Chapter 2013 by 7nh05ZmJ

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									Chapter 13

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

1. Conflict is defined as
A. perceived incompatibility of actions or goals.
B. dissatisfaction with relationship outcomes.
C. hostility that results from frustrating interaction.
D. competition for mutually exclusive goals.

2. The occurrence of conflict in any relationship
A. is usually a sign of lack of motivation.
B. can stimulate improved human relations.
C. is a necessary evil of human interaction.
D. necessarily signifies an incompatibility of goals.

3. The outcome of creatively managed conflict is
A. satisfaction.
B. peace.
C. accord.
D. compliance.

4. Peace is defined as
A. surface calmness.
B. the suppression of open conflict.
C. the absence of conflict.
D. the outcome of creatively managed conflict.

5. Christina and Massimo have been saving money since they got married. Now Massimo wants to buy a new
car, but Christina wants to continue saving for a new house. Massimo and Christina
A. are experiencing conflict.
B. are experiencing dissonance.
C. have mirror-image perceptions.
D. are developing superordinate goals.
6. Pursuing one's self-interest to the collective detriment of one's community or society is the central pattern in
A. mirror-image perception.
B. the jigsaw problem.
C. perceived injustice.
D. a social dilemma.

7. Some individuals have many children so that they can ensure someone will take care of them in the future.
However, this contributes to the collective devastation of overpopulation. This is an example of
A. mirror-image perception.
B. the jigsaw problem.
C. perceived injustice.
D. a social dilemma.

8. In the Prisoner's Dilemma, if both prisoners confess, each will get a _______; if neither confesses, each will
A. moderate sentence; get a light sentence
B. severe sentence; get a light sentence
C. severe sentence; go free
D. moderate sentence; get a severe sentence

9. In playing the laboratory version of the Prisoner's Dilemma, you would personally obtain the best payoff on
any given trial if you _______ and the other person _______.
A. confess; does not confess
B. confess; confesses
C. do not confess; confesses
D. do not confess; does not confess

10. If an attorney creates a Prisoner-like Dilemma for two suspects, the attorney's goal is to
A. trick either one of them into revealing what really happened.
B. create an incentive for one of them to confess while the other maintains innocence.
C. create an incentive for both of them to confess privately.
D. achieve the greatest punishment for both suspects.

11. In small groups – as opposed to large ones – individuals are
A. more likely to take more than their equal share.
B. less anonymous and thus less cooperative.
C. less likely to take more than their equal share.
D. more open about their conflicts.
12. Which of the following is NOT an effect of rules and regulations in modern societies?
A. safeguards on our common good
B. reduction in social dilemmas
C. diminished personal freedom
D. increased personal freedom

13. When individuals consume more than their share, and the cost of doing so is dispersed among all, the result
is called
A. greed.
B. environmental devastation.
C. overconsumption.
D. the tragedy of the commons.

14. In the tragedy of the commons, the "commons" refers to
A. disputed border territory.
B. stolen goods or winnings.
C. any jointly used, finite resource.
D. private property that repeatedly changes ownership.

15. In real life, which of the following parallels the tragedy of the commons?
A. pollution of rivers and streams
B. gun control
C. the death penalty
D. online auctions

16. Despite official government warnings of a severe water shortage, most citizens fail to conserve in the belief
that their personal water consumption will have little effect on the community's total water supply. The eventual
depletion of the community's water resources provides an example of
A. mirror-image perceptions.
B. individualistic calamity.
C. the tragedy of the commons.
D. rational disaster.
17. Sato (1987) gave Japanese students opportunities to harvest trees in a simulated forest for money. When the
students equally shared the costs of planting the forest, the result was that
A. most of the trees were left to grow too tall for harvesting because the students bickered about the criterion to
be used in sharing profits.
B. most of the trees were harvested before they had grown to the most profitable size.
C. none of the trees were harvested because the collectivist students did not want to be the first to ask for his or
her share.
D. students made maximum profit not only for themselves individually but for the group.

18. Facing the recurring dilemma of cookie-jar depletion within 24-hours of its being re-stocked, Mom and Dad
decide to do something. What strategy will be most effective?
A. Do not allow family members to talk to one another about how many cookies they eat.
B. Restrict each family member to just two cookies per day.
C. Stop buying cookies.
D. Call a family meeting and scold everyone for eating too many cookies.

19. In the commons dilemma, people often consume more than they realize when
A. others take on a cooperative strategy.
B. resources are not partitioned.
C. the "commons" is divided into equal parts.
D. everyone cooperates.

20. Consistent with what is know about how the common's dilemma operates, people are most likely to take a
disproportionate share of food when the
A. cookie jar is filled every week.
B. cookie jar is not filled every week.
C. food is a bowl of mashed potatoes being passed around.
D. food is a platter of ten chicken wings that are being passed around.

21. Which of the following is NOT a feature shared by both the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Commons
A. One party's wins necessarily equals the other party's losses.
B. Participants tend to commit the fundamental attribution error.
C. Participants' motives change in the course of the entrapment.
D. Both are non-zero-sum games.
22. Attempting to explain one's own behavior situationally is a characteristic of
A. the Prisoner's Dilemma.
B. the Commons Dilemma.
C. both dilemmas.
D. neither dilemma.

23. Attempting to explain other's behavior dispositionally is a characteristic of
A. the Prisoner's Dilemma.
B. the Commons Dilemma.
C. both dilemmas.
D. neither dilemma.

24. In both the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Commons Dilemma, people are tempted to explain their own
behavior _______ and others' behavior _______.
A. situationally; situationally
B. dispositionally; dispositionally
C. situationally; dispositionally
D. dispositionally; situationally

25. Which one of the following is an example of a non-zero-sum game?
A. the Prisoner's Dilemma
B. the Commons Dilemma
C. both the Prisoner's and the Commons Dilemmas
D. neither the Prisoner's nor the Commons Dilemmas

26. In a non-zero-sum game
A. both can win and both can lose.
B. one side wins and the other loses.
C. one's gains equal another's losses.
D. altruistic motives dominate.

27. In Sherif's research, the camper groups became hostile towards each other when
A. they learned of the other group's existence.
B. the two groups first met.
C. when competition between the groups was introduced.
D. when competition between the groups ended.
28. A common excuse for noncooperation is
A. "I couldn't have made a difference anyway."
B. "The devil made me do it."
C. "That's unfair."
D. "Cooperation is for the weak and cowardly."

29. The smaller the commons, the more
A. responsibility each person feels for it.
B. intense the conflict among individual members.
C. apathetic people are about its preservation.
D. the more likely communication will take the form of intimidation and deception.

30. The relationship between the size of a commons and a person's feeling of responsibility for it is
A. positive.
B. negative.
C. neutral.
D. curvilinear.

31. Research on laboratory dilemmas reveals that cooperation is facilitated if
A. one person is 100% cooperative.
B. the opponents can communicate with one another.
C. the game is changed into a zero-sum game.
D. the size of the payoffs is increased.

32. In research on social dilemmas, it has been found that group discussion
A. polarized competitive tendencies.
B. had no effect on the outcome.
C. led to greater cooperation and better outcomes for all participants.
D. led to escalated conflict and tension.

33. Which of the following is cited in the text as an example of changing payoffs to resolve social dilemmas?
A. allowing carpoolers to drive in the faster, freeway lane
B. requiring carpool cars and vans to park in special, larger parking lots farther away from the office building
C. lowering the price of gasoline well below $1 per gallon
D. raising the price of gasoline well above $5 per gallon
34. According to research, it seems that just knowing about the dire consequences of noncooperation in a social
A. is sufficient to convince people to behave cooperatively.
B. leads to greater mistrust of others.
C. tends to foster greater self-interest and competition.
D. has little real effect on people's behavior.

35. At the beginning of 2000, people were aware that global warming was already occurring, yet they were also
buying gas-slurping SUVs in record numbers. This is an example of
A. greed.
B. overconsumption.
C. how knowing good does not always lead to doing good.
D. how important status is to so many people.

36. Which of the following is cited in the text as a method for resolving social dilemmas?
A. communication
B. punishment
C. increasing group size
D. competition

37. Which of the following is NOT cited in the text as a method for resolving social dilemmas?
A. regulation
B. making the group smaller
C. communication
D. competition

38. Mio (1993) and her colleagues found that after reading about the commons dilemma, theater patrons
A. littered less.
B. demanded reserved seats.
C. were more likely to assist a handicapped person find a seat.
D. spent more on theater refreshments.

39. As Sherif noted, despite the fact that the behavior of the boys in the warring camps seemed "wicked,
disturbed, and vicious," what actually triggered their evil behavior was
A. their leaders' modeling of aggression.
B. their delinquent backgrounds.
C. their ethnic identities.
D. an evil situation.
40. Esses and his colleagues (2004) found that competition breeds conflict when
A. people perceive that resources are limited and available on a non-zero-sum basis.
B. there is no distinct outgroup.
C. the ingroup is dominant.
D. communication is facilitated.

41. Equity exists when
A. rewards are distributed in proportion to individuals' contributions.
B. partners share equally in the rewards of collective effort.
C. rewards are distributed in relation to individuals' needs or deservingness.
D. group members decide among themselves how rewards should be distributed.

42. Before they married, Melinda and Michael, who are both employed full time and collect the same pay,
agreed to share equally in routine household tasks such as cleaning and grocery shopping. In reality, Melinda is
now doing about 80% of the household work. This situation is an example of
A. an integrative disaster.
B. an inequitable relationship.
C. a social dilemma.
D. a zero-sum relationship.

43. Rodney and Ralph are twin brothers who each contributed $75 to purchase a new bicycle. Rodney rides it
75% of the time. This would be an example of
A. an inequitable relationship.
B. the tragedy of the commons.
C. a zero-sum relationship.
D. mirror-image perceptions.

44. What does your text refer to as the "golden rule" of social justice?
A. "Equity for strangers, equality for friends."
B. "An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth."
C. "Care most for those in greatest need."
D. "Whoever has the gold makes the rules."

45. Some noncapitalist cultures define justice not as equity but as
A. equality.
B. the fulfillment of a need.
C. either equality or the fulfillment of a need.
D. socialism.
46. Knowing that one's group has over-benefited can trigger
A. equality.
B. devaluation of others' inputs.
C. heightened competition.
D. retaliation.

47. Research on the equity theory reveals that the more competent and worthy people feel, and the more they
value their inputs, the
A. more they will feel under-benefited.
B. more they will feel rewarded equitably.
C. more competition they will feel.
D. higher the likelihood of misperception.

48. One potential way to prevent conflict is to
A. avoid making excess regulations.
B. avoid over-communication.
C. reduce excess resources.
D. keep groups small.

49. Which one of the following is NOT one of the seeds of misperception according to your text?
A. the self-serving bias
B. reduced competition
C. the fundamental attribution error
D. groupthink

50. What do self-serving biases, group polarization, and negative stereotypes have in common?
A. They illustrate the power of the situation.
B. They are potential seeds of misperception.
C. They illustrate that we are cognitive misers.
D. They negate conflict.

51. According to Staub and Bar-Tal (2003) all of the following are characteristics of a group in intractable
conflict EXCEPT the group that
A. views its own goals as supremely important.
B. believes itself victimized.
C. takes pride in "us" and intensely devalues "them."
D. attributes similar characteristics to the other group.
52. The misperceptions of those who are in conflict with each other, such as two nations who regard each other
with suspicion and hostility, are usually
A. nonreciprocal.
B. unilateral.
C. mutual.
D. inequitable.

53. The reciprocal views that parties in conflict often hold of one another are referred to as
A. mirror-image perceptions.
B. stereotypic reciprocation.
C. complementary images.
D. reciprocal illusions.

54. The Republic of Fredonia believes its long-time enemy, the kingdom of Franistan, is aggressive, greedy, and
impulsive. On the other hand, Franistan believes Fredonia is hostile, selfish, and unpredictable. This is an
example of
A. an inequitable relationship.
B. a zero-sum relationship.
C. mirror-image perceptions.
D. reciprocal illusions.

55. When two sides have clashing perceptions, at least one of them is misperceiving the other, and when that is
the case, according to Bronfenbrenner (1960), "It is characteristic of such images that they are _______."
A. self-defeating
B. self-confirming
C. self-handicapping
D. self-monitoring

56. Ralph White reviewed ten wars from the last century and reported that each was marked by at least one
misperception. Which of the following was NOT on this list?
A. underestimating the enemy's strength
B. overestimating the leaders' power
C. demonizing the enemy
D. rationalizing one's own motives
57. When Bush called Iraq "evil" in the buildup to the invasion, he was making which common misperception?
A. underestimating the strength of one's enemy
B. demonizing the enemy
C. rationalizing one's own motives
D. blaming the wrong people

58. John believes that he is hardworking and that his wife Rachel is lazy. Rachel believes that she is
hardworking and that John is lazy. This is an example of
A. an inequitable relationship.
B. mirror-image perception.
C. a superordinate goal.
D. a social trap.

59. In a study by executives who were asked to describe a recent conflict, Thomas and Pondy (1977) found that
12% described the opposing party as _______ and 74% perceived themselves as _______.
A. cooperative; cooperative
B. intelligent; intelligent
C. cooperative; competitive
D. rational; competent

60. In times of tension, such as during an international crisis,
A. views of the opposing side become more simplistic.
B. political statements acknowledge that each country's motives are complex.
C. judgments about action are prolonged and postponed by time-consuming reevaluations.
D. tendencies toward groupthink are weakened.

61. One aspect of mirror-image perception is that one side tends to
A. exaggerate their differences from their adversaries.
B. see itself reflected in the way others see it.
C. see the situation as the reflection of an evil situation.
D. agree with the other side.

62. Which of the following is NOT one of the four C's of peacemaking identified in the text?
A. contact
B. correction
C. conciliation
D. communication
63. For Blacks, the most noticeable consequence of desegregated schooling is
A. very short-term improvements of interracial relations.
B. a reduced likelihood of attending primarily White colleges.
C. the increased likelihood of living and working in integrated settings.
D. a more favorable self-image.

64. Surveys of nearly 4000 Europeans revealed that an important factor in determining whether attitudes toward
a minority group will become more favorable is whether
A. one has a friend who is a member of that minority group.
B. the minority group tends to be submissive.
C. the minority group has a history of significant accomplishment.
D. the language of the minority group can be easily mastered.

65. In order for contact between opposing racial groups to reduce conflict, the contact must
A. occur in a zero-sum context.
B. be structured to confer equal status on both races.
C. temporarily award superior status to the minority group.
D. be mediated by a third party.

66. Gurin and her colleagues (2002) found that informal interactions enabled by ethnic diversity in college
A. increase perceptions of differences among ethnic groups.
B. tend to foster greater acceptance of differences among ethnic groups.
C. have little effect on perceptions of differences among ethnic groups.
D. tend to foster more negative perceptions of other ethnic groups.

67. The U.S. Supreme Court's 2003 decision that racial diversity may be a criterion in admissions to colleges
and universities was
A. the result of counter-prejudice.
B. the result of negative stereotypes.
C. based on research findings that revealed that racial diversity in the classroom has positive consequences.
D. based on research findings that revealed that minorities excel in diverse groups.

68. Approval of President Bush's performance after September 11th, 2001
A. increased.
B. decreased.
C. stabilized.
D. was unaffected.
69. The fact that 51% of Americans approved of President Bush's performance on September 10th, 2001, and
90% of Americans approved of President Bush's performance on September 11th, 2001 is an example of
A. cooperation.
B. cohesiveness as a result of a common external threat.
C. justification for poor performance.
D. heightened paranoia.

70. A goal that overrides people's differences from one another is called a(n)
A. superior goal.
B. superordinate goal.
C. ingroup goal.
D. independent goal.

71. Through the use of _______, Muzafer Sherif made enemies into friends.
A. contact
B. superordinate goals
C. bargaining
D. conciliation

72. Which of the following best illustrates a superordinate goal?
A. A college student who has been failing English gets an "A" on a paper.
B. A woman beats her husband at tennis.
C. Apartment dwellers install a television antenna they can all use.
D. An obese person loses 20 pounds in two weeks.

73. After their town was ravaged by a disastrous tornado, two rival community groups set aside their differences
and worked together on repairing the damage. This cooperation best illustrates the importance of
A. mediation.
B. the GRIT strategy.
C. superordinate goals.
D. the jigsaw technique.

74. According to Slavin (2003), a "practical, proven method for implementing contact theory in the
desegregated classroom," is
A. academic competitions between different schools.
B. after-school classes on race relations.
C. peer support groups.
D. cooperative learning.
75. Aronson's jigsaw technique involved having elementary school children
A. study in small, racially mixed teams and then compete with other teams in a class tournament.
B. form academically and racially diverse groups with each member of the group becoming an expert in one
C. role-play being members of another race for two-week periods.
D. take turns telling each other about their family backgrounds in small-group discussions.

76. By emphasizing the contribution Jackie Robinson might make to the Brooklyn Dodgers' winning the 1947
pennant, Branch Rickey used _______ to reduce racial prejudice and conflict among team members.
A. a superordinate goal
B. an integrative agreement
C. arbitration
D. the GRIT strategy

77. According to Phinney (1990), someone who identifies with both his or her ethnic culture and the larger
culture is said to have a _______ identity.
A. schizophrenic
B. cultural
C. bicultural
D. subcultural

78. Triandis (1994) reported that _______ immigrants felt more comfortable identifying with their ethnicity
than _______ immigrants.
A. grandchildren of; second-generation
B. second-generation; grandchildren of
C. European; Asian
D. Asian; European

79. _______ occurs when conflicted parties seek an agreement through direct negotiation.
A. Bargaining
B. Amelioration
C. Mediation
D. Arbitration
80. _______ occurs when a neutral third party attempts to facilitate communication and offer suggestions for
how to resolve a conflict.
A. Bargaining
B. Amelioration
C. Mediation
D. Arbitration

81. _______ occurs when a neutral third party studies a conflict and imposes a settlement.
A. Bargaining
B. Amelioration
C. Mediation
D. Arbitration

82. Motto and Yoko are roommates and are experiencing a conflict about what type of cable television service
is within their budget. They negotiate by having Yoko, who wanted a more expensive service, pay the
remainder of the bill after both of them have paid for half of the cost of the less expensive service. What form of
communication did Motto and Yoko use to resolve their conflict?
A. bargaining
B. amelioration
C. mediation
D. arbitration

83. Vivian and Pearl, who have been a couple for many years, are having a conflict they have been unable to
resolve, so they make an appointment with a counselor. The counselor helps facilitate communication between
Vivian and Pearl, and offers suggestions for dealing with future conflicts. What form of communication have
they used to resolve their conflict?
A. bargaining
B. amelioration
C. mediation
D. arbitration

84. A mediator seeks to achieve a mutually beneficial resolution by having the parties adopt a _______
A. carefree
B. win-lose
C. win-win
D. submissive
85. Mediators seek to establish _______ agreements that reconcile both parties' interests to their mutual benefit.
A. arbitrated
B. integrative
C. mirror-image
D. zero-sum

86. Ahmed and Fatima, two teenage siblings, are fighting over the evening newspaper. Knowing Ahmed only
wants the sports section and Fatima only wants the latest stock quotations, their mother takes the paper and
gives each the section containing the news of interest. In this case the mother arrived at a(n)
A. mutual compromise.
B. cooperative settlement.
C. enlightened consensus.
D. integrative agreement.

87. According to conflict researchers, you are more likely to divulge your needs and concerns if your
relationship with your partner includes
A. mediation.
B. trust.
C. passion.
D. the threat of withdrawal.

88. David and Julie fought over what to name their new puppy, until finally they went to their children for a
decision. David and Julie relied on _______ to resolve their conflict.
A. mediation
B. bargaining
C. conciliation
D. arbitration

89. Factory workers want a pay rate of $15 per hour and management offers $12 per hour. After weeks of
conflict, they agree to have a third party set the pay scale. After hearing both sides, the third party sets the rate
at $14. This is an example of resolving conflict through
A. bargaining.
B. arbitration.
C. mediation.
D. conciliation.
90. Osgood's (1980) GRIT strategy is an alternative that best fits into the _______ category of the "four C's of
A. contact
B. conciliation
C. communication
D. correction

91. Which of the following is NOT one of the steps in Osgood's (1980) GRIT strategy?
A. Build up first-strike capability to negotiate from a position of strength.
B. Announce your conciliatory intent.
C. Carry out several verifiable conciliatory acts.
D. Maintain retaliatory capability.

92. Disputing groups usually prefer to settle their differences
A. with arbitration.
B. without mediation.
C. without arbitration.
D. without bargaining.

93. Which one of the following is NOT a characteristic that conflict expert Deutsch (1993) advises negotiators
to exhibit?
A. fairness
B. firmness
C. friendliness
D. sympathy

94. The communitarian synthesis emphasizes
A. individualist values.
B. collectivist values.
C. both individualist and collectivist values.
D. neither individualist nor collectivist values.

Critical Thinking Questions

   95)     Describe an example of a social dilemma that you have learned about in the news.

   96)     Compare and contrast the Prisoner’s Dilemma and the Tragedy of the Commons.

   97)     What is your ideal definition of justice in an intimate relationship? Is it the same as your ideal
           definition of justice in the realm of economics? Why or why not?

   98)     Define and provide an example of each of the C’s of peacemaking.
99)    When will desegregation be most likely to lead to improved race relations and when will it not?

100)   Why do common external threats and superordinate goals both lead to greater
       cooperation between conflicting parties?

101)   According to the text, the goal of a third-party mediator is to “enable conflicting parties to make
       concessions and still save face.” What are the strategies that a mediator can use to achieve this goal?

102)   Define and provide an example of GRIT.

105)   Explain how couples can fight constructively.

106)       Describe a program that you might design to reduce prejudice between the Soris and the Talins,
   two fictitious and competitive groups.

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