Korean. I find myself wanting to know more about my ethnicity and sometimes I get angry at how I’m being treated. First-year Asian American student Identity development models clarify the impact that being socialized in a hostile environment has on students of color. Brown and Rivas, 1995 Students on campus who experience a system of oppression every day have tremendous difficulty maintaining good grades, communicating with classmates, connecting with faculty, and feeling comfortable and feeling comfortable calling their future alma mater “home…” Taub and McEwen, 1992 The culture reflected on predominantly white campuses is one of the white majority, regardless how many diversity statements are published…. Torres, Howard-Hooper, & Cooper, 2003 I knew this college would be white, I just didn’t think it would be this white! First-year Latina student Racial & Ethnic Identity Development Hispanic/Latino/a students must integrate three worlds: Hispanic/Latino/a students must integrate three worlds: 1. Family and community 2. The academic world 3. The “self” which emerges from combining these worlds. Torres, Howard-Hamilton, & Cooper, 2003 Entre Dos Mundos We assist Latino students to succeed by assisting them to develop and create their own identities while balancing disparate cultural demands. Cultural Identity Development in Latino Adolescents Bacallo & Snokoski, 2005 Minority Identity Development A Stage Model Pre-encounter Encounter Immersion Emersion Internalization Cross, 1971; Atkinson, Morten, and Sue, 1983 The Autobiography of Malcolm X An Example of Minority Identity Development Minority Identity Development A Stage Model Pre-encounter Encounter Immersion Emersion Internalization Cross, 1971; Atkinson, Morten, and Sue, 1983 Model of Ethnic Identity Development Unexamined Identity—race not salient Ethnic Identity Search—seeking the meaning of one’s ethnic group membership Achieved Ethnic Identity—a clear, positive sense of ethnic or racial identity Jean Phinney, 1993 African American students are more likely to find faculty members remote, discouraging, and unsympathetic. Exploring Distinctions in Types of Faculty Interactions Among Black, Latino/a, and White College Students. Cole and Anaya, 2001. One behavior that has a [positive] impact on the responsiveness of African American males is when white faculty respond to the cultural and/or racial content of their comments rather than ignoring or “not hearing” those comments. Addressing the Pitfalls of White Faculty/Black Male Student Communication. Lisa M. Gonsalves, 2002 Racial identity attitudes influence students’ decisions about classes, peers, faculty, advisors, counselors, even the extent to which they identify or disidentify with academic work. Black Students Rates of Degree Completion by Ability Quartile (Test Scores and high school grades) Completers Departers Lowest quartile 17.2 70.2 Second quartile 29.2 52.2 Third quartile 35.1 54.8 Highest quartile 26.2 61.3 Source: Undergraduate completion and persistence at four-year colleges and universities: Detailed findings. National Institute of Independent Colleges and Universities, 1990 Stereotype Threat Arises when students of color find themselves in situations wherein negative stereotypes about their group could apply. Arises when students of color find themselves in situations where their performance could result in their being reduced to a stereotype, where they could be judged by a stereotype or where judgments about them could be made based on a stereotype. Professor Claude M. Steele, Stanford University, 1995 Test of “ability” depressed Black student performance relative to White students… “Ability” not a factor, but a task to study how problems are solved, Black student performance matched that of white students. Steele, 1995 Even though students may be highly prepared, the anxiety they experience from worrying whether their peers and teachers believe stereotypes to be true is distressful enough to lower performance. Roach, 2001 During the encounter and immersion phases of racial identity development, when the search for identity leads toward a stereotypical image of what it means to “be Black or Latino”, moving away from anything thought to be “White” may also lead to a decline in academic performance. Laboring under negative stereotypes leads students to disidentify with academic achievement rather than risk confirming negative stereotypes that undermine their sense of self… ACTING WHITE The kids in the cafeteria “know” how to “be” Black or Latino, but they have absorbed stereotypical images of Black and Latino youth from popular culture. Academic achievement is not part of the stereotype or popular image of Black and Latino youth. Key Question: How did academic achievement come to be viewed as a “White” behavior? Key Question: How do we change the perspective that achievement and success are “White”? Learning [African American] history in college was of great psychological importance to Jon, providing him with role models he had been missing in high school… He was particularly inspired by learning about the intellectual legacy of Black students at his own college. Beverly Tatum The Search for Alternative Images Heroes and Sheroes: In the faculty/staff In the curriculum In the peer group In the community In the world Expressions of Culture Artwork, signs, programs promoted, structural representation. Because the majority is the majority, they may not realize how prevalent their culture is articulated and how little diversity is expressed. Torres et al Key Question What heroes and sheroes of color do I or could I incorporate into the course(s) I teach, my advising, or the activities for which I am responsible? Supporting the Identity Development of Students of Color Understand Minority Identity Development Encourage courses related to students’ ethnicities Know about and refer students to offices and programs serving students of color on campus Be familiar with campus organizations and activities for students of color Encourage students to seek out campus and community mentors Brown and Rivas 1995, 1997 Making a paradigm shift is difficult for faculty, particularly if they are asked to modify teaching techniques and classroom material to be more inclusive….It is even more difficult when faculty have been taught that traditional westernized [education] is best Torres, Howard-Hooper, Cooper, 2003 Creating inclusive classrooms Beverly Daniels Tatum Establish clear guidelines for discussion No tolerance for racist, sexist, homonegative, ableist statements or behaviors Encourage respect for individuals’ experiences Encourage use of “I’ statements Model appropriate behavior and enforce ground rules, as necessary Creating inclusive classrooms Beverly Daniels Tatum Create opportunities for self-generated knowledge When students challenge material in texts or lectures, provide opportunities for them to have hands-on or immersion assignments, which can allow them to move beyond stereotypes and beliefs gleaned from conscious and unconscious learning. Creating inclusive classrooms Beverly Daniels Tatum Provide developmental models that may allow them to explore their own processes. When students challenge material in texts or lectures, provide opportunities for them to have hands-on or immersion assignments, which can allow them to move beyond stereotypes and beliefs gleaned from conscious and unconscious learning. Students are shocked and appalled when they discover that there is so much more to learn about the history of diverse groups and that their current level of education is woefully inadequate. They realize that what they were taught in elementary and secondary school may have been written to favor privileged groups. Torres, Howard-Hooper, Cooper, 2003 White Identity Development: A Stage Model Pre-exposure: Naiveté about race Acceptance: Internalized sense of superiority over “others” Resistance: Initial efforts to question or resist racist messages Redefinition: Takes responsibility for her/his whiteness and opposing racism Internalization: New white identity is aware of racial and social injustices. Rita Hardiman, 2001 The essence of a visionary organization is the translation of its core ideology into everything it does. Collins and Porras, 2000 RIT Values Respect, Diversity, & Pluralism Treats every person with dignity. Demonstrates inclusion by incorporating diverse perspectives…. Comments? Questions? Challenges? Successes?
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