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					      MCAS Alternate Assessment




       Resource Guide to the
Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks
      for Students with Disabilities




 HISTORY and SOCIAL SCIENCE




                Fall 2006
                           History and Social Science

  Grade                                             Topic                                  Pages
 Pre-K to K              Living, Learning, and Working Together                            372 - 374
                      True Stories and Folk Tales from America and
        1                                                                                  375 - 378
                                  from Around the World
        2                   E Pluribus Unum: From Many, One                                379 - 381
                         Massachusetts and its Cities and Towns:
        3                                                                                  382 - 388
                                  Geography and History
                             North American Geography with
        4                                                                                  389 - 402
                       Optional Standards for One Early Civilization
                            United States History, Geography,
        5                      Economics, and Government:                                  403 - 420
                        Early Exploration to Westward Movement
        6                            World Geography                                       421 - 441
                         Ancient and Classical Civilizations in the
        7            Mediterranean to the Fall of the Roman Empire:                        442 - 462
                                Ideas That Shaped History
                     World History I: The World from the Fall of Rome
     8-12                                                                                  463 - 490
                                through the Enlightenment
                      World History II: The Rise of the Nation State
     8-12                                                                                  491 - 506
                                       to the Present
                          U.S. History I: The Revolution through
     8-12                                                                                  507 - 527
                                Reconstruction, 1763–1877
                      U.S. History II: Reconstruction to the Present,
     8-12                                                                                  528 - 546
                                         1877–2001

Each History and Social Science learning standard is annotated with the subdomain(s) it
addresses.
                 (H) – History and Geography
                 (G) –Geography
                 (C) – Civics and Government
                 (E) – Economics

A list is provided of related themes at each grade level from the History and Social
Science Curriculum Framework to assist in designing appropriate instruction.




Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities     Fall 2006
HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        371
                                                                                                           History and
                                                                                                          Social Science

                                                                                                         Living, Learning,
                                                                                                           and Working
                                                                                                             Together
CONTENT  History and Social Science
                                                                                                             PreK - K
   TOPIC  Living, Learning, and Working Together
      THEMES
                         The evolution of the concepts of personal freedom, individual responsibilities,
                          and respect for human dignity
                         The influence of economic, political, religions, and cultural ideas on human
                          societies
                         The effects of geography
                         The growth and spread of free markets and industrial economies


                         Pre-Kindergarten to Kindergarten
Learning Standard as Written                                                                 Essence of Standard
 PreK-K.1     Identify and describe the events or people celebrated during United               Identify national holidays
              States national holidays and why we celebrate them. (H)
                  A. Columbus Day
                  B. Independence Day
                  C. Martin Luther King, Jr. Day
                  D. Presidents’ Day
                  E. Thanksgiving
 PreK-K.2     Put events in their own and their families’ lives in temporal order. (H)          Place individual and family
                                                                                                 events in chronological order
 PreK-K.3     Identify the student’s street address, city or town, and Massachusetts as         Identify geography in daily
              the state and the United States as the country in which he or she lives.           life; place where I live and go
              Identify the name of the student’s school and the city or town in which it         to school
              is located. (G)
 PreK-K.4     Describe the location and features of places in the immediate                     Identify and locate physical
              neighborhood of the student’s home or school. (G)                                  geography (i.e., location and
                                                                                                 features) of the neighborhood
 PreK-K.5     Retell stories that illustrate honesty, courage, friendship, respect,             List character traits of
              responsibility, and the wise or judicious exercise of authority, and explain       admirable people
              how the characters in the stories show these qualities. (C)
 PreK-K.6     Identify and describe family or community members who promote the                 Identify important community
              welfare and safety of children and adults. (C)                                     workers (e.g., firefighters,
                                                                                                 teachers, police) and how they
                                                                                                 provide care and safety for
                                                                                                 members of the community
 PreK-K.7     Demonstrate understanding that there are important American symbols               Identify national symbols and
              by identifying                                                                     their significance
                   A. the American flag and its colors and                                         American flag
                       shapes                                                                      National anthem
                   B. the melody of the national anthem                                            current president
                   C. the picture and name of the current                                          Pledge of Allegiance
                       president
                   D. the words of the Pledge of
                        Allegiance. (C)


    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                      Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        372
    PreK-K.8      Give examples of different kinds of jobs that people do, including the            Identify different kinds of jobs
                  work they do at home. (E)
    PreK-K.9      Explain why people work (e.g., to earn money in order to buy things they          Explain why people work
                  want). (E)
PreK-K.10         Give examples of the things that people buy with the money they earn.             Describe what people buy
                  (E)                                                                                (consumption)
                                                                                                    Identify necessities and
                                                                                                     conveniences


Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

         Less Complex                                                                         More Complex


    ACCESSS SKILLS                      ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:                  The student will:                The student will:                The student will:
    Use pictures of family           Name family members             Name family members,             Name family members,
     members to match                  and their relationships to       their relationships to the        their relationships to the
     picture to picture                the student (e.g., father,       student, and birth order          student, and birth order
    Respond to text being             mother, sister)                 Identify his or her own          Identify his or her own
     read aloud (i.e., remain         Tell who is oldest and           birthday: month, day,             birthday: month, day,
     alert, request more)              youngest                         and year                          and year
    Orient to books/orient           Identify the city/town          State his or her full            Tell his or her full
     book right side up                where he or she lives            address                           address and describe
    Turn pages in a book             Identify the state where        Explain what his or her           their neighborhood (e.g.,
    Activate an electronic            he or she lives                  parents/guardians do for          buildings, houses, parks,
     device to access text,           Identify the state where         a living                          streets, stores)
     communicate with                  his or her family lives         Recognize the American           Identify important
     others, or participate in        Recognize the American           flag                              national symbols and
     an instructional activity         flag                            Recognize important               explain their significance
    Turn attention toward            Recognize one national           national holidays                Identify important
     another person                    holiday                         Identify important                national holidays and
    Grasp, manipulate, and           Relate a shopping                community workers (e.g.,          explain their significance
     release objects                   experience                       teachers, police,                Identify important
    Organize instructional           Sequence events in his or        firefighters)                     community workers (e.g.,
     materials                         her life to show                Explain why people use            teachers, police,
    Take turns appropriately          understanding of time            money                             firefighters) and explain
     during classroom                                                                                     why they are important
     discussion                                                                                          Describe different types
    Respond to/initiate                                                                                  of jobs that people do
     contacts with others                                                                                Explain why people need
    Apply rules for                                                                                      to earn money
     appropriate classroom                                                                               Identify ways that people
     behavior                                                                                             use the money they earn
    Use appropriate social
     greetings                                                                                       Continue to address skills and
    Follow simple directions                                                                        concepts that approach grade
    Identify self and/or                                                                            level expectations in this
     others                                                                                          strand
    Initiate or respond to
     request for joint attention




       Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                      Fall 2006
       HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        373
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standards PreK-K.8
        At the pre kindergarten-kindergarten level, through field trips and classroom visitors,
        students will have the opportunity to see and hear about different careers. Students have access to
        different types of dress up clothing and materials to role-play different professions. Students
        participate in activities to demonstrate knowledge of the different jobs they have acted out.


How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

Phoebe participates in the Career Learning Center.           Data chart showing Phoebe’s ability to match people to
She dresses up as a teacher and plays “school” with           jobs
her classmates. She plays a card game with peers             Work sample created by matching people to jobs
matching pictures of jobs to the people who do the           Work sample of journal entries created after field trips
jobs. Phoebe creates a journal entry after each field         and visitors
trip or classroom visitor and draws a picture about
her experience. She then brings the journal to an
adult and tells about her picture. She tells the adult
the sentence she wants to write under the picture.
The adult writes the sentence and Phoebe copies
the words.

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

Kevin participates in the Career Learning Center             Data chart showing Kevin’s ability to match people to
with an assigned peer. He dresses up as a mail                jobs
carrier and plays “Post Office” with his classmates.         Work sample created by matching people to jobs
He plays a card game with peers matching pictures            Work sample of journal entries created after field trips
of jobs to the people who do the jobs. Kevin also             and visitors
creates a journal entry after each field trip or
classroom visitor and draws a picture about his
experience. He then brings the journal to an adult
and tells about his picture.

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

Ricky participates in the Career Learning Center with        Data chart showing Ricky’s ability to grasp objects
an assigned peer. He dresses up as a firefighter with        Video showing Ricky grasping a crayon to complete
help from the peer and the peer pushes Ricky’s                journal
wheelchair pretending to put out fires. Ricky                Work sample created by Ricky grasping paintbrush to
chooses his favorite picture of a person in a job             paint picture of a fire truck
uniform. The picture is glued in his journal. He then
grasps a crayon and makes marks on the page with
the picture.




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities             Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        374
                                                                                                         History and
                                                                                                        Social Science

                                                                                                       True Stories &
                                                                                                       Folk Tales from
                                                                                                      America and from
                                                                                                      Around the World

CONTENT    History and Social Science                                       Grade 1
   TOPIC   True Stories and Folk Tales from America
            and from Around the World
   Learning Standards for: United States Leaders, Symbols, Events, and Holidays
                                                Individuals, Families, and Communities Now and Long Ago
           THEMES
                          The evolution of the concepts of personal freedom, individual responsibilities,
                           and respect for human dignity
                          The influence of economic, political, religions, and cultural ideas on human
                           societies
                          The effects of geography
                          The growth and spread of free markets and industrial economies


                                                     Grade 1
             United States Leaders, Symbols, Events, and Holidays
Learning Standard as Written                             Essence of Standard
  1.1        On a map of the United States, locate Washington, D.C., and identify it as      Locate important U.S. cities
             the capital of the United States of America; locate Boston and identify it
             as the capital of Massachusetts. (G)
  1.2        Identify the current President of the United States, describe what              Identify U.S. President: his
             presidents do, and explain that they get their authority from a vote by          name, role, and how he
             the people. (H, C)                                                               became president
                                                                                             Explain presidents do
                                                                                             Explain how a president is
                                                                                              elected
  1.3        Identify   and explain the meaning of American national symbols. (H, C)         Identify and explain the
                 A.      the American flag                                                    meaning of important national
                 B.      the bald eagle                                                       symbols
                 C.      the White House
                 D.      the Statue of Liberty
  1.4        Demonstrate the ability to recite the Pledge of Allegiance, to explain its      Recite the Pledge of Allegiance
             general meaning, and to sing national songs such as America the                  and sing patriotic songs
             Beautiful, My Country, ’tis of Thee, God Bless America, and The Star
             Spangled Banner and explain the general meaning of the lyrics. (H, C)
  1.5        Give reasons for celebrating the events or people commemorated in               Identify and explain state and
             national and Massachusetts holidays. On a calendar for the current year,         national holidays
             identify the months for Labor Day, Columbus Day, Veterans’ Day,
             Thanksgiving, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Patriots’ Day,
             Memorial Day, Flag Day, and Independence Day. (H, C, G)
  1.6        Give reasons for noting the days that mark the changes in seasons. (G)          Use a calendar to describe
                                                                                              seasonal changes and
                                                                                              chronology


   Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                   Fall 2006
   HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        375
             Individuals, Families, and Communities Now and Long Ago
1.7        After reading or listening to folktales, legends, and stories from America       Identify well-known American
           (e.g., Johnny Appleseed, Paul Bunyan, Davy Crockett, John Henry, and              and international folktales,
           Annie Oakley) and from around the world (e.g., Anansi, Issun Boshi, the           legends, and stories
           Knee-High Man, Lon Po Po, and Medioa Pollito), describe the main
           characters and their qualities. (H)
1.8        After reading or listening to stories about famous Americans of different        Describe accomplishments and
           ethnic groups, faiths, and historical periods (e.g., Neil Armstrong, Cesar        traits of famous Americans
           Chavez, Roberto Clemente, Thomas Edison, Bill Gates, Daniel Inouye,
           Thurgood Marshall, Rosa Parks, Colin Powell, Sacagawea, Jonas Salk,
           Harriett Beecher Stowe, Clarence Thomas, Booker T. Washington, and
           the Wright Brothers) describe their qualities or distinctive traits. (H, C)

           Teachers are free to choose whatever biographies they wish.
1.9        Explain that Americans have a variety of different religious, community,         Recognize and describe cultural
           and family celebrations and customs, and describe celebrations or                 diversity in the United States
           customs held by members of the class and their families. (H)




 Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                   Fall 2006
 HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        376
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

      Less Complex                                                                        More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                   ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:               The student will:               The student will:               The student will:
   Use a picture to find a        Identify a map of the          Recognize a map of the         Give examples of what
    familiar location               United States                   United States                   globes and maps show
   Use national symbols,          Identify different             Locate Boston and               about the United States
    match picture to picture        features and places             Massachusetts on a map         Identify a map of the
   Sequence events to show         found on Earth (e.g.,           of the United States            Untied States and locate
    understanding of time           land, countries, oceans,       Locate important cities         Massachusetts, Boston,
   Respond to text being           mountains)                      on a map of the United          and Washington, D.C.,
    read aloud (i.e., remain       Identify a famous               States; select one or two       and tell why they are
    alert, request more)            American                        and tell why they are           important
   Choose appropriate text        Identify the current            important                      Identify national symbols
    to read or to have read         season                         Recognize and sing              and songs and explain
    aloud                          Identify the date (month,       songs about America             their significance
   Orient to books/orient          day)                           Recognize and recite the       Sing national songs and
    book right side up             Identify a national             Pledge of Allegiance            recite the Pledge of
   Turn pages in a book            holiday                        Recognize national              Allegiance
   Activate an electronic         Identify and use a simple       holidays; choose one and       Identify and explain the
    device to access text,          map                             explain why it is               significance of an
    communicate with                                                celebrated                      American folktale,
    others, or participate in                                      Identify current U.S.           legend, or story
    an instructional activity                                       president and one fact         Describe customs and
   Turn attention toward                                           about the president             traditions from different
    another person                                                 Identify current season         nations that have
   Grasp, manipulate, and                                          and state the                   become a part of
    release objects                                                 characteristics of the          American culture
   Organize instructional                                          season                         Identify a famous
    materials                                                                                       American and explain
   Take turns appropriately                                                                        what he/she
    during classroom                                                                                accomplished to gain
    discussion                                                                                      fame
   Respond to/initiate                                                                            Identify current U.S.
    contacts with others                                                                            president and two or
   Apply rules for                                                                                 three related facts
    appropriate classroom                                                                          Identify the four seasons
    behavior                                                                                        and when they occur,
   Use appropriate social                                                                          relating characteristics of
    greetings                                                                                       each season
   Follow simple directions
   Identify self and/or                                                                        Continue to address skills and
    others                                                                                      concepts that approach grade
   Initiate or respond to                                                                      level expectations in this
    request for joint                                                                           strand
    attention




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                  Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        377
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standard 1.7
        At grade 1, students listen to and read various folktales, legends, and stories from America and
        describing the events and characters in these stories.


How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

Luther reads the story of Johnny Appleseed during            Data chart showing Luther’s ability to give details about
his reading group. He is then asked to draw a picture         characters from stories
of Johnny Appleseed and write three sentences                Luther’s picture and description of Johnny Appleseed
describing the character.                                    Work sample created by matching characters from
                                                              folktales to their jobs

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

Curtis listens to the story of Johnny Appleseed              Data chart showing Curtis’s ability to describe characters
during small group reading instruction. Curtis is            Curtis’s description of Johnny Appleseed
shown a picture of Johnny Appleseed and must use             Work sample matching pictures of word symbols
three words to describe him.                                  describing Johnny Appleseed to a picture of Johnny
                                                              Appleseed

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

Charlie looks at pictures of characters from different       Data chart showing Charlie’s ability to identify emotions
American folktales that are read aloud in class. He is       Work sample created by matching symbols of emotions
asked to identify the emotion of the character in the         to pictures
picture by pointing to the appropriate picture symbol        Work sample created by a scribe writing Charlie’s
of the emotion.                                               responses to the emotion shown in a picture from
                                                              folktale story




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities             Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        378
                                                                                                            History and
                                                                                                           Social Science

                                                                                                              E Pluribus
                                                                                                             Unum: From
                                                                                                              Many, One

CONTENT  History and Social Science                                                                            Grade 2
   TOPIC   E Pluribus Unum: From Many, One
      THEMES
                        The influence of economic, political, religions, and cultural ideas on human
                         societies
                        The effects of geography
                        The growth and spread of free markets and industrial economies


                                                     Grade 2
Learning Standard as Written                                                                Essence of Standard
   2.1       On a map of the world, locate all of the continents: North America, South         Locate Earth’s continents
             America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, and Antarctica. (G)
   2.2       Locate the current boundaries of the United States, Canada, and Mexico.           Locate boundaries of North
             (G)                                                                                America
   2.3       Locate the oceans of the world: the Arctic, Atlantic, Indian, Pacific, and        Locate Earth’s major oceans
             Southern Oceans. (G)
   2.4       Locate five major rivers in the world: the Mississippi, Amazon, Volga,            Locate five of Earth’s longest
             Yangtze, and Nile. (G)                                                             rivers
   2.5       Locate major mountains or mountain ranges in the world such as the                Locate the Earth’s highest
             Andes, Alps, Himalayas, Mt. Everest, Mt. McKinley, and the Rocky                   mountains and longest
             Mountains. (G)                                                                     mountain ranges
   2.6       Explain the difference between a continent and a country and give                 Identify continents and a
             examples of each. (G)                                                              countries
   2.7       On a map of the world, locate the continent, regions, or and then the             Locate countries from which
             countries from which students, their parents, guardians, grandparents, or          students families and
             other relatives or ancestors came. With the help of family members and             grandparents came
             the school librarian, describe traditional food, customs, sports and games,
             and music of the place they came from. (G, C)
   2.8       With the help of the school librarian, give examples of traditions or             Identify customs or traditions
             customs from other countries that can be found in America today. (G, C)            within the United States
   2.9       With the help of the school librarian, identify and describe well-known           Identify significant historical
             sites, events, or landmarks in at least three different countries from which       events or cultural features of
             students’ families come and explain why they are important.                        students’ families’ countries of
             (H, G, C)                                                                          origins
  2.10       After reading or listening to a variety of true stories about individuals         Describe important
             recognized for their achievements, describe and compare different ways             achievements of individuals in
             people have achieved great distinction (e.g. scientific, professional,             various fields
             political, religious, commercial, military, athletic, or artistic). (H)




   Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                     Fall 2006
   HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        379
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

        Less Complex                                                                      More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                   ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:               The student will:               The student will:                The student will:
   Use picture to find a          Identify a globe of Earth      Identify globes and maps        Identify Earth’s
    familiar location              Identify maps that show         of Earth                         continents on a globe
   Respond to text being           different places and           Identify land and oceans         and map
    read aloud (i.e., remain        features of Earth               shown on a globe and            Identify Earth’s oceans
    alert, request more)           Identify land and oceans        map                              on a globe and map
   Choose appropriate text         shown on a map and             Identify Earth’s                Recognize Canada, the
    to read or to have read         globe                           continents                       United States, and
    aloud                          Identify North America         Identify physical features       Mexico on a globe and
   Orient to books/orient          on a map and globe              of Earth’s continents            map
    book right side up             Identify Canada, the            shown on a globe and            Identify Earth’s major
   Turn pages in a book            United States, and              map                              mountains, mountain
   Activate an electronic          Mexico on a map and            Locate Canada, the               ranges, and rivers with
    device to access text,          globe                           United States, and               special attention to those
    communicate with               Identify country(ies) of        Mexico on a globe and            located in North America
    others, or participate in       family’s national origin        map                             Explain the difference
    an instructional activity      Identify geographic            Compare the size of              between a continent and
   Turn attention toward           features that might be          Canada, the United               a country
    another person                  found on a map                  States, and Mexico on a         Identify examples of
   Grasp, manipulate, and                                          globe and map                    countries located on
    release objects                                                Recognize how a globe            different continents
   Organize instructional                                          and map show rivers,            Identify the
    materials                                                       and locate Earth’s major         continent(s)/country(ies)
   Take turns appropriately                                        rivers on each                   of the student’s family’s
    during classroom                                               Identify country(ies) of         origin(s)
    discussion                                                      family’s national origin        Study a person who
   Respond to/initiate                                            Identify one feature of          achieved fame and
    contacts with others                                            family’s country(ies) of         describe his or her
   Apply rules for                                                 origin                           accomplishments
    appropriate classroom
    behavior                                                                                     Continue to address skills and
   Use appropriate social                                                                       concepts in this subject that
    greetings                                                                                    approach grade-level
   Follow simple directions                                                                     expectations
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint
    attention




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                   Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        380
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standard 2.1
        At grade 2, students learn and use map skills to identify the seven continents. Students first learn
        the names of the continents through a song and then learn to identify the continents on a map of
        the world, and by putting together a puzzle of the seven continents


How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

Marcie participates in a class activity during which         Data chart showing Marcie’s ability to identify the seven
the students look at a large globe. The teacher says          continents
the names of the continents and shows the students           Audiotape of Marcie singing the seven continents song
which continent they live on. Marcie learns a song            correctly
that names the seven continents. Students play a             Work sample created by labeling the seven continents
game passing the globe. When they catch the globe             on a map
they state the name of a continent touched by one
of their hands.

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

Javier participates in the class activity during which       Data chart showing Javier’s ability to identify North
the students look at a large globe. Javier learns a           America on a map
song that names the continents, and plays a game             Work sample produced during pass-the-globe game on
passing the globe. When Javier catches the globe,             which Javier identified North America on a map
he must find North America and identify it. Each             Work sample created of Javier tracing North America
time Javier finds and identifies North America
correctly, he places a sticker on a chart. On the class
puzzle of the seven continents, Javier finds the
North America piece and traces it, labeling it with a
sticker.

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

Collin participates in the same class activity. Collin       Data chart showing Collin’s ability to identify peers
listens to the class sing the song that names the            Work sample created by placing a sticker on Collin’s
seven continents. In the pass-the-globe game, Collin          sheet each time he rolls the ball to the correct peer
is told the name of a peer to whom he must roll the          Work sample created by Collin labeling or naming
globe when it is his turn.                                    pictures of peers using a scribe




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities             Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        381
                                                                                                          History and
                                                                                                         Social Science

                                                                                                         New England
                                                                                                             and
CONTENT     History and Social Science                                                                   Massachusetts
   TOPIC     Massachusetts and Its Cities and Towns:                                                        Grade 3
             Geography and History
    Learning Standards for: New England and Massachusetts
         THEMES
                         The evolution of the concepts of personal freedom, individual responsibility, and
                          respect for human dignity
                         The influence of economic, political, religious, and cultural ideas as human
                          societies move beyond regional, national, or geographic boundaries
                         The effects of geography on the history of civilizations and nations


                                                     Grade 3
Learning Standard as Written                                                                Essence of Standard
   3.1        On a map of the United States, locate the New England states                   Locate New England states on
              (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire,              globes or maps
              Maine) and the Atlantic Ocean. On a map of Massachusetts, locate major         Locate major New England
              cities and towns, Cape Ann, Cape Cod, the Connecticut River, the                cities and towns on globes or
              Merrimack River, the Charles River, and the Berkshire Hills. (G)                maps
   3.2        Identify the Wampanoags and their leaders at the time the Pilgrims             Identify Wampanoags and
              arrived, and describe their way of life. (H, G)                                 describe their way of life
   3.3        Identify who the Pilgrims were and explain why they left Europe to seek        Identify who the Pilgrims were
              religious freedom; describe their journey and their early years in the          and explain why they settled
              Plymouth Colony. (H, G, C, E)                                                   the colony, and their ways of
                    A. the purpose of the Mayflower Compact and its principles of             life
                        self-government
                    B. challenges in settling in America
                    C. events leading to the first Thanksgiving
   3.4        Explain how the Puritans and Pilgrims differed and identify early leaders      Explain how Puritan and Pilgrim
              in Massachusetts, such as John Winthrop; describe the daily life,               ways of life and beliefs differed
              education, and work of the Puritans in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. (H,       Identify Puritan and Pilgrim
              E, C)                                                                           leaders
   3.5        Explain important political, economic, and military developments leading       Explain the role of
              to and during the American Revolution. (H, C)                                   Massachusetts in the American
                   A. the growth of towns and cities in Massachusetts before the              Revolution
                       Revolution
                   B. the Boston Tea Party
                   C. the beginning of the Revolution at Lexington and Concord
                   D. the Battle of Bunker Hill
                   E. Revolutionary leaders such as John Adams, Samuel Adams, John
                       Hancock, and Paul Revere
   3.6        Identify the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Bill of    Identify important documents
              Rights as key American documents. (C)                                           from early United States history




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    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        382
3.7       After reading a biography of a person from Massachusetts in one of the     Summarize the life and
          following categories, summarize the person’s life and achievements. (H,     achievements of a famous
          C)                                                                          person from Massachusetts
               A. science and technology (e.g., Alexander Graham Bell, Nathaniel
                   Bowditch, Robert Goddard, John Hayes Hammond, Edwin Land,
                   Samuel Morse)
               B. the arts (e.g., Henry Adams, Louisa May Alcott, John Singleton
                   Copley, Emily Dickinson, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Theodore
                   Geisel, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Frederick
                   Law Olmsted, Norman Rockwell, Henry David Thoreau, Phyllis
                   Wheatley)
               C. business (e.g., William Filene, Amos Lawrence, Francis Cabot
                   Lowell, An Wang);
               D. education, journalism, and health (e.g., Clara Barton, Horace
                   Mann, William Monroe Trotter)
               E. political leadership (e.g., John Adams, John Quincy Adams,
                   Susan B. Anthony, Edward Brooke, Benjamin Franklin, John F.
                   Kennedy, Paul Revere)




Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities             Fall 2006
HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        383
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

       Less Complex                                                                         More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                    ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:                The student will:                 The student will:               The student will:
   Sequence events and             Identify Massachusetts           Recognize the New              Locate Massachusetts
    demonstrate                      as his/her state of               England states on a map         and the New England
    understanding of time            residence                         of the United States and        states on a map of the
    (e.g., match picture to         Recognize a map of                locate Massachusetts            United States
    picture)                         Massachusetts                    Explain what maps show         Locate and identify major
   Identify same and               Name community of                 and how they are used           geographical features in
    different (e.g., clothing,       residence                        Locate his/her                  New England
    housing, etc)                   Recognize pictures of             community of residence         Name and locate his/her
   Respond to text being            Pilgrims                          on a map of                     community of residence
    read aloud (i.e., remain        Identify one famous               Massachusetts                   on a map of
    alert, request more)             person from                      Identify north, south,          Massachusetts
   Choose appropriate text          Massachusetts and at              east, and west on a map        Explain why the Pilgrims
    to read or to have read          least one fact about this         of Massachusetts                came to Massachusetts
    aloud                            person                           Locate and identify             long ago
   Orient to books/orient          Name and locate one               different geographic           Describe the importance
    book right side up               river, mountain, or hill in       features found in               of the Mayflower
   Turn pages in a book or          home town or town of              Massachusetts                   Compact
    magazine                         residence                        Explain why the Pilgrims       Recognize that
   Activate an electronic          Identify at least one             came to Massachusetts           Massachusetts played an
    device to access text,           difference between the            long ago                        important role in the
    communicate with                 Pilgrim’s way of life and        Select a famous person          American Revolution
    others, or participate in        our way of life today             from Massachusetts and         Select a famous person
    an instructional activity       Name and describe one             discuss his/her                 from Massachusetts and
   Turn attention toward            important event in                achievements                    discuss his/her
    another person                   Massachusetts during the         Compare/contrast one            achievements
   Grasp, manipulate, and           American Revolution               aspect of Pilgrim life to      Compare/contrast the
    release objects related to      Explain/state the                 life today (such as             Pilgrim lifestyle to
    instructional activity           importance of individual          school)                         modern lifestyle (with
   Organize instructional           rights                           Identify and discuss at         respect to ideas such as
    materials                       Identify and use maps of          least one important             work, school, etc.)
   Take turns appropriately         New England                       event that occurred in
    during classroom                                                   Massachusetts during the    Continue to address skills and
    discussion                                                         American Revolution         concepts in this subject that
   Respond to/initiate                                               Explain the importance of   approach grade-level
    contacts with others                                               the Mayflower Compact       expectations
   Apply rules for
    appropriate classroom
    behavior
   Use appropriate social
    greetings
   Follow simple directions
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint
    attention




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                     Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        384
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standards 3.2 and 3.3
        At grade 3, students study and compare and contrast the Wampanoag and Pilgrim ways of life
        when the Pilgrims first arrived in Massachusetts. In the school’s Computer Center, the students use
        the Internet to visit the Plimoth Plantation Online Learning Center at www.plimoth.org.


How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

Giselle participates in the Plimoth Plantation Online        Data chart showing Giselle’s ability to compare and
Learning Center activities. She completes the                 contrast Wampanoag and Pilgrim ways of life based on
English Colonist Cultural Chart and the Wampanoag             quizzes, tests, and in-class and homework assignments
Cultural Chart based on the information she learns           Giselle’s completed Cultural Charts
during the activities. Using the charts and text             Giselle’s completed Venn diagram
versions of the Wampanoag and the English Colonist
pages, Giselle completes a Venn diagram comparing
and contrasting the two cultures.

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

Max views the Online Learning Center activity with a         Data chart showing Max’s ability to compare and
peer. He is given modified cultural charts with               contrast Wampanoag and Pilgrim ways of life
picture cues. He completes the forms as he views             Max’s completed modified cultural charts
the activities with help as needed from a scribe. He         Chart showing Max’s accuracy in comparing and
is then given pictures of Wampanoags and Pilgrims             contrasting pictures of the cultures
and their way of life including housing, food, and           Max’s Venn diagram
dress and uses the pictures to compare and contrast
the cultures. He eventually completes a Venn
Diagram taping his cultural charts and pictures in
place.

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

Henry is shown pictures of Wampanoags and                    Data chart showing Henry’s ability to identify same and
Pilgrims that include their housing, food, and dress.         different
He is shown two pictures at a time and must state if         Work sample identifying same and different pictures
they are the same or different.                              Work sample created by matching same pictures




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities           Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        385
                                                                                                         History and
                                                                                                        Social Science

                                                                                                          Cities and
                                                                                                          Towns of
CONTENT    History and Social Science                                                                   Massachusetts

  TOPIC      Massachusetts and its Cities and Towns:                                                       Grade 3
             Geography and History
   Learning Standards For: Cities and Towns of Massachusetts
        THEMES
                        The evolution of the concepts of personal freedom, individual responsibility, and
                         respect for human dignity
                        The effects of geography on the history of civilizations and nations


                                                    Grade 3
Learning Standard as Written                                                             Essence of Standard
  3.8        On a map of Massachusetts, locate the class’s home town or city and its      Identify the geography of
             local geographic features and landmarks. (G)                                  Massachusetts, including the
                                                                                           locations of towns and cities
  3.9        Identify historic buildings, monuments, or sites in the area and explain     Explain the history and
             their purpose and significance. (H, C)                                        importance of Massachusetts
                                                                                           towns and cities
  3.10       Explain the meaning of the stars and stripes in the American flag, and       Explain the history of our
             describe official procedures for the care and display of the flag. (C)        national symbols and what they
                                                                                           signify
  3.11       Identify when the students’ own town or city was founded, and describe       Explain local history and
             the different groups of people who have settled in the community since        describe regional diversity
             its founding. (H, G)
  3.12       Explain how objects or artifacts of everyday life in the past tell us how    Identify continuity and change
             ordinary people lived and how everyday life has changed. Draw on the          in daily life over time
             services of the local historical society and local museums as needed. (H,
             G, E)
  3.13       Give examples of goods and services provided by their local businesses       Describe the economy of
             and industries. (E)                                                           Massachusetts, including
                                                                                           examples of products produced
                                                                                           by local businesses
  3.14       Give examples of tax-supported facilities and services provided by their     Identify services and physical
             local government, such as public schools, parks, recreational facilities,     facilities supported by local
             police and fire departments, and libraries. (E)                               government




   Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                  Fall 2006
   HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        386
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

        Less Complex                                                                        More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                    ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:                The student will:                The student will:                 The student will:
   Use pictures to find a          Identify Massachusetts          Identify Massachusetts           Locate Massachusetts on
    familiar location                as his/her state of              on a map of the United            a map of the United
   Demonstrate                      residence                        States                            States
    understanding of relative       Recognize a map of              Explain what maps show           Locate his/her
    location                         Massachusetts                    and how they are used             community of residence
   Sequence events and             Name own community              Locate community of               on a map of
    demonstrate                     Recognize the American           residence on a map of             Massachusetts
    understanding of time            flag                             Massachusetts                    Explain what maps show
    (e.g., by matching              Recognize products from         Identify different historic       and how they are used
    picture to picture)              the community                    sites found in                   Name and locate historic
   Demonstrate basic               Identify historic site(s)        Massachusetts and/or              sites on a map of
    understanding of                 closest to his/her               his/her hometown                  Massachusetts
    economics (i.e., trade,          hometown                        Identify products from           Identify artifacts that
    barter, earning money or        Identify one or more             the community                     have been found in
    tokens, or buying/selling)       groups of people who            Identify the American             Massachusetts; identify
   Respond to text being            have lived in or settled         flag and its symbols              modern-day equivalents
    read aloud (i.e., remain         his/her hometown                 (stars, blue field, red           when possible
    alert, request more)            Identify                         stripes, white stripes)          Explain what life was like
   Choose appropriate text          businesses/industries in        Name and describe one             for Massachusetts
    to read or to have read          the community                    group of people who has           residents long ago
    aloud                           Identify one or two types        lived in or settled his/her      Give examples of
   Orient to books/orient           of taxes                         hometown                          products from the
    book right side up              Identify and use various        Identify two or three             community
   Activate an electronic           maps                             types of taxes and               Identify the American
    device to access text,          Identify various jobs that       explain one                       flag, explain its symbols,
    communicate with                 provide an income                                                  and explain care for and
    others, or participate in                                                                           proper display of the flag
    an instructional activity                                                                          Name and describe
   Turn attention toward                                                                               groups of people who
    another person                                                                                      have lived in or settled
   Grasp, manipulate, and                                                                              his/her hometown
    release objects                                                                                    Identify and explain basic
   Take turns appropriately                                                                            types of taxes (e.g.,
    during classroom                                                                                    property, sales, income)
    discussion                                                                                         Identify services funded
   Respond to/initiate                                                                                 primarily by taxes
    contacts with others
   Apply rules for                                                                                 Continue to address skills and
    appropriate classroom                                                                           concepts in this subject that
    behavior                                                                                        approach grade-level
   Use appropriate social                                                                          expectations
    greetings
   Follow simple directions
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint
    attention


     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                      Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        387
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standards 3.11 and 3.12
        At grade 3, students study how their town was founded and the different groups who settled in
        the community over time. They learn how people lived and how life has changed over time.
        Students visit a local or regional historical museum and learn about the history of their town origin.

How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

Hunter visits the local historical society with his          Data chart showing Hunter’s ability to demonstrate
class. Prior to the field trip, the class develops a          knowledge of the history of his town, including his
questionnaire to be completed while on the field              scores on quizzes, tests, homework, and in-class
trip. Hunter adds his own questions. Hunter                   assignments
completes the questionnaire information as he                Hunter’s completed questionnaire from field trip
learns it. Hunter uses the information he has                Hunter’s completed timeline
learned to create a timeline of the history of their
town.

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

Thomas visits the local historical society with his          Data chart showing Thomas’s ability to identify items
class. He is given pictures of items he will see when         from his town’s history
on the field trip. He numbers the items in the order         Thomas’s checklist of items checked off numbered, and
in which he sees them, checks off the items as he             named on the field trip
sees them, and writes their names.                           Work sample created by Thomas labeling pictures from
                                                              town’s history during in-class activity

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

Whitney visits the local historical society with her         Data chart showing Whitney’s ability to behave
class on a field trip. She is working on improving her        appropriately during class activities
behavior during class activities. She is given pictures      Whitney’s completed behavior checklist from field trip
of items she will see on the field trip and a checklist      Video of Whitney’s behavior during whole class activity
with picture cues of Whitney’s behavior rules.
During the visit, a peer helps Whitney check off
each item she sees on the checklist. Whitney
receives a check mark from a teacher each time she
engages in one of the appropriate behaviors on her
checklist.




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities            Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        388
                                                                                                         History and
                                                                                                        Social Science


                                                                                                        Ancient China,
                                                                                                    c. 3000–200 BC/BCE


                                                                                                           Grade 4


CONTENT History and Social Science
   TOPIC North American Geography with Optional Standards for One
           Early Civilization
   Learning Standards for: Ancient China, c. 3000–200 BC/BCE
       THEMES
                        The effects of geography on the history of civilizations and nations
                        The birth, growth, and decline of civilizations


                                                     Grade 4
Learning Standard as Written                                                               Essence of Standard
   4.1       On a map of Asia, locate China, the Huang He (Yellow) River and Chang          Identify China’s location and its
             Jiang (Yangtze) Rivers, and the Himalayan Mountains. (G)                        important rivers and mountains
   4.2       Describe the topography and climate of eastern Asia, including the             Describe the types of landforms
             importance of mountain ranges and deserts, and explain how geography            and climates found in China
             influenced the growth of Chinese civilization. (G, E)
   4.3       Describe the ideographic writing system used by the Chinese (characters,       Explain how the Chinese
             which are symbols for concepts/ideas) and how it differs from an                system of writing is different
             alphabetic writing system. (H)                                                  from an alphabet
   4.4       Describe important technologies of China such as bronze casting, silk          Identify important Chinese
             manufacture, and gunpowder. (H, E)                                              technologies
   4.5       Identify who Confucius was and describe his writings on good                   Explain the contributions of
             government, codes of proper conduct, and relationships between parent           Confucius
             and child, friend and friend, husband and wife, and subject and ruler. (H,
             C)
   4.6       Describe how the First Emperor unified China by subduing warring               Explain how emperors ruled
             factions, seizing land, centralizing government, imposing strict rules, and     China and their achievements
             creating with the use of slave labor large state building projects for
             irrigation, transportation, and defense (e.g., the Great Wall). (H, C, E)
   4.7       After visiting a museum, listening to a museum educator in school, or          Describe features found in
             conducting research in the library, describe an animal, person, building,       ancient Chinese art
             or design depicted in an ancient Chinese work of art. (H, G)




   Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                    Fall 2006
   HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        389
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

     Less Complex                                                                           More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                   ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:               The student will:                The student will:                The student will:
   Identify at least two          Describe geographic             Give examples of                Locate China on a map
    different climates              features found in China          geographic features              or globe and discuss its
   Indicate north, south,          as represented on a map          represented on maps of           diverse geographical
    east, and west on a map         or globe                         China                            features, including
    or globe                       Locate China on a map           Identify major mountain          landforms and climates
   Use pictures to find a          or globe                         ranges and rivers located       Interpret maps of China
    familiar location              Identify Chinese writing         in China                         using map keys and
   Sequence events and            Identify technology             Identify and describe the        symbols
    demonstrate                     important to China               different climates found        Use a timeline that
    understanding of time          Identify one teaching of         in China                         shows Chinese
    (match picture to               Confucius and its relation      Interpret maps of China          civilizations have existed
    picture)                        to today (e.g., code of          using one or two map             for thousands of years
   Identify same and               conduct)                         keys or symbols such as         Examine the distinctive
    different writing (i.e.,       Identify the Great Wall of       a compass rose, scale, or        features of Chinese
    English alphabet v.             China and at least two           legend                           writing and art and
    Chinese writing symbols)        important facts about it        Recognize that Chinese           discuss how they differ
   Demonstrate concept of         Recognize features of            civilization is thousands        from Western cultural
    sequence of events using        ancient Chinese dress            of years old                     features
    a timeline                      and housing                     Recognize examples of           Identify and describe
   Demonstrate                    Identify and use various         Chinese writing and              advances the ancient
    understanding of relative       maps                             compare how Chinese              Chinese made in
    location                                                         characters differ from the       agriculture and
   Activate a switch to show                                        English alphabet                 technology
    slides of photos of China                                       Recognize the                   Identify Confucius and
   Tolerate touching of a                                           significance of farming to       explain his contributions
    topographic map of                                               Chinese civilization             to society
    China                                                           Investigate technological       Describe how emperors
   Use social, motor, or                                            advances made by the             ruled ancient China and
    communication skills to                                          ancient Chinese that are         their significant
    participate in content                                           still used today                 achievements
    area activities                                                 Identify Confucius and          Recognize the
   Follow one-step                                                  explain two or more of           significance of the Great
    directions related to                                            his contributions to             Wall to the development
    content                                                          society                          of Chinese civilization
   Establish joint attention                                       Discuss how the Great
    to the materials of the                                          Wall was used to defend      Continue to address skills and
    lesson                                                           China                        concepts in this subject that
                                                                                                  approach grade-level
                                                                                                  expectations




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                    Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        390
                                                                                                           History and
                                                                                                          Social Science


                                                                                                          Regions of the
                                                                                                          United States


                                                                                                             Grade 4


CONTENT    History and Social Science
   TOPIC     North American Geography with Optional Standards for One
             Early Civilization
   Learning Standards for: Regions of the United States
        THEMES
                        The influence of economic, political, religious, and cultural ideas as human
                         societies move beyond regional, national, or geographic boundaries
                        The effects of geography on the history of civilizations and nations


                                                     Grade 4
Learning Standard as Written                                                               Essence of Standard
   4.8       On a map of the world, locate North America. On a map of North                 Locate the United States and its
             America, locate the United States, the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Gulf of     important bodies of water and
             Mexico, Mississippi and Rio Grande Rivers, the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay,         mountains on maps or globes
             and the Rocky and Appalachian Mountain ranges. (G)
   4.9       On a map of North America, locate the current boundaries of the United         Identify the political boundaries
             States (including Alaska and Hawaii). Locate New England, Middle                of the United States and its
             Atlantic, Atlantic Coast/Appalachian, Southeast/Gulf, South Central, Great      regions
             Lakes, Plains, Southwest Desert, and Pacific States and the
             Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. See Appendix H (of the Framework) for a
             listing of states in each region. (G)
  4.10       Identify the states, state capitals, and major cities in each region. (G)      Identify United States state
                                                                                             capitals and their locations
  4.11       Describe the climate, major physical features, and major natural               Describe regional geographic
             resources in each region. (G)                                                   features found in the United
                                                                                             States
  4.12       Identify and describe unique features of the United States (e.g., the          Identify unique geographic
             Everglades, the Grand Canyon, Mount Rushmore, the Redwood Forest,               features found in the United
             Yellowstone National Park, and Yosemite National Park). (G)                     States


  4.13       Identify major monuments and historical sites in and around Washington,        Identify important monuments
             D.C. (e.g., the Jefferson and Lincoln Memorials, the Smithsonian                and historical sites found in
             Museums, the Library of Congress, the White House, the Capitol, the             Washington, D.C.
             Washington Monument, the National Archives, Arlington National
             Cemetery, the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, the Iwo Jima Memorial, and
             Mount Vernon). (G)
  4.14       Identify the five different European countries (France, Spain, England,        Explain how early European
             Russia, and the Netherlands) that influenced different regions of the           settlers influenced different
             present United States at the time the New World was being explored and          regions of the United States
             describe how their influence can be traced to place names, architectural
             features, and language. (H, G)

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   HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        391
4.15       Describe the diverse nature of the American people by identifying the           Identify diverse ethnic groups
           distinctive contributions to American culture of:                                found in the United States and
                A. at least three indigenous peoples in different areas of the              their contributions to American
                     country (e.g., Navajo, Seminoles, Sioux, Hawaiians, and Inuits).       culture
                B. African Americans, including an explanation of their early
                     concentration in the South because of slavery and the Great
                     Migration to northern cities in the 20th century, and recent
                     African immigrant groups (e.g., Ethiopian) and where they
                     tended to settle in large numbers.
                C. major European immigrant groups who have come to America,
                     locating their countries of origin and where they tended to settle
                     in large numbers (e.g., English, Germans, Italians, Scots, Irish,
                     Jews, Poles, and Scandinavians).
                D. major Spanish-speaking (e.g., Cubans, Mexicans) and Asian
                     (e.g., Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese) immigrant
                     groups who have come to America in the 19th and 20th centuries,
                     locating their countries of origin and where they tended to settle
                     in large numbers. (H, G)
4.16       Identify major immigrant groups that live in Massachusetts and where            Identify different ethnic groups
           they now live in large numbers (e.g., English, Irish, Italians, French           in Massachusetts
           Canadians, Armenians, Greeks, Portuguese, Haitians, and Vietnamese).
           (H, G)




 Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                     Fall 2006
 HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        392
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

     Less Complex                                                                         More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                   ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:               The student will:              The student will:                The student will:
   Match picture to picture       Locate North America          Use a map or globe to           Locate different regions
    for national historical         and the United States on       locate North America and         of the United States and
    sites and monuments             a map or globe                 the United States                discuss the climate and
   Take turns rolling dice        Identify one major body       Locate the United States         geographic features of
    during class game               of water and one               on a map or globe and            each
    reviewing capitals of the       mountain range in the          name states other than          Identify and locate major
    United States                   United States                  Massachusetts and their          bodies of water and
   Respond to text being          Give examples of               capitals                         mountain ranges within
    read aloud (i.e., remain        geographic features           Identify and locate major        the United States
    alert, request more)            represented on maps            bodies of water and             Identify and name the
   Choose appropriate text         and globes in North            mountain ranges in the           capitals of states in the
    to read or to have read         America                        Eastern United States            United States
    aloud                          Recognize unique natural      Identify climates and           Compare natural
   Orient to books/orient          geographic features and        geographic features              resources found in the
    book right side up              monuments located in           found in different regions       United States with
   Turn pages in a book or         the United States              of the United States             natural resources found
    magazine                       Name two or more              Compare natural                  in Massachusetts
   Activate an electronic          different ethnic groups        resources found in               (northeastern U.S.)
    device to access text,          found in one or more           different regions of the        Examine how a specific
    communicate with                regions of the United          United States                    ethnic group influenced
    others, or participate in       States and at least two       Recognize pictures of            the history and culture of
    an instructional activity       facts about each group         major monuments in               a United States region
   Turn attention toward                                          Washington, D.C., and           Select a major
    another person                                                 discuss the reasons they         monument in
   Grasp, manipulate, and                                         were built                       Washington, D.C., or
    release objects                                               Explore how a specific           unique geographic
   Organize instructional                                         ethnic group influenced          feature of the United
    materials                                                      the history and culture of       States and investigate its
   Respond to/initiate                                            the United States                significance
    contacts with others                                                                           Investigate his/her
   Apply rules for                                                                                 family’s genealogy and
    appropriate classroom                                                                           how it relates to the
    behavior                                                                                        American immigrant
   Use appropriate social                                                                          experience
    greetings
   Follow simple directions                                                                    Continue to address skills and
   Identify self and/or                                                                        concepts in this subject that
    others                                                                                      approach grade-level
   Initiate or respond to                                                                      expectations
    request for joint
    attention




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                  Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        393
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standards 4.10
        At grade 4, students participate in a variety of games and activities to help them learn the names,
        locations, and capitals of the 50 states. They also take a quiz on state capitals.

How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

Jordan plays a board game with a small group of              Data chart showing Jordan’s ability to identify state
students. Students must name the capital of the               capitals.
state they land on, or locate the state on a blank           Jordan’s tally sheet of states he landed on and his
map of the United States.                                     responses during the game
                                                             Jordan’s quiz on state capitals

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

Daryl plays a board game with peers that involves            Data chart showing Daryl’s ability to the state capitals
naming the states and their capitals. When it is his         Daryl’s tally sheet of states he landed on and his
turn, he finds the state he has landed on and reads           responses during the game
the name of the capital. He is provided with a               Daryl’s work sample created by labeling a map of the
labeled map on which he finds the state. When it is           United States with the names of the states in New
a classmate’s turn, he refers to the chart to tell            England
them if the answer is correct.


Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

Paul participates with peers in a small group                Data chart showing Paul’s ability to take turns
classroom board game during which he must wait               Paul’s tally sheet of his responses in turn taking during
his turn. When it is his turn, he rolls the dice and          the game completed by a peer or teacher
moves his piece the appropriate number of spaces             Video of Paul taking turns during a computer game
with assistance from a peer. He then hands the dice           during which he clicked on a state and the name of the
to the student whose turn it is next.                         state’s capital appeared




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities             Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        394
                                                                                                          History and
                                                                                                         Social Science


                                                                                                             Canada


                                                                                                            Grade 4


CONTENT History and Social Science
   TOPIC    North American Geography with Optional Standards for One
            Early Civilization
   Learning Standards for: Canada
       THEMES
                         The influence of economic, political, religious, and cultural ideas as human
                          societies move beyond regional, national, or geographic boundaries
                         The effects of geography on the history of civilizations and nations


                                                     Grade 4
Learning Standard as Written                                                              Essence of Standard
   4.17       On a map of North America, locate Canada, its provinces, and major           Locate Canada’s provinces and
              cities. (G)                                                                   major cities
   4.18       Describe the climate, major physical characteristics, and major natural      Describe Canada’s climate,
              resources of Canada and explain their relationship to settlement, trade,      geography, and natural
              and the Canadian economy. (G, E)                                              resources, and how these
                                                                                            affect settlement, trade, and
                                                                                            the economy
   4.19       Describe the major ethnic and religious groups of modern Canada (G, H,       Identify and describe the ethnic
              C, E)                                                                         and religious groups of
                                                                                            Canadian society
   4.20       Identify when Canada became an independent nation and explain how            Explain how and when Canada
              independence was achieved. (H, G)                                             became an independent nation
   4.21       Identify the location of at least two Native American tribes in Canada       Identify Native American tribes
              (e.g., Kwakiutl and Micmac) and the Inuit nation and describe their major     in Canada
              social features. (H, G)
   4.22       Identify the major language groups in Canada, their geographic location,     Identify Languages spoken in
              and the relations among them. (H, G)                                          Canada




    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                 Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        395
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

     Less Complex                                                                          More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                     ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:                 The student will:              The student will:               The student will:
   Use pictures to find a           Locate North America          Locate Canada on a map         Locate Canada and its
    familiar location                 and Canada on a map or         or globe and identify its       provinces and major
   Sequence events and               globe                          major cities                    cities on a world map or
    demonstrate                      Give examples of one or       Recognize that Canada           globe
    understanding of time             more geographic features       and the United States          Examine and discuss how
    (e.g., by matching                represented on maps and        share a long border             Canada’s climates and
    picture to picture)               globes of Canada              Explain why most                geographic features
   Using pictures of Native         Recognize that Canada          Canadians live in               affect where people live
    American tribes, match            and the United States          Canada’s southernmost           and how they make a
    picture to picture                share a long border            region                          living
   Tolerate touching a              Identify climate              Identify major natural         Investigate and explain
    topographical map of              differences in various         resources found in              Canada’s abundant
    Canada                            regions in Canada and          Canada and compare              natural resources and
   Respond to text being             compare them to the            them with those found in        their importance to its
    read aloud (i.e., remain          United States                  Massachusetts and/or the        economy
    alert, request more)             Identify/name major            United States                  Explore the contributions
   Choose appropriate text           natural resources in          Recognize and explain           of Canada’s Native
    to read or to have read           Canada                         cultural similarities           American tribes to its
    aloud                            Identify/name one Native       between Canada and the          historical and cultural
   Activate an electronic            American tribe found in        United States                   development
    device to access text,            Canada                        Identify languages             Explore the history of
    communicate with                 Identify settlers in           spoken in Canada                British and French
    others, or participate in         Canada                                                         settlement in Canada and
    an instructional activity                                                                        its effect on Canada’s
   Turn attention toward                                                                            culture
    another person                                                                                  Identify languages
   Grasp, manipulate, and                                                                           spoken in Canada and
    release objects                                                                                  the regions in which they
   Organize instructional                                                                           are primarily spoken
    materials                                                                                       Identify Native American
   Take turns appropriately                                                                         tribes living in Canada;
    during classroom                                                                                 explain the contributions
    discussion                                                                                       and characteristics of one
   Respond to/initiate                                                                              tribe
    contacts with others                                                                            Show on a timeline when
   Apply rules for                                                                                  Canada and the United
    appropriate classroom                                                                            States were both ruled
    behavior                                                                                         by Great Britain
   Use appropriate social
    greetings                                                                                    Continue to address skills and
   Follow simple directions                                                                     concepts in this subject that
   Identify self and/or                                                                         approach grade-level
    others                                                                                       expectations
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint attention




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                  Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        396
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standards 4.18
        At grade 4, after reading about Canada, students create collages representing many of these
        ideas using pictures from magazines, the Internet, and their own drawings. They label each image
        in the collage, describing what the pictures represent about Canada. The students also take a quiz
        about Canada.

How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

Hailey participates in a classroom reading and               Data chart showing Hailey’s ability to demonstrate
discussion about Canada’s climate, physical                   knowledge of Canada, including quizzes, tests, and
characteristics, and national resources. She creates          in-class and homework assignments
a collage of these features and appropriately labels         Hailey’s collage
items on the images in the collage.                          Hailey’s quiz

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

Kristofer participates in a small group in which the         Data chart showing Kristofer’s ability to answer
students take turns reading aloud about Canada’s              questions about text read to him
climate, physical characteristics, and national              Kristofer’s collage showing pictures illustrating answers
resources. The group views pictures as they read.             to the questions about Canada
The group is given questions they must answer by             Work sample showing Kristofer’s answers to questions
referring to the pictures. Each member of the group           about his Canada collage
creates a collage based on the answers to the
questions. Pictures are already cut out for Kristofer
and he selects a picture. He verbally tells a peer
how he wants the picture labeled. Kristofer also
answers questions about his collage and what the
pictures represent.

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

Troy participates in the classroom activity of making        Data chart showing Troy’s ability to identify pictures of
a collage. He is given a choice of pictures based on          words related to Canada
Canada and is asked to find the picture that                 Work sample created by Troy placing pictures next to
represents a given word. For example, he must                 words read to him
choose pictures that represent “cold” and place              Troy’s collage showing pictures that represent “cold”
them on his collage.




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities             Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        397
                                                                                                        History and
                                                                                                       Social Science


                                                                                                           Mexico


                                                                                                          Grade 4



CONTENT History and Social Science
   TOPIC     North American Geography with Optional Standards for One
             Early Civilization
   Learning Standards for: Mexico
       THEMES
                         The influence of economic, political, religious, and cultural ideas as human
                          societies move beyond regional, national, or geographic boundaries
                         The effects of geography on the history of civilizations and nations


                                                     Grade 4
Learning Standard as Written                                                            Essence of Standard
   4.23       On a map of North America, locate Mexico and its major cities. (G)         Locate Mexico and its major
                                                                                          cities
   4.24       Describe the climate, major physical characteristics, and major natural    Identify Mexico’s climate,
              resources of Mexico and explain their relationship to the Mexican           physical geography, and
              economy. (G)                                                                natural resources
   4.25       Identify the language, major religion, and peoples of Mexico. (H)          Describe the social and cultural
                                                                                          makeup of Mexican society
   4.26       Identify when Mexico became an independent nation and describe how         Explain how and when Mexico
              independence was achieved. (H, G)                                           became an independent nation




    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        398
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

     Less Complex                                                                       More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                   ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:               The student will:             The student will:                 The student will:
   Sequence events (match         Locate Mexico on a map       Locate Mexico on a map           Locate Mexico’s
    picture to picture)             or globe                      or globe and identify its         provinces and major
   Use pictures to find a         Identify at least one         major cities                      cities on a world map or
    familiar location               major city in Mexico         Identify major natural            globe
   Identify whether               Give examples of              resources found in               Explore the contributions
    language spoken is the          geographic features           Mexico                            of Mexico’s indigenous
    same as or different than       represented on maps          Describe the climates of          tribes to its historical and
    the student’s native            and globes                    Mexico and the impact of          cultural development
    language                       Identify climate              climate on one aspect of         Identify Mexico’s natural
   Respond to text being           differences between           the country (e.g.,                resources
    read aloud (i.e., remain        Mexico and the United         economy)                         Examine and explain how
    alert, request more)            States                       Examine and explain               Mexico’s climate and
   Choose appropriate text        Recognize that the U.S.       cultural similarities and         geographic features
    to read or to have read         and Mexico are next to        differences between               affect where people live
    aloud                           one another                   Mexico and the United             and how they make a
   Orient to books/orient                                        States                            living
    book right side up                                           Identify when and                Describe the history of
   Turn pages in a book or                                       explain how Mexico                European conquest in
    magazine                                                      became an independent             Mexico and its effect on
   Activate an electronic                                        nation                            Mexico’s culture
    device to access text,                                       Identify some major              Identify when and
    communicate with                                              social and/or cultural            explain how Mexico
    others, or participate in                                     components of Mexican             became an independent
    an instructional activity                                     society                           nation
   Turn attention toward                                                                          Recognize that Mexico
    another person                                                                                  and the United States
   Grasp, manipulate, and                                                                          share a border and
    release objects relevant                                                                        explain the current
    to Mexican culture                                                                              importance of the border
   Organize instructional
    materials                                                                                   Continue to address skills and
   Take turns appropriately                                                                    concepts in this subject that
    during classroom                                                                            approach grade-level
    discussion                                                                                  expectations
   Respond to/initiate
    contacts with others
   Apply rules for
    appropriate classroom
    behavior
   Use appropriate social
    greetings
   Follow simple directions
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint
    attention


     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                  Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        399
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standard 4.25
        At grade 4, after reading a variety of children’s books about people from Mexico, students will
        create and describe an additional fictitious Mexican character for the story, including his or her
        religion, language, hobbies, job, where in Mexico he or she lives, favorite food, etc.

How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written               Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                     Products

Eli reads about Mexican culture. During art class he        Data chart showing Eli’s knowledge of facts about
creates a puppet of a character from Mexico. He              Mexico, including quizzes, test, in-class, and homework
gives the puppet an appropriate Mexican name, and            assignments
then creates a fact sheet about his puppet. On a            Eli’s fact sheet about his Mexican character
map of Mexico he puts a sticker with his puppet’s           Eli’s work sample of responses to questions about
name showing where his character lives.                      Mexican culture

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                 Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                      Products

Miranda listens as a variety of children’s books            Data chart showing Miranda’s ability to answer
about Mexican culture are read aloud. During art             questions about stories related to Mexico
class, she creates a puppet based on a character            Miranda’s completed questions on a book about Mexico
from one of the books. During History and Social            Photograph of puppet Miranda created and her
Science class she rereads one of the children’s              description
books and answers questions about the story she
has read.

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                     Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                     Products

Tim listens as a variety of children’s books about          Data chart showing Tim’s ability to follow one-step
Mexican culture are read aloud. He is asked to turn          directions
the page after each page is read. During art class          Tim’s puppet created by following one-step directions
he creates a puppet with a peer following one-step          Video of Tim listening to story following one-step
directions.                                                  directions to turn the page




    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities            Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        400
                                                                                                           History and
                                                                                                          Social Science

                                                                                                         Central America
                                                                                                             and the
                                                                                                        Caribbean Islands

                                                                                                             Grade 4



CONTENT History and Social Science
   TOPIC North American Geography with Optional Standards for One
           Early Civilization
   Learning Standards for: Central America and the Caribbean Islands
       THEMES
                         The influence of economic, political, religious, and cultural ideas as human
                          societies move beyond regional, national, or geographic boundaries
                         The effects of geography on the history of civilizations and nations


                                                     Grade 4
Learning Standard as Written                                                               Essence of Standard
   4.27       On a map of North and South America, locate the Isthmus of Panama             Locate the countries and major
              which divides North from South America. Use a map key to locate islands,       cities of Central America and
              countries, and major cities of Central America and the Caribbean Islands.      the Caribbean
              (G, E)
   4.28       Describe the climate and major natural resources of Central America and       Identify the climate and natural
              the Caribbean Islands and explain their relationship to the economy of         resources of Central America
              those regions.                                                                 and the Caribbean
              (G, E)
   4.29       Identify the different languages used in different countries in the           Identify languages of Central
              Caribbean region today (e.g., Spanish in Cuba, French in Haiti, English in     America and the Caribbean
              Barbados, and Jamaica). (H)
   4.30       Identify when the countries in the Caribbean and in Central America           Explain the history and political
              became independent nations and explain how independence was                    geography of Central America
              achieved. (H, G)




    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                   Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        401
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

     Less Complex                                                                            More Complex


    ACCESSS SKILLS                    ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:                The student will:               The student will:                 The student will:
    Use a map or globe to           Locate Central America         Locate Central America          Locate Central America
     find familiar locations          and the Caribbean               and the Caribbean                and the Caribbean
    Use pictures to find a           Islands on a map or             Islands on a map or              Islands on a map or
     familiar location (match         globe                           globe and identify the           globe, and identify major
     picture to picture)             Identify major cities of        major cities of the region       cities and bordering
    Sequence events and              Central America and the        Recognize the                    nations
     demonstrate                      Caribbean Islands               geographical relationship       Research and explain the
     understanding of time           Give examples of                of Central America and           importance and influence
     (match picture to                geographic features in          the Caribbean Islands to         of the Panama Canal to
     picture)                         Central America and the         the United States                the region
    Demonstrate an                   Caribbean represented          Identify major natural          Investigate Central
     understanding of relative        on maps and globes              resources found in               America and the
     location                        Recognize that Central          Central America and the          Caribbean Islands’
    Activate a switch to             America and the                 Caribbean Islands                natural resources and
     highlight a map showing          Caribbean Islands are          Examine cultural                 their importance to those
     countries of Central             south of the United             similarities and                 economies
     American and the                 States                          differences among               Research and explain the
     Caribbean Islands               Locate and identify the         Central America and the          history of European
    Grasp, manipulate, and           Panama Canal                    Caribbean Islands and            influence in Central
     release materials               Identify and compare            the United States                America and the
     relevant to the culture          climate differences            Locate and identify the          Caribbean Islands and its
     and/or traditions of             among Central America           Panama Canal; name               effect on their languages
     countries in this region         and the Caribbean               one or more important           Examine and explain how
    Respond to text being            Islands and the United          fact(s) about the Panama         Central America and the
     read aloud (i.e., remain         States                          Canal                            Caribbean Islands’
     alert, request more)            Explore and identify one                                         climate and geographic
    Choose appropriate text          cultural tradition of                                            features affect where
    Turn attention toward            Central America and the                                          people live and how they
     another person                   Caribbean                                                        make a living
    Take turns appropriately                                                                         Identify the Panama
     during classroom                                                                                  Canal and explain why
     discussion                                                                                        this canal is so important
    Respond to/initiate
     contacts with others                                                                          Continue to address skills and
    Apply rules for                                                                               concepts in this subject that
     appropriate classroom                                                                         approach grade-level
     behavior                                                                                      expectations
    Use appropriate social
     greetings
    Follow simple directions
    Identify self and/or
     others
    Initiate or respond to
     request for joint
     attention




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                     Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        402
                                                                                                      History and Social
                                                                                                           Science

                                                                                                         Pre-Columbian
                                                                                                       Civilizations of the
                                                                                                        New World and
                                                                                                     European Exploration,
                                                                                                       Colonization, and
                                                                                                      Settlement to 1700

                                                                                                            Grade 5


CONTENT   History and Social Science
   TOPIC    United States History, Geography, Economics, and
           Government: Early Exploration to Westward Movement
   Learning Standards for: Pre-Columbian Civilizations of the New World and
                                                  European Exploration, Colonization, and Settlement to 1700
            THEMES
                         The evolution of the concepts of personal freedom, individual responsibility,
                          and respect for human dignity
                         The influence of economic, political, religious, and cultural ideas as human
                          societies move beyond regional, national, or geographic boundaries
                         The birth, growth, and decline of civilizations


                                                      Grade 5
Learning Standard as Written                                                                 Essence of Standard
   5.1        Describe the earliest explorations of the New World by the Vikings, the         Describe Viking explorations in
              period and locations of their explorations, and the evidence for them. (H,       the New World
              G)
   5.2        Identify the three major pre-Columbian civilizations that existed in Central    Identify the characteristics and
              and South America (Maya, Aztec, and Inca) and their locations. Describe          declines of the pre-Columbian
              their political structures, religious practices, and use of slaves.              civilizations of the New World:
              (H, G, E)                                                                        the Maya, Aztec and Inca
                                                                                              Describe the three major pre-
                                                                                               Columbian civilizations (Maya,
                                                                                               Aztec, Inca) including their
                                                                                               locations and customs
   5.3        Explain why trade routes to Asia had been closed in the 15th century and        Identify early European
              trace the voyages of at least four of the explorers listed below. Describe       explorers and their discoveries
              what each explorer sought when he began his journey, what he found,
              and how his discoveries changed the image of the world, especially the
              maps used by explorers. (H, G, E)
                    A. Vasco Nuñez de Balboa
                    B. John and Sebastian Cabot
                    C. Jacques Cartier
                    D. Samuel de Champlain
                    E. Christopher Columbus
                    F. Henry Hudson
                    G. Ferdinand Magellan
                    H. Juan Ponce de Leon
                    I. Americgo Vespucci

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    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        403
5.4       Explain why the Aztec and Inca civilizations declined in the 16th century.      Explain the interactions
          (H)                                                                              between Native Americans and
                A. the encounters between Cortez and Montezuma                             European settlers, including the
                B. the encounters between Pizarro and the Incas                            reasons for decline of the Aztec
                C. the goals of the Spanish conquistadors                                  and Incan civilizations
                D. the effects of European diseases, particularly smallpox,
                    throughout the Western hemisphere
5.5       Describe the goals and extent of the Dutch settlement in New York, the          Describe European settlements
          French settlements in Canada, and the Spanish settlements in Florida, the        in North America
          Southwest, and California. (H)
5.6       Explain the early relationship of the English settlers to the indigenous        Explain the relationship
          peoples, or Indians, in North America, including the differing views on          between colonists and Indians
          ownership or use of land and the conflicts between them (e.g., the
          Pequot and King Philip’s Wars in New England). (H, G, E)
5.7       Identify some of the major leaders and groups responsible for the               Identify early colonial leaders
          founding of the original colonies in North America. (H, C)                       and the groups that founded
                A. Lord Baltimore in Maryland                                              the British colonies in North
                B. William Penn in Pennsylvania                                            America
                C. John Smith in Virginia
                D. Roger Williams in Rhode Island
                E. John Winthrop in Massachusetts
5.8       Identify the links between the political principles and practices developed     Describe features of Puritan
          in ancient Greece and such political institutions and practices as written       self-government and their
          constitutions and town meetings of the Puritans. (H, C)                          similarities to those of ancient
                                                                                           Greece
5.9       Explain the reasons that the language, political institutions, and political    Describe the reasons for the
          principles of what became the United States of America were largely              establishment of European
          shaped by English colonists even though other major European nations             colonies in North America,
          also explored the New World. (H, C)                                              including the reasons for the
                A. the relatively small number of colonists who came from other            dominant role of English
                     nations besides England                                               settlers in the establishment of
                B. long experience with self-government                                    the colonies
                C. the high rates of literacy and education among the English
                     colonial leaders
                D. England’s strong economic, intellectual,
                     and military position




Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                     Fall 2006
HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        404
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

          Less Complex                                                                        More Complex
     ACCESS SKILLS              ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:          The student will:                The student will:                  The student will:
     Create a timeline of        Identify differences        Identify the four main           Discuss the role of the
      his or her life              (using pictures)             reasons people came to            meetinghouse in a Puritan
     Use maps, globes,            between pre-                 the colonies: farming,            village
      and pictures to              Columbian                    land, religious freedom,         Explain the reasons why
      identify familiar            civilizations and            amnesty for debtors               different groups of people
      locations                    civilizations today         Identify and describe             came to each colony
     Sequence events             Create a timeline of         natural resources from           Discuss the characteristics of
      (match picture to            historical events            this time period                  the Mayan, Incan and Aztec
      picture)                    Recognize details           Identify manufactured             civilizations
     Match pictures of            from pictures of this        goods used for trade             Compare and contrast the
      major explorers and          time period that             during this time period           reasons for decline in the
      leaders from the era         indicate when, where,       Identify characteristics of       Mayan, Incan, and Aztec
     Respond to text being        and how events               pre-Columbian civilizations       civilizations
      read aloud (i.e.,            occurred                    Explain how the Incan and        Describe the role of land in the
      remain alert, request       Using a map from the         Aztec empires were                relationship between the
      more)                        1700s, locate the            defeated                          colonists and the Indians
     Choose appropriate           New World                   Explain how land was a           Identify natural resources and
      text to read or to          Identify items from          source of tension between         manufactured goods from one
      have read aloud              this time period, such       the colonies and the              or more pre-Columbian
     Activate an electronic       as currency, clothing,       Indians                           civilizations and/or European
      device to access text,       housing, or food            Use maps and globes to            colony(ies) that were produced
      communicate with            Identify natural             identify the locations of         and/or used for trade
      others, or participate       resources from this          one or more pre-                 Compare/contrast how people
      in an instructional          time period for one or       Columbian and/or early            lived during the pre-Columbian
      activity                     more civilizations           European settlements in           time period with how they live
     Turn attention toward       Identify                     the New World                     today
      another person               manufactured goods          Identify and briefly             Explore and describe different
     Grasp, manipulate,           from this time period        describe currency,                habitats and lifestyles of native
      and release objects                                       clothing, housing, climate,       peoples during this time period
     Organize instructional                                    food, and/or religions            in the New World, including
      materials                                                 from this time period             Mayans, Aztecs, Incans and
     Take turns                                                                                  Native Americans of the East
      appropriately during                                                                        coast of North America;
      classroom discussion                                                                        include what changes were
     Respond to/initiate                                                                         brought about by contact with
      contacts with others                                                                        Europeans
     Apply rules for                                                                            Use maps and globes to
      appropriate classroom                                                                       identify the location(s) of one
      behavior                                                                                    or more pre-Columbian and/or
     Use appropriate social                                                                      early European settlement(s)
      greetings                                                                                   in the New World, and identify
     Follow simple                                                                               how maps have changed since
      directions                                                                                  the Age of Exploration
     Identify self and/or                                                                       Identify and compare/contrast
      other                                                                                       currency, clothing, housing,
     Initiate or respond to                                                                      climate, food, and religions
      request for joint                                                                           from this time period with
      attention                                                                                   those of today

                                                                                              Continue to address skills and
                                                                                              concepts in this subject that
                                                                                              approach grade-level expectations
       Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                    Fall 2006
       HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        405
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standard 5.6
        At grade 5, students are assigned two early European explorers to research and write about,
        including what each explorer sought on his journey to the New World, where he explored, and
        what he found. The students compare and contrast their two explorers.


How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

Joel creates a list of facts about Henry Hudson and          Data chart indicating Joel ability to collect facts about
Samuel de Champlain, including what they sought,              explorers
what part of the New World each explored and                 Joel’s list of facts about Henry Hudson
when, and what each of them found. He uses this              Joel’s list of facts about Samuel de Champlain
list to create a Venn diagram comparing and                  Joel’s completed Venn diagram
contrasting the two explorers.                               A map labeled by Joel showing where the explorers
                                                              traveled

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

Bianca is given ten facts about Henry Hudson and             Data chart indicating Bianca ability to answer questions
Samuel de Champlain using picture cues on cards.              about explorers
Bianca dictates facts about each explorer that are           A photograph of Bianca’s sorted colored cards of the
written on colored cards (blue for Henry Hudson,              explorers
yellow for Samuel de Champlain). She then dictates           Bianca’s scribed sentences comparing and contrasting
how the explorers were similar and how they were              the explorers
different, using the sorted similar cards as a guide.        A map colored by Bianca using previously determined
                                                              colors for each explorer to show where each traveled

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

William is given pictures of the discoveries of Henry        Data chart indicating William ability to match object to
Hudson and Samuel de Champlain. The pictures                  object
reflect information found on Joel’s Venn diagram             William’s completed Venn diagram matching a picture of
and Bianca’s colored cards. William matches picture           the explorer to a picture of the explorer’s discovery
to picture. On a map, the route of each explorer is          William’s map labeled with pictures of explorers created
labeled with a color. William is given pictures of            by matching color to color
each explorer and matches the explorer to where he
traveled.




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities              Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        406
                                                                                                       History and
                                                                                                      Social Science

                                                                                                        The Political,
                                                                                                      Intellectual, and
                                                                                                    Economic Growth of
                                                                                                        the Colonies,
                                                                                                         1700–1775

                                                                                                          Grade 5


CONTENT    History and Social Science
   TOPIC     United States History, Geography, Economics, and
            Government: Early Exploration to Westward Movement
   Learning Standards for: The Political, Intellectual, and Economic Growth of the
                                               Colonies, 1700–1775
           THEMES
                        The evolution of the concepts of personal freedom, individual responsibility, and
                         respect for human dignity
                        The growth and impact of centralized state power
                        The growth and spread of free markets and industrial economies
                        The birth, growth, and decline of civilizations


                                                     Grade 5
Learning Standard as Written                                                              Essence of Standard
  5.10       On a map of North America, identify the first 13 colonies and describe        Identify the location of the
             how regional differences in climate, types of farming, populations, and        original North American
             sources of labor shaped their economies and societies through the 18th         colonies, including the influence
             century. (H, G, E)                                                             of physical geography and
                                                                                            climate on the economy of
                                                                                            each
  5.11       Explain the importance of maritime commerce in the development of the         Explain the maritime economy
             economy of colonial Massachusetts, using historical societies and              of Massachusetts
             museums as needed. (H, E)
                 A. the fishing and shipbuilding industries
                 B. trans-Atlantic trade
                 C. the port cities of New Bedford, Newburyport,
                      Gloucester, Salem, and Boston
  5.12       Explain the causes of the establishment of slavery in North                   Explain the reasons for the rise
             America. Describe the harsh conditions of the Middle Passage and slave         of slavery in North America
             life, and the responses of slaves to their condition. Describe the life of
             free African Americans in the colonies. (H, G, E, C)
  5.13       Identify the founders and the reasons for the establishment of                Describe the founding of
             educational institutions in the colonies (grammar schools and colleges         educational institutions in the
             such as Harvard and the College of William and Mary). (H)                      early American Colonies
  5.14       Explain the development of colonial governments and describe how these        Explain the political growth of
             developments contributed to the Revolution. (H, G, E, C)                       the colonies, including the
                 A. legislative bodies                                                      expansion of self-government
                 B. town meetings                                                           and democratic political
                 C. charters on individual freedom and rights                               principles


   Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                   Fall 2006
   HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        407
5.15       Explain the reasons for the French and Indian War, how it led to an        Identify the origins of the
           overhaul of British imperial policy, and the colonial response to these     American Revolution, including
           policies. (H, C, E)                                                         the French and Indian War,
                A. Sugar Act (1764)                                                    British imperial policy, and the
                B. Stamp Act (1765)                                                    colonial response to these
                C. Townsend Duties (1767)                                              policies
                D. Tea Act (1773) and the Intolerable Acts (1774)
                E. the slogan, “no taxation without representation”
                F. the roles of the Stamp Act Congress, the Sons of Liberty, and
                      the Boston Tea Party (1773)




 Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                Fall 2006
 HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        408
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

     Less Complex                                                                          More Complex


 ACCESS SKILLS                    ENTRY POINTS
The student will:                The student will:                The student will:                   The student will:
   Use maps or pictures        Identify the original 13      Label the northern, middle,          Locate and label the
    to find a familiar           colonies on a map (right-      and southern colonies on a            original 13 colonies on a
    location                     hand side of map, next to      map                                   map
   Identify physical            water)                       Identify early trade routes           Describe how physical
    features (e.g.,             Identify one or more           and the migration of slaves           geography and climate
    mountain, valley,            Colonial era                 Describe the contributions of          impacted the northern,
    river, ocean)                entrepreneurs, such as         one Colonial-era                      middle, and southern
   Activate switch to           Benjamin Franklin, Paul        entrepreneur, such as                 colonies
    identify pictures of         Revere, or Peter Faneuil       Benjamin Franklin, Paul              Explain and identify the
    key Colonial leaders        On a map, recognize key        Revere, or Peter Faneuil              “triangular trade” on a
    and/or                       physical features of the     Identify the key physical and          map
    goods/products from          13 colonies (forests,          climatic features of the             Locate and label early
    the original 13              mountains/hills,               north, middle, and south              trade routes and the
    colonies                     tidewater, rivers, ocean)      colonies                              migration of slaves
   Reach, touch, and           Recognize goods                  North: cold, dense                Identify means used by
    manually navigate a          produced by the 13                 forests, rocky soil,              colonists to earn a living
    North American map           colonies (fish, wood,              harbors with banks                and give examples of
    of natural resources         crops)                           Middle: thick fertile soil,        Colonial era
   Grasp, manipulate,          Identify where resources           longer, warmer summer,            entrepreneurs, such as
    and release materials        were found (fish –                 forests, wide rivers,             Benjamin Franklin, Paul
    used by other                oceans, wood – forests,            Piedmont                          Revere, and Peter Faneuil
    students during              grain – farms)                   South: tidewater, 8               Define profit and explain
    classroom activity in       Recognize products that            month growing season +            how it served as an
    this topic                   were traded among the              rain = rich soil                  incentive for
   Respond to text              colonies, Europe, Africa,     Identify the key products of          entrepreneurs in the
    being read aloud             and the Caribbean              the north, middle, and south          Colonial-era
    (i.e., remain alert,                                          North: wood for                   Give examples of
    request more)                                                   shipbuilding, maple               changes in supply and
   Turn attention                                                  syrup, fishing, family            demand related to items
    toward another                                                  farming, trading                  such as fur, lumber, fish,
    person                                                        Mid-Atlantic: small                and meat; explain how
   Take turns                                                      farming, raising livestock,       these changes affected
    appropriately during                                            hunting                           prices during the Colonial
    classroom discussion                                          South: large farming,              era
   Respond to/initiate                                             cash crops (tobacco, rice,       Provide examples of
    contacts with others                                            indigo)                           British Imperialism and
   Apply rules for                                           Identify import and export             the colonists’ response to
    appropriate                                                 products of the colonies              these policies
    classroom behavior                                        Create and interpret timeline         Identify and discuss the
   Use appropriate                                             of key events leading to the          meaning of “no taxation
    social greetings                                            American Revolution                   without representation”
   Follow simple                                                                                    Describe the role of the
    directions                                                                                        meetinghouse in the
   Identify self and/or                                                                              colonial village
    others
   Initiate or respond to                                                                        Continue to address skills and
    request for joint                                                                             concepts in this subject that
    attention                                                                                     approach grade-level
                                                                                                  expectations


     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                    Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        409
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standard 5.10
        At grade 5, students create a map of the original thirteen colonies, using a range of materials,
        such as cardboard cutouts of each colony and symbolic representations of the goods and resources
        in each colony and region. Students assemble the map like a puzzle from the cutout pieces and
        create a key listing the products, using small sticks, for example, to represent wood. They label the
        map and discuss differences among colonies and regions moving from north to south.

How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

Jenna creates a map of the original 13 colonies to           Data chart indicating Jenna’s ability to create a map
use as a guide for the group project. With her               Jenna’s completed map
group, she helps create and assemble the pieces of           Jenna’s list of the 13 colonies and products from each
the final map. She contributes ideas for materials to         colony
use for the products key.                                    Jenna’s work sample identifying key physical and
                                                              climatic features of each colony

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

Nicolas traces the individual 13 colonies for others to      Data chart indicating Nicolas ability to match pictures to
cut out for the map. He participates in the group             product key
activity by creating his own map with assistance             Work sample created of pictures of products matched
from peers, and uses the key created by the group             by Nicolas to the key
to match pictures of products to his own map.                Nicolas’s map, labeled with products using the group’s
                                                              key

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

Anthony grasps and releases puzzle pieces to create          Data chart indicating Anthony’s ability to grasp and
a puzzle of a map of the original 13 colonies. He             release puzzle pieces
also matches corresponding objects from the key              Video of Anthony grasping and releasing pieces of a
and map.                                                      puzzle
                                                             Work sample scribed by peer showing Anthony’s
                                                              success in matching objects using items from the map
                                                              and key




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities             Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        410
                                                                                                          History and
                                                                                                         Social Science

                                                                                                      The Revolution and
                                                                                                       the Formation of a
                                                                                                      Federal Government
                                                                                                           Under the
                                                                                                          Constitution,
                                                                                                           1775–1789

                                                                                                            Grade 5



CONTENT    History and Social Science
   TOPIC    United States History, Geography, Economics, and
            Government: Early Exploration to Westward Movement
   Learning Standards for: The Revolution and the Formation of a Federal
                                                Government Under the Constitution, 1775–1789
            THEMES
                        The evolution of the concepts of personal freedom, individual responsibility, and
                         respect for human dignity
                        The growth and impact of centralized state power
                        The birth, growth, and decline of civilizations


                                                     Grade 5
Learning Standard as Written                                                                Essence of Standard
  5.16       Explain the meaning of the key ideas on equality, natural rights, the rule      Explain the main ideas in the
             of law, and the purpose of government contained in the Declaration of            Declaration of Independence
             Independence. (H, C, E)
  5.17       Describe the major battles of the Revolution and explain the factors            Describe the major battles of
             leading to American victory and British defeat. (H)                              the American Revolution
                  A. Lexington and Concord (1775)
                  B. Bunker Hill (1775)
                  C. Saratoga (1777)
                  D. Valley Forge (1777-1778)
                  E. Yorktown (1781)
  5.18       Describe the life and achievements of important leaders during the              Identify the leaders of the
             Revolution and the early years of the United States. (H, C)                      American Revolution, including
                 A. John Adams                                                                George Washington, Benjamin
                 B. Benjamin Franklin                                                         Franklin, Thomas Jefferson,
                 C. King George III                                                           Alexander Hamilton, and James
                 D. Alexander Hamilton                                                        Madison
                 E. Thomas Jefferson
                 F. James Madison
                 G. George Washington
  5.19       Identify the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts,                 Explain the Massachusetts
             including its date, its primary author (John Adams), and the basic rights it     Constitution and the basic
             gives to citizens of the Commonwealth. (C)                                       rights it gives to Massachusetts
                                                                                              citizens
  5.20       Explain the reasons for the adoption of the Articles of Confederation in        Explain the Articles of
             1781 and for its later failure. (H, C)                                           Confederation

   Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                     Fall 2006
   HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        411
5.21       Describe Shays’s Rebellion of 1786–1787 and explain why it was one of         Explain the importance of
           the crucial events leading to the Constitutional Convention. (H, E, C)         Shays’s Rebellion
5.22       Identify the various leaders of the Constitutional Convention and describe    Identify leaders of the
           the major issues they debated. (H, E, C)                                       Constitutional Convention and
                A. distribution of political power                                        the issues they debated
                B. rights of individuals
                C. rights of states
                D. the Great Compromise
                 E. slavery




 Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                  Fall 2006
 HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        412
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

        Less Complex                                                                        More Complex

     ACCESS SKILLS                    ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:                The student will:                The student will:                The student will:
    Match picture to picture        Identify people who            Sequence the main               Identify the beginning,
     for important American           fought in the American          battles of the American          (Lexington and Concord),
     leaders                          Revolution                      Revolution on a timeline         middle (Saratoga), and end
    Respond to text being           Group pictures of               by title and/or major            (Yorktown) of the
     read aloud (i.e., remain         Revolutionary fighters          descriptor (e.g., “The           American Revolution on a
     alert, request more)             by their relevant               British are coming,” “We         timeline
    Choose appropriate text          attributes                      finally won,” “We               Using maps, historical
     to read or to have read         Identify George                 captured the capital”)           narratives, pictures, and
     aloud                            Washington as a leader         Match American                   film, identify the locations
    Orient to books/orient           of America                      Revolutionary leaders to         of major battles, trace
     book right side up              Recognize George                their goals and successes        troop movements, and
    Turn pages in a book or          Washington from an             Explain why some leaders         identify leaders of the
     magazine                         array of pictures               wanted a strong central          American Revolution
    Activate an electronic          Identify and                    government and some             Describe the goals and
     device to access text,           discriminate between            wanted a strong state            beliefs of George
     communicate with                 “rights” (things I get to       government                       Washington, Benjamin
     others, or participate in        do) and “non-rights”           Identify one or more             Franklin, Thomas
     an instructional activity        (things I don’t get to          reasons for the existence        Jefferson, Alexander
    Turn attention toward            do) within the context          of slavery in the United         Hamilton and James
     another person                   of the Constitution             States                           Madison
    Grasp, manipulate, and          Recognize that slavery         Identify activities/            List the pros and cons of a
     release objects                  existed in the United           decisions of a free person       strong centralized (federal)
    Organize instructional           States                          that a slave wasn’t              versus a strong state
     materials                                                        allowed                          government
    Take turns                                                      Identify the two houses         List arguments for and
     appropriately during                                             of the legislative branch        against slavery
     classroom discussion                                             of government (House of         Describe the compromise
    Respond to/initiate                                              Representatives and              that was agreed upon
     contacts with others                                             Senate)                          regarding slavery
    Apply rules for                                                 Provide examples of what        Discuss the Great
     appropriate classroom                                            is meant by “life, liberty       Compromise that resulted
     behavior                                                         and prosperity”                  in the two houses of
    Use appropriate social                                                                            government
     greetings                                                                                        Describe the roles of
    Follow simple directions                                                                          citizens as discussed in the
    Identify self and/or                                                                              Bill of Rights
     others                                                                                           Identify the basic ideas set
    Initiate or respond to                                                                            forth in the U.S.
     request for joint                                                                                 Constitution
     attention                                                                                        Use political cartoons,
                                                                                                       essays, and news accounts
                                                                                                       of this era to understand
                                                                                                       differing perspectives and
                                                                                                       viewpoints regarding
                                                                                                       independence, slavery, and
                                                                                                       the emerging government

                                                                                                   Continue to address skills and
                                                                                                   concepts in this subject that
                                                                                                   approach grade-level
                                                                                                   expectations

     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                       Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        413
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standard 5.18
        At grade 5, students research a military or political leader during the period of the American
        Revolution. After conducting research individually, they work in small groups to create questions for
        a trivia game. Each group is responsible for questions about a different leader. The class then plays
        the trivia game.

How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

Donny creates a list of facts about Thomas                   Data chart indicating Donny’s ability to identify/relate
Jefferson. He develops ten questions for the trivia           facts about Thomas Jefferson
game based on these facts and responds to                    Donny’s list of facts about Thomas Jefferson
questions about other leaders during the game.               List of questions Donny created
                                                             Questions Danny answered during the trivia game
                                                             Two paragraphs written by Donny on two different
                                                              leaders of the American Revolution

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

Gianni creates a list of facts about George                  Data chart indicating Gianni’s ability to identify/relate
Washington for the trivia game using sources with             facts about George Washington
modified text and picture cues. He is given                  Gianni’s list of facts about George Washington
questions to practice, and answers these during the          Work sample with sentences written by Gianni about
trivia game. He participates in the trivia game,              what he learned about George Washington, using picture
receiving prompts from his peers as needed.                   cues

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

Sam is working on activating a voice output switch.          Field data chart indicating Sam’s ability to activate a
He is given instructions to press his switch when he          switch on cue
sees a picture of a man. He is then shown pictures           Line or bar graph summarizing the field data chart
of male leaders from the American Revolution.                Work sample of picture collage created by Sam using his
During the trivia game, Sam presses a switch as a             switch to indicate which picture should be included in the
picture of each new leader is shown. When he does             collage
this correctly, a smile face is shown that says, “You
are correct.”




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities              Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        414
                                                                                                     History and Social
                                                                                                          Science


                                                                                                      The Principles and
                                                                                                   Institutions of American
                                                                                                         Constitutional
                                                                                                          Government


                                                                                                           Grade 5


CONTENT   History and Social Science
   TOPIC    United States History, Geography, Economics, and
            Government: Early Exploration to Westward Movement
   Learning Standards for: The Principles and Institutions of American
                                                    Constitutional Government
             THEMES
                         The evolution of the concepts of personal freedom, individual responsibility, and
                          respect for human dignity


                                                       Grade 5
Learning Standard as Written                                                                 Essence of Standard
   5.23       Describe the responsibilities of government at the federal, state, and local    Describe the roles and
              levels (e.g., protection of individual rights and the provision of services      responsibilities of federal, state,
              such as law enforcement and the building and funding of schools). (C)            and local governments
   5.24       Describe the basic political principles of American democracy and explain       Describe the basic principles of
              how the Constitution and the Bill of Rights reflect and preserve these           American democracy as defined
              principles. (C)                                                                  in the Constitution and the Bill
                   A. individual rights and responsibilities                                   of Rights
                   B. equality
                   C. the rule of law
                   D. limited government
                   E. representative democracy
   5.25       Identify the three branches of the United States government as outlined         Identify the three branches of
              by the Constitution, describe their functions and relationships, and             American government, and
              identify what features of the Constitution were unique at the time (e.g.,        unique features of the
              the presidency and the independent judiciary). (H, C)                            Constitution
   5.26       Identify the rights in the Bill of Rights and explain the reasons for its       Identify the Bill of Rights and
              inclusion in the Constitution in 1791. (H, C)                                    why it was included in the
                                                                                               Constitution
   5.27       Explain how American citizens were expected to participate in, monitor,         Explain the role of citizens in a
              and bring about changes in their government over time, and give                  democracy
              examples of how they continue to do so today. (H, C)




    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                      Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        415
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

          Less Complex                                                                         More Complex

     ACCESS SKILLS                  ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:              The student will:             The student will:                   The student will:
     Sort “ rules” into            Describe what              Identify the three levels        Show how powers and roles are
      home and school                government does and         of government (local,             divided within the federal
      categories, using              does not do                 state, and federal)               government, and between
      symbols or pictures           Identify leaders and       Identify each branch of           federal and state governments
     Identify authority             distinguish one from        government (executive,           Define the powers of the three
      figures within the             another                     legislative, and judiciary)       branches of government and
      classroom                     Participate in “mock”      Match leaders/roles to            explain how responsibilities are
     Respond to text being          voting                      each level of government          shared
      read aloud (i.e.,             Identify one or more       Match leaders/roles to           Explain or show how the system
      remain alert, request          rights of individual        each branch of                    of “checks and balances” works
      more)                          citizens                    government                       Identify by name and title one
     Choose appropriate                                        Participate in                    or more leaders in each branch
      text to read or to                                         representative                    of government (local, state, and
      have read aloud                                            democracy by voting for           federal)
     Orient to books/orient                                     representative and/or            Review and summarize portions
      book right side up                                         leader in “mock” election         of founding documents (i.e. the
     Turn pages in a book                                      Match word or phrase              Declaration of Independence,
      or magazine                                                found in the U.S.                 the Massachusetts Constitution,
     Activate an electronic                                     Constitution to the               and the U.S. Constitution)
      device to access text,                                     principle of American            Identify words or phrases in the
      communicate with                                           equality                          U.S. Constitution and describe
      others, or participate                                    Name the five basic               how they reflect the principles
      in an instructional                                        rights guaranteed by the          of American equality
      activity                                                   U.S. Constitution                Identify rights protected by the
     Turn attention toward                                     Identify the basic rights         U.S. Constitution
      another person                                             of citizenship                   Explain why the Bill of Rights
     Grasp, manipulate,                                                                           was added to the U.S.
      and release objects                                                                          Constitution
     Organize instructional                                                                      Identify individual rights in
      materials                                                                                    American democracy
     Take turns                                                                                  Identify how individuals can
      appropriately during                                                                         participate in government
      classroom discussion                                                                        Identify responsibilities
     Respond to/initiate                                                                          associated with the basic rights
      contacts with others                                                                         of citizenship
     Apply rules for                                                                             Identify and discuss different
      appropriate classroom                                                                        viewpoints regarding human
      behavior                                                                                     dignity, civil liberties, and roles
     Use appropriate social                                                                       and responsibilities of the
      greetings                                                                                    government and citizens
     Follow simple                                                                               Identify and correctly use terms
      directions                                                                                   related to government (e.g.,
     Identify self and/or                                                                         citizen, rights, federal, state,
      others                                                                                       vote, tax, represent, president)
     Initiate or respond to
      request for joint                                                                        Continue to address skills and
      attention                                                                                concepts in this subject that
                                                                                               approach grade-level expectations


       Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                       Fall 2006
       HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        416
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standards 5.24 and 5.27
        At grade 5, students use the Internet to identify the population of each state and the number of
        elected officials each has in the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives. Students complete
        spreadsheets summarizing their research, and create graphs depicting the population and
        representation of each state. Students write a summary of what they learned when comparing
        population size to the number of representatives, and develop mathematical models and make
        predictions to increase their understanding.

How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

Marissa locates information on the Internet and              Data chart indicating Marissa’s ability to locate and
completes a spreadsheet with information on each              record required information about each state
state, including its population and number of                Marissa’s completed spreadsheet of facts
representatives. She completes a graph of this               Marissa’s completed graph of information on size of
information and writes a summary. She attempts to             state population vs. number of representatives
write an equation for the relationship between a             Marissa’s summary of what she learned
state’s population and its representation, forming           Marissa’s mathematical model
hypotheses and predictions about how
representation is determined.

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

Shawn is given a less complex spreadsheet on                 Data chart indicating Shawn’s ability to complete a
which he completes the number of representatives              spreadsheet using Internet research on New England
for each New England state. He uses a website that            states
has been identified for him. He receives assistance          Shawn’s completed spreadsheet on state population and
from peers, as needed, to record the information in           number of representatives
a table. He writes the names of the states with the          Shawn’s completed table of information on New England
greatest and least number of representatives.                 states
                                                             Shawn’s record of states with the fewest and most
                                                              representatives

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

Frank is working on greater than/less than concepts.         Field data chart of Frank’s comparisons of greater
He is presented with two cutouts of different states.         than/less than during this and other related activities
On each cutout are blocks representing the number            Line or bar graph summarizing the field data chart
of representatives from that state. Frank indicates          Video clip of Frank touching state cutouts
which state has more representatives by touching             Photographs of Frank’s selections of blocks with
the cutout of that state.                                     “greater than” numbers




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities             Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        417
                                                                                                          History and
                                                                                                         Social Science


                                                                                                        The First Four
                                                                                                     Presidencies and the
                                                                                                    Growth Republic United
                                                                                                        States to 1820


                                                                          Grade 5
CONTENT History and Social Science
   TOPIC     United States History, Geography, Economics,
            and Government: Early Exploration to Westward Movement
   Learning Standards for: The First Four Presidencies and the Growth of the
                                                  Republic United States to 1820
             THEMES
                         The evolution of the concepts of personal freedom, individual responsibility, and
                          respect for human dignity
                         The growth and spread of free markets and industrial economies


                                                      Grade 5
Learning Standard as Written                                                                 Essence of Standard
   5.28       Identify the changes in voting qualifications between 1787 and 1820             Identify voting qualifications
              (e.g., the abolition of property requirements), and compare who could            and how these changed
              vote in local, state, and national elections in the U.S. with who could vote     between 1782–1820
              in England, France, and Russia. (H, C)
   5.29       Explain the events leading up to, and the significance of, the Louisiana        Explain the significance of the
              Purchase of 1803. (H, C, E, G)                                                   Louisiana Purchase
   5.30       Describe the expedition of Lewis and Clark from 1803 to 1806. (H, E, G)         Describe the Lewis and Clark
                                                                                               expedition
   5.31       Describe the significance and consequences of the abolition of slavery in       Explain the significance of
              the northern states after the Revolution and of the 1808 law that banned         northern abolition of slavery
              the importation of slaves into the United States. (H)                            and beginning of further
                                                                                               importation of slaves after 1808
   5.32       Describe the causes of the war of 1812 and how events during the war            Identify the causes of the war
              contributed to a sense of American nationalism. (H)                              of 1812
                  A. British restrictions on trade and impressment
                  B. major battles and events of the war, including the role of the
                       USS Constitution, the burning of the Capitol and the White
                       House, and the Battle of New Orleans
   5.33       Explain the importance of the China trade and the whaling industry to           Explain the importance of the
              19th century New England, and give examples of imports from China. (H)           China trade and the whaling
                                                                                               industry to New England
   5.34       Explain the reasons that pioneers moved west from the beginning to the          Explain the reasons for
              middle of the 19th century, and describe their lives on the frontier. (H, G,     westward movement of
              C, E)                                                                            pioneers in mid-1800s
                    A. wagon train journeys on the Oregon and Santa Fe Trails
                    B. their settlements in the western territories
   5.35       Identify the key issues that contributed to the onset of the Civil War. (H,     Identify the reasons for the
              E)                                                                               Civil War
                   A. the debate over slavery and westward expansion
                    B. diverging economic interests
    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                     Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        418
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

         Less Complex                                                                     More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                      ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:                  The student will:              The student will:                 The student will:
   Sort and match pictures of         On a map, identify           List the qualifications for      Compare and contrast
    transportation methods              modern states that            voting in 1820 (adult,            voter qualifications in
   Sort pictures of clothing or        were part of the              white, literate male)             1820 and 1787
    habitats into pioneer or            Louisiana Purchase, and      Identify the impact of the       Present details of the
    modern time                         how the United States         Louisiana Purchase on             Louisiana Purchase
   Match picture to picture of         was growing                   the country (doubled the         Using a map, indicate the
    pioneers, British and              Identify methods of           size of the country,              area encompassed by the
    American soldiers,                  transportation across         maintained trade flow)            Louisiana Purchase, the
    freemen and slaves, etc.            the U.S. in mid-1800s        Recognize differences             natural features of this
   Respond to text being              Demonstrate                   and similarities in pioneer       territory, and the states
    read aloud (i.e., remain            understanding of              lifestyle from the way we         included in this area
    alert, request more)                lifestyle of pioneers,        live today                       Describe the events
   Choose appropriate text to          including clothing,          Explain why pioneers              leading up to the War of
    read or to have read aloud          habitat, natural              moved west                        1812 and its outcome
   Orient to books/orient              environment                  Create a timeline of key         Describe the reasons
    book right side up                 Explain who had the           events leading up to and          pioneers moved west,
   Turn pages in a book or             right to vote in mid-         including the War of              their routes and methods
    magazine                            1800s                         1812; explain one or two          of transportation, and
   Activate an electronic             Explain how                   key events in detail              how they lived on the
    device to access text,              representatives served                                          frontier
    communicate with others,            the interests of voters                                        Using text, pictures, film,
    or participate in an                who elected them                                                news accounts and
    instructional activity                                                                              cartoons, explain how
   Turn attention toward                                                                               Americans lived in
    another person                                                                                      different sections of the
   Grasp, manipulate, and                                                                              United States in the mid-
    release objects relevant to                                                                         1800s
    instructional activity
   Organize instructional                                                                          Continue to address skills and
    materials                                                                                       concepts in this subject that
   Take turns appropriately                                                                        approach grade-level
    during classroom                                                                                expectations
    discussion
   Respond to/initiate
    contacts with others
   Apply rules for appropriate
    classroom behavior
   Use appropriate social
    greetings
   Follow simple directions
   Identify self and/or others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint attention




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                      Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        419
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standard 5.30
        At grade 5 students read about and discuss the Lewis and Clark Expedition and the aid they
        received from Native American tribes along the way. Each student conducts research on one Native
        American tribe and records information from that research on an activity sheet. Each student
        creates a poster and prepares and delivers an oral presentation about a tribe.


How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written               Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                     Products

Anna completes the activity sheet for the Shoshones         Data chart indicating Anna’s ability to collect information
and uses this information to create a poster                 on the Shoshones
incorporating a variety of materials. She presents          Anna’s completed activity form on the Shoshones
the information from her poster to the class,               A photograph of Anna’s poster
discussing several unique characteristics of the            Anna’s note cards used for her oral presentation
Shoshones and the role played by the tribe during
the Lewis and Clark Expedition.

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                 Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                      Products

Danielle completes a modified activity sheet for the        Data chart indicating Danielle’s ability to collect and
Sioux that requires simpler responses. She creates a         present facts on the Sioux
poster using a variety of materials, with peer              Danielle’s completed activity sheet
assistance as needed, representing three facts from         A photograph of Danielle’s poster
her activity sheet. She presents the poster and three       Danielle’s note cards used for her oral presentation
facts to a group of other students.

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                     Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                     Products

Kyle completes an activity sheet that has pictures of       Data chart indicating Kyle’s ability to press his switch in
items the Mandan tribe provided to Lewis and Clark.          response to cue from peers
He is given pictures to match with pictures on the          Kyle’s completed activity sheet
activity form. Kyle chooses a preferred item from           Work sample showing Kyle’s work matching picture to
those presented on the sheet. A peer records a               picture
description of the item into Kyle’s voice output
device. Kyle presses the switch when asked by
peers to discuss his preferred item.




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities              Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        420
                                                                                                         History and
                                                                                                        Social Science

                                                                                                             Africa


                                                                                                           Grade 6

CONTENT History and Social Science
   TOPIC     World Geography
   Learning Standards for: Africa
          THEMES
                        The effects of geography on the history of civilizations and nations


                                                    Grade 6
Learning Standard as Written                                                              Essence of Standard
   A.1       On a map of the world, locate the continent of Africa, the Atlantic Ocean,    Identify major African
             the Indian Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Great Rift Valley. On a       geographic features
             map of Africa, locate the northern, eastern, western, central, and
             southern regions of Africa, the Sahara Desert, the Nile River, Lake
             Victoria, Mount Kilimanjaro, and the Cape of Good Hope. (G)
   A.2       Use a map key to locate countries and major cities in Africa. (G, E)          Locate African countries and
                                                                                            cities on a map
   A.3       Explain how the following five factors have influenced settlement and the     Explain how geographic
             economies of major African regions and countries. (G, E)                       features and population size
                A. absolute and relative locations                                          affect life in Africa
                B. climate
                C. major physical characteristics
                D. major natural resources
                E. population size
   A.4       Identify the locations and time periods of the sub-Saharan empires of         Explain the history of early
             Ghana, Mali, and Songhay. (H, G)                                               African Empires

   A.5      Identify when modern African countries became independent nations and          Identify how and when African
            explain how independence was achieved. (H, G)                                      nations became independent
            Plus optional topics listed in the Massachusetts History and Social Science Curriculum Framework




   Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                   Fall 2006
   HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        421
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

         Less Complex                                                                    More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                   ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:               The student will:                The student will:                The student will:
   Match picture to symbol        Give examples of                Locate Africa on a world        Locate Africa on a world
    using geographic terms          geographic features              map or globe and                 map or globe and discuss
    (e.g., glacial, mountain,       represented on maps or           compare its size to the          its varied climates and
    hill, plain)                    globes of Africa                 United States                    geographic features
   Sequence events (match         Locate Africa on a world        Recognize that Africa is a      Investigate how Africa’s
    picture to picture)             map                              continent made up of             varied climates and
   Match shape to shape           Recognize that Africa is a       many countries                   geographic features
    using color pictures of         continent                       Name and locate                  affect its population
    African features, such as      Locate Africa’s mountain         different African                distribution and its
    countries, indigenous           ranges, deserts, and             countries                        economy
    people and/or animals           rivers                          Compare the climates            Document the history of
   Reach and touch a map          Describe how Africa’s            found in different regions       an African nation and
    of Africa showing               varied climate and               of Africa                        trace its colonial past to
    deserts, rivers, and            geographic features             Compare the population           when it became an
    mountain ranges                 affect how people dress,         of Africa to the                 independent nation
   Respond to text being           live, and make a living          population of the United        List the major natural
    read aloud (i.e., remain       Identify products from           States                           resources found in Africa
    alert, request more)            Africa                          Identify the natural             and explain how they are
   Choose appropriate text                                          resources found in Africa        used
    to read or to have read                                          and compare with those          Examine and explain the
    aloud                                                            found in Massachusetts           process of desertification
   Activate an electronic                                          Locate and identify major        and how it is affecting
    device to access text,                                           physical features of             life in sub-Sahara Africa
    communicate with                                                 Africa (rivers, deserts,
    others, or participate in                                        mountains, surrounding       Continue to address skills and
    an instructional activity                                        bodies of water)             concepts in this subject that
   Turn attention toward                                                                         approach grade-level
    another person                                                                                expectations
   Grasp, manipulate, and
    release objects
   Organize instructional
    materials
   Take turns appropriately
    during classroom
    discussion
   Respond to/initiate
    contacts with others
   Apply rules for
    appropriate classroom
    behavior
   Use appropriate social
    greetings
   Follow simple directions
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint
    attention


     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                    Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        422
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standard A.1

        At grade 6, students study the effects of geography on the history of civilizations and nations. Students
        view Michael Fay’s “Congo Trek” online (http://www.nationalgeographic.com/congotrek/) as part of a
        whole-class activity. As they view each segment of the trek, students mark on a blank map the region
        traveled. Students create individual guidebooks that give details about each region visited, including
        latitude and longitude, topographic information, animals observed, and human interaction with the
        environment.


How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

Deshawn views Michael Fay’s “Congo Trek” with the            Data chart indicating Deshawn’s ability to identify the
class. He indicates on a blank map the regions                various regions located on the continent of Africa
traveled. He creates a guidebook that contains               Deshawn’s completed map of the “Congo Trek”
information about each of the regions.                       Deshawn’s guidebook of regional facts

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

Lorna views Michael Fay’s “Congo Trek” with the              Data chart indicating Lorna’s ability to locate countries
class. She is given a map of Africa with each country         on a map by matching a cut-out to the country on the
outlined and color-coded. Lorna is given cut-outs of          map
the countries with the same color codes as the map.          Lorna’s completed map of Africa
As she views each section of the trek, she is given          Lorna’s guidebook of cut-outs of countries visited on the
two cut-outs of the country being traveled. She               trek
matches one to the map and puts the other on a               Work sample of Lorna’s dictation of what she sees in the
page in her guidebook. She dictates to a scribe the           video
things she sees in the video, including animals,
people, and environmental features.

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

Patrick views Michael Fay’s “Congo Trek” with the            Data chart indicating Patrick’s ability to match shape to
class. He is shown a map of Africa with countries             shape
outlined. One country is colored in red. He is given         Work sample in which Patrick matched colored shapes
cut-outs of two countries, one red and one green.             to outlines
He is asked to choose the shape and color that               Patrick’s completed color-coded map
match. This task is repeated for several different
countries.




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities             Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        423
                                                                                                          History and
                                                                                                         Social Science

                                                                                                          Western Asia
                                                                                                        (the Middle East)
CONTENT    History and Social Science                                                                       Grade 6
   TOPIC     World Geography
   Learning Standards for: Western Asia (the Middle East)
         THEMES
                         The influence of economic, political, religious, and cultural ideas as human
                          societies move beyond regional, national, or geographic boundaries
                         The effects of geography on the history of civilizations and nations


                                                     Grade 6
Learning Standard as Written                                                               Essence of Standard
  WA.1        On a map of the world, locate Western Asia, or the Middle East. On a          Locate major Middle Eastern
              map of the Middle East, locate the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Caspian       geographic features
              Sea, Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Arabian Peninsula, and the Persian Gulf. (G)
  WA.2        Use a map key to locate countries and major cities in the Middle East. (G,    Locate countries and major
              E)                                                                             cities in the Middle East
  WA.3        Explain how the following five factors have influenced settlement and the     Identify and explain how
              economies of major Middle Eastern countries. (G, E)                            geographic features, climate,
                 A. absolute and relative locations                                          and population size affect life in
                 B. climate                                                                  the Middle East
                 C. major physical characteristics
                 D. major natural resources
                 E. population size
  WA.4        Locate and describe the various ethnic and religious groups of the Middle     Describe ethnic and religious
              East. (G, H, C, E)                                                             groups in the Middle East
  WA.5        Identify when the countries in the Middle East became independent             Identify how and when
              nations and explain how independence was achieved. (H, G)                      countries in the Middle East
                                                                                             became independent
             Plus optional topics listed in the Massachusetts History and Social Science Curriculum Framework




    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                    Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        424
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

     Less Complex                                                                        More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                   ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:               The student will:              The student will:                The student will:
   Demonstrate an                 Give examples of              Locate countries in the         Locate and name
    understanding of relative       geographic features            Middle East on a world           countries in the Middle
    location                        represented on maps of         map or globe                     East on a world map or
   Identify topographical          the Middle East               Discuss the importance           globe
    features such as               Locate the Middle East         of the Middle East to the       Explain why the Middle
    mountains, rivers,              on a world map or globe        development of Judaism,          East has been a center of
    deserts, and seas from         Identify bodies of water       Christianity, and Islam          conflict for centuries
    pictures                        on a map of the Middle        Describe major                   because of religious
   Match pictures of cities        East                           geographic features in           differences
    or various products from       Discuss how the lack of        the Middle East                 Explain how people have
    the Middle East                 rainfall in much of the       Explain why oil resources        altered the geographic
   Respond to text being           Middle East affects            play a major role in many        features of the Middle
    read aloud (i.e., remain        people’s lives                 Middle Eastern countries         East in order to live, with
    alert, request more)           Identify products from        Associate the three major        special attention to
   Choose appropriate text         the Middle East and            religions with the               irrigation projects
    to read or to have read         describe how they are          architecture of their           Explain how the
    aloud                           used                           places of worship                discovery of vast oil
   Activate an electronic         Identify/name the three       Identify and explain how         supplies in the early 20th
    device to access text,          major religions found in       one or more countries in         century affected many
    communicate with                the Middle East                the Middle East became           Middle Eastern countries
    others, or participate in      Identify/name individual       independent (use a              Examine and explain
    an instructional activity       countries in the Middle        variety of sources)              relations between the
   Turn attention toward           East                                                            United States and the
    another person                                                                                  Middle East
   Grasp, manipulate, and                                                                         Explain how countries in
    release objects                                                                                 the Middle East achieved
   Organize instructional                                                                          independence
    materials
   Take turns appropriately                                                                    Continue to address skills and
    during classroom                                                                            concepts in this subject that
    discussion                                                                                  approach grade-level
   Respond to/initiate                                                                         expectations
    contacts with others
   Apply rules for
    appropriate classroom
    behavior
   Use appropriate social
    greetings
   Follow simple directions
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint
    attention




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                  Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        425
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standard WA.2
        At grade 6, students are given an alphabetical list of countries and cities located in the Middle
        East and a blank map marked with outlines of the countries’ borders. Students use globes or maps
        to locate the countries on the list and label the countries on their individual maps. Students then
        use the Internet to locate the country in the Middle East in which each city is listed. They label
        their maps with the names of the cities.


How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

Christina uses a globe to find the countries on the          Data chart indicating Christina’s ability to demonstrate
alphabetical list and labels her map. She looks up            knowledge of the locations of countries and cities in the
the cities on the internet and labels her map with            Middle East, including quizzes, tests, and in-class and
the names of the cities. She takes a quiz in which            homework assignments
she is asked to label a map and describe the climate         Christina’s completed map showing cities and countries
and major geographical features of the region.                in the Middle East
                                                             Christina’s quiz

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

Darren is given an alphabetical list of ten countries        Data chart indicating Darren’s ability to label maps
located in the Middle East and an enlarged blank             Darren’s completed map of the Middle East
map with outlines of those countries’ borders. The           Darren’s completed quiz on the map of the Middle East
map is labeled with the first letter of each country;
spaces for the additional letters follow. He must fill
in the remaining letters to label each country on the
map. Darren also takes a modified quiz using visual
aids to answer questions about areas on map and
labeling countries on a blank map.

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

Omar works on following one-step directions. He is           Field data chart indicating Omar’s ability to follow one-
given a sticker with the name of a Middle Eastern             step directions
country. A peer tells him where to put the sticker on        Line or bar graph summarizing the field data chart
a blank map with country borders marked and he               Omar’s map labeled with stickers
follows the directions.




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities             Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        426
                                                                                                         History and
                                                                                                        Social Science

                                                                                                          Central and
                                                                                                          South Asia
CONTENT    History and Social Science
                                                                                                           Grade 6
   TOPIC     World Geography
   Learning Standards for: Central and South Asia
         THEMES
                         The effects of geography on the history of civilizations and nations


                                                     Grade 6
Learning Standard as Written                                                              Essence of Standard
  CSA.1       On a map of the world, locate Central and South Asia. On a map of            Locate major geographic
              Central and South Asia, locate the Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea, the         features of Central and South
              Bay of Bengal, the Ganges River, the Indo-Gangetic Plain, the Northern        Asia
              Mountains, the Deccan Plateau, the Himalayan Mountains, and the
              Steppes. (G)
  CSA.2       Use a map key to locate the countries and major cities in Central and        Identify countries and major
              South Asia. (G, E)                                                            cities in Central and South Asia
  CSA.3       Explain how the following five factors have influenced settlement and the    Explain how geographic
              economies of major Central and South Asian countries. (G, E)                  features, climate, and
                    A. absolute and relative locations                                      population size affect life in
                    B. climate                                                              Central and South Asia
                    C. major physical characteristics
                    D. major natural resources
                    E. population size
  CSA.4      Identify when India, Pakistan, Bhutan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and       Identify how and when major
             the Central Asian republics first became independent countries and                 Central and South Asia
             explain how independence was achieved. Explain the relationship of the             countries became independent
             Central Asian republics to the former Soviet Union. (H, G)
             Plus optional topics listed in the Massachusetts History and Social Science Curriculum Framework




    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                   Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        427
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

      Less Complex                                                                            More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                     ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:                 The student will:                The student will:                The student will:
   Use pictures to find a           Identify a map of Central       Locate the countries of         Identify countries located
    familiar location                 and South Asia                   Central and South Asia           in Central and South Asia
   Identify topographical           Give examples of                 on a world map or globe,         on a world map or globe
    features such as                  geographic features              with special attention to        with special attention to
    mountains, rivers,                represented on maps,             India                            India
    deserts, and seas from            such as mountains, in           Compare India’s size and        Explain the role religion
    pictures                          Central and South Asia           population with those of         plays in India with special
   Sequence events to               Locate Central and South         the United States                attention to Hinduism
    demonstrate                       Asia on a world map or          Identify India’s varied          and conflict between
    understanding of time             globe, with special              geographic features and          Hindus and Muslims
   Match pictures of people          attention to India               climate with special            Describe the problems
    in traditional dress from        Compare India’s size and         attention to monsoons            caused by India’s large
    Central and South Asia            location with those of the      Compare India’s natural          population and
   Grasp, manipulate, and            United States                    resources and                    government efforts to
    release objects related to       Compare India’s                  agricultural products with       solve these problems
    products from Central             population with that of          those of the United             Compare daily life in an
    and South Asia                    the United States                States                           Indian city with daily life
   Respond to text being            Identify products from          Describe problems                in rural areas of India
    read aloud (i.e., remain          India and discuss how            caused by India’s large         Explain the role of
    alert, request more)              they are used                    population                       Mohandes Gandhi in
   Turn pages in a book or          Recognize how people            Describe the role of             India’s independence
    magazine                          live, dress (traditional         Gandhi in India’s                movement and discuss
   Activate an electronic            dress), and work in India        independence movement            how Gandhi influenced
    device to access text,           Identify and describe           Describe the religious           the American civil rights
    communicate with                  basic concepts of non-           traditions of either             movement, including
    others, or participate in         violence                         Hinduism or Islam                non-violent resistance
    an instructional activity        Identify Hinduism and           Respond to yes/no
   Turn attention toward             Islam as major religions         questions about India        Continue to address skills and
    another person                                                                                  concepts in this subject that
   Grasp, manipulate, and                                                                          approach grade-level
    release objects                                                                                 expectations
   Organize instructional
    materials
   Take turns appropriately
    during classroom
    discussion
   Respond to/initiate
    contacts with others
   Apply rules for
    appropriate classroom
    behavior
   Use appropriate social
    greetings
   Follow simple directions
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint attention
     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                      Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        428
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standard CSA.3
        At grade 6, students view pictures from India of the environment, people, and activities
        (http://www.mcps.k12.md.us/curriculum/socialstd/grade7/india/india.html). Questions about the
        pictures lead students to discuss people’s occupations, activities, and customs in relation to the
        environment and climate. Students discuss their answers to the questions, then read descriptions
        of the photographs and discuss the questions in greater depth. Students are asked to write their
        answers to the questions and come up with their own questions. Students also locate the regions
        shown in the pictures on a map.


How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

Brittany participates in a small group answering             Data chart indicating Brittany’s knowledge of India
questions about the pictures. She then writes her             including quizzes, tests, in class and homework
own questions about each picture and researches               assignments
the answers. Brittany indicates on a map the regions         Brittany’s questions she created and their answers
shown in the photos.                                         Brittany’s completed map

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

Josh answers modified questions about the                    Data chart indicating Josh’s ability to verbally answer
photographs and creates one question for each                 questions about pictures
photograph. He is shown on a map where the                   Work sample showing Josh’s questions about each
country of India is and colors the country in.                photograph of India
                                                             Josh’s work sample from speech and language activity
                                                              answering questions about photographs

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

Using sign language, Mario answers yes/no                    Data chart indicating Mario’s ability to answer yes/no
questions about objects found in the photographs              questions using sign language
(e.g., “Do you see a girl?”).                                Work sample of Mario’s answers to questions about
                                                              objects in photographs using a scribe
                                                             Work sample of Mario’s yes/no answers to questions
                                                              using a scribe




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities            Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        429
                                                                                                          History and
                                                                                                         Social Science

                                                                                                      Southeast Asia and
                                                                                                           Oceania

                                                                                                            Grade 6
CONTENT    History and Social Science
   TOPIC    World Geography
   Learning Standards for: Southeast Asia and Oceania
         THEMES
                        The effects of geography on the history of civilizations and nations


                                                     Grade 6
Learning Standard as Written                                                               Essence of Standard
 SEAO.1      On a map of the world, locate Southeast Asia, the Indian Ocean, Australia,     Identify major geographic
             New Zealand, Antarctica, the major Pacific Islands, the Pacific Ocean, and      features of Southeast Asia and
             the Coral Sea. On a map of Southeast Asia and Oceania, locate the Bay of        Oceania
             Bengal, the South China Sea, the Great Victoria Desert, and the Great
             Barrier Reef. (G)
 SEAO.2      Use a map key to locate countries and major cities in the various regions      Locate countries and major
             of Southeast Asia, Australia, and the major Pacific Islands. (G, E)             cities in Southeast Asia and
                                                                                             Oceania
 SEAO.3      Explain how the following five factors have influenced settlement and the      Explain how geographic
             economies of major countries of Southeast Asia and Oceania. (G, E)              features, climate, and
                   A. absolute and relative locations                                        population size affect life in
                   B. climate                                                                Southeast Asia and Oceania
                   C. major physical characteristics
                   D. major natural resources
                   E. population size
 SEAO.4      Identify when countries in Southeast Asia and Oceania became                    Identify how and when nations
             independent countries and describe how independence was achieved. (G,               in Southeast Asia and Oceania
             H)                                                                                  became independent
              Plus optional topics listed in the Massachusetts History and Social Science Curriculum Framework




    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                   Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        430
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

     Less Complex                                                                           More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                   ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:               The student will:               The student will:                The student will:
   Use pictures to find a         Give examples of               Locate countries of             Locate countries of
    familiar location               geographic features             Southeast Asia and               Southeast Asia and
   Sequence events to              represented on maps of          Oceania on a world map           Oceania on a world map
    demonstrate                     Southeast Asia                  or globe with special            or globe with special
    understanding of time          Locate Southeast Asia           attention to Australia           attention to Australia
   Match picture to picture        and Oceania on a world         Investigate and explain         Investigate and explain
    to identify climates of         map or globe                    Australia’s geographic           the history and culture of
    Southeast Asia and             Demonstrate an                  features and climate and         Australia’s Aborigine
    Oceania                         understanding that              explain how they affect          peoples
   Match pictures of               Australia is an island          Australia’s population          Develop a timeline that
    different geographic            country and a continent         distribution                     shows important events
    features from Southeast        Identify Australia’s           List major natural               in Australia’s history
    Asia and Oceania                geographic features and         resources found in              Explain why trade was
   Respond to text being           climate                         Australia, their uses, and       and is important to
    read aloud (i.e., remain       Identify reasons most           their importance to              Australia’s economy as
    alert, request more)            Australians live on or          Australia’s economy              an island nation
   Choose appropriate text         near its coast                 Compare daily life in           Identify the importance
    to read or to have read        Identify products from          Australia’s outback with         of specific industries to
    aloud                           Australia and describe          daily life in its cities         Australia’s economy,
   Orient to books/orient          how they are used              Describe the history and         e.g., agriculture, mining,
    book right side up             Identify how people live,       culture of Australia’s           tourism
   Activate an electronic          work, and dress                 Aborigine peoples               Identify how and when
    device to access text,          (traditional dress) in         Create a timeline                nations found in
    communicate with                Australia                       showing when nations in          Southeast Asia and
    others, or participate in                                       Southeast Asia and               Oceania became
    an instructional activity                                       Oceania gained their             independent
   Turn attention toward                                           independence
    another person                                                                               Continue to address skills and
   Grasp, manipulate, and                                                                       concepts in this subject that
    release objects relevant                                                                     approach grade-level
    to instructional activity                                                                    expectations
   Take turns appropriately
    during classroom
    discussion
   Respond to/initiate
    contacts with others
   Apply rules for
    appropriate classroom
    behavior
   Use appropriate social
    greetings
   Follow simple directions
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint
    attention



     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                   Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        431
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standard SEAO.2
        At grade 6, students create trivia facts for a game about Southeast Asia and Oceania and
        participate in the game as part of a class activity. During the game, students are divided into four
        groups with each group chooses a particular country. Each group is given a chance to field yes/no
        questions from the other groups, who have to determine which country the group has chosen. The
        group that guesses correctly gets 5 points. Each group is given a map to use as a guide.


How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

Nelson participates in the creation of trivia facts          Data chart indicating Nelson’s knowledge of the
about Southeast Asia. He then plays the geography             geography of Southeast Asia
game with his class.                                         Nelson’s trivia facts
                                                             Work sample of Nelson’s responses to questions asked
                                                              during geography game

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

Delu participates in the geography game with her             Field data chart indicating Delu’s performance accurately
class. She is learning to read the names of countries         reading names of countries during classroom games and
on the map. When her team is ready to guess the               during small group instruction
name of a country, a teammate points to the                  Line or bar graph summarizing the field data chart
country on the map and Delu reads the name out               Audiotape of Delu reading the names of countries
loud.

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

Iris participates in the geography game with her             Field data chart showing Iris’s performance taking turns
class. She is working with a peer on taking turns             during classroom game
during the game. She keeps track of which group’s            Line or bar graph summarizing field data chart
turn it is by handing a card to the team whose turn          Teacher-scribed work sample documenting Iris’s taking
it is to participate.                                         turns with her peer




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities            Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        432
                                                                                                          History and
                                                                                                         Social Science

                                                                                                            North and
                                                                                                            East Asia

CONTENT    History and Social Science                                                                        Grade 6
   TOPIC     World Geography
   Learning Standards for: North and East Asia
         THEMES
                         The effects of geography on the history of civilizations and nations


                                                     Grade 6
Learning Standard as Written                                                               Essence of Standard
  NEA.1       On a map of the world, locate North and East Asia, the Pacific Ocean, and     Identify major geographic
              the Arctic Ocean. On a map of East Asia, locate the Sea of Japan, the          features of North and East Asia
              Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, the Gobi Desert, the Himalayas, and the
              Huang He (Yellow) and Chang Jiang (Yantgtze) Rivers. On a map of
              North Asia, locate Siberia and the Yenisey, Lena, and Kolyma rivers. (G)
  NEA.2       Use a map key to locate the countries and major cities in the various         Locate countries and cities in
              regions of East Asia. (G, E)                                                   North and East Asia
  NEA.3       Explain how the following five factors have influenced settlement and the     Explain how geographic
              economies of major East Asian countries. (G, E)                                features affect life in North and
                  A. absolute and relative locations                                         East Asia
                  B. climate
                  C. major physical characteristics
                  D. major natural resources
                  E. population size
  NEA.4      Identify when Taiwan, North Korea, South Korea, and Mongolia became            Identify how and when
             independent countries and describe how independence was achieved. (G,              countries in North and East
             H)                                                                                 Asia became independent
             Plus optional topics listed in the Massachusetts History and Social Science Curriculum Framework




    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                    Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        433
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

     Less Complex                                                                           More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                   ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:               The student will:                The student will:                The student will:
   Use pictures to find a         Give examples of                Locate countries in North       Locate countries in North
    familiar location               geographic features              and East Asia on a world         and East Asia on a world
   Match picture to picture        represented on maps of           map or globe                     map or globe
    to identify geographical        North and East Asia,            Select one country in           Identify which North and
    features (e.g.,                 especially islands and           North and East Asia and          East Asian countries are
    mountains, rivers)              peninsulas                       investigate how its              islands or peninsulas
   Respond to text being          Locate North and East            geographic features and         List the natural resources
    read aloud (e.g., remain        Asia on a world map or           climate affect where             found in North and East
    alert, request more)            globe                            people live                      Asian countries and
   Choose appropriate text        Compare the land areas          For the country selected,        compare them to the
    to read or to have read         of countries located in          compare its geographic           United States
    aloud                           North and East Asia              features, climate, and          Describe the importance
   Orient to books/orient         Compare the population           natural resources to             of imports to Japan’s
    book right side up              sizes of countries located       those of the United              economy
   Turn pages in a book or         in North and East Asia,          States                          Explain problems China’s
    magazine                        with special attention to       For the country selected,        large population creates
   Activate an electronic          China                            compare ways of life in          and how its government
    device to access text,         Recognize products from          its cities and rural areas       seeks to solve these
    communicate with                North and East Asia and          to that of the United            problems
    others, or participate in       describe how these are           States                          Develop a list of products
    an instructional activity       used                            Identify some items              exported to and imported
   Turn attention toward          Compare life in the cities       imported and explain the         from North and East
    another person                  to life in the rural areas       importance of those              Asian countries, with
   Grasp, manipulate, and          of North and East Asia           imports to Japan, China,         special attention to
    release objects                Identify items imported          and South Korea                  China, Japan, and South
   Organize instructional          to China, Japan, or South       Identify and explain one         Korea, and explain their
    materials                       Korea                            or two problems caused           importance
   Take turns appropriately                                         by China’s large
    during classroom                                                 population, and some         Continue to address skills and
    discussion                                                       suggested solutions          concepts in this subject that
   Respond to/initiate                                                                           approach grade-level
    contacts with others                                                                          expectations
   Apply rules for
    appropriate classroom
    behavior
   Use appropriate social
    greetings
   Follow simple directions
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint
    attention




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                    Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        434
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standard NEA.2
        At grade 6, students research the countries in East Asia and develop a travel brochure for each
        country that lists specific facts about the country. Students will use the information they gather to
        create a key for a map of East Asia. Students receive copies of all of the brochures created by the
        class and use these brochures to label their individual blank map with symbols from the key they
        developed together.

How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                 Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                       Products

Page creates a travel brochure for Mongolia listing           Data chart showing Paige’s ability to demonstrate
its climate, major physical characteristics, major             knowledge of East Asia, including quizzes, tests,
cities, and activities. Students decide together which         classwork, and homework assignments
facts will be listed in a key for their travel brochure.      Paige’s completed brochure for Mongolia
                                                              Paige’s completed map

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                   Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                        Products

Saul is given a simple map of East Asia with                  Data chart showing Saul’s progress using map keys
countries and bodies of water labeled. He looks at            Saul’s completed map of East Asia
each country and is told which items on the key are           Videotape of Saul answering questions about the map
found in that country. He finds that symbol on the             using the key
key and draws the symbol on the map.

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                       Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                       Products

David is shown a map key with symbols and pictures            Field data chart showing David’s ability to expressively
of the items represented by the symbols. David is              identify objects
asked to identify the items in the pictures.                  Line or bar graph summarizing the field data chart
                                                              Work sample created by scribe writing David’s
                                                               responses identifying pictures on map key




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities              Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        435
                                                                                                             History and
                                                                                                            Social Science

                                                                                                                 Europe

CONTENT History and Social Science                                                                              Grade 6

   TOPIC     World Geography
   Learning Standards for: Europe
         THEMES
                        The effects of geography on the history of civilizations and nations


                                                     Grade 6
Learning Standard as Written                                                                 Essence of Standard
  E.1       On a map of the world, locate the continent of Europe. On a map of                Identify major European
            Europe, locate the Atlantic Ocean, Arctic Ocean, Norwegian Sea, and                geographic features
            Barents Sea. Locate the Volga, Danube, Ural, Rhine, Elbe, Seine, Po, and
            Thames Rivers. Locate the Alps, Pyrenees, and Balkan Mountains. Locate
            the countries in the northern, southern, central, eastern, and western
            regions of Europe.
  E.2       Use a map key to locate countries and major cities in Europe. (G)                 Locate European countries and
                                                                                               major cities
  E.3       Explain how the following five factors have influenced settlement and the       Identify how geographic
            economies of major European countries. (G, E)                                       features, climate, and
                 A. absolute and relative locations                                             population size affect life in
                 B. climate                                                                     Europe
                 C. major physical characteristics
                 D. major natural resources
                 E. population size
             Plus optional topics listed in the Massachusetts History and Social Science Curriculum Framework




   Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                        Fall 2006
   HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        436
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

     Less Complex                                                                          More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                   ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:               The student will:                The student will:               The student will:
   Use pictures to find a         Give examples of                Locate Europe on a world       Locate Europe on a world
    familiar location               geographic features              map or globe and                map or globe and divide
   Identify geographic             represented on maps or           describe its location           the continent into
    features on a                   globes of Europe                Locate and identify the         regions based on
    topographical map              Locate Europe on a world         countries that make up          geographic features and
   Demonstrate                     map or globe                     the continent of Europe         climate
    understanding of an            Identify Europe’s major         Locate and identify major      Locate and identify major
    economy (e.g., trade,           geographic features,             European cities                 European countries and
    barter, earning money or        especially oceans, rivers,      Using a variety of              cities
    tokens, and or                  and mountains                    resources, examine             Explain why Europe’s
    buying/selling)                Identify major European          Europe’s varied climates        abundant natural
   Match picture to picture        cities                           and geographic features         resources have helped to
    to identify symbols found      Identify countries located       and explain how they            create its advanced
    on various maps                 in Europe                        affect where people live        industrialized economy
   Respond to text being          Select a European                and their types of             Discuss the concepts of
    read aloud (i.e., remain        country and identify its         employment                      “union” and “united” as
    alert, request more)            geographic features and         List major European             they relate to the
   Choose appropriate text         climate                          natural resources, their        European Union and the
    to read or to have read        Recognize products from          uses, and their                 United States
    aloud                           Europe and describe how          importance to Europe’s
   Orient to books/orient          they are used                    economy                     Continue to address skills and
    book right side up                                                                           concepts in this subject that
   Activate an electronic                                                                       approach grade-level
    device to access text,                                                                       expectations
    communicate with
    others, or participate in
    an instructional activity
   Turn attention toward
    another person
   Grasp, manipulate, and
    release objects
   Take turns appropriately
    during classroom
    discussion
   Respond to/initiate
    contacts with others
   Apply rules for
    appropriate classroom
    behavior
   Use appropriate social
    greetings
   Follow simple directions
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint
    attention



     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                   Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        437
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standard E.1
        At grade 6, students research various foods, as well as indigenous plants and animals, from
        different countries in Europe, and then use their research to create a design for a "theme"
        restaurant (http://www.nytimes.com/learning/teachers/lessons/20020626wednesday).


How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

Minh creates a journal entry about the most unusual          Data chart showing Minh’s ability to demonstrate
food dish she has ever eaten and her research to              knowledge of European geography including quizzes,
determine the country where the dish originated               tests, and in-class and homework assignments
and its recipe. She contributes her recipte to a small       Minh’s journal entry about her most unusual dish and
group activity of creating a menue for a restaurant           her research on its country of origin
serving dishes from different countries in Europe.           Minh’s draft of the menu she created for the group
The group’s menu includes a map of Europe and a               project
key showing where each dish on the menu
originated. Students have a “restaurant day” during
which each group will prepares one dish from their
menu to share with the class.

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

Perry creates a journal entry answering questions            Data chart showing Perry’s ability to use map keys to
about foods from different countries in Europe and            find or show information
whether he likes, doesn’t like, or has never tried           Perry’s color-coded map of Europe based on foods
each food item. He then uses a map created by his            Perry’s work sample in which he used a key to answer
peers that includes a picture of a food from each             questions about a map of Europe and the plants and
country in Europe. He uses a key to color each                animals found in the different countries
country based on whether he likes, doesn’t like, or
has never tried the food shown.

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

Bo is shown pictures on a key for a map of Europe.           Field data chart indicating Bo’s ability to identify pictures
In a small group activity he is asked to identify the         on maps
pictures.                                                    Line or bar graph summarizing the field data chart
                                                             Bo’s work sample created by peer scribing his answers
                                                              to questions about pictures on the key to a map of
                                                              Europe




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities               Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        438
                                                                                                        History and
                                                                                                       Social Science

                                                                                                       South America
CONTENT    History and Social Science
                                                                                                          Grade 6
   TOPIC     World Geography
   Learning Standards for: South America
         THEMES
                        The effects of geography on the history of civilizations and nations


                                                    Grade 6
Learning Standard as Written                                                     Essence of Standard
  SAM.1      On a map of the world, locate South America and the Atlantic         Identify South America’s major
             and Pacific Oceans. On a map of South America, locate the             geographic features and regions
             Amazon, the Andes Mountains, Cape Horn, and the southern,
             northern, eastern, and western regions of South America. (G)
  SAM.2      Use a map key to locate the countries and major cities of South      Locate South American countries and
             America. (G, E)                                                       major cities
  SAM.3      Explain how the following five factors have influenced settlement    Identify how geography, climate, and
             and the economies of major South American countries.                  population size has influenced the
                 A. absolute and relative locations                                economies and settlement patterns of
                 B. climate                                                        South America
                 C. major physical characteristics
                 D. major natural resources
                 E. population size
  SAM.4     Identify when South American countries became independent              Identify when and how South American
            nations and explain how independence was achieved. (H, G)                nations achieved independence
            Plus optional topics listed in the Massachusetts History and Social Science Curriculum Framework




   Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                 Fall 2006
   HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        439
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

      Less Complex                                                                          More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                     ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:                 The student will:               The student will:               The student will:
   Use pictures to find a           Give examples of South         Locate South America on        Locate South America on
    familiar location                 American geographic             a world map or globe and        a world map or globe and
   Match colors and/or               features represented on a       identify its major              discuss how its varied
    shapes on a map of                map or globe                    geographic features             geographic features,
    South America                    Locate South America on        Recognize that South            natural resources, and
   Identify major                    a map                           America is a continent          climate affect its
    geographical features by         Locate South America’s          where many countries            economy
    matching picture to               major rivers, mountain          are located                    Investigate South
    picture                           ranges, and grasslands         Identify South America’s        American rainforests and
   Grasp, manipulate, and           Identify and list               major natural resources,        their importance to
    release objects related to        important facts about           their uses, and their           Earth’s environment
    South America                     South American                  importance to the              Examine and explain
   Respond to text being             rainforests                     continent’s economy,            economic and political
    read aloud (i.e., remain         Identify/locate/name            including rainforests           relations between the
    alert, request more)              countries in South             Discuss the significance        United States and South
   Choose appropriate text           America                         of Spain and Portugal to        America
    to read or to have read          Identify/locate/name            the political history and      Select a South American
    aloud                             major cities in South           culture of South America        country and trace its
   Orient to books/orient            America                        Select either the Andes         colonial past to when it
    book right side up               Identify the Andes              Mountains or the Amazon         became an independent
   Turn pages in a book or           Mountains and list              River and describe its          country
    magazine                          important facts about the       effects on life in South
   Activate an electronic            Andes Mountains                 America                     Continue to address skills and
    device to access text,           Identify the Amazon                                         concepts in this subject that
    communicate with                  River and list important                                    approach grade-level
    others, or participate in         facts about the Amazon                                      expectations
    an instructional activity         River
   Turn attention toward            Recognize products of
    another person                    South America and
   Organize instructional            describe how they are
    materials                         used
   Take turns appropriately
    during classroom
    discussion
   Respond to/initiate
    contacts with others
   Apply rules for
    appropriate classroom
    behavior
   Use appropriate social
    greetings
   Follow simple directions
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint attention




      Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                   Fall 2006
      HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        440
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standards SAM.4
        At grade 6, students read about the history of South American countries in their textbook and
        other assigned texts. Each student then develops a timeline showing the dates and events leading
        to independence of the countries in South America. Students individually create color-coded maps
        referring to the timeline and the order in which the countries gained independence.

How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

Tiffany creates a timeline to show the events leading        Data chart showing Tiffany’s ability to demonstrate
to the independence of three countries in South               knowledge of history of South America including
America. Using the timeline, she creates a color-             quizzes, tests, and in-class and homework assignments
coded key and map of South America showing the               Tiffany’s timeline of South American history for three
order in which these countries gained independence.           countries
                                                             Tiffany’s color-coded map for three countries in South
                                                              America

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

Sergio is provided with a timeline already created by        Data chart showing Sergio’s ability to use map keys to
another student showing the dates countries in                find information about countries or regions
South America achieved independence. Sergio colors           Sergio’s color-coded map of South America
each date a different color to create a key for a            Work sample created by answering questions about the
map, then colors in the map based on his key.                 chronology of countries’ independence using the map as
                                                              a guide

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

Casey is shown a color-coded map of South America            Data chart showing Casey’s ability to color-match
created by another student. Casey is given a                 Work sample created by matching colors to put together
timeline with dates color-coded to match the                  a puzzle map of South America and its countries
countries’ dates of independence on the map.                 Casey’s completed map showing dates of independence
Casey’s peer cuts up the timeline by dates, and               for South American countries
Casey must match the colors on the dates to the
colors of the countries on the map.




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities           Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        441
                                                                                                         History and
                                                                                                        Social Science

                                                                                                      Human Origins in
                                                                                                      Africa through the
                                                                                                         Neolithic Age

                                                                                                           Grade 7


CONTENT     History and Social Science
   TOPIC     Ancient and Classical Civilizations in the Mediterranean to the
             Fall of the Roman Empire: Ideas that Shaped History
    Learning Standards for: Human Origins in Africa through the Neolithic Age
          THEMES
                         The effects of geography on the history of civilizations and nations
                         The birth, growth, and decline of civilizations


                                                       Grade 7
Learning Standard as Written                                                              Essence of Standard
   7.1       Describe the great climatic and environmental changes that shaped the         Identify changes in the Earth’s
             earth and eventually permitted the growth of human life. (H)                   climate and environment that
                                                                                            permitted the growth of human
                                                                                            life
   7.2       Identify sites in Africa where archaeologists have found evidence of the      Identify evidence found in
             origins of modern human beings and describe what the archaeologists            Africa of the first humans
             found. (G, H)
   7.3       Describe the characteristics of the hunter-gatherer societies of the          Describe the essential
             Paleolithic Age (their use of tools and fire, basic hunting weapons, beads     characteristics of early hunter-
             and other jewelry). (H)                                                        gatherer societies
   7.4       Explain the importance of the invention of metallurgy and agriculture (the    Explain the invention of metals
             growing of crops and the domestication of animals). (H)                        and agriculture
   7.5       Describe how the invention of agriculture related to settlement,              Describe how agriculture
             population growth, and the emergence of civilization. (H)                      affected settlement, population,
                                                                                            and civilization
   7.6       Identify the characteristics of civilizations. (H, G, E)                      Identify the birth and essential
                                                                                            characteristics of civilization
                 A.   the presence of geographic boundaries and political institutions
                 B.   an economy that produces food surpluses
                 C.   a concentration of population in distinct areas or cities
                 D.   the existence of social classes
                 E.   developed systems of religion, learning, art, and architecture
                 F.   a system of record keeping




   Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                   Fall 2006
   HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        442
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

     Less Complex                                                                         More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                   ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:               The student will:               The student will:               The student will:
   Sequence events by             Locate Africa on a map         Use a map or globe to          Examine maps of Africa
    creating a timeline to          or globe                        locate Africa                   and other world regions
    demonstrate                    Give examples of the           Give examples of the            and identify where
    understanding of time           geographic features of          geographic features of          scientists believe the
   Match picture to picture        Africa represented on a         Africa represented on a         earliest humans existed
    to identify natural             map and/or globe                map and/or globe               Discuss how the earliest
    resources                      Recognize that Africa is       Recognize and explain           humans survived as
   Demonstrate that objects        one of Earth’s continents       that scientists believe         hunter-gatherers
    have value                     Demonstrate the concept         human life began in            Discuss how climate and
   Search through sand to          of sequence of historical       Africa a long time ago          environment affected
    locate objects, as would        events by using a               because of skeletons and        human growth in Africa
    an archaeologist                timeline to show human          artifacts found there          Examine pictures of
   Respond to text being           growth/development in          Discuss how the earliest        artifacts that help
    read aloud (i.e., remain        Africa                          humans survived as              scientists understand
    alert, request more)           Compare pictures of             hunter-gatherers                how the earliest humans
   Choose appropriate text         what scientists believe        Discuss how climate and         lived
    to read or to have read         the earliest humans             environment affected           Investigate why the
    aloud                           looked like with humans         human growth in Africa          ability to grow excess
   Orient to books/orient          today and identify             Identify how humans             food and domesticate
    book right side up              similarities/differences        long ago grew food, built       animals helped people
   Turn pages in a book or        Identify food, shelter,         shelters, and clothed           build the first cities
    magazine                        and clothing used by the        themselves compared             thousands of years ago
   Activate an electronic          hunter-gathers in early         with how they do so            Compare/contrast how
    device to access text,          Africa; compare to              today                           humans long ago grew
    communicate with                modern-day food,                                                food, built shelters, and
    others, or participate in       shelter, and clothing                                           clothed themselves with
    an instructional activity                                                                       how they do so today
   Turn attention toward
    another person                                                                              Continue to address skills and
   Grasp, manipulate, and                                                                      concepts in this subject that
    release objects                                                                             approach grade-level
   Take turns appropriately                                                                    expectations
    during classroom
    discussion
   Respond to/initiate
    contacts with others
   Apply rules for
    appropriate classroom
    behavior
   Use appropriate social
    greetings
   Follow simple directions
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint
    attention



     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                  Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        443
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standards 7.2
        At Grade 7, students watch a video about the search for human origins in Africa. Before watching
        the video they predict where locations of archaeological finds will be. After watching the video,
        students are given blank maps of Africa, on which they mark the locations of important finds in the
        search for early human remains. The students record the date and details of each find on a
        separate sheet of paper, and then answer questions about what they have learned.

How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

Adriano watches the video in class and marks the             Data chart indicating Adriano’s ability to locate
finds and dates of the archeological finds on his             archaelogical finds on a map
map. He then answers questions in writing about              Adriano’s notes on details of finds
what he has learned.                                         Adriano’s completed questionnaire

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

Julie watches the video with peers. Pictures of the          Data chart indicating Julie’s ability to correctly choose
different finds from the video are placed on a board          pictures
in front of her. When she sees a find on the video           Julie’s completed map
for which she also has a picture, she picks up the           Julie’s completed form of labeled pictures
picture and hands it to a peer. The peer then helps
her find the correct location on the map. Julie then
completes a form on which she labels the pictures
of the finds, with help from a peer who also scribes
her responses.

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

Philip is working on attention skills. He watches the        Data chart indicating Philip’s attention span during video
video with his peers. Philip is prompted to look in          Work sample of pictures placed inside the square by
the direction of the video. He is then shown pictures         Philip
of finds from the video. He looks in the direction of        Videotape of Philip placing pictures inside the square
the pictures, and then places pictures inside a
square on a form.




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities              Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        444
                                                                                                       History and
                                                                                                      Social Science

                                                                                                  Mesopotamia: Site of
                                                                                                  Several Ancient River
                                                                                                  Civilizations, c. 3500–
                                                                                                       1200 BC/BCE

                                                                                                         Grade 7

CONTENT    History and Social Science
   TOPIC     Ancient and Classical Civilizations in the Mediterranean to the
             Fall of the Roman Empire: Ideas that Shaped History
   Learning Standards for: Mesopotamia: Site of Several Ancient River Civilizations,
                                              c. 3500–1200 BC/BCE
               THEMES
                        The effects of geography on the history of civilizations and nations
                        The birth, growth, and decline of civilizations


                                                    Grade 7
Learning Standard as Written                                                              Essence of Standard
  7.7       On a historical map, locate the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers and identify       Identify the climate and
            Sumer, Babylon, and Assyria as successive civilizations and empires in this     physical geography of
            region, and explain why the region is sometimes called “the Fertile             Mesopotamia, including the
            Crescent.” On a modern map of western Asia, identify the modern                 importance and location of the
            countries in the region (Iraq, Iran, and Turkey). (H, G, E)                     Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
                                                                                           Locate ancient civilizations in
                                                                                            the Tigris and Euphrates region
                                                                                            (the Fertile Crescent) and the
                                                                                            modern countries in the region
  7.8       Identify polytheism (the belief that there are many gods) as the religious     Identify characteristics of
            belief of the people in Mesopotamian civilizations. (H)                         polytheism as the religion in
                                                                                            Mesopotamia
  7.9       Describe how irrigation, metalsmithing, slavery, the domestication of          Describe growth and essential
            animals, and inventions such as the wheel, the sail, and the plow               characteristics of
            contributed to the growth of Mesopotamian civilizations. (H, E)                 Mesopotamian civilization
  7.10      Describe the important achievements of Mesopotamian civilization. (H, C,       Describe important
            E)                                                                              achievements of Mesopotamian
               A. its system of writing (and its importance in record keeping and tax       civilization, including its
                   collection)                                                              architecture, art, writing
               B. monumental architecture (the ziggurat)                                    system, and the invention of
               C. art (large relief sculpture, mosaics, and cylinder seals)                 the wheel


  7.11      Describe who Hammurabi was and explain the basic principle of justice in       Describe the Code of
            Hammurabi’s Code (“an eye for an eye”). (H, C, E)                               Hammurabi, the first known
                                                                                            example of written law




   Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                   Fall 2006
   HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        445
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

     Less Complex                                                                         More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                   ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:               The student will:               The student will:               The student will:
   Identify same and              Identify a map of              Use a map or globe to          Examine and explain the
    different rules using           Mesopotamia                     locate ancient                  importance of the Tigris
    pictures                       Identify geographic             Mesopotamia (modern-            and Euphrates Rivers to
   Match picture to picture        features of Mesopotamia         day Iraq, Iran, and             ancient Mesopotamia
    using photographs of            represented on maps             Turkey)                        Explain why the Fertile
    architecture from               and/or globes (modern-         Identify the Tigris and         Crescent was home to
    Mesopotamia                     day Iraq, Iran and              Euphrates Rivers and the        some of the earliest
   Demonstrate the concept         Turkey)                         Fertile Crescent on a           advanced civilizations
    of sequence of historical      Use a timeline to show          map or globe                   Identify the
    events by using a               achievements of the            Explain why the Tigris          characteristics of
    timeline                        Mesopotamian civilization       and Euphrates Rivers            religious beliefs in
   Grasp, manipulate, and         Identify rivers of              were important to people        ancient Mesopotamia
    release objects to help         Mesopotamia                     in ancient Mesopotamia         Identify and explain the
    create a map of                 represented on maps and        Discuss how and why             essential characteristics
    Mesopotamia                     globes                          people worshiped gods in        of Mesopotamian society
   Respond to text being          Explain reasons rivers          ancient Mesopotamia             such, as irrigation,
    read aloud (i.e., remain        were important to human        Discuss the importance          metalsmithing, slavery,
    alert, request more)            activities in Mesopotamia       of the ancient                  and animal domestication
   Choose appropriate text        Discuss the importance          Mesopotamian’s ability to      Examine the
    to read or to have read         of rules in Mesopotamian        write                           achievements of the
    aloud                           society                        Explain the importance of       ancient Mesopotamians
   Activate an electronic                                          technology or                   in the areas of writing,
    device to access text,                                          architecture to the             technology, and
    communicate with                                                ancient Mesopotamians           architecture
    others, or participate in                                      Identify key points of         Discuss the importance
    an instructional activity                                       Hammurabi’s Code;               of Hammurabi’s Code as
   Turn attention toward                                           select one or two pieces        the first known example
    another person                                                  of Hammurabi’s code and         of written laws and its
   Organize instructional                                          relate it/them to modern-       relation to modern-day
    materials                                                       day laws                        laws
   Take turns appropriately
    during classroom                                                                            Continue to address skills and
    discussion                                                                                  concepts in this subject that
   Respond to/initiate                                                                         approach grade-level
    contacts with others                                                                        expectations
   Apply rules for
    appropriate classroom
    behavior
   Use appropriate social
    greetings
   Follow simple directions
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint
    attention




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                  Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        446
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standard 7.11
        At Grade 7, students read parts of Hammurabi’s Code of Laws. The class discusses whether they
        think Hammurabi’s Code of Laws is reasonable, how it compares to laws and punishments today,
        and which set of laws they feel is more likely to deter crime. Students then choose five of
        Hammurabi’s Laws and edit them to make them appropriate for the modern world
        (http://members.aol.com/donnandlee/index.html).


How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

Miguel is given a shortened list of Hammurabi’s              Data chart indicating Miguel’s ability to match crimes to
Code of Laws and a list of crimes. He matches the             appropriate punishments
crimes to the punishments. He then participates in a         Miguel’s journal entry
small group discussion about his findings. He                Work sample of Miguel’s answers to questions about
reflects about his findings enters his reflections into       ancient and modern laws
his journal. He answers specific questions about
ancient and modern times.

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

Jean is given a list of rules and a list of                  Data chart indicating Jean’s ability to match rules to
consequences with picture cues. He matches the                consequences
rules to the consequences. He then participates in a         Jean’s journal entry completing sentences
small group discussion about which rules are fair            Jean’s edited class rules
and which rules are unfair. In his journal, he
completes sentences about the classroom rules and
whether he agrees with them, and why or why not.
Jean then edits a rule he doesn’t like from the list to
make it fairer.

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

Dannika is working on answering yes/no questions.            Data chart showing Dannika’s ability to answer yes/no
She is shown pictures of different classroom                  questions in different contexts
behaviors (e.g., child throwing a book, child sitting        Work sample of Dannika’s responses to yes/no
in chair) and asked, “Is this good behavior?” She             questions
answers yes or no by nodding her head. A peer                Dannika’s journal with pictures of “good” behaviors
repeats the activity with her and places “yes”
pictures in a journal of “good” behaviors.




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities             Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        447
                                                                                                           History and
                                                                                                          Social Science

                                                                                                        Egypt: An Ancient
                                                                                                         River Civilization,
                                                                                                           c. 3000–1200
                                                                                                              BC/BCE

                                                                                                             Grade 7



CONTENT   History and Social Science
   TOPIC    Ancient and Classical Civilizations in the Mediterranean to the
             Fall of the Roman Empire: Ideas that Shaped History
   Learning Standards for: Egypt: An Ancient River Civilization, c. 3000–1200 BC/BCE
         THEMES
                         The effects of geography on the history of civilizations and nations
                         The birth, growth, and decline of civilizations


                                                      Grade 7
Learning Standard as Written                                                                Essence of Standard
   7.12       On a historical map of the Mediterranean region, locate the                    Identify the geography of
              Mediterranean and Red Seas, the Nile River and Delta, and the areas of          ancient Egypt, including the
              ancient Nubia and Egypt. Identify the locations of ancient Upper and            importance of the Nile River to
              Lower Egypt and explain what the terms mean. On a modern map,                   Egyptian civilization
              identify the modern countries of Egypt and Sudan. (G)                          Locate Upper and Lower Egypt


   7.13       Describe the kinds of evidence used by archaeologists and historians to        Describe important
              draw conclusions about the social and economic characteristics of ancient       archaeological discoveries from
              Nubia (the Kingdom of Kush) and their relationship to the social and            ancient Egypt
              economic characteristics of ancient Egypt. (H, G)
   7.14       Describe the role of the pharaoh as god/king, the concept of dynasties,        Explain the significance of
              the importance of at least one Egyptian ruler, the relationship of              pharaohs in ancient Egypt
              pharaohs to peasants, and the role of slaves in ancient Egypt. (H, C)
   7.15       Describe the polytheistic religion of ancient Egypt with respect to beliefs    Describe religion in ancient
              about death, the afterlife, mummification, and the roles of different           Egypt
              deities. (H)
   7.16       Summarize important achievements of Egyptian civilization. (H)                 Identify significant
                 A. the agricultural system                                                   achievements of the ancient
                 B. the invention of a calendar                                               Egyptians
                 C. monumental architecture and art such as the Pyramids and
                     Sphinx at Giza
                 D. hieroglyphic writing
                 E. the invention of papyrus




    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                    Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        448
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

      Less Complex                                                                           More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                     ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:                 The student will:                The student will:               The student will:
   Matching picture to              Identify the geographic         Locate the Nile River and      Discuss the importance of
    picture, identify                 features of Egypt                Mediterranean Sea on a          the Nile River to life in
    important archaeological          represented on maps and          map or globe and explain        ancient Egypt
    pieces from ancient               globes                           the importance of one or       Explain the significance
    Egypt                            Demonstrate the concept          both                            and role of religion to the
   Practice taking turns             of sequence of historical       Identify and describe           lives of ancient Egyptians
    during classroom games            events by using a                artifacts that                 Discuss the significance
    about historical events in        timeline to show                 archaeologists study to         of the pharaoh in ancient
    ancient Egypt                     achievements of the              learn about ancient life        Egypt and the belief that
   Follow one-step                   ancient Egyptians                along the Nile River            he was a living god
    directions to sequence           Locate the Mediterranean        Identify the different         Examine how ancient
    pictures of ancient Egypt         Sea, Egypt, and the Nile         classes of people in            Egyptian society was
   Respond to text being             River on a map of Egypt          ancient Egyptian society;       divided into classes of
    read aloud (i.e., remain          or a globe                       describe one in detail          people and the role each
    alert, request more)             Describe what life was          Discuss the role of the         class played in society
   Choose appropriate text           like in ancient Egypt            pharaoh in ancient Egypt       Examine the scientific,
    to read or to have read           along the Nile River            Explain the importance of       technological, and
    aloud                            Compare life along the           religion in ancient Egypt       architectural
   Orient to books/orient            Nile in ancient Egypt to        Recognize that ancient          achievements of the
    book right side up                life in modern Egypt or to       Egyptians used                  ancient Egyptians
   Turn pages in a book or           life in the United States        hieroglyphics to record        Select a pharaoh and
    magazine                         Compare writing                  important events                investigate his
   Activate an electronic            (hieroglyphics) from            Discuss how ancient             significance to ancient
    device to access text,            ancient Egypt to writing         Egyptians used the Nile         Egyptian history
    communicate with                  today                            River to support their         Describe the polytheistic
    others, or participate in        Describe how ancient             way(s) of life                  religion in Egypt
    an instructional activity         Egyptians grew food             Explain the importance of
   Turn attention toward            Identify an Egyptian             pyramids in ancient         Continue to address skills and
    another person                    pyramid                          Egyptian life               concepts in this subject that
   Grasp, manipulate, and           Explain why the                                              approach grade-level
    release objects                   Egyptians built pyramids                                     expectations
   Organize instructional
    materials
   Respond to/initiate
    contacts with others
   Apply rules for
    appropriate classroom
    behavior
   Use appropriate social
    greetings
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint attention




      Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                    Fall 2006
      HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        449
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standards 7.15
        At grade 7, students research the mummification process used in ancient Egypt and learn about
        ancient Egyptian rituals. Using a variety of materials, each student then creates a mummy
        representation, researches the mummification process used in ancient Egypt, and identifies
        different symbols and tools used to create his or her representation.

How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                       Products

Arianna creates a mummy representation using a               Data chart indicating Arianna’s ability to research
variety of materials. She then lists the symbols she          materials and symbols used for the mummification
used and what they mean. She presents the project             process based on a rubric
to the class.                                                Photograph of Arianna’s mummy representation
                                                             Arianna’s completed list of symbols

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

Bert is given three symbols he must use in creating          Data chart indicating Bert’s ability to identify symbols
his mummy representation. He practices identifying           Photograph of Bert’s mummy representation
the symbols and completes an activity matching               Work sample of Bert matching symbols to definition
symbol to definition. He gives a brief oral
presentation to the class using picture cues as
prompts.

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

Andre chooses materials in the shapes and colors he          Line graph showing Andre’s ability to identify big and
prefers, which are then used by peers in his group            small objects in a variety of contexts
to create a mummy representation. He is asked to             Photograph of Andre’s completed mummy
differentiate between small and big objects and               representation
places them on a mummy model to complete the                 Teacher-scribed work sample showing Andre’s ability to
project.                                                      select materials for mummy project




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities              Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        450
                                                                                                       History and
                                                                                                      Social Science

                                                                                                    Phoenicia, c. 1000–
                                                                                                       300 BC/BCE

                                                                                                          Grade 7


CONTENT    History and Social Science
   TOPIC Ancient and Classical Civilizations in the Mediterranean to the
            Fall of the Roman Empire: Ideas that Shaped History
   Learning Standards for: Phoenicia, c. 1000–300 BC/BCE
         THEMES
                        The effects of geography on the history of civilizations and nations
                        The birth, growth, and decline of civilizations


                                                    Grade 7
Learning Standard as Written                                                             Essence of Standard
   7.17       On a map of the ancient Mediterranean world, locate Greece, Asia Minor,     Identify the location and
              Crete, Phoenicia, the Aegean, and the Red Sea. On a modern map, locate       geography of Greece, Asia
              Greece, Crete, Turkey, Lebanon, and Syria. (G)                               Minor, Crete, and Phoenicia,
                                                                                           including the modern-day
                                                                                           countries
   7.18       Identify the Phoenicians as the successors to the Minoans in dominating     Identify essential characteristics
              maritime trade in the Mediterranean from c. 1000–300 BC/BCE. Describe        and achievements of
              how the Phoenician writing system was the first alphabet (with 22            Phoenician civilization
              symbols for consonants) and the precursor of the first complete alphabet    Describe the Phoenician and
              developed by the ancient Greeks (with symbols representing both              Greek alphabets
              consonants and vowels). (H, E)




    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                 Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        451
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

      Less Complex                                                                          More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                     ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:                 The student will:               The student will:              The student will:
   Demonstrate                      Recognize a map of             Use a map or globe to         Identify the location of
    understanding of relative         Phoenicia                       locate where the ancient       Phoenicia and discuss the
    location                         Give examples of                Phoenicians lived              importance of the
   Using a map, match                geographic features of         Discuss the significance       Mediterranean Sea
    symbol to symbol                  Phoenicia represented on        of seas and oceans in         Discuss how the ancient
   Match picture to picture          a map or globe of               Phoenicia                      Phoenicians used trade to
    using objects related to          Phoenicia                      Examine and explain how        advance their civilization
    Phoenicia                        Locate islands                  and why the Phoenicians       Investigate advances in
   Grasp, manipulate, and            represented on a map or         traded goods with other        navigation made by the
    release materials related         globe with attention to         peoples                        Phoenicians
    to Phoenicia                      those in the                   Explain how Phoenicia         Recognize and examine
   Respond to text being             Mediterranean Sea               gained wealth through          the Phoenician alphabet
    read aloud (i.e., remain         Demonstrate the concept         trade                          and explore how it
    alert, request more)              of sequence of historical      Discuss how and why an         contributed to the
   Choose appropriate text           events by using a               alphabet allowed the           development of an
    to read or to have read           timeline to show the            Phoenicians to develop         advanced Phoenician
    aloud                             Phoenicians’                    an advanced civilization       society
   Orient to books/orient            advancements                                                  Explain how the
    book right side up               Describe how boats                                             Phoenician and Greek
   Turn pages in a book or           carried Phoenician goods                                       alphabet is the basis for
    magazine                          from place to place                                            the English alphabet
   Activate an electronic           Differentiate Phoenician                                       today
    device to access text,            ships from modern ships
    communicate with                                                                             Continue to address skills and
    others, or participate in                                                                    concepts in this subject that
    an instructional activity                                                                    approach grade-level
   Turn attention toward                                                                        expectations
    another person
   Organize instructional
    materials
   Take turns appropriately
    during classroom
    discussion
   Respond to/initiate
    contacts with others
   Apply rules for
    appropriate classroom
    behavior
   Use appropriate social
    greetings
   Follow simple directions
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint attention




      Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                  Fall 2006
      HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        452
                                                                                                          History and
                                                                                                         Social Science

                                                                                                         The Roots of
                                                                                                      Western Civilization:
                                                                                                        Ancient Israel,
                                                                                                       c. 2000 BC/BCE–
                                                                                                           70 AD/CE

                                                                                                            Grade 7


CONTENT History and Social Science
     TOPIC Ancient and Classical Civilizations in the Mediterranean to the
            Fall of the Roman Empire: Ideas that Shaped History
     Learning Standards for: The Roots of Western Civilization: Ancient Israel,
                                                     c. 2000 BC/BCE–70 AD/CE
                THEMES
                         The effects of geography on the history of civilizations and nations
                         The birth, growth, and decline of civilizations


                                                     Grade 7
Learning Standard as Written                                                                Essence of Standard
   7.19       On a historical map of the Mediterranean, locate Asia Minor, Greece and        Identify the geography of
              Mesopotamia, the kingdoms of the Hittites and ancient Israel, and Egypt.        ancient Israel and the modern
              On a modern map, locate Egypt, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, the             Middle East
              area governed by the Palestinian Authority, Syria, and Turkey. (G)
   7.20       Identify the ancient Israelites, or Hebrews, trace their migrations from       Identify important people and
              Mesopotamia to the land called Canaan, and explain the role of Abraham          settlements of the ancient
              and Moses in their history. (H, G)                                              Israelites
   7.21       Describe the monotheistic religion of the Israelites. (H)                      Describe the religious beliefs of
                  A. the belief that there is one God                                         the ancient Israelites
                  B. the Ten Commandments
                  C. the emphasis on individual worth and personal responsibility
                  D. the belief that all people must adhere to the same moral
                       obligations, whether ruler or ruled
                  E. the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) as part of the history of early
                       Israel
   7.22       Describe the unification of the tribes of Israel under Kings Saul, David,      Identify significant leaders of
              and Solomon, including David’s founding of Jerusalem as his capital city        the ancient Israelites and their
              in 1000 BC/BCE and the building of the first temple by Solomon. (H)             achievements


   7.23       Explain the expulsion/dispersion of the Jews to other lands (referred to as    Explain the forced migrations of
              the Diaspora) after the destruction of the second temple in Jerusalem in        the ancient Israelites
              70 AD/CE, and the renaming of the country by the Romans. (H)




    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                    Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        453
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

      Less Complex                                                                               More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                     ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:                 The student will:                 The student will:                The student will:
   Use pictures to find a           Recognize a map of the           Locate ancient Middle           Use a map or globe to
    familiar location                 ancient Middle East (Asia         East on a map or globe           locate the modern-day
   Sequence events to                Minor, Greece,                    (Asia Minor, Greece,             Middle East and compare
    demonstrate                       Mesopotamia, the                  Mesopotamia, the                 its location with ancient
    understanding of time             kingdoms of the Hittites          kingdoms of the Hittites         Asia Minor, Greece,
   Using a map of the                and ancient Israel, Egypt)        and ancient Israel, and          Mesopotamia, the
    Middle East, match shape         Identify geographic               Egypt)                           kingdoms of the Hittites
    to shape for countries on         features of the Middle           Recognize that Judaism           and ancient Israel, and
    the map                           East represented on a             and Christianity                 Egypt
   Activate communication            map or globe                      originated in the Middle        Recognize that the Middle
    device to ask questions          Sequence historical               East                             East is the birthplace of
    about Ancient Israel              events by using a                Recognize that Judaism           Judaism and Christianity
   Respond to text being             timeline to show one of           was the first religion to       Identify significant beliefs
    read aloud (i.e., remain          the following:                    believe in only one god          of Judaism and the role
    alert, request more)                 development of               Name important ancient           of the ancient Israelites
   Choose appropriate text               religious beliefs             Israelite leaders; explain       in its establishment
    to read or to have read              Israelite leaders             the contributions of one        Discuss the significance
    aloud                                migrations of the             leader                           of the Bible to the history
   Orient to books/orient                ancient Israelites           Discuss the term                 of Judaism
    book right side up               Locate the Mediterranean          “religion” and describe         Examine the lives and
   Turn pages in a book or           Sea on a map and                  the role it plays in many        achievements of
    magazine                          compare its size to the           people’s lives                   significant leaders of the
   Turn attention toward             Atlantic and Pacific                                               ancient Israelites
    another person                    Oceans                                                            Trace the forced
   Grasp, manipulate, and           Identify modern countries                                          migrations of the ancient
    release objects related to        located along the                                                  Israelites
    ancient civilizations             Mediterranean Sea                                                 Identify key ancient
   Organize instructional           Discuss the term                                                   Israelites and discuss
    materials                         “religion” and the role it                                         their roles in the history
   Take turns appropriately          plays in many people’s                                             of Israel
    during classroom                  lives
    discussion                       Identify the ancient                                           Continue to address skills and
   Respond to/initiate               Israelites as the founders                                     concepts in this subject that
    contacts with others              of Judaism                                                     approach grade-level
   Apply rules for                  Identify ancient Israelites                                    expectations
    appropriate classroom             who were key political or
    behavior                          religious figures
   Use appropriate social
    greetings
   Follow simple directions
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint attention




      Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                      Fall 2006
      HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        454
                                                                                                        History and
                                                                                                       Social Science

                                                                                                        The Roots of
                                                                                                    Western Civilization:
                                                                                                      Ancient Greece,
                                                                                                    c. 800–300 BC/BCE

                                                                                                          Grade 7


CONTENT History and Social Science
    TOPIC Ancient and Classical Civilizations in the Mediterranean to the
           Fall of the Roman Empire: Ideas that Shaped History
    Learning Standards for: The Roots of Western Civilization: Ancient Greece,
                                                   c. 800–300 BC/BCE
                THEMES
                         The effects of geography on the history of civilizations and nations
                         The birth, growth, and decline of civilizations


                                                      Grade 7
Learning Standard as Written                                                              Essence of Standard
   7.24       On a historical map of the Mediterranean area, locate Greece and trace       Identify the geography of
              the extent of its influence to 300 BC/BCE. On a modern map of the             ancient Greece
              Mediterranean area, Europe, England, the Middle East, and the Indian
              subcontinent, locate England, France, Greece, Italy, Spain, and other
              countries in the Balkan peninsula, Crete, Egypt, India, the Middle East,
              Pakistan, and Turkey. (H, G)
   7.25       Explain how the geographical location of ancient Athens and other city-      Explain the geographical
              states contributed to their role in maritime trade, their colonies in the     significance of Athens’ location
              Mediterranean, and the expansion of their cultural influence. (H, G, E)       to the development of its
                                                                                            empire
   7.26       Explain why the government of ancient Athens is considered the               Explain the political/
              beginning of democracy and explain the democratic political concepts          governmental structure of
              developed in ancient Greece. (H, C)                                           ancient Athens
                  A. the “polis” or city-state
                  B. civic participation and voting rights
                  C. legislative bodies
                  D. constitution writing
                  E. rule of law
   7.27       Compare and contrast life in Athens and Sparta. (H)                          Describe cultural differences
                                                                                            between Athens and Sparta
   7.28       Describe the status of women and the functions of slaves in ancient          Describe status of women and
              Athens. (H)                                                                   the roles of slaves in ancient
                                                                                            Athens
   7.29       Analyze the causes, course, and consequences of the Persian Wars,            Analyze the causes and
              including the origins of marathons. (H)                                       consequences of the Persian
                                                                                            Wars
                                                                                           Identify the origins of
                                                                                            marathons



    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                  Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        455
7.30       Analyze the causes, course, and consequences of the Peloponnesian            Identify the causes and
           Wars between Athens and Sparta. (H)                                           consequences of the
                                                                                         Peloponnesian Wars
7.31       Describe the rise of Alexander the Great and the spread of Greek culture.    Explain the significance of
           (H)                                                                           Alexander the Great
7.32       Describe the myths and stories of classical Greece; give examples of         Describe the cultural
           Greek gods and goddesses, heroes, and events, and where and how we            connections between ancient
           see their names used today. (H)                                               Greece and the modern
                                                                                         Western world
                                                                                        Describe/explain myths and
                                                                                         stories, gods and goddesses,
                                                                                         and heroes of ancient Greece
7.33       Explain why the city-states of Greece instituted a tradition of athletic     Explain the importance of
           competitions and describe the kinds of sports they featured. (H)              athletics in ancient Greece
7.34       Describe the purposes and functions of the development of Greek              Describe significant
           institutions such as the lyceum, the gymnasium, and the Library of            contributions of ancient Greece
           Alexandria, and identify the major accomplishments of the ancient             to the modern world
           Greeks. (H)
                 A. Thales (science)
                 B. Pythagoras and Euclid (mathematics)
                 C. Hippocrates (medicine)
                 D. Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle (philosophy)
                 E. Herodotus, Thucydides, Homer, Aeschylus, Sophocles,
                     Aristophanes, and Euripides (history, poetry, and drama)
                 F. the Parthenon, the Acropolis, and the Temple of Apollo
                     (architecture)
                 G. the development of the first complete alphabet with symbols for
                     consonants and vowels




 Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                  Fall 2006
 HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        456
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

       Less Complex                                                                        More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                     ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:                 The student will:                The student will:               The student will:
   Identify cause and effect        Recognize a map of              Locate the Mediterranean       Explain the effects of
   Sequence events to                Greece                           Sea and Greece on a             ancient Greek civilization
    demonstrate                      Identify geographic              world map or globe              on the modern world
    understanding of time             features represented on         Using a map of Greece,         Describe how the ancient
   Identify same and                 maps of Greece                   locate major cities and         Greeks established the
    different                        Using a map of Greece,           name important                  first democratic form of
   Initiate or respond to            locate major cities and          geographic features, with       government
    request for joint                 name important                   special attention to           Trace the boundaries of
    attention to pictures             geographic features, with        islands and mountains           the ancient Greek empire
    and/or stories from               special attention to            Explain that people who         on a world map
    classical Greek myths             islands and mountains            lived in Greece created        Compare/contrast daily
   Activate a switch to listen      Name significant                 an advanced civilization,       life between Athens and
    to stories related to             characteristics associated       and how this affects the        Sparta in ancient times
    content                           with a democracy                 modern world                   Examine the
   Respond to text being            Explain what it means to        Recognize that the              achievements of the
    read aloud (i.e., remain          vote                             ancient Greeks had a            ancient Greeks in
    alert, request more)             Recognize that the               democratic form of              science, mathematics,
   Choose appropriate text           ancient Greeks were the          government                      literature, and
    to read or to have read           first people to vote in         Name the significant            architecture, and
    aloud                             elections                        characteristics of a            describe how these
   Orient to books/orient                                             democracy                       achievements are evident
    book right side up                                                Recognize pictures of           today
   Turn pages in a book or                                            modern-day buildings           Describe the importance
    magazine                                                           that are of Greek               of athletics in ancient
   Turn attention toward                                              architectural origin            Greek culture with
    another person                                                    Recognize the                   special attention to the
   Grasp, manipulate, and                                             importance of gods and          Olympics
    release objects related to                                         mythology to the ancient       Describe the
    ancient Greece                                                     Greeks                          achievements of one or
   Organize instructional                                                                             more ancient Greek
    materials                                                                                          philosophers,
   Take turns appropriately                                                                           mathematicians, or
    during classroom                                                                                   poets/playwrights
    discussion
   Respond to/initiate                                                                            Continue to address skills and
    contacts with others                                                                           concepts in this subject that
   Apply rules for                                                                                approach grade-level
    appropriate classroom                                                                          expectations
    behavior
   Use appropriate social
    greetings
   Follow simple directions
   Identify self and/or
    others




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                     Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        457
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standards 7.32
        At grade 7, students read several myths and stories of classical Greece and discuss how the
        myths and stories were used to explain events. Each student then creates his or her own myth
        using Greek gods, goddesses, and heroes to explain an event in the modern world.

How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

Ryan reads three myths and stories of classical              Data chart showing Ryan’s ability to create a myth
Greece. He participates in a small group discussion          Ryan’s list of three characters from myths and stories he
about how the stories were used to explain events.            read and their descriptions
He chooses three characters from the myths and               Kyle’s original myth
stories and includes them in a myth he creates to
explain an event in the modern world.

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

Iain listens to a simplified story of classical Greece.      Data chart showing Iain’s ability to identify Greek
He is given a list of characters from the story and           characters
answers questions about the characters. He                   Iain’s responses to questions about characters
practices identifying characters from additional             Iain’s original myth
stories and myths from classical Greece. He creates
a myth to explain an event in the modern world
using picture symbols and a fill-in-the-blank format.

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

Kara listens to a simplified story of classical Greece.      Field data chart showing Kara’s ability to match pictures
She is shown pictures of the characters from the              of Greek characters from myths
story and points to the pictures using her index             Line or bar graph summarizing the field data chart
finger. She then matches two characters picture-to-          Kara’s original myth completed by pointing to pictures to
picture. She creates a fill-in-the-blank myth by              fill in the blanks
pointing to pictures.                                        Worksheet showing Kara’s responses to the picture
                                                              matching activity




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities             Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        458
                                                                                                        History and
                                                                                                       Social Science

                                                                                                       The Roots of
                                                                                                    Western Civilization:
                                                                                                      Ancient Rome,
                                                                                                     c. 500 BC/BCE–
                                                                                                        500 AD/CE

                                                                                                          Grade 7


CONTENT   History and Social Science
   TOPIC Ancient and Classical Civilizations in the Mediterranean to the
            Fall of the Roman Empire: Ideas that Shaped History
   Learning Standards for: The Roots of Western Civilization: Ancient Rome,
                                                  c. 500 BC/BCE–500 AD/CE
                THEMES
                         The effects of geography on the history of civilizations and nations
                         The birth, growth, and decline of civilizations


                                                     Grade 7
Learning Standard as Written                                                              Essence of Standard
   7.35       On a historical map, identify ancient Rome and trace the extent of the       Identify the geographic extent
              Roman Empire to 500 AD/CE. (H, G)                                             of the Roman Empire
   7.36       Explain how the geographical location of ancient Rome contributed to the     Explain the significance of
              shaping of Roman society and the expansion of its political power in the      Rome’s geographic location to
              Mediterranean region and beyond. (H, G, E)                                    its ability to build an empire


   7.37       Explain the rise of the Roman Republic and the role of mythical and          Explain the rise of the Roman
              historical figures in Roman history. (H)                                      Republic and significant
                   A. Romulus and Remus                                                     mythical and historical figures
                   B. Hannibal and the Carthaginian Wars
                   C. Cicero
                   D. Julius Caesar and Augustus
                   E. Hadrian
   7.38       Describe the government of the Roman Republic and its contribution to        Describe the essential
              the development of democratic principles, including separation of powers,     characteristics of Roman
              rule of law, representative government, and the notion of civic duty. (H,     government
              C)
   7.39       Describe the influence of Julius Caesar and Augustus in Rome’s transition    Explain the influence of Julius
              from a republic to an empire and explain the reasons for the growth and       Caesar, Augustus, and the rise
              long life of the Roman Empire. (H, E)                                         of the Roman Empire
                  A. military organization, tactics, and conquests;
                  B. and decentralized administration
                  C. the purpose and functions of taxes
                  D. the promotion of economic growth through the
                   E. use of a standard currency, road construction,
                   F. and the protection of trade routes
                   G. the benefits of a Pax Romana
   7.40       Describe the characteristics of slavery under the Romans. (H)                Describe slavery in the Roman
                                                                                            Empire
    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                  Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        459
7.41       Describe the origins of Christianity and its central features. (H)             Describe the founding of
               A. monotheism                                                               Christianity in the Roman
               B. the belief in Jesus as the Messiah and God’s son who redeemed            Empire
                    humans from sin
               C. the concept of salvation
               D. belief in the Old and New Testament
               E. the lives and teachings of Jesus and Saint Paul
               F. the relationship of early Christians to officials of the Roman
                    Empire
7.42       Explain how inner forces (including the rise of autonomous military            Explain reasons for the decline
           powers, political corruption, and economic and political instability) and       and fall of the Roman Empire
           external forces (shrinking trade, attacks, and invasions) led to the
           disintegration of the Roman Empire. (H, E)
7.43       Describe the contribution of Roman civilization to law, literature, poetry,    Describe significant
           architecture, engineering, and technology (e.g., roads, bridges, arenas,        achievements of Roman
           baths, aqueducts, central heating, plumbing, and sanitation). (H)               civilization in literature,
                                                                                           technology, and architecture


7.44       Explain the spread and influence of the Roman alphabet and the Latin           Explain the significance of Latin
           language, the use of Latin as the language of education for more than           to the development of Western
           1,000 years, and the role of Latin and Greek in scientific and academic         culture
           vocabulary. (H)




 Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                    Fall 2006
 HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        460
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

      Less Complex                                                                           More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS             ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:         The student will:                The student will:                  The student will:
    Point to various parts      Give examples of            Locate Rome on a world           On a historical map, identify
     of a map of Ancient          geographic features          map or globe and                  Rome and the extent of the
     Rome                         of Rome represented          recognize that it is an old       Roman Empire at its height
    Sequence events and          on a map or globe            city                             Identify similarities and
     demonstrate                 Sequence historical         Trace the geographic              differences between ancient
     understanding of time        events by using a            extent of the Roman               Roman government and
    Match picture to             timeline to show the         Empire at its height              United States government
     picture to identify          rise and fall of the        Identify pictures of              today
     actual and mythical          Roman Empire                 ancient Roman structures         Explain the significance of
     figures from the            Locate Rome on a             (e.g., the Coliseum,              strong emperors to the growth
     Roman Empire                 map                          aqueducts, columns,               of the Roman Empire
    Respond to text being       Identify that ancient        arches) and identify             Explore the literary,
     read aloud (i.e.,            Romans built an              similar modern structures         architectural, medical, and
     remain alert, request        extensive system of         Recognize the significance        legal achievements of the
     more)                        roads                        of Rome’s strong                  ancient Romans and how
    Choose appropriate          Compare how the              government, armies, and           these achievements affect the
     text to read or to           ancient Romans used          road system to its growth         modern world
     have read aloud              roads to how roads           as an empire                     Explain how and why
    Activate an electronic       are used today              Explore the literary,             Christianity became the official
     device to access text,      Investigate and              architectural, medical, and       religion of the Roman Empire
     communicate with             explain how the              legal achievements of the        Explain how ancient Rome’s
     others, or participate       Romans used money            Romans, select one, and           highly organized government
     in an instructional         Identify and explain a       explain how the                   controlled its extensive empire
     activity                     Roman myth                   achievement still affects        Describe the role of mythology
    Turn attention toward       Describe one or more         the modern world                  in ancient Roman society
     another person               Roman laws                  Identify characteristics of      Select an important Roman
    Grasp, manipulate,                                        Roman government that             leader, or intellectual or
     and release objects                                       are a part of United States       mythological figure and
    Take turns                                                government today                  examine his/her significance to
     appropriately during                                     Examine how Latin is the          Roman society
     classroom discussion                                      basis for English; compare       Explore the reasons, both
    Respond to/initiate                                       various Latin words with          internal and external, for the
     contacts with others                                      English equivalents               decline and fall of the Roman
    Apply rules for                                          Investigate a character           Empire
     appropriate classroom                                     from Roman mythology             Explain the significance of the
     behavior                                                  and explain the                   Roman alphabet and the Latin
    Use appropriate social                                    significance of the               language and their continued
     greetings                                                 character                         impact on the modern world
    Follow simple                                            Identify and explain the
     directions                                                importance of a particular    Continue to address skills and
    Identify self and/or                                      Roman leader                  concepts in this subject that
     others                                                   Discuss the founding of       approach grade-level expectations
    Initiate or respond to                                    Christianity within the
     request for joint                                         Roman Empire and how
     attention                                                 Rome treated early
                                                               Christians




      Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                   Fall 2006
      HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        461
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standards 7.36 through 7.39
        At grade 7, students watch a video on the Roman Empire and use note-taking and listening skills
        to gather information needed to complete a scavenger hunt on The Roman Empire in the First
        Century (http://www.pbs.org/empires/romans). Information gathered in the scavenger hunt is used
        to create a trivia game that focuses on important people and events.

How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

Orion completes information on a form while                  Data chart showing Orion’s ability to create questions
watching the video. He then creates questions for a           based on important people and events in the First
trivia game based on the information gathered                 Century of the Roman Empire
during the scavenger hunt, and participates in the           Notes taken by Orion on the form as he watched the
trivia game.                                                  video
                                                             Trivia questions created by Orion for the trivia game

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

Billy is given pictures of Augustus, Cleopatra, a            Data chart showing Billy’s ability to identify pictures of
gladiator, and the city of Pompeii, as well as a map          important people and places from the first century of the
of the Roman Empire. While watching the video, he             Roman Empire
indicates which picture he sees as it is shown and           Billy’s work sample showing sequenced pictures of
places the pictures in the order seen on the video.           important people from the video
He learns the names of the people or places in the           Work sample scribed by the teacher showing Billy’s
pictures and uses this knowledge to participate in            ability to identify people and places of the Roman
the trivia game.                                              Empire

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

AnnaMaria is given pictures of Augustus, Cleopatra,          Field data chart showing AnnaMaria’s ability to match
Julius Caesar, a gladiator, and the city of Pompeii,          pictures related to the Roman Empire
and a map of the Roman Empire. She participates in           Line or bar graph summarizing the field data chart
the trivia game by matching her pictures to pictures         AnnaMaria’s work sample created by matching picture to
on the reverse sides of the trivia game’s question            picture
cards (e.g., Questions dealing with people will have
a picture of Julius Caesar on the reverse side of the
cards; AnnaMaria will match the card to the space
on the trivia game board with a picture of Julius
Caesar).




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities            Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        462
                                                                                                       History and
                                                                                                      Social Science

                                                                                                     World History I

                                                                                                    The Emergence and
                                                                                                   Expansion of Islam to
                                                                                                           1500

                                                                                                       Grades 8–12


CONTENT    History and Social Science
   TOPIC    The World from the Fall of Rome through the Enlightenment
   Learning Standards for: The Emergence and Expansion of Islam to 1500
         THEMES
                         The influence of economic, political, religious, and cultural ideas as human
                          societies move beyond regional, national, or geographic boundaries
                         The development of scientific reasoning, technology, and formal education over
                          time and their effects on people’s health, standards of living, economic growth,
                          government, religious beliefs, communal life, and the environment
                         The birth, growth, and decline of civilizations


                            Grades 8–12: World History I
Learning Standard as Written                                                              Essence of Standard
  WHI.1       On a map of the Middle East, Europe, Africa, and Asia, identify where        Identify the geographic
              Islam began and trace the course of its expansion to 1500 AD. (H)             expansion of Islam in the
                                                                                            Middle East, Europe, Africa, and
                                                                                            Asia
  WHI.2       Describe significant aspects of Islamic belief. (H)                          Describe significant Islamic
                  A. the life and teachings of Muhammad                                     beliefs
                  B. the significance of the Qur’an as the primary source of Islamic
                      belief
                  C. Islam’s historical relationship to Judaism and Christianity
                      the relationship between government and religion in Muslim
                      societies
  WHI.3       Analyze the causes, and course, and effects of Islamic expansion through     Analyze the causes and
              North Africa, the Iberian Peninsula, and Central Asia. (H, G)                 consequences of Islamic
                  A. the strength of the Islamic world’s economy and culture                expansion
                  B. the training of Muslim soldiers and the use of advanced military
                      techniques
                  C. the disorganization and internal divisions of Islam’s enemies
                  D. the resistance and/or assimilation of Christianized peoples in the
                      Mediterranean




    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                  Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        463
WHI.4      Describe the central political, economic, and religious developments in      Describe significant events and
           major periods of Islamic history. (H, E)                                      developments in Islamic history
               A. the sources of disagreement between Sunnis and Shi’ites
               B. the growing influence of Turkish Islam after 1000
               C. the importance of the trade routes connecting the Far East and
                   Europe and the role of the Mongols in increasing trade along
                   these routes, including the silk routes to China
               D. the relationship of trade to the growth of Central Asian and
                   Middle Eastern cities
               E. the sources and uses of slaves in Islamic societies as well as the
                   extent of the Islamic slave trade across Africa from 700 AD on
WHI.5      Analyze the influence and achievements of Islamic civilization during its    Analyze the influence and
           “Golden Age.” (H)                                                             significant achievements of
                A. the preservation and expansion of Greek thought                       Islamic culture
                B. Islamic science, philosophy, and mathematics
                C. Islamic architecture




 Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                 Fall 2006
 HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        464
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

     Less Complex                                                                          More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                   ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:               The student will:               The student will:                 The student will:
   Sequence events                Create a timeline of key       Locate the Arabian               Explain important tenets
    matching picture to             historical events from          Peninsula on a world              (beliefs) of the Islamic
    picture on a timeline           this time period                map or globe and                  faith
   Match picture to picture       Label the distinctive           identify it as the               Compare the tenets of
    on a map of the Middle          architectural features of       birthplace of Islam               Islam to those of
    East                            Islamic mosques                Discuss the basic tenets          Christianity and Judaism
   Grasp, manipulate, and         Locate on a world map           of Islam and explain the         Explore how and why
    release materials related       or globe modern                 significance of the city of       Islam spread rapidly
    to Islamic culture and          countries with large            Mecca                             after the death of
    civilization                    Islamic populations            Explain the importance of         Muhammad
   Use assistive technology       Identify Muhammad as            trade in the spread of           Explain why trade was
    to view pictures from           Islam’s founder                 Islam                             essential to the spread of
    Islamic culture                List significant Islamic       Trace on a world map or           Islam and the growth of
   Respond to text being           beliefs and practices           globe the extent to which         its influence
    read aloud (i.e., remain                                        Islam had spread by              Identify the significance
    alert, request more)                                            1500 AD                           of Islamic intellectuals to
   Choose appropriate text                                        Recognize and label               advances in science,
    to read or to have read                                         distinctive types of              mathematics, medicine,
    aloud                                                           Islamic architecture and          and philosophy
   Orient to books/orient                                          art
    book right side up                                             Describe the                  Continue to address skills and
   Turn pages in a book or                                         contributions of Islamic      concepts in this subject that
    magazine                                                        culture to science,           approach grade-level
   Turn attention toward                                           medicine, and                 expectations
    another person                                                  mathematics
   Organize instructional
    materials
   Take turns appropriately
    during classroom
    discussion
   Respond to/initiate
    contacts with others
   Apply rules for
    appropriate classroom
    behavior
   Use appropriate social
    greetings
   Follow simple directions
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint
    attention




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                    Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        465
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standard WHI.4
        In grades 8-12, students write an essay comparing and contrasting Sunni and Shi’ite Muslims.
        They describe sources of disagreement between the two religious groups and the effect these
        disagreements have had on Muslim societies. Students use the Internet and at least two texts from
        a library as resources for the assignment.

How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

Shane finds one Internet source and two texts from           Data chart showing Shane’s ability to conduct research
the library. He answers questions on note cards and           on a given topic
uses them to prepare an outline for his essay.               Shane’s note cards related to the essay
Shane then writes a two-page essay on the topic.             Shane’s completed outline of the essay
                                                             Shane’s final 2-page essay (final draft)

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

Jason is given note cards with questions about               Data chart showing Jason’s ability to conduct research
Sunnis and Shi’ites. He is given a website address            on a given topic
and the names of one or two books from which he              Jason’s completed note cards related to the essay
must find the answers. He writes the answers to the          Jason’s answers to the note card questions
questions using Inspiration software.                        Jason’s final essay

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

Jeremy is given an assistive technology device to            Field data chart indicating Jeremy’s ability to choose
access the computer. When he activates the device             pictures
pictures from the Sunni and Shi’ite cultures appear          Line or bar graph summarizing the field data chart
on the screen. He then uses the device to choose             Booklet of pictures chosen by Jeremy
pictures to be printed.




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities             Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        466
                                                                                                      History and
                                                                                                     Social Science

                                                                                                    World History I

                                                                                                  The Medieval Period
                                                                                                   in Europe to 1500

                                                                                                     Grades 8–12


CONTENT    History and Social Science
   TOPIC    The World from the Fall of Rome through the Enlightenment
   Learning Standards for: The Medieval Period in Europe to 1500
         THEMES
                        The evolution of the concepts of personal freedom, individual responsibility, and
                         respect for human dignity
                        The growth and impact of centralized state power
                        The influence of economic, political, religious, and cultural ideas as human
                         societies move beyond regional, national, or geographic boundaries
                        The growth and spread of free markets and industrial economies
                        The development of scientific reasoning, technology, and formal education over
                         time and their effects on people’s health, standards of living, economic growth,
                         government, religious beliefs, communal life, and the environment
                        The birth, growth, and decline of civilizations


                            Grades 8–12: World History I
Learning Standard as Written                                                              Essence of Standard
  WHI.6      Describe the rise and achievements of the Byzantine Empire. (H)               Describe the rise and
                       A. the influence of Constantine, including the establishment of      achievements of the Byzantine
                            Christianity as an officially sanctioned religion               Empire, with special attention
                       B. the importance of Justinian and the Code of Justinian             to Justinian and Christianity
                       C. the preservation of Greek and Roman traditions
                       D. the construction of the Church of the Holy Wisdom (Hagia
                            Sophia)
  WHI.7      Describe the major economic, social, and political developments that took     Describe life in medieval
             place in medieval Europe. (H, E)                                               Europe
                       A. the growing influence of Christianity and the Catholic Church
                       B. the differing orders of medieval society, the development of
                           feudalism, and the development of private property as a
                           distinguishing feature of western civilization
                       C. the initial emergence of a modern economy, including the
                           growth of banking, technological and agricultural
                           improvements, commerce, towns, and a merchant class
                       D. the economic and social effects of the spread of the Black
                           Death or Bubonic Plague
                       E. the growth and development of the English and French
                           nations
  WHI.8      Describe developments in medieval English legal and constitutional history    Describe the growth of a more
             and their importance in the rise of modern democratic institutions and         democratic form of
             procedures, including the Magna Carta, parliament, and habeas corpus. (H,      government in England
             C)


    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        467
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

     Less Complex                                                                          More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                   ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:               The student will:                The student will:               The student will:
   Match pictures of people       Using a map, identify           Explain the importance of      Explain the significance
    on a chart showing              important cities and             the Catholic Church in          of the Justinian Code
    different orders of             countries relevant to this       medieval European life         Explain why feudalism
    medieval society                time period                     Describe the socio-             developed in medieval
   Point to pictures related      Create a timeline of             economic structure of           Europe and how it
    to content                      significant events from          feudalism in medieval           functioned as an
   Respond to text being           this time period                 Europe                          economic and social
    read aloud (i.e., remain       Identify features of a          Describe the importance         system
    alert, request more)            typical medieval                 of the Magna Carta in          Examine and describe
   Choose appropriate text         European manor                   English history and its         the growth of cities in
    to read or to have read        Explore the different jobs       impact on the                   medieval Europe and the
    aloud                           people had in a feudal           development of a                beginnings of a market
   Orient to books/orient          manor                            parliamentary system of         economy
    book right side up             Compare life in a manor          government                     Describe the social and
   Turn pages in a book or         with life in the local                                           economic effects of the
    magazine                        community today                                                  Bubonic plague on
   Activate an electronic                                                                           European society
    device to access text,                                                                          Discuss how the Magna
    communicate with                                                                                 Carta limited royal
    others, or participate in                                                                        authority in England and
    an instructional activity                                                                        served to help establish a
   Turn attention toward                                                                            more democratic form of
    another person                                                                                   government
   Grasp, manipulate, and
    release objects                                                                              Continue to address skills and
   Organize instructional                                                                       concepts in this subject that
    materials                                                                                    approach grade-level
   Take turns appropriately                                                                     expectations
    during classroom
    discussion
   Respond to/initiate
    contacts with others
   Apply rules for
    appropriate classroom
    behavior
   Use appropriate social
    greetings
   Follow simple directions
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint
    attention




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                   Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        468
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standards WHI.8
        In grades 8-12, students study the importance of the role of the Magna Carta in the rise of
        modern democratic institutions and procedures. Students choose sections of the Magna Carta and
        explain what they mean, including how these rules are still in effect today.

How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

Shelly chooses five sections of the Magna Carta. She         Data chart showing Shelly’s ability to demonstrate
re-writes the sections in modern English and                  knowledge of English medieval history, including
explains the meaning of each section. She then                quizzes, tests, and in-class and homework assignments
researches and writes about any similarities between         Shelly’s explanations of the meanings of her five
modern laws in America and the sections she chose             sections from the Magna Carta
from the Magna Carta.                                        Shelly’s comparison of her chosen solutions of the
                                                              Magna Carta to modern laws

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

Felecina works with a peer and reads the                     Data chart showing Felecina’s knowledge of Magna
explanation written by her of her peers of a section          Carta laws and how they apply to her life
from the Magna Carta. Felecina lists ways that these         Felecina’s list of rules that correspond with Magna Carta
rules apply to her life.                                      rules
                                                             Felecina’s quiz on rules and the Magna Carta

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

Ronnie answers yes/no questions about social and             Data chart showing Ronnie’s ability to answer yes/no
school rules.                                                 questions
                                                             Ronnie’s work sample completed by scribe indicating
                                                              Ronnie’s answers to questions about school rules
                                                             Ronnie’s work sample using Mayer-Johnson symbols to
                                                              answer yes/no questions about rules




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities            Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        469
                                                                                                        History and
                                                                                                       Social Science

                                                                                                      World History I

                                                                                                      The Encounters
                                                                                                    Between Christianity
                                                                                                     and Islam to 1500

                                                                                                       Grades 8–12



CONTENT    History and Social Science
   TOPIC     The World from the Fall of Rome through the Enlightenment
   Learning Standards for: The Encounters Between Christianity and Islam to 1500
         THEMES
                         The influence of economic, political, religious, and cultural ideas as human
                          societies move beyond regional, national, or geographic boundaries


                             Grades 8–12: World History I
Learning Standard as Written                                                               Essence of Standard
  WHI.9      Describe the religious and political origins of conflicts between Islam and    Explain the causes and effects
             Christianity, including the Muslim wars against Christianity before the         of the Crusades
             European Crusades and the causes, course, and consequences of the
             European Crusades against Islam in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries.
             (H)
 WHI.10      Describe the rise of the Ottoman Empire in the 14th and 15th centuries,        Significant events of the
             including the capture of Constantinople in 1453. (H)                            Ottoman Empire


 WHI.11      Describe the decline of Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula and the           Describe the rise of Spain and
             subsequent rise of Spanish and Portuguese kingdoms after the                    Portugal
             Reconquest in 1492. (H)




    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                   Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        470
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

     Less Complex                                                                           More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                     ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:                 The student will:                The student will:              The student will:
   Demonstrate an                   Recognize a map and             Locate Jerusalem and the      Discuss the role Catholic
    understanding of relative         globe of Earth and locate        surrounding Holy Land          popes had in the
    location of places                Jerusalem and the                on a world map or globe        European Crusades
   Sequence events to                surrounding Holy Land           Explain the significance      Using a variety of
    demonstrate                      Demonstrate knowledge            of the Holy Land region        sources, explain the
    understanding of time             of key historical events         for Christians and             significance of Jerusalem
   Identify pictures, maps,          by sequencing them on a          Muslims                        and the Holy Land to
    and charts to be used for         timeline                        Explain why Catholic           Christians and Muslims
    group presentation on            Identify features of Islam       popes supported the           Discuss how the
    this topic                        and Christianity as two          Crusades                       Crusades affected Europe
   Respond to text being             major world religions           On a map, trace the            with special attention to
    read aloud (i.e., remain         Identify features of             routes of the Crusades         increased trade
    alert, request more)              European crusaders and           across Europe and the         Describe how the
   Choose appropriate text           Islamic warriors                 Mediterranean Sea              Crusades introduced
    to read or to have read          Trace the route of the                                          features of Islamic
    aloud                             Crusaders on a map                                              culture to Europeans
   Orient to books/orient
    book right side up                                                                            Continue to address skills and
   Turn pages in a book or                                                                       concepts in this subject that
    magazine                                                                                      approach grade-level
   Activate an electronic                                                                        expectations
    device to access text,
    communicate with
    others, or participate in
    an instructional activity
   Turn attention toward
    another person
   Grasp, manipulate, and
    release objects
   Organize instructional
    materials
   Take turns appropriately
    during classroom
    discussion
   Respond to/initiate
    contacts with others
   Apply rules for
    appropriate classroom
    behavior
   Use appropriate social
    greetings
   Follow simple directions
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint attention




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                    Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        471
                                                                                                        History and
                                                                                                       Social Science

                                                                                                     World History I

                                                                                                The Origins of European
                                                                                               Western Expansion and the
                                                                                               Civilizations of Central and
                                                                                                      South America

                                                                                                       Grades 8–12



CONTENT    History and Social Science
   TOPIC    The World from the Fall of Rome through the Enlightenment
   Learning Standards for: The Origins of European Western Expansion and the
                                                 Civilizations of Central and South America
                THEMES
                         The influence of economic, political, religious, and cultural ideas as human
                          societies move beyond regional, national, or geographic boundaries
                         The birth, growth and decline of civilizations


                             Grades 8–12: World History I
Learning Standard as Written                                                                 Essence of Standard
  WHI.12      Explain why European nations sent explorers westward and how overseas           Explain the reasons for
              expansion led to the growth of commerce and the development of the               European exploration of the
              trans-Atlantic slave trade. (H, E)                                               Americas and the growth of the
                                                                                               slave trade
  WHI.13      Identify the three major pre-Columbian civilizations that existed in Central    Identify the civilizations of the
              and South America (Maya, Aztec, and Inca) and their locations. Describe          Maya, Aztec, and Inca,
              their political structures, religious practices, economies, art and              including their locations and
              architecture, and use of slaves. (H, G, E)                                       major characteristics
  WHI.14      Identify the major economic, political, and social effects of the European      Identify the consequences of
              colonial period in South America. (H, E)                                         European colonialism in South
                                                                                               America




    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                      Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        472
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

     Less Complex                                                                             More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                     ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:                 The student will:                The student will:                 The student will:
   Activate computer switch         Locate Europe, North            Explain why Europeans            Discuss how advances in
    to find pictures of pre-          America, South America,          began to explore the              technology allowed
    Columbian civilizations           and the Atlantic Ocean           Americas in the 1400s             Europeans to explore the
   Match pictures of                 on a map or globe               Locate areas that                 Americas in the 1400s
    European explorers               Demonstrate knowledge            Europeans explored in            Identify reasons
   Respond to text being             of historical events from        the Americas on a world           Europeans explored the
    read aloud (i.e., remain          this time period by using        map or globe                      Americas, with special
    alert, request more)              a timeline                      Examine how Spanish               attention to gaining
   Choose appropriate text          Investigate how                  conquistadors explored            wealth and spreading
    to read or to have read           Europeans used ships to          and conquered regions of          Christianity
    aloud                             sail across the Atlantic;        Latin America                    Examine how the people
   Orient to books/orient            trace the routes they           On a map, locate where            of the Americas lived
    book right side up                followed on a map                the Maya, Aztec, and              before the arrival of
   Turn pages in a book or          Explain why Europeans            Inca civilizations existed        Europeans
    magazine                          took dangerous voyages           before the arrival of            Compare the major
   Turn attention toward             across the Atlantic to the       Europeans                         features of the Maya,
    another person                    Americas                        Identify structures,              Aztec, and Inca
   Grasp, manipulate, and           Identify dangers faced           crafts, and other artifacts       civilizations
    release objects                   during voyages overseas          from the Maya, Aztec,            Using a variety of
   Organize instructional            in this time period              and Inca civilizations            sources, explain how
    materials                        Describe the culture of                                            Spain came to control
   Take turns appropriately          the Maya, Aztec, or Inca                                           large regions of Latin
    during classroom                  civilization                                                       America
    discussion
   Respond to/initiate                                                                              Continue to address skills and
    contacts with others                                                                             concepts in this subject that
   Apply rules for                                                                                  approach grade-level
    appropriate classroom                                                                            expectations
    behavior
   Use appropriate social
    greetings
   Follow simple directions
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint attention




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                       Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        473
                                                                                                        History and
                                                                                                       Social Science

                                                                                                      World History I

                                                                                                      African History to
                                                                                                            1800

                                                                                                        Grades 8–12

CONTENT    History and Social Science
   TOPIC     The World from the Fall of Rome through the Enlightenment
   Learning Standards for: African History to 1800
         THEMES
                        The influence of economic, political, religious, and cultural ideas as human
                         societies move beyond regional, national, or geographic boundaries
                        The birth, growth and decline of civilizations


                           Grades 8–12: World History I
Learning Standard as Written                                                               Essence of Standard
 WHI.15     Describe the indigenous religious practices observed by early Africans          Describe religious beliefs and
            before contact with Islam and Christianity. (H)                                  practices of early African
                                                                                             peoples
 WHI.16     Explain how extended family/kinship and tribal relationships have shaped        Describe ways of family and
            indigenous African cultures, and their effects on the political and economic     economic life among early
            development of African countries. (H, E)                                         African peoples


 WHI.17     Describe the different ways in which Islam and Christianity influenced          Explain the effects of Islam and
            indigenous African cultures. (H)                                                 Christianity on African peoples
 WHI.18     Identify the locations and time periods of the empires of Ghana, Mali, and      Identify when and where the
            Songhay. (H, G)                                                                  empires of Ghana, Mali, and
                                                                                             Songhay existed
 WHI.19     Describe important political and economic aspects of the African empires.       Describe ways of life in the
            (H, E)                                                                           empires of Ghana, Mali, and
                 A. the economies of these empires (gold, salt, and slaves as                Songhay and their significant
                      commodities for trade by African kings)                                leaders
                 B. leaders such as Sundiata and Mansa Musa
                 C. Timbuktu as a center of trade and learning
 WHI.20     Describe the development and effects of the trans-African slave trade to        Describe the growth of the
            the Middle East from the 8th century on, and the trans-Atlantic slave trade      trans-African and trans-Atlantic
            to the Western Hemisphere from the 16th century on. (H, E, G)                    slave trade, and their effects on
                                                                                             Africa




   Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                    Fall 2006
   HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        474
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

     Less Complex                                                                           More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                     ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:                 The student will:               The student will:               The student will:
   Match shapes of African          Locate Africa on a world       Locate Africa on a world       Locate the extent of the
    countries to countries on         map or globe                    map or globe, especially        Ghana, Mali, and
    map                              Use a timeline to show          the former empires of           Songhay empires on a
   Sequence events to                the time period in which        Ghana, Mali, and                world map or globe
    demonstrate                       the African empires of          Songhay                        Explain the significance
    understanding of time             Ghana, Mali, and               Discuss the importance          of tribal relations in
   Using pictures of families        Songhay existed                 of families to daily            African society
    and tribes, sort same and        Identify that Africa is a       African life pre-1800          Explore how the empires
    different                         continent made up of           Compare and contrast            of Ghana, Mali, and
   Activate switch to view           many countries                  the terms “family” and          Songhay arose through
    slides of Africa                 Describe the terms              “tribe”                         the trade of gold and salt
   Respond to text being             “family” and “tribe”           Explore the role tribal        Examine the rise of
    read aloud (i.e., remain         Describe why and how            relations played by in          Timbuktu as a major city
    alert, request more)              Africans lived in tribes        African society                 engaged in trade,
   Choose appropriate text           long ago                       Explain the importance of       religion, and learning
    to read or to have read          Define “slave” and give         gold and salt to people         using a variety of sources
    aloud                             examples of what slaves         who lived in Africa long       Explain the significance
   Orient to books/orient            did                             ago                             of the slave trade within
    book right side up                                               Describe reasons the            the Middle East and
   Turn pages in a book or                                           slave trade grew                Africa, and to the
    magazine                                                                                          Western Hemisphere
   Turn attention toward
    another person                                                                                Continue to address skills and
   Grasp, manipulate, and                                                                        concepts in this subject that
    release objects                                                                               approach grade-level
   Organize instructional                                                                        expectations
    materials
   Take turns appropriately
    during classroom
    discussion
   Respond to/initiate
    contacts with others
   Apply rules for
    appropriate classroom
    behavior
   Use appropriate social
    greetings
   Follow simple directions
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint attention




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                    Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        475
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standards WHI.16
        In grades 8-12, students study relationships, languages, and other cultural aspects of tribes in a
        variety of African countries. Students work to develop an Ethnosphere for their classroom that
        shows the thoughts, beliefs, and myths of various tribes from different regions of Africa. The
        Ethnosphere will be displayed in the classroom and will grow as the class learns about new tribes
        and regions of the continent
        (http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/05/0522_030522_humandiversity.html).


How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                        Products

Cory reads “Unique Dogon Culture Survives in West              Data chart showing Cory’s ability to demonstrate
Africa” by Chris Rainier in National Geographic News,           knowledge of African culture, including quizzes, in-
May 29, 2003 and views pictures provided with the               class and homework assignments
story. He then creates a glossary of terms he learned          Cory’s completed map
from the story, and indicates on a map where the tribe         Cory’s glossary of terms
is located in Africa by labeling it with a symbol of the
culture. He then writes key facts about the culture
beneath the map.

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                    Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                         Products

Lexi is given a glossary of terms from the Dogon               Data chart showing Lexi’s ability to match symbols to
Culture that was developed by another student. She              terms from the Dogon and various other African
matches pictures and symbols to the terms. She then             cultures
creates a symbol she feels represents the culture and          Lexi’s work sample matching pictures of symbols to
places the symbol on a map, with help as needed from            terms
peers.                                                         Symbol created by Lexi with her description of the
                                                                symbol

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                        Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                        Products

Gordon is given pictures of symbols of terms from              Data chart showing Gordon’s ability to match pictures
glossaries that have been created by students. He               of symbols
matches picture to picture for the symbols.                    Gordon’s work sample matching pictures of symbols
                                                               Photograph of Gordon matching pictures from different
                                                                African cultures to pictures on the bulletin board




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities             Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        476
                                                                                                   History and
                                                                                                  Social Science

                                                                                                 World History I

                                                                                                  Indian History to
                                                                                                        1800

                                                                                                   Grades 8–12


CONTENT    History and Social Science
   TOPIC     The World from the Fall of Rome through the Enlightenment
   Learning Standards for: Indian History to 1800
          THEMES
                         The influence of economic, political, religious, and cultural ideas as human
                          societies move beyond regional, national, or geographic boundaries
                         The birth, growth, and decline of civilizations


                            Grades 8–12: World History I
Learning Standard as Written                                                           Essence of Standard
 WHI.21       Describe important economic, political, and religious developments in     Identify significant
              Indian history to 1800. (H)                                                developments in Indian history
                   A. the origins of Indian civilization in the Indus Valley             before 1800, with special
                   B. the evolution and central principles of Hinduism                   attention to Hinduism
                   C. the development of the caste system
                   D. the influence of Islam and the rise and fall of the Moghul
                        empire
                   E. artistic and intellectual achievements, including the
                        development of a decimal system
 WHI.22       Describe the growth of British influence in India and the emergence of    Describe the causes and effects
              the British Raj. (H)                                                       of British influence in India




    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities              Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        477
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

     Less Complex                                                                            More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                   ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:               The student will:                The student will:                 The student will:
   Use pictures to find a         Locate India on a map           Locate the Indus Valley          Discuss why the Indus
    familiar location              Demonstrate knowledge            on a world map or globe           Valley was the site of the
   Identify same and               of historical events from       Investigate the                   earliest Indian
    different using pictures        this time period by using        importance of the Indus           civilizations
    of Indian civilizations         a timeline                       River to the development         Explore the origins of
   Sequence events to             Identify India’s varied          of Indian civilization long       Hinduism and compare
    demonstrate                     geographic features              ago                               its beliefs to those of
    understanding of time          Locate the Indus River          Describe the                      other major world
   Respond to text being           on a map of India                achievements of the               religions
    read aloud (i.e., remain       Describe how people              ancient Indus Valley             Examine how Hinduism
    alert, request more)            lived along the Indus            civilizations                     affects Indian culture
   Choose appropriate text         River before 1800               Identify Hinduism as a            with special attention to
    to read or to have read        Identify distinctive             major world religion and          the caste system
    aloud                           features of Indian culture       identify its important           Explain how and why
   Orient to books/orient          (e.g., architecture,             tenets (beliefs)                  Britain became involved
    book right side up              clothing, sacred cows,          Discuss how Hindu                 in India and the effects
   Turn pages in a book or         artwork, cuisine)                beliefs affect modern             of British influence on
    magazine                       Name two important               Indian society                    Indian culture
   Activate an electronic          tenets (beliefs) of             Explain the caste system
    device to access text,          Hinduism                                                       Continue to address skills and
    communicate with                                                                               concepts in this subject that
    others, or participate in                                                                      approach grade-level
    an instructional activity                                                                      expectations
   Turn attention toward
    another person
   Grasp, manipulate, and
    release objects
   Organize instructional
    materials
   Take turns appropriately
    during classroom
    discussion
   Respond to/initiate
    contacts with others
   Apply rules for
    appropriate classroom
    behavior
   Use appropriate social
    greetings
   Follow simple directions
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint
    attention




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                     Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        478
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standards WHI.21
        In Grades 8-12, students study the evolution and central principles of Hinduism by reading about
        the different Hindu gods. Each student chooses a god on which to focus and write a fact sheet. The
        fact sheets are placed on a bulletin board that has pictures and symbols of all the gods on it.

How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

After reading about the Hindu gods, Sheldon                  Data chart showing Sheldon’s ability to demonstrate
participates in a classroom discussion about the              knowledge of Hinduism including quizzes, in-class
gods and their influence on Indian culture. Sheldon           assignments and homework assignments
researches Ganesha and develops a fact sheet about           Sheldon’s completed fact sheet
the god. Sheldon presents his facts and teaches the          Sheldon’s test matching names to pictures and
class a yoga pose representing the god.                       descriptions of the gods
                                                             Sheldon’s presentation on a god

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

A teacher or peer dictates the list of key words that        Data chart showing Lori’s ability to identify Hindu gods
describe Hindu gods. Lori writes the words under             Lori’s work sample matching descriptions to symbols of
symbols of Hindu gods. She then uses each key                 Hindu gods
word in a sentence.                                          Lori’s work sample identifying Hindu gods by name

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

Jessica practices gross motor activities by peers            Field data chart showing Jessica’s ability to imitate gross
imitating yoga poses modeled representing the god             motor activities
they have researched.                                        Bar or line graph summarizing the field data chart
                                                             Video clip of Jessica and peers during yoga pose activity




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities              Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        479
                                                                                                          History and
                                                                                                         Social Science

                                                                                                       World History I

                                                                                                        History of China,
                                                                                                      Japan, and Korea to
                                                                                                              1800

                                                                                                         Grades 8–12

CONTENT    History and Social Science
   TOPIC    The World from the Fall of Rome through the Enlightenment
   Learning Standards for: History of China, Japan, and Korea to 1800
         THEMES
                        The birth, growth and decline of civilizations


                            Grades 8–12: World History I
Learning Standard as Written                                                                Essence of Standard
 WHI.23      Summarize the major reasons for the continuity of Chinese civilization          Describe ways of life in China
             through the 19th century. (H)                                                    during the 1800s
                 A. the role of kinship and Confucianism in maintaining order and            Describe Chinese civilization
                      hierarchy                                                               before 1800, including the
                 B. the political order established by the various dynasties that ruled       social, political, economic, and
                      China                                                                   religious orders
                 C. the role of civil servants/scholars in maintaining a stable political
                      and economic order
 WHI.24      Describe the growth of commerce and towns in China and the importance           Describe the significance of
             of agriculture to the development of the Chinese economy to 1800,                agriculture and trade in China
             including the limited role of slavery. (H)                                       before 1800


 WHI.25      Summarize the major economic, political, and religious developments in          Identify significant events and
             Japanese history to 1800. (H)                                                    developments in Japanese
                 A. the evolution of Shinto and Japanese Buddhism                             history before 1800
                 B. the development of feudalism
                 C. the rise of the Shoguns and the role of the samurai
 WHI.26      Describe Japan’s cultural and economic relationship to China and Korea.         Describe Japan’s relationships
             (H, G)                                                                           with China and Korea
 WHI.27      Describe the influence and consequences of Japanese isolationism to             Identify causes and effects of
             1800. (H, G)                                                                     Japan’s isolationist policies
 WHI.28      Explain how Korea has been both a battleground and a cultural bridge            Explain Korea’s significance to
             between China and Japan. (H, G)                                                  Chinese and Japanese history
                                                                                              and culture




   Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                     Fall 2006
   HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        480
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

     Less Complex                                                                         More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                   ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:               The student will:              The student will:                 The student will:
   Demonstrate an                 Locate China, Korea, and      Locate China, Korea, and         Describe the significance
    understanding of relative       Japan on a world map or        Japan on a world map or           of Confucius in Chinese
    location of objects             globe                          globe and explain that            culture
    related to this topic          Demonstrate knowledge          these countries are              Explain the significance
   Sequence events to              of historical events by        located in Asia                   of dynastic rule in
    demonstrate                     using a timeline              Discuss the role                  Chinese history
    understanding of time          Compare China’s and            emperors had in Chinese          Identify Buddhism as a
   Use a map to orient to          Japan’s geographies            history                           major world religion and
    surroundings                    using textured maps           Describe China’s highly           identify its major tenets
   Grasp, manipulate, and         Compare features of life       organized system of               (beliefs)
    release puzzle pieces to        in China and Japan             government                       Explain how Japanese
    complete a puzzle map           before 1800                   Explain why Japan                 feudalism was structured
    of China, Japan, and/or        Identify Japan as an           remained largely isolated         and its significance to
    Korea                           island nation                  from the world until the          Japan’s history
   Respond to text being          Describe why agriculture       1800s                            Describe Korea’s
    read aloud (i.e., remain        is important to Chinese       Identify Buddhism as a            significant connection to
    alert, request more)            history, culture, and          major world religion and          Chinese and Japanese
   Choose appropriate text         economy                        explain its significance to       history
    to read or to have read        Name two major tenets          Japanese culture
    aloud                           (beliefs) of Buddhism         Describe how emperors         Continue to address skills and
   Activate an electronic                                         influenced daily life         concepts in this subject that
    device to access text,                                        Trace a typical day in        approach grade-level
    communicate with                                               China, Korea, and/or          expectations
    others, or participate in                                      Japan prior to 1800
    an instructional activity                                     Give examples of how
   Turn attention toward                                          China and Japan co-
    another person                                                 existed as neighbors
   Organize instructional                                         before 1800
    materials                                                     Identify and explain a
   Take turns appropriately                                       significant cultural event
    during classroom                                               from Korean history
    discussion
   Respond to/initiate
    contacts with others
   Apply rules for
    appropriate classroom
    behavior
   Use appropriate social
    greetings
   Follow simple directions
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint
    attention




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                   Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        481
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standards WHI.23
        In grades 8-12, students study the voyages of the Ming Dynasty. Students read about and
        discuss the important Chinese decision to end maritime voyages and scrap the fleet. Students role-
        play advising the Emperor of the Ming court on whether or not to end the voyages
        (http://www.askasia.org/frclasrm/lessplan/l000069.htm).


How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

Morgan participates in a group that studies one of           Data chart showing Morgan’s ability to demonstrate
the seven voyages made during the Ming Dynasty.               knowledge Ming Dynasty voyages, including quizzes,
He marks a map showing the voyage, labels the                 tests, homework, and in-class assignments
map with the goods obtained during this voyage,              Morgan’s labeled map of a Ming Dynasty voyage
and write about what the voyage accomplished.                Morgan’s list of accomplishments from this voyage
Morgan and his group use the information to
develop a rationale as to why the voyages should or
should not continue.

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

Carlos participates in a group that studies one of the       Data chart showing Carlos’ ability to label maps with
seven voyages made during the Ming Dynasty, and               required information
works with a peer to create a map of the voyage.             Carlos’ completed map of Ming Dynasty journey
The peer labels the map with symbols showing                 Carlos’ completed timeline of Ming Dynasty journeys
where the journey begins and ends and labels that
region with words listing the goods obtained during
that journey. Carlos draws lines connecting the
symbols to trace the path of the journey and places
pictures on the map that match the goods listed.

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products
                                                             Data chart showing Trevor’s progress using his index
Trevor works with a peer who is labeling a map of a           finger to point to objects
voyage made during the Ming Dynasty. Trevor is               Map showing where Trevor pointed, labeled by the peer
working on pointing skills. The peer labels parts of         Work sample of objects pointed to by Trevor, placed in a
the map as Trevor points to the place on the map to           journal and labeled by peer
be labeled using his index finger.




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities            Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        482
                                                                                                    History and
                                                                                                   Social Science

                                                                                                  World History I

                                                                                                Renaissance and the
                                                                                                  Reformation in
                                                                                                      Europe

                                                                                                   Grades 8–12


CONTENT    History and Social Science
   TOPIC    The World from the Fall of Rome through the Enlightenment
   Learning Standards for: Renaissance and the Reformation in Europe
         THEMES
                        The influence of economic, political, religious, and cultural ideas as human
                         societies move beyond regional, national, or geographic boundaries


                           Grades 8–12: World History I
Learning Standard as Written                                                           Essence of Standard
 WHI.29      Describe the origins and development of the Renaissance, including the     Describe the significance of the
             influence and accomplishments of Machiavelli, Michelangelo, Leonardo da     Renaissance and its leading
             Vinci, Raphael, Shakespeare, and Johannes Gutenberg. (H)                    figures
 WHI.30      Describe origins and effects of the Protestant Reformation. (H)            Describe the significance of the
                 A. the reasons for the growing discontent with the Catholic Church,     Protestant Reformation
                      including the main ideas of Martin Luther and John Calvin
                 B. the spread of Protestantism across Europe, including the reasons
                      and consequences of England’s break with the Catholic Church
                 C. the weakening of a uniform Christian faith
                 D. the consolidation of royal power
 WHI.31      Explain the purposes and policies of the Catholic Counter-Reformation,     Explain the response of the
             including the influence and ideas of Ignatius Loyola. (H)                   Catholic Church to the
                                                                                         Renaissance


 WHI.32      Explain the role of religion in the wars among European nations in the     Explain religion and warfare in
             15th and 16th centuries. (H)                                                Europe during the 15th and
                                                                                         16th centuries




   Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                Fall 2006
   HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        483
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

     Less Complex                                                                           More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                   ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:               The student will:                The student will:               The student will:
   Use pictures to find a         Locate Italy on a map           Locate Italy, England,         Explain that the
    familiar location              Demonstrate knowledge            France, and Germany on          Renaissance was a
   Using pictures of various       of historical events by          a map or globe                  period of renewed
    Renaissance artworks,           using a timeline                Explain that Italy is the       interest in the classical
    match picture to picture,      Describe different art           birthplace of the               world
    and identify same and           forms created during the         Renaissance                    Explain that the
    different                       Renaissance and what            Explain that the                Renaissance began in
   Sequence events to              they show                        Renaissance marked a            Italy and spread
    demonstrate                    Explain the differences          revival in the classical        throughout much of
    understanding of time           and similarities among           world                           Europe
   Grasp, manipulate, and          different forms of art          Examine and describe           Describe the significance
    release pictures and            (e.g., paintings, statues,       pictures of artistic            of Gutenberg’s printing
    replicas of different           murals) from this time           masterpieces created            press to the spread of
    works of art from the           period                           during the Renaissance          the Renaissance
    Renaissance and                Describe how books were          and identify their             Examine pictures of
    Reformation                     printed before and after         creators                        artistic masterpieces
   Respond to text being           the printing press              Discuss the influence of        created during the
    read aloud (i.e., remain       Identify at least one            the printing press              Renaissance and
    alert, request more)            major artist from this          Describe how a printing         describe what they show
   Turn pages in a book or         period in history and            press is able to mass-         Select a significant
    magazine                        identify his/her works           produce printed                 Renaissance figure and
   Activate an electronic                                           materials                       explore and explain
    device to access text,                                                                           his/her achievements
    communicate with                                                                                Describe the reasons
    others, or participate in                                                                        why opposition grew to
    an instructional activity                                                                        the teachings and
   Turn attention toward                                                                            policies of the Catholic
    another person                                                                                   Church and resulted in
   Organize instructional                                                                           the formation of
    materials                                                                                        Protestant churches
   Take turns appropriately
    during classroom                                                                             Continue to address skills and
    discussion                                                                                   concepts in this subject that
   Respond to/initiate                                                                          approach grade-level
    contacts with others                                                                         expectations
   Apply rules for
    appropriate classroom
    behavior
   Use appropriate social
    greetings
   Follow simple directions
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint
    attention




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                   Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        484
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standards WHI.29
        In grades 8-12, students study the inventions Leonardo da Vinci
        (http://www.mos.org/sln/Leonardo/InventorsWorkshop.html).

How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

Cyrus visits the “Exploring Leonardo” Web site and           Data chart showing Cyrus’ ability to demonstrate
reads “Visions of the Future.” He compares da                 knowledge of the Renaissance Era, including quizzes,
Vinci’s inventions to modern inventions. Using the            and in-class assignments and homework
“Inventors Toolbox Guide” he chooses a machine               Work sample showing Cyrus’s comparison of da Vinci’s
invented by da Vinci and chooses one to sketch,               invention to a modern-day machine
labeling the different parts. He also plays the              Work sample showing Cyrus’ answers during the game
“Leonardo’s Mystery Machines” game with a peer.              Homework assignment answering questions about da
                                                              Vinci’s inventions

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

Jennifer visits the “Exploring Leonardo” Web site            Data chart showing Jennifer’s ability to demonstrate
and clicks on inventions listed under “Visions of the         knowledge of simple machines during in-class activities
Future.” She matches pictures from the “Inventors            Jennifer’s work sample created when matching pictures
Toolbox Guide” of da Vinci’s machines to their                of machines to their appropriate function
appropriate function selected from a list. She plays a       Videotape of Jennifer participating in the game
modified version of “Leonardo’s Mystery Machines”
game with a peer.

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

Wilson is working on activating simple machines set          Data chart showing Wilson’s ability to activate simple
up in the classroom. He visits the “Exploring                 machines
Leonardo” Web site with a peer. He is asked to               Video of Wilson activating simple machines
press the button a computer mouse after the peer             Work sample of pictures created by Wilson and printed
places the cursor on a picture of a modern                    by a peer after Wilson pressed the mouse
invention. When he presses the button, da Vinci’s
sketch of the invention appears. He then activates
simple machines displayed at the learning center by
pressing buttons or a lever.




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities           Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        485
                                                                                                        History and
                                                                                                       Social Science

                                                                                                     World History I
                                                                                                   Scientific Revolution
                                                                                                  and the Enlightenment
                                                                                                        in Europe


                                                                                                       Grades 8–12


CONTENT    History and Social Science
   TOPIC    The World from the Fall of Rome through the Enlightenment
   Learning Standards for: Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment in Europe
         THEMES
                         The evolution of the concepts of personal freedom, individual responsibility, and
                          respect for human dignity
                         The development of scientific reasoning, technology, and formal education over
                          time and their effects on people’s health, standards of living, economic growth,
                          government, religious beliefs, communal life, and the environment


                             Grades 8–12: World History I
Learning Standard as Written                                                               Essence of Standard
  WHI.33      Summarize how the Scientific Revolution and the scientific method led to      Explain the major
              new theories of the universe and describe the accomplishments of               accomplishments and leading
              leading figures of the Scientific Revolution, including Bacon, Copernicus,     figures of the Scientific
              Descartes, Galileo, Kepler, and Newton. (H)                                    Revolution
  WHI.34      Describe the concept of Enlightenment in European history and describe        Describe the major
              the accomplishments of major Enlightenment thinkers, including Diderot,        accomplishments and leading
              Kant, Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Voltaire. (H)                          figures of the Enlightenment
  WHI.35      Explain how the Enlightenment contributed to the growth of democratic         Explain the Enlightenment’s
              principles of government, a stress on reason and progress, and the             contributions to rational and
              replacement of a theocentric interpretation of the universe with a secular     democratic thought
              interpretation. (H)




    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                   Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        486
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

        Less Complex                                                                   More Complex



     ACCESS SKILLS                   ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:               The student will:                The student will:                The student will:
   Complete a timeline by         Demonstrate knowledge           Identify different              Explain why the Scientific
    matching shapes or              of historical events from        scientific fields (e.g.,         Revolution served to
    pictures representing           this time period using a         astronomy, biology,              change the way people
    discoveries from this           timeline                         chemistry, physics) and          viewed the world around
    time period                    Give examples of what            their focuses of inquiry,        them
   Place objects                   scientists studied during        as evidenced by various         Using a variety of
    appropriately on a poster       this time period                 thinkers’ theories               sources, discuss the work
    of discoveries of the          Identify significant            Examine the significance         of significant scientists
    Scientific Revolution           theories proposed and            of a theory proposed or a        during the Scientific
   Match pictures of leading       discoveries made during          discovery made during            Revolution and explain
    figures of the Scientific       the Scientific Revolution        the Scientific Revolution        how their achievements
    Revolution                     Select a significant            Select a significant             influenced life on Earth
   Respond to text being           individual involved in the       individual involved in the      Explore reasons writers
    read aloud (i.e., remain        Scientific Revolution and        Scientific Revolution and        and philosophers began
    alert, request more)            explore his or her work          explore his works                to express opposition to
   Choose appropriate text                                                                           absolute monarchies and
    to read or to have read                                                                           the power of the church
    aloud                                                                                            Describe the
   Orient to books/orient                                                                            Enlightenment and
    book right side up                                                                                explain its importance
   Turn pages in a book or
    magazine                                                                                      Continue to address skills and
   Activate an electronic                                                                        concepts in this subject that
    device to access text,                                                                        approach grade-level
    communicate with                                                                              expectations
    others, or participate in
    an instructional activity
   Turn attention toward
    another person
   Grasp, manipulate, and
    release objects
   Take turns appropriately
    during classroom
    discussion
   Respond to/initiate
    contacts with others
   Apply rules for
    appropriate classroom
    behavior
   Use appropriate social
    greetings
   Follow simple directions
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint
    attention


     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                    Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        487
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standards WHI.33
        In grades 8-12, students read about and discuss scientists from the Scientific Revolution and
        create a timeline for the life of one scientist.

How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

Shelby participates in a small-group discussion              Data chart showing Shelby’s ability to demonstrate
about the accomplishments of Galileo. Her group               knowledge of leading figures of the Scientific Revolution,
gathers information from the library and the                  including quizzes, and in-class and homework
Internet of Galileo’s life. Each student then creates         assignments
his or her own timeline of his life. She writes about        Shelby’s completed timeline
one of Galileo’s accomplishments and how that                Shelby’s journal entry about Galileo
accomplishment affects our lives today.

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

Tina participates in a small group creating a timeline       Data chart showing Tina’s ability to create timelines
of the life and accomplishments of Copernicus. She           Work sample of pictures chosen by Tina to match to
is given the dates of major accomplishments to put            their dates
in order on the timeline. She then is given an array         Tina’s modified quiz
of pictures from which to select a picture of a
particular accomplishment and place it next to the
date. Tina also participates in a modified classroom
quiz that contains a list of scientists in one column
and a place for a picture of an invention in another.
Tina is given pictures, the inventions with their
names, and places each picture next to the name of
its inventor.

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

Mohammed participates in a small group activity to           Data chart showing Mohammed’s ability to place objects
create a timeline of the life and accomplishments of          within boundaries
Sir Isaac Newton. On the timeline, boxes are drawn           Mohammed’s completed timeline
in which pictures of accomplishments are to be               Mohammed’s work sample of objects placed within
placed. Mohammed is given one picture at a time to            boundaries
place it within the lines of the box.




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities             Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        488
                                                                                                        History and
                                                                                                       Social Science

                                                                                                     World History I

                                                                                                     The Growth and
                                                                                                     Decline of Islamic
                                                                                                          Empires

                                                                                                       Grades 8–12

CONTENT    History and Social Science
    TOPIC    The World from the Fall of Rome through the Enlightenment
   Learning Standards for: The Growth and Decline of Islamic Empires
          THEMES
                         The evolution of the concepts of personal freedom, individual responsibility, and
                          respect for human dignity
                         The development of scientific reasoning, technology, and formal education over
                          time and their effects on people’s health, standards of living, economic growth,
                          government, religious beliefs, communal life, and the environment


                             Grades 8–12: World History I
Learning Standard as Written                                                               Essence of Standard
 WHI.36       Describe the expansion of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th and 16th             Describe the Ottoman Empire
              centuries into North Africa, Eastern Europe, and throughout the Middle         in the 15th and 16th centuries
              East. (H, E)
 WHI.37       Describe the expansion of Islam into India from the 13th through the          Describe the Mongols, Moghul
              17th century, the role of the Mongols, the rise and fall of the Moghul         Empire, expansion of Islam,
              Empire, and the relationship between Muslims and Hindus. (H, E)                and the relationship of Muslims
                                                                                             and Hindus
 WHI.38       Account for the declining strength of the Ottoman Empire beginning in         Explain the decline of the
              the 17th century, including the failed siege of Vienna in 1683 and the         Ottoman Empire and increasing
              rapid pace of modernization in European economic, political, religious,        modernization of Europe in the
              scientific, and intellectual life resulting from the ideas embedded in the     late 17th century
              Renaissance, the Reformation, the Scientific Revolution, the
              Enlightenment, and the Industrial Revolution. (H, E)




    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                  Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        489
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

     Less Complex                                                                         More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                   ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:               The student will:               The student will:               The student will:
   Match pictures of people       Recognize a map and            On a map or globe of           Identify how and why
    and objects related to          globe of Earth and locate       Earth, locate present-day       the Ottomans built a
    the Ottoman Empire              present-day Turkey and          Turkey, North Africa, and       large and powerful
   Sequence events to              Istanbul                        India                           empire before 1500
    demonstrate                    Demonstrate knowledge          Explore how Turkey             Explore the contributions
    understanding of time           of historical events by         became the center of the        of Suleiman to the
   Respond to text being           using a timeline                Ottoman Empire, with            growth of the Ottoman
    read aloud (i.e., remain       Explore what daily life         special attention to the        Empire
    alert, request more)            was like in Istanbul            importance of                  Explore how the
   Choose appropriate text         (Constantinople) during         Constantinople                  Ottoman Empire was a
    to read or to have read         the height of the              Examine how advances            blend of Byzantine and
    aloud                           Ottoman Empire                  in technology and               Muslim cultures
   Orient to books/orient                                          warfare contributed to         Examine how the growth
    book right side up                                              the growth of the               of more powerful
   Turn pages in a book or                                         Ottoman Empire                  European nation states
    magazine                                                                                        led to the decline of the
   Activate an electronic                                                                          Ottoman Empire
    device to access text,
    communicate with                                                                            Continue to address skills and
    others, or participate in                                                                   concepts in this subject that
    an instructional activity                                                                   approach grade-level
   Turn attention toward                                                                       expectations
    another person
   Grasp, manipulate, and
    release objects
   Organize instructional
    materials
   Take turns appropriately
    during classroom
    discussion
   Respond to/initiate
    contacts with others
   Apply rules for
    appropriate classroom
    behavior
   Use appropriate social
    greetings
   Follow simple directions
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint
    attention




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                  Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        490
                                                                                                        History and
                                                                                                       Social Science

                                                                                                     World History II

CONTENT    History and Social Science                                                                The Growth of the
                                                                                                      Nation State in
   TOPIC    The Rise of the Nation State to the Present                                                   Europe
   Learning Standards for: The Growth of the Nation State in Europe
         THEMES                                                                                         Grades 8–12
                            The growth and impact of centralized state power


                              Grades 8–12: World History II
Learning Standard as Written                                                              Essence of Standard
  WHII.1      Describe the growing consolidation of political power in Europe from 1500    Describe the growth of
              to 1800 as manifested in the rise of nation states ruled by monarchs. (H,     powerful nation states in
              C, E)                                                                         Europe from 1500–1800
                   A. the rise of the French monarchy, including the policies and
                       influence of Louis XIV
                   B. the Thirty Years War and the Peace of Westphalia
                   C. the growing power of Russian tsars, including the attempts at
                       Westernization by Peter the Great, the growth of serfdom, and
                       Russia’s rise as an important force in Eastern Europe and Asia
                   D. the rise of Prussia
                   E. Poland and Sweden
  WHII.2      Explain why England was the main exception to the growth of absolutism       Explain the decline of royal
              in royal power in Europe. (H, C)                                              power in England, with special
                   A. the causes and essential events of the English Civil War and the      attention to the Glorious
                        Glorious Revolution of 1688                                         Revolution and the English Bill
                   B. the effect of the Glorious Revolution on the development of           of Rights
                        constitutional government and liberty in England, including the
                        importance of the English Bill of Rights and how it limited the
                        power of the monarch to act without the consent of Parliament
  WHII.3      Summarize the important causes and events of the French Revolution.          Explain the causes and events
              (H, C, E)                                                                     of the French Revolution and its
               Causes:                                                                      significant events
                   A. the effect of Enlightenment political thought
                   B. the influence of the American Revolution
                   C. economic troubles and the rising influence of the middle class
                   D. government corruption and incompetence

               Events:
                  A.   the   role of the Estates General and the National Assembly
                  B.   the   storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789
                  C.   the   1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
                  D.   the   execution of Louis XVI in 1793
                  E.   the   Terror
                  F.   the   rise and fall of Napoleon
                  G.   the   Congress of Vienna
  WHII.4      Summarize the major effects of the French Revolution. (H)                    Explain the major effects of the
                 A. its contribution to modern nationalism and its relationship to          French Revolution
                     totalitarianism
                 B. the abolition of theocratic absolutism in France
                 C. the abolition of remaining feudal restrictions and obligations
                 D. its support for the ideas of popular sovereignty, religious
                     tolerance, and legal equality

    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                 Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        491
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

     Less Complex                                                                           More Complex



     ACCESS SKILLS                   ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:               The student will:               The student will:                The student will:
   Sequence events to             Using a map and/or             Explain the role of             Discuss how and why
    demonstrate an                  globe, locate France and        monarchs (kings and              strong nations emerged
    understanding of time           Great Britain                   queens) in European              in Europe before 1800,
   Demonstrate an                 Demonstrate knowledge           countries                        with special attention to
    understanding of relative       of historical events from      Explain important details        England and France
    location of objects             this time period by using       about the reign of Louis        Research using a variety
   Use switch to activate a        a timeline                      XIV in France                    of media the powers that
    slide show of European         Discuss what it means          Identify a significant           monarchs had in England
    monarchs                        when people are                 cause of the French              and France
   Grasp, manipulate, and          organized into countries        Revolution                      Discuss reasons Louis
    release puzzle pieces to        or nations                     Discuss the significance         XIV was an absolute
    help complete a map of         Identify reasons that           of the French Revolution         monarch
    Europe                          people revolt against          Explain how the English         Explore the causes and
   Respond to text being           authority                       Bill of Rights limited the       effects of the French
    read aloud (i.e., remain                                        power of the British             Revolution, with special
    alert, request more)                                            monarch                          attention to the
   Choose appropriate text                                                                          distribution of
    to read or to have read                                                                          landownership and
    aloud                                                                                            taxation
   Orient to books/orient                                                                          Explain events that led to
    book right side up                                                                               limitations on the powers
   Turn attention toward                                                                            of English monarchs
    another person
   Take turns appropriately                                                                     Continue to address skills and
    during classroom                                                                             concepts in this subject that
    discussion                                                                                   approach grade-level
   Respond to/initiate                                                                          expectations
    contacts with others
   Apply rules for
    appropriate classroom
    behavior
   Use appropriate social
    greetings
   Follow simple directions
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint
    attention




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                   Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        492
                                                                                                     History and
                                                                                                    Social Science

                                                                                                  World History II

                                                                                               Industrial Revolution and
                                                                                              Social and Political Change
                                                                                                 in Europe, 1800–1914

CONTENT    History and Social Science                                                                Grades 8–12
   TOPIC    The Rise of the Nation State to the Present
   Learning Standards for: Industrial Revolution and Social
                                                  and Political Change in Europe, 1800–1914
                THEMES
                           The growth and spread of free markets and industrial economies


                             Grades 8–12: World History II
Learning Standard as Written                                                              Essence of Standard
 WHII.5       Identify   the causes of the Industrial Revolution. (H, E)                   Identify the causes of the
                   A.      the rise in agricultural productivity                            Industrial Revolution
                   B.      transportation improvements such as canals and railroads
                   C.      the influence of the ideas of Adam Smith
                   D.      new sources of energy such as coal and technological
                           innovations such as the steam engine
 WHII.6       Summarize the social and economic impact of the Industrial Revolution.       Explain the effects of the
              (H, E)                                                                        Industrial Revolution on
                   A. the vast increases in productivity and wealth                         European life
                   B. population and urban growth
                   C. the growth of a middle class
                   D. problems caused by urbanization and harsh working conditions
 WHII.7       Describe the rise of unions and socialism, including the ideas and           Describe the growth of labor
              influence of Robert Owen and Karl Marx. (H, E)                                unions
 WHII.8       Describe the rise and significance of antislavery sentiment in Britain,      Describe the antislavery
              including the abolition of the slave trade by the British Parliament in       movement in Britain
              1807, the abolition of slavery within the British Empire in 1833, and the
              role of various antislavery societies. (H)
 WHII.9       Explain the impact of various social and political reforms and reform        Explain significant reform
              movements in Europe. (H, C, E)                                                movements in Europe
                  A. liberalism
                  B. child labor laws, and social legislation such as old age pensions
                       and health and unemployment insurance
                  C. the expansion of voting rights
 WHII.10      Summarize the causes, course, and consequences of the unification of         Explain how Italy and Germany
              Italy and Germany. (H)                                                        became unified
                    A. Germany’s replacement of France as the dominant power in
                        continental Europe
                    B. the role of Cavour and Bismarck in the unification of Italy and
                        Germany
 WHII.11      Describe the causes of 19th century European imperialism. (H, E)             Identify causes for the growth of
                  A. the desire for economic gain and resources                             European imperialism
                  B. the missionary impulse and the search for strategic advantage
                        and national pride

    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                   Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        493
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

     Less Complex                                                                          More Complex



     ACCESS SKILLS                   ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:               The student will:               The student will:                The student will:
   Demonstrate an                 Locate Britain on a map        Explain differences in the      Discuss why the
    understanding of relative      Demonstrate knowledge           living conditions and the        availability of land, labor,
    location of objects             of historical events for        work people did on farms         and capital made Britain
   Sequence events to              this time period by using       and in factories                 the ideal location for the
    demonstrate                     a timeline                     Research reasons                 origin of the Industrial
    understanding of time          Identify Britain as the         factories emerged in             Revolution
   Demonstrate an                  birthplace of the               Britain, with attention to      Explain why the
    understanding of trade          Industrial Revolution           advances in technology           Industrial Revolution
    (e.g., token economy)          Identify different              and availability of              caused cities to grow
   Use switch to advance           meanings of “revolution”        workers                          rapidly, and the effect
    slides during peer’s            (e.g., French Revolution,      Examine how the                  this growth had on
    presentation on the             Industrial Revolution)          Industrial Revolution led        families, the
    Industrial Revolution          Identify differences in         to the growth of cities          environment, and social
   Respond to text being           the work people do on           and an increase in urban         classes
    read aloud (i.e., remain        farms and in factories          problems                        Explore and explain
    alert, request more)           Identify goods produced        Discuss why workers              reform movements
   Choose appropriate text         on farms and in factories       formed unions                    caused by the Industrial
    to read or to have read        Describe what it was like      Explore the need for             Revolution, with
    aloud                           to work in factories and        foreign markets created          attention to child labor
   Orient to books/orient          mills during the 1800s          by the Industrial                laws and attempts to
    book right side up             Explain how the growth          Revolution                       create labor unions
   Turn pages in a book or         of factories led to the                                         Describe the term
    magazine                        growth of cities                                                 “imperialism” and why
   Turn attention toward                                                                            the Industrial Revolution
    another person                                                                                   resulted in many
   Grasp, manipulate, and                                                                           European nations
    release objects and                                                                              becoming imperialist
    pictures from this time                                                                          powers
    period                                                                                          Explain the antislavery
   Organize instructional                                                                           movement
    materials
   Take turns appropriately                                                                     Continue to address skills and
    during classroom                                                                             concepts in this subject that
    discussion                                                                                   approach grade-level
   Respond to/initiate                                                                          expectations
    contacts with others
   Apply rules for
    appropriate classroom
    behavior
   Use appropriate social
    greetings
   Follow simple directions
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint
    attention


     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                   Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        494
                                                                                                      History and
                                                                                                     Social Science

                                                                                                  World History II

                                                                                                  Asian, African, and
                                                                                                Latin American History
                                                                                                 in the 19th and Early
                                                                                                     20th Centuries

                                                                                                     Grades 8–12

CONTENT    History and Social Science
   TOPIC    The Rise of the Nation State to the Present
   Learning Standards for: Asian, African, and Latin American History in the 19th
                                                and Early 20th Centuries
                THEMES
                         The influence of economic, political, religious, and cultural ideas as human
                          societies move beyond regional, national, or geographic boundaries


                           Grades 8–12: World History II
Learning Standard as Written                                                              Essence of Standard
 WHII.12      Identify major developments in Indian history in the 19th and early 20th     Identify the major
              century. (H, E)                                                               developments in Indian history,
                  A. the economic and political relationship between India and Britain      including its relationship with
                  B. the building of roads, canals, railroads, and universities             Britain and the rise of Indian
                  C. the rise of Indian nationalism and the influence and ideas of          nationalism
                       Gandhi
 WHII.13      Identify major developments in Chinese history in the 19th and early 20th    Explain the major
              centuries. (H, E)                                                             developments in Chinese
                  A. China’s explosive population growth between 1750 and 1850              history, including growing
                  B. Decline of the Manchu dynasty beginning in the late 18th century       Western influence and the rise
                  C. Growing Western influence                                              of Chinese nationalism
                  D. The Opium War
                  E. The Taiping rebellion from 1850 to 1864
                  F. The Boxer Rebellion
                  G. Sun Yat-Sen and the 1911 nationalist revolution
 WHII.14      Identify major developments in Japanese history in the 19th and early        Identify the major
              20th centuries. (H, E)                                                        developments in Japanese
                  A. the Meiji Restoration                                                  history, including Japan’s use of
                  B. the abolition of feudalism                                             western technology and its
                  C. the borrowing and adaptation of western technology and                 growing influence in world
                       industrial growth                                                    affairs
                  D. Japan’s growing role in international affairs

 WHII.15      Identify major developments of African history in the 19th and early 20th    Explain the major
              centuries. (H, E)                                                             developments in African
                  A. Africa’s interaction with imperialism                                  history, including the role of
                  B. agricultural changes improvements and new patterns of                  Europe in Africa and the rise of
                       employment                                                           African nationalism
                  C. the origins of African nationalism




    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                  Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        495
WHII.16     Identify the major developments of Latin American history to the early     Identify the major
            20th century. (H, E)                                                        developments in Latin American
                A. the wars for independence, including the influence and ideas of      history, including the wars for
                     Simon Bolivar, Jose de San Martin, and the American and French     independence and the growing
                     Revolutions                                                        influence of the United States
                B. economic and social stratification
                C. the role of the church
                D. the importance of trade
                E. the growing influence of the United States as demonstrated by
                     the Spanish American War and the building of the Panama Canal
                F. the Mexican Revolution




  Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities               Fall 2006
  HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        496
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

     Less Complex                                                                               More Complex



     ACCESS SKILLS                    ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:                The student will:                The student will:                 The student will:
    Sequence events to              Demonstrate knowledge           Locate India, China,             Locate India, China,
     demonstrate                      of historical events of          Japan, Africa, or Latin           Japan, Africa, or Latin
     understanding of time            this time period by using        America on a world map            America on a world map
    Use pictures or maps to          a timeline                       or globe, and for the             or globe and for the
     find a familiar location        Sort countries by region         country/continent/                country/continent/region
    Respond to text being            or continent                     region selected do the            selected do the
     read aloud (i.e., remain        Locate India, China,             following:                        following:
     alert, request more)             Japan, Africa, and/or              Identify its major               Identify major
    Choose appropriate text          Latin America on a world             geographic features               geographic features
     to read or to have read          map or globe                       Locate its major cities          Locate major cities
     aloud                           Compare land area and              Use a timeline to             Explore significant
    Orient to books/orient           location of India, China,            show significant              political events that
     book right side up               Japan, Africa, or Latin              events and                    occurred in one of these
    Turn pages in a book or          America to the United                developments that             locations during the
     magazine                         States                               occurred during the           1800s
    Activate an electronic          Identify major                       1800s                        Examine the influence of
     device to access text,           geographic features of             Explore the                    foreign nations on
     communicate with                 India, China, Japan,                 significance of a             significant political
     others, or participate in        Africa, or Latin America             political event that          events that occurred in
     an instructional activity       Locate major cities of               occurred during the           one of these locations,
    Turn attention toward            India, China, Japan,                 1800s                         with special attention to
     another person                   Africa, or Latin America                                           European nations and
    Grasp, manipulate, and          Examine how people                                                 the United States
     release objects                  lived in one of these                                             Compare and contrast
    Organize instructional           countries/continents/                                              how the United States
     materials                        regions during the                                                 interacted with one or
    Take turns appropriately         1800s, with special                                                more of these countries
     during classroom                 attention to agriculture                                           during the 1800s up to
     discussion                                                                                          the present
    Respond to/initiate
     contacts with others                                                                           Continue to address skills
    Apply rules for                                                                                and concepts in this subject
     appropriate classroom                                                                          that approach grade-level
     behavior                                                                                       expectations
    Use appropriate social
     greetings
    Follow simple directions
    Identify self and/or
     others
    Initiate or respond to
     request for joint
     attention




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                        Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        497
                                                                                                    History and
                                                                                                   Social Science

                                                                                                World History II

                                                                                                  The Great Wars,
CONTENT    History and Social Science                                                               1914–1945
   TOPIC    The Rise of the Nation State to the Present
   Learning Standards for: The Great Wars, 1914–1945                                               Grades 8–12
         THEMES
                        The growth and impact of centralized state power
                        The influence of economic, political, religious, and cultural ideas as human
                         societies move beyond regional, national, or geographic boundaries


                           Grades 8–12: World History II
Learning Standard as Written                                                           Essence of Standard
 WHII.17      Describe the relative importance of economic and imperial competition,    Explain the causes of World
              Balkan nationalism, German militarism and aggression, and the power        War I
              vacuum in Europe due to the declining power of the Russian, Austrian,
              and Ottoman Empires in causing World War I. (H, E)
 WHII.18      Summarize the major events and consequences of World War I. (H, E)        Identify the major events and
                  A. physical and economic destruction                                   consequences of World War I
                  B. the League of Nations and attempts at disarmament
                  C. the collapse of the Romanov dynasty and the subsequent
                      Bolshevik Revolution and Civil War in Russia
                  D. post-war economic and political instability in Germany
                  E. the Armenian genocide in Turkey
                  F. the unprecedented loss of life from prolonged trench warfare
 WHII.19      Identify the major developments in the Middle East and Central Asia       Explain developments in the
              before World War II. (H, E)                                                Middle East before World War
                   A. the end of the Ottoman Empire                                      II
                   B. the Balfour Declaration of 1917
                   C. the expulsion of the Greeks from Asia Minor
                   D. the establishment of a secular Turkish state under Mustafa
                         Kemal Ataturk
                   E. the establishment of the Kingdom of Transjordan in the eastern
                         part of the Palestine Mandate by the British
                   F. the growing importance of Middle Eastern oil fields to world
                         politics and the world economy
 WHII.20      Describe the various causes and consequences of the global depression     Describe the causes and
              of the 1930s, and analyze how governments responded to the Great           consequences of the Great
              Depression. (H, E)                                                         Depression on world nations
                    A. restrictive monetary policies
                    B. unemployment and inflation
                    C. political instability
                    D. the influence of the ideas of John Maynard Keynes, Ludwig von
                        Mises, Friedrich von Hayek, and Milton Friedman




    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities              Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        498
WHII.21     Describe the rise and goals of totalitarianism in Italy, Germany, and the      Describe the rise of
            Soviet Union, and analyze the policies and ideas of Mussolini, Hitler,          dictatorships in Italy, Germany,
            Lenin, and Stalin. (H)                                                          and Russia
WHII.22     Summarize the consequences of Soviet communism to 1945. (H, E)                 Identify the consequences of
                A. the establishment of a one-party dictatorship under Lenin                Soviet communism on world
                B. the suffering in the Soviet Union caused by Stalin’s policies of         affairs to 1945
                    collectivization of agriculture and breakneck industrialization
                C. the destruction of individual rights and the use of mass terror
                    against the population, the use of terror against internal
                    enemies, and the destruction of individual rights
                D. the Soviet Union’s emergence as an industrial power
WHII.23     Describe the German, Italian, and Japanese drives for empire in the            Describe German, Italian, and
            1930s. (H)                                                                      Japanese efforts to create
                 A. Italy’s invasion of Ethiopia in 1935                                    empires
                 B. the Japanese invasion of China and the Rape of Nanking
                 C. Germany’s militarization of the Rhineland, annexation of
                      Austria, and aggression against Czechoslovakia, the Stalin-Hitler
                      Pact of 1939, and the German attack on Poland
WHII.24     Summarize the key battles and events of World War II. (H)                      Identify and explain significant
             The German conquest of continental Europe                                      World War II battles and
                 A. The Battle of Britain                                                   events
                 B. Pearl Harbor
                 C. The Bataan Death March
                 D. El Alamein
                 E. Midway
                 F. Stalingrad
                 G. D-Day
                 H. Battle of the Bulge
                 I. Iwo Jima
                 J. Okinawa
WHII.25     Identify the goals, leadership, and post-war plans of the allied leaders.      Explain the roles and influences
            (H)                                                                             of Winston Churchill, Franklin
                 A. Winston Churchill                                                       Roosevelt, and Joseph Stalin on
                 B. Franklin D. Roosevelt                                                   world affairs
                 C. Joseph Stalin
WHII.26     Describe the background, course, and consequences of the Holocaust,            Describe the causes and
            including its roots in the long tradition of Christian anti-Semitism, 19th      consequences of the Holocaust
            century ideas about race and nation, and Nazi dehumanization of the
            Jews. (H)
WHII.27     Explain the reasons for the dropping of atom bombs on Japan and its            Explain the United States’ use
            short and long-term effects. (H)                                                of atomic weapons against
                                                                                            Japan and their effects
WHII.28     Explain the consequences of World War II. (H, E)                               Describe significant
                 A. physical and economic destruction                                       consequences of World War II,
                 B. the enormous loss of life, including millions of civilians through      with special attention to the
                      the bombing of population centers and the slaughter of political      Cold War
                      opponents and ethnic minorities
                 C. support in Europe for political reform and decolonization
                 D. the emergence of the U.S. and the Soviet Union as the world’s
                      two superpowers
WHII.29     Describe reasons for the establishment of the United Nations in 1945 and       Explain the creation of the
            summarize the main ideas of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.          United Nations in 1945 and its
            (H)                                                                             significance
                                                                                           Describe the Universal
                                                                                            Declaration of Human Rights



  Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                    Fall 2006
  HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        499
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

     Less Complex                                                                           More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                   ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:               The student will:                The student will:                The student will:
   Assist in a presentation       Define “world war”              Describe the major              Show when the two 20th
    on World War I or II           On a map or globe,               causes of the two world          century world wars
   Sequence events to              identify the major               wars in the 20th century         occurred, using a
    demonstrate                     nations that fought in          Identify reasons that            timeline
    understanding of time           World War I                      nations go to war               Explain how German
   Demonstrate                    On a map or globe,              On a map or globe,               aggression contributed to
    understanding of an             identify the major               identify the nations that        the outbreak of the two
    economy (e.g., trade,           nations that fought in           were United States’ allies       world wars
    barter, earning money or        World War II                     in the two world wars           Explain why the United
    tokens, and or                 Use a timeline to show          Identify and explain a           States entered the two
    buying/selling)                 when one of the world            significant outcome of           world wars and identify
   Respond to text being           wars was fought in the           World War I                      its allies
    read aloud (i.e., remain        20th century and identify       Identify and explain a          Discuss why the creation
    alert, request more)            one or more significant          significant outcome of           of the League of Nations
   Choose appropriate text         related events                   World War II                     failed to prevent the
    to read or to have read        Define “ally” and identify      Explain why the United           outbreak of World War II
    aloud                           reasons the United               Nations was established         Explain why the United
   Orient to books/orient          States and its allies were                                        States used atomic
    book right side up              victorious in the two                                             weapons in World War II
   Turn pages in a book or         world wars                                                        and the consequences of
    magazine                       Describe events                                                   its decision
   Activate an electronic          portrayed in pictures that                                       Explain why the Soviet
    device to access text,          occurred during world                                             Union and the United
    communicate with                wars fought in the 20th                                           States became the
    others, or participate in       century                                                           world’s superpowers
    an instructional activity                                                                         after World War II
   Turn attention toward                                                                            Explore how and why the
    another person                                                                                    United Nations was
   Grasp, manipulate, and                                                                            created
    release objects                                                                                  Describe the effects of
   Organize instructional                                                                            the atomic bomb
    materials
   Take turns appropriately                                                                      Continue to address skills and
    during classroom                                                                              concepts in this subject that
    discussion                                                                                    approach grade-level
   Respond to/initiate                                                                           expectations
    contacts with others
   Apply rules for
    appropriate classroom
    behavior
   Use appropriate social
    greetings
   Follow simple directions
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint
    attention


     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                    Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        500
                                                                                                       History and
                                                                                                      Social Science

                                                                                                    World History II

                                                                                                      Cold War Era,
CONTENT    History and Social Science                                                                  1945–1989
   TOPIC    The Rise of the Nation State to the Present
   Learning Standards for: Cold War Era, 1945–1989                                                    Grades 8–12
         THEMES
                         The growth and impact of centralized state power
                         The influence of economic, political, religious, and cultural ideas as human
                          societies move beyond regional, national, or geographic boundaries
                         The development of scientific reasoning, technology, and formal education over
                          time and their effects on people’s health, standards of living, economic growth,
                          government, religious beliefs, communal life, and the environment


                           Grades 8–12: World History II
Learning Standard as Written                                                              Essence of Standard
 WHII.30      Summarize the factors that contributed to the Cold War, including Soviet     Summarize the major causes of
              expansion in Eastern Europe and the differences between democracy and         the Cold War
              communism. (H, C)                                                            Explain the differences between
                                                                                            democracy and communism
 WHII.31      Describe the policy of containment, including the Truman Doctrine, the       Describe the United States
              Marshall Plan, and NATO, as America’s response to Soviet expansionist         efforts to contain communism
              policies. (H)
 WHII.32      Describe the development of the arms race and the key events of the          Identify significant events of
              Cold War era. (H)                                                             the Cold War, including the
                  A. the Korean War                                                         Korean and Vietnam Wars and
                  B. the emergence of the People’s Republic of China as a major             the rise of Chinese communism
                      power
                  C. the 1956 uprising in Hungary
                  D. Soviet-U.S. competition in the Middle East
                  E. conflicts involving Cuba and Berlin
                  F. the Vietnam War
                  G. the “Prague Spring”
                  H. arms control agreements (including the ABM and SALT treaties)
                      and détente under Nixon
                  I. the Soviet war in Afghanistan
 WHII.33      Describe the Chinese Civil War, the rise of Mao Tse-tung, and the triumph    Describe The Chinese
              of the Communist Revolution in China in 1949. (H)                             Revolution with special
                                                                                            attention to Mao Tse-tung
 WHII.34      Identify the political and economic upheavals in China after the Chinese     Describe the effects of the
              Revolution. (H, E)                                                            Chinese Revolution on national
                  A. Communist Party attempts to eliminate internal opposition              politics and way of life
                  B. the Great Leap Forward and its consequences (famine)
                  C. the Cultural Revolution and its consequences (the terror of the
                        Red Guards and the expansion of labor camps)
                  D. the 1989 Tiananmen Square demonstration
                  E. China’s economic modernization and its growing involvement in
                        world trade




    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                 Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        501
WHII.35     Describe the global surge in economic productivity during the Cold War         Describe the causes and effects
            and describe its consequences. (H, E)                                           of the global growth of
                A. the rise in living standards                                             industrialized economies after
                B. the economic recovery and development of Germany and Japan               World War II
WHII.36     Explain the various factors that contributed to post-World War II              Explain the factors that
            economic and population growth. (H, E)                                          contributed to global growth of
                A. the long post-war peace between democratic nations                       industrialized economy and
                B. the policies of international economic organizations                     population after World War II
                C. scientific, technological, and medical advances
WHII.37     Describe how the work of scientists in the 20th century influenced             Identify significant scientists in
            historical events, changed the lives of the general populace, and led to        the 20th century and describe
            further scientific research. (H)                                                their work
                 A. Albert Einstein and the Theory of Relativity
                 B. Enrico Fermi, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Edward Teller, and nuclear
                      energy
                 C. Wernher von Braun and space exploration
                 D. Jonas Salk and the polio vaccine
                 E. James Watson, Francis Crick, the discovery of DNA, and the
                      Human Genome Project
WHII.38     Describe the development and goals of nationalist movements in Africa,         Identify significant nationalist
            Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East, including the ideas and               leaders of the post-World War
            importance of nationalist leaders. (H)                                          II era and the effects of their
                A. Fidel Castro (Cuba)                                                      movements and ideas
                B. Patrice Lumumba (Congo)
                C. Ho Chi Minh (Vietnam)
                D. Gamal Abdel Nasser (Egypt)
                E. Jawaharlal Nehru (India)
                F. Juan Peron (Argentina)
WHII.39     Explain the background for the establishment of the modern state of            Explain the background for the
            Israel in 1948, and the subsequent military and political conflicts between     establishment of the state of
            Israel and the Arab world. (H)                                                  Israel and its effect on the
                A. the growth of Zionism, and 19th and early 20th                           Middle East and world affairs
                      century immigration by Eastern European Jews to Palestine
                B. anti-Semitism and the Holocaust
                C. the UN vote in 1947 to partition the western part of the Palestine
                      Mandate into two independent countries
                D. the rejection of surrounding Arab countries of the UN decision
                      and the invasion of Israel by Arab countries
                E. the 1967 and 1973 wars between Israel and neighboring Arab
                      states
                F. the attempts to secure peace between Palestinians and Israelis




  Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                     Fall 2006
  HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        502
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

     Less Complex                                                                           More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                    ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:                The student will:                 The student will:              The student will:
   Select, match, and/or           Recognize a map and              Identify major                Explain how the United
    sort pictures of leaders         globe of Earth and locate         communist and                  States helped Western
    during the Cold War              countries and regions in          democratic nations after       Europe and Japan
   Sequence events to               this historical period,           World War II and discuss       recover after World
    demonstrate                      particularly China, Israel,       differences among their        War II
    understanding of time,           Egypt, the Congo, Cuba,           governments                   Explore why China
    using pictures or other          Vietnam, and India               Describe how the United        experienced a political
    symbols                         Sequence historical               States helped western          revolution after World
   Demonstrate basic                events using a timeline           Europe recover after           War II and how the
    understanding of                Identify photographs of           World War II (Marshall         communists came to
    economics (i.e., trade,          the rebuilding that               Plan)                          power
    barter, earning money or         occurred after World             Describe how the United       Identify a 20th century
    tokens, or buying/selling)       War II                            States helped Japan            inventor or scientist and
   Respond to text being           Locate countries or               recover after World            describe the significance
    read aloud (i.e., remain         regions where Cold War            War II                         of his or her work
    alert, request more)             tensions occurred on a           Explain why the term          Explain why the state of
   Choose appropriate text          world map or globe                “Cold War” is used to          Israel was created after
    to read or to have read                                            describe relations             World War II and why
    aloud                                                              between the United             the Middle East is an on-
   Orient to books/orient                                             States and the Soviet          going source of political
    book right side up                                                 Union from 1945 through        tension
   Turn pages in a book or                                            the 1980s                     Describe the “arms race”
    magazine                                                          Explain the reasons for        and discuss how the
   Activate an electronic                                             conflict in a selected         United States and the
    device to access text,                                             country or region during       Soviet Union opposed
    communicate with                                                   the Cold War                   each other after World
    others, or participate in                                                                         War II
    an instructional activity
   Turn attention toward                                                                         Continue to address skills and
    another person                                                                                concepts in this subject that
   Grasp, manipulate, and                                                                        approach grade-level
    release objects                                                                               expectations
   Take turns appropriately
    during classroom
    discussion
   Respond to/initiate
    contacts with others
   Apply rules for
    appropriate classroom
    behavior
   Use appropriate social
    greetings
   Follow simple directions
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint
    attention


     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                    Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        503
                                                                                                            History and
                                                                                                           Social Science

                                                                                                         World History II

                                                                                                         The Contemporary
                                                                                                         World, 1989–2001
CONTENT    History and Social Science
   TOPIC    The Rise of the Nation State to the Present                                                    Grades 8–12
   Learning Standards for: The Contemporary World, 1989–2001
         THEMES
                         The evolution of the concepts of personal freedom, individual responsibility, and
                          respect for human dignity
                         The influence of economic, political, religious, and cultural ideas as human
                          societies move beyond regional, national, or geographic boundaries
                         The development of scientific reasoning, technology, and formal education over
                          time and their effects on people’s health, standards of living, economic growth,
                          government, religious beliefs, communal life, and the environment


                            Grades 8–12: World History II
Learning Standard as Written                                                                 Essence of Standard
 WHII.40      Identify the causes for the decline and collapse of the Soviet Union and        Identify causes for the collapse
              the communist regimes of Eastern Europe. (H, E)                                  of Communism and the growth
                 A. the weaknesses of the Soviet command economy                               of freedom in Russia and
                 B. the burdens of Soviet military commitments                                 Eastern Europe
                 C. the anticommunist policies of President Reagan
                 D. the resistance to communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern
                      Europe
 WHII.41      Explain the role of various leaders in transforming the Soviet Union and        Explain the role of significant
              Eastern Europe. (H, C)                                                           leaders in transforming the
                A. Mikhail Gorbachev                                                           Soviet Union and Eastern
                B. Vaclav Havel                                                                Europe
                C. Andrei Sakharov
                D. Aleksander Solzhenitsyn
                E. Lech Walesa
 WHII.42      Analyze the consequences of the Soviet Union’s breakup. (H, E)                  Describe the consequences of
                A. the development of market economies                                         the Soviet Union’s breakup
                B. political and social instability
                C. the danger of the spread of nuclear technology and other
                     technologies of mass destruction to rogue states and terrorist
                     organizations
 WHII.43      Identify the sources of ethnic and religious conflicts in the following         Identify sources of religious
              nations and regions. (H)                                                         and ethnic conflicts
                 A. Northern Ireland
                 B. the Balkans
                 C. Sudan and Rwanda
                 D. Sri Lanka
                 E. Kashmir
 WHII.44      Explain the reasons for the fall of apartheid in South Africa, including the    Explain reasons for apartheid in
              influence and ideas of Nelson Mandela. (H)                                       South Africa with special
                                                                                               attention to Nelson Mandela



    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                     Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        504
WHII.45     Explain the social and economic effects of the spread of AIDS in Asian        Explain the social and economic
            and African countries. (H)                                                     effects from the spread of AIDS
WHII.46     Explain how the computer revolution contributed to economic growth and        Explain the effects of the
            advances in science, medicine, and communication. (H)                          computer revolution worldwide
WHII.47     Explain the rise and funding of Islamic fundamentalism in the last half of    Explain the effects of Islamic
            the 20th century and identify the major events and forces in the Middle        fundamentalism on world
            East over the last several decades. (H, E)                                     affairs
               A. the weakness and fragility of the oil-rich Persian Gulf states,
                   including Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and others
               B. the Iranian Revolution of 1978–1979
               C. defeat of the Soviet Union by the Mujahideen in Afghanistan
               D. the origins of the Persian Gulf War and the post-war actions of
                   Saddam Hussein
               E. the financial support of radical and terrorist organizations by the
                   Saudis
               F. the increase in terrorist attacks against Israel and the United
                   States
WHII.48     Describe America’s response to and the wider consequences of the              Describe the United States
            September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center in New           response to the terrorist
            York City and the Pentagon in Washington, D. C. (H)                            attacks of September 11, 2001,
                                                                                           and its lingering effects




  Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                   Fall 2006
  HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        505
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

        Less Complex                                                                        More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                    ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:                The student will:                The student will:                 The student will:
   Sequence events to              Use a timeline to               Describe life in the             Describe how political
    demonstrate                      sequence significant             former Soviet Union               changes in the former
    understanding of time            historical events from           under communist rule              Soviet Union and South
   Match pictures of                this time period                Identify reasons for the          Africa changed ways of
    significant world leaders       Locate the former Soviet         decline and fall of               life in those countries
   Assist during a peer’s           Union on a world map or          Communism in the                 Explain how the rise of
    presentation by                  globe                            former Soviet Union and           Islamic fundamentalism
    indicating areas on a           Identify changes in the          how its fall affected             has increased tensions
    map as directed                  lives of the people and in       people’s lives                    and conflict in world
   Activate a switch to start       world relations following       Describe daily life in            affairs
    a video on the fall of           the fall of Communism in         South Africa under               Describe how the United
    Communism                        the former Soviet Union          apartheid                         States and other
   Respond to text being           Identify changes in the         Describe how daily life in        democratic nations are
    read aloud (i.e., remain         lives of the people and in       South Africa changed              responding to acts of
    alert, request more)             world relations following        after the fall of apartheid       terrorism
   Choose appropriate text          the fall of apartheid in                                          Explain the importance
    to read or to have read          South Africa                                                       of the oil-rich Middle East
    aloud                           Identify ways that oil is                                          to the world’s economy
   Orient to books/orient           used in the United States                                         Select a post-World War
    book right side up                                                                                  II leader and examine
   Turn pages in a book or                                                                             his/her contributions to
    magazine                                                                                            the spread of democratic
   Turn attention toward                                                                               ideals
    another person
   Grasp, manipulate, and                                                                          Continue to address skills and
    release objects                                                                                 concepts in this subject that
   Organize instructional                                                                          approach grade-level
    materials                                                                                       expectations
   Take turns appropriately
    during classroom
    discussion
   Respond to/initiate
    contacts with others
   Apply rules for
    appropriate classroom
    behavior
   Use appropriate social
    greetings
   Follow simple directions
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint
    attention




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                      Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        506
                                                                                                 History and
                                                                                                Social Science

                                                                                                U.S. History I
                                                                                         The Political and Intellectual
                                                                                           Origins of the American
                                                                                          Nation: the Revolution and
                                                                                               the Constitution,
                                                                                                  1763–1789

                                                                                                Grades 8–12


CONTENT    History and Social Science
   TOPIC     The Revolution through Reconstruction, 1763–1877
   Learning Standards for: The Political and Intellectual Origins of the American
                                               Nation: the Revolution and the Constitution, 1763–1789
               THEMES
                          The evolution of the concepts of personal freedom, individual responsibility, and
                           respect for human dignity
                          The growth and impact of centralized state power


                               Grades 8–12: U.S. History I
Learning Standard as Written                                                            Essence of Standard
  USI.1       Explain the political and economic factors that contributed to the         Explain the major political and
              American Revolution. (H, C)                                                 economic causes of the
                  A. the impact on the colonies of the French and Indian War,             American Revolution
                       including how the war led to an overhaul of British imperial
                       policy from 1763 to 1775
                  B. how freedom from European feudalism and aristocracy and the
                       widespread ownership of property fostered individualism and
                       contributed to the Revolution
  USI.2       Explain the historical and intellectual influences on the American         Explain major influences on the
              Revolution and the formation and framework of the American                  American Revolution and new
              government. (H, C)                                                          United States government
                  A. the legacy of ancient Greece and Rome
                  B. the political theories of such European philosophers as Locke
                       and Montesquieu

              Seminal Primary Documents to Read: Mayflower Compact (1620)

              Seminal Primary Documents to Consider: Massachusetts Body of Liberties
              (1641) and John Locke’s Treatises of Civil Government (1690)
  USI.3       Explain the influence and ideas of the Declaration of Independence and     Explain the significance of the
              the political philosophy of Thomas Jefferson. (H, C)                        Declaration of Independence

              Seminal Primary Documents to Read: the Declaration of Independence
              (1776)

              Seminal Primary Documents to Consider: the Suffolk Resolves (1774) and
              the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (1786)
  USI.4       Analyze how Americans resisted British policies before 1775 and analyze    Identify reasons for the
              the reasons for the American victory and the British defeat during the      American victory in the
              Revolutionary war. (H)                                                      Revolution against Great Britain
    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        507
USI.5       Explain the role of Massachusetts in the Revolution, including important       Explain The role of
            events that took place in Massachusetts and important leaders from              Massachusetts in the American
            Massachusetts. (H)                                                              Revolution, including important
                A. the Boston Massacre                                                      people and events
                B. the Boston Tea Party
                C. the Battles of Lexington and Concord and
                     Bunker Hill
                D. Sam Adams, John Adams, and John Hancock

            Seminal Primary Documents to Consider: the Massachusetts Constitution
            (1780)
USI.6       Explain the reasons for the adoption of the Articles of Confederation in       Describe the events that led to
            1781, including why its drafters created a weak central government;             the creation of a national
            analyze the shortcomings of the national government under the Articles;         government in the United
            and describe the crucial events (e.g., Shays’s Rebellion) leading to the        States
            Constitutional Convention. (H, C)

            Seminal Primary Documents to Read: the Northwest Ordinance (1787)
USI.7       Explain the roles of various founders at the Constitutional Convention.        Describe the significance of the
            Describe the major debates that occurred at the Convention and the              United States Constitution: the
            “Great Compromise” that was reached. (H, C)                                     people who wrote it and the
                                                                                            issues they debated and
            Major Debates                                                                   resolved
                A.   the distribution of political power
                B.   the rights of individuals
                C.   the rights of states
                D.   slavery

            Founders
                A.   Benjamin Franklin
                B.   Alexander Hamilton
                C.   James Madison
                D.   George Washington

            Seminal Primary Documents to Read: the U.S. Constitution
USI.8       Describe the debate over the ratification of the Constitution between          Describe the debate among the
            Federalists and Anti-Federalists and explain the key ideas contained in the     framers of the Constitution over
            Federalist Papers on federalism, factions, checks and balances, and the         how strong the federal
            importance of an independent judiciary. (H, C)                                  government should be

            Seminal Primary Documents to Read: Federalist Paper number 10

            Seminal Primary Documents to Consider: Federalist Papers numbers 1, 9,
            39, 51, and 78
USI.9       Explain the reasons for the passage of the Bill of Rights. (H, C)              Explain the reasons for passing
                A. the influence of the British concept of limited government               of the Bill of Rights
                B. the particular ways in which the Bill of Rights protects basic
                     freedoms, restricts government power, and ensures rights to
                     persons accused of crimes

            Seminal Primary Documents to Read: the Bill of Rights (1791)

            Seminal Primary Documents to Consider: Magna Carta (1215) and the
            English Bill of Rights (1689)
USI.10      On a map of North America, identify the first 13 states to ratify the          Identify and locate the first 13
            Constitution. (H, G)                                                            states to ratify the Constitution




  Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                    Fall 2006
  HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        508
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

     Less Complex                                                                            More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                   ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:               The student will:                 The student will:                The student will:
   Sequence events to             Identify the original 13         Use a timeline to               Use a timeline to show
    demonstrate                     United States colonies on         sequence major historical        important events
    understanding of time           a map or by name                  events in Massachusetts          (political and economical)
   Identify personal rights       Explain that Britain              from 1763–1789                   leading to the American
    of students in the              controlled Massachusetts         Describe why people in           Revolution
    classroom and school            long ago as a colony              Massachusetts and other         Explain the American
   Match pictures of the          Use a timeline to indicate        colonies became angry            colonists’ grievances
    founders of the                 major events during the           with British rule                against Britain, with
    Constitutional Convention       time Britain ruled               Investigate and describe         special attention to
   Grasp, manipulate, and          Massachusetts as a                an important event that          Britain’s taxation policies
    release map pieces to           colony                            occurred in                     Explain why/how the
    complete a map of              Identify aspects of life in       Massachusetts before or          American colonists were
    colonial America                colonial Massachusetts            during the American              able to defeat the British
   Take turns appropriately        (e.g., homes, people at           Revolution                       in the Revolutionary War
    during games related to         work, dress) using               Examine and share the           Investigate the
    events of the American          pictures                          contributions of a person        significance of events
    Revolution                     Compare life in colonial          from Massachusetts to            that occurred in
   Move toward pictures or         Massachusetts with life in        the American Revolution          Massachusetts before
    objects related to the          Massachusetts today               or to the formation of the       and during the
    American Revolution            Investigate an important          new United States                Revolutionary War
   Respond to text being           event that occurred in            government                      Explain why the
    read aloud (i.e., remain        Massachusetts before or          Identify important ideas         Declaration of
    alert, request more)            during the Revolutionary          about government                 Independence is an
   Choose appropriate text         War                               expressed in the                 important document in
    to read or to have read        Identify and explain              Declaration of                   American history
    aloud                           personal rights that are          Independence                    Discuss how the United
   Activate an electronic          found in the Bill of Rights      Identify and explain why         States developed its
    device to access text,                                            some framers of the              Constitution
    communicate with                                                  Constitution favored a          Discuss why some
    others, or participate in                                         strong central                   framers of the
    an instructional activity                                         government and why               Constitution favored a
   Turn attention toward                                             others did not                   strong central
    another person                                                   Identify the purpose and         government while others
   Organize instructional                                            importance of the                did not
    materials                                                         Constitution                    Explain why the Bill of
   Respond to/initiate                                              Identify the steps in            Rights was added to the
    contacts with others                                              developing the United            Constitution and its
   Apply rules for                                                   States Constitution;             importance to personal
    appropriate classroom                                             explain one or two               freedoms in the United
    behavior                                                          step(s) in greater detail        States
   Use appropriate social                                           Explain the significance
    greetings                                                         of the Bill of Rights to     Continue to address skills and
   Follow simple directions                                          personal freedoms in the     concepts in this subject that
   Identify self and/or                                              United States                approach grade-level
    others                                                                                         expectations
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint
    attention


     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                     Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        509
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standards USI.3
        In grades 8-12, students identify the differences between the Thomas Jefferson's draft of the
        Declaration of Independence and the final version of the document
        (http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/declara/, www.educationworld.com ). Students work together in
        cooperative groups to fill in charts stating the changes made in the final version, possible reasons
        for those changes, and whether they agree with the changes. Each student chooses three changes
        and writes an explanation of why he or she would or would not have made these changes.


How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

Cedric participates in a small group to create a chart       Data chart indicating Cedric’s ability to state facts about
comparing Thomas Jefferson’s draft with the final             the Declaration of Independence
version of the Declaration of Independence. He               Cedric’s essay identifying these changes and his opinion
writes a short essay about three changes made to              of each
the final documents                                          Cedric’s completed graphic organizer of these changes


Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

Bonnie is given a chart with sentences from the draft        Data chart indicating Bonnie’s ability to identify same
of the Declaration of Independence in one column              and different statements in the draft and final versions
and sentences from the final version of the. She              of the Declaration of Independence
must identify which statements are the same and              Bonnie’s completed chart identifying same and different
which are different by marking the sentences with            Bonnie’s dictated work sample explaining three of the
an “S” for same and “D” for different.                        comparisons of same and different

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

Larry is presented with two sets of pictures of              Data chart indicating Larry’s ability to match picture to
people and objects related to the Declaration of              picture
Independence. He matches picture to picture.                 Larry’s completed picture-matching chart
                                                             Video of Larry matching pictures




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities              Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        510
                                                                                                         History and
                                                                                                        Social Science

                                                                                                        U.S. History I

                                                                                                      The Formation and
                                                                                                        Framework of
                                                                                                     American Democracy

                                                                                                        Grades 8–12

CONTENT    History and Social Science
   TOPIC     The Revolution through Reconstruction, 1763-1877
   Learning Standards for: The Formation and Framework of American Democracy
          THEMES
                         The evolution of the concepts of personal freedom, individual responsibility, and
                          respect for human dignity


                              Grades 8–12: U. S. History I
Learning Standard as Written                                                                Essence of Standard
  USI.11    Describe the purpose and functions of government. (H, C)                         Describe the purposes and
                                                                                              functions of government
  USI.12    Explain and provide examples of different forms of government, including         Identify and explain different
            democracy, monarchy, oligarchy, theocracy, and autocracy. (H, C)                  forms of government
  USI.13    Explain why the United States government is classified as a democratic           Explain why the United States
            government. (H, C)                                                                is called a “democracy”
  USI.14    Explain the characteristics of American democracy, including the concepts        Explain the features of
            of popular sovereignty and constitutional government, which includes              American democracy
            representative institutions, federalism, separation of powers, shared
            powers, checks and balances, and individual rights. (H, C)
  USI.15    Explain the varying roles and responsibilities of federal, state, and local      Explain the roles and
            governments in the United States. (H, C)                                          responsibilities of the federal,
                                                                                              state, and local governments
  USI.16    Describe the evolution of the role of the federal government, including          Describe specific powers and
            public services, taxation, economic policy, foreign policy, and common            responsibilities of the federal
            defense. (H, C)                                                                   government
  USI.17    Explain the major components of Massachusetts’ state government,                 Describe specific powers and
            including the roles and functions of the governor, state legislature, and         responsibilities of the
            other constitutional officers. (H, C)                                             Massachusetts state
                                                                                              government
  USI.18    Explain the major components of local government in Massachusetts,               Explain specific powers and
            including the roles and functions of school committees, town meetings,            responsibilities of
            boards of selectmen, mayors, and city councils. (H, C)                            Massachusetts’ local
                                                                                              governments
  USI.19    Explain the rights and the responsibilities of citizenship and describe how a    Explain the rights and
            democracy provides opportunities for citizens to participate in the political     responsibilities of citizens in a
            process through elections, political parties, and interest groups. (H, C)         democracy



    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                     Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        511
    USI.20      Explain the evolution and function of political parties, including their role in    Explain the role of political
                federal, state, and local elections. (H, C)                                          parties in a democracy
    USI.21      Describe how decisions are made in a democracy, including the role of               Describe how laws are made,
                legislatures, courts, executives, and the public. (H, C)                             enforced, and interpreted in
                                                                                                     the United States


Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

      Less Complex                                                                                 More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                      ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:                  The student will:                  The student will:                 The student will:
    Participate in voting by         Explain why rules are             Discuss why rules and             Explain why people
     activating a switch to            important in school and            laws are important in              create governments
     make a choice                     society                            school and in society             Identify and explain
    Sort pictures of actions         Demonstrate an                    Explain why people form            different forms of
     that follow rules and             understanding of what it           governments                        government in the world
     those that do not                 means to vote and give            Give examples of local            Explain why voting is an
    Respond to text being             examples of when voting            government                         essential part of a
     read aloud (i.e., remain          occurs                             responsibilities                   democracy
     alert, request more)             Explain what it means to          Give examples of                  Give examples of when
    Choose appropriate text           be a good school citizen           Massachusetts state                and how voting occurs
     to read or to have read           and a good citizen                 government                        Provide examples of
     aloud                             outside of school                  responsibilities                   good citizenship and civic
    Orient to books/orient           Explain that people elect         Explain and give                   responsibility
     book right side up                leaders to govern them             examples of United                Compare the
    Turn pages in a book or           in Massachusetts and in            States government                  responsibilities of
     magazine                          the United States                  responsibilities                   Massachusetts state
    Activate an electronic           Identify leaders in               Explain why voting is an           government to the
     device to access text,            Massachusetts (e.g., city          essential part of a                responsibilities of the
     communicate with                  mayor, other city                  democracy                          United States
     others, or participate in         officials, governor, state        Give examples of when              government
     an instructional activity         representatives,                   voting occurs                     Investigate and explain
    Turn attention toward             senators, U.S.                    Explain causes and                 the roles of political
     another person                    congressmen)                       effects of voting and its          parties in Massachusetts
    Grasp, manipulate, and           Identify the president             impact on citizens                 and in the United States
     release objects                   and vice-president of the         Identify the meaning and          Compare the
    Organize instructional            United States                      characteristics of a “good         responsibilities of the
     materials                                                            citizen”                           executive, legislative, and
    Take turns appropriately                                            Name the three branches            judicial branches of
     during classroom                                                     of state and federal               government in
     discussion                                                           governments; explain               Massachusetts and in the
    Respond to/initiate                                                  one in detail                      United States
     contacts with others                                                Investigate how the
    Apply rules for                                                      United States                 Continue to address skills and
     appropriate classroom                                                government operates           concepts in this subject that
     behavior                                                             and what it does              approach grade-level
    Use appropriate social                                                                             expectations
     greetings
    Follow simple directions
    Identify self and/or
     others
    Initiate or respond to
     request for joint attention

      Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                          Fall 2006
      HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        512
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standards USI15, 17, and 18
        In grades 8-12, students participate in a long-term project in which they create a visual chart of
        local, state, and federal governments, including the offices, the current elected officials, and their
        roles and responsibilities. The class visits City Hall and students interview one official by individually
        asking a question listed on the chart.

How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                 Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                       Products

Salina creates a table listing the names and showing          Data chart indicating Salina’s ability to chart the names
pictures of the local, state, and federal government           and functions of her local, state, and federal
officials. She finds pictures and names of the officials       governments
on the Internet, in newspapers, and in magazines.             Salina’s final completed chart
                                                              Draft of Salina’s chart with edits and revisions
                                                              Salina’s interview form completed with the answers to
                                                               her questions

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                   Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                        Products

Riley reviews a completed listing of key government           Data chart indicating Riley’s ability to identify names of
officials, including mayor, governor, president, and           people and their government roles
vice president. Riley practices identifying the names         Work sample in which Riley labeled names of the mayor,
and roles of these people, and interviews the mayor.           governor, and president
                                                              Riley’s completed interview form

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                       Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                       Products

Lucas is working on controlled movement of his                Data chart showing Lucas’s ability to place items within
hands. Lucas places pictures of local, state, and              identified perimeters
federal government leaders in circles on a chart              Lucas’s completed chart of government leaders
created by other students. When the class visits City         Work sample scribed by his teacher of Lucas’s accuracy
Hall, Lucas greets the mayor using a voice output              in placing shapes in specified locations
device.




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities               Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        513
                                                                                                     History and
                                                                                                    Social Science

                                                                                                   U.S. History I

                                                                                             Political Democratization,
                                                                                             Westward Expansion, and
                                                                                             Diplomatic Developments,
                                                                                                     1790–1860

                                                                                                    Grades 8–12



CONTENT    History and Social Science
   TOPIC     The Revolution through Reconstruction, 1763–1877
   Learning Standards for: Political Democratization, Westward Expansion, and
                                                    Diplomatic Developments, 1790–1860
                THEMES
                             The evolution of the concepts of personal freedom, individual responsibility, and
                              respect for human dignity


                               Grades 8 – 12 – U. S. History I
Learning Standard as Written                                                               Essence of Standard
  USI.22      Summarize the major policies and political developments that took place       Summarize events and
              during the presidencies of George Washington (1789–1797), John Adams           policies during the
              (1797-1801), and Thomas Jefferson (1801–1809). (H, C)                          Washington, Adams, and
                   A. the origins of the Federalist and Democratic–Republican parties        Jefferson presidencies
                       in the 1790s
                   B. the conflicting ideas of Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton
                   C. the Alien and Sedition Acts
                   D. the Louisiana Purchase

              Seminal Primary Documents to Consider: Washington’s Farewell Address
              (1796) and Jefferson’s First Inaugural Address (1801)
  USI.23      Analyze the rising levels of political participation and the expansion of     Discuss increase in citizen
              suffrage in antebellum America.                                                participation in the voting
              (C, H)                                                                         process

              Seminal Primary Documents to Consider: Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy
              in America, Volume I (1835) and Volume II (1839)
  USI.24      Describe the election of 1828, the importance of Jacksonian democracy,        Identify significant
              and Jackson’s actions as President. (H)                                        contributions of President
                                                                                             Andrew Jackson
                  A.       the spoils system
                  B.       Jackson’s veto of the National Bank
                  C.       Jackson’s policy of Indian Removal
  USI.25      Trace the influence and ideas of Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall    Describe the significance of
              and the importance of the doctrine of judicial review as manifested in         John Marshall’s term as Chief
              Marbury v. Madison (1803). (H, C)                                              Justice of the Supreme Court




    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                 Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        514
USI.26      Describe the causes, course, and consequences of America’s westward         Describe causes of America’s
            expansion and its growing diplomatic assertiveness. Use a map of North       westward expansion and their
            America to trace America’s expansion to the Civil War, including the         consequences
            location of the Santa Fe and Oregon trails. (H, E, G)
                 A. the War of 1812
                 B. the purchase of Florida in 1819
                 C. the 1823 Monroe Doctrine
                 D. the Cherokees’ Trail of Tears
                 E. the annexation of Texas in 1845
                 F. the concept of Manifest Destiny and its relationship to westward
                     expansion
                 G. the acquisition of the Oregon Territory in 1846
                 H. the territorial acquisitions resulting from the Mexican War
                 I. the search for gold in California
                 J. the Gadsden Purchase of 1854




  Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities              Fall 2006
  HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        515
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

      Less Complex                                                                            More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                     ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:                 The student will:                 The student will:               The student will:
   Match shapes of states to        Demonstrate knowledge            Explain the significance       Discuss why political
    states on a map                   of historical events by           of the Louisiana Purchase       parties emerged in the
   Match pictures of                 using a timeline to show         Identify present-day            United States shortly
    pioneers, Native                  westward expansion                states within the area of       after its founding
    Americans, and/or U.S.           Identify George                   the Louisiana purchase         Explore and identify
    presidents                        Washington as the first          Discuss the causes and          important details of the
   Sequence events using a           United States president           effects of the American         Washington, Adams, and
    timeline to demonstrate          Identify one or more              migration west during the       Jefferson presidencies
    understanding of time             duties and responsibilities       1800s                          Investigate and explain
    and chronology                    of U.S. presidents               Explain why pioneers and        the significance of the
   Grasp, manipulate, and           Locate Massachusetts on           Native Americans often          Louisiana Purchase, with
    release shapes of states,         a United States map and           came into conflict, and         special attention to the
    and place shapes on a             compare its location and          the consequences of this        Lewis and Clark
    map                               size to states in western         conflict for Native             Expedition
   Respond to text being             U.S.                              Americans                      Discuss how the United
    read aloud (i.e., remain         Discuss the concept of a         Locate major routes             States expanded its
    alert, request more)              journey and trace the             followed by pioneers and        boundaries through
   Choose appropriate text           routes pioneers followed          investigate the                 purchases and war
    to read or to have read           west across the United            challenges the Pioneers        Trace the routes pioneers
    aloud                             States; locate those              faced while traveling           followed west and
   Orient to books/orient            routes on a U.S. map             Examine the cultures of         describe the challenges
    book right side up               Discuss reasons why               Native Americans at the         they faced while traveling
   Turn pages in a book or           pioneers and Native               time of U.S. westward          Select a Native American
    magazine                          Americans often came              expansion                       tribe and investigate the
   Activate an electronic            into conflict                    On a timeline, identify         effect of westward
    device to access text,           Using a map, identify             major events of the             expansion on its culture,
    communicate with                  states impacted by                Washington, Adams, and          including tribe location(s)
    others, or participate in         westward expansion                Jefferson presidencies;        Explore and describe the
    an instructional activity                                           discuss one presidency in       effects of the discovery
   Turn attention toward                                               greater detail                  of gold in California on
    another person                                                                                      westward expansion
   Organize instructional                                                                             Describe John Marshall’s
    materials                                                                                           impact on the Supreme
   Take turns appropriately                                                                            Court
    during classroom                                                                                   Using a variety of
    discussion                                                                                          sources, identify Andrew
   Respond to/initiate                                                                                 Jackson and identify
    contacts with others                                                                                important facts about his
   Apply rules for                                                                                     presidency
    appropriate classroom
    behavior                                                                                        Continue to address skills and
   Use appropriate social                                                                          concepts in this subject that
    greetings                                                                                       approach grade-level
   Follow simple directions                                                                        expectations
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint attention

      Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                     Fall 2006
      HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        516
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standards USI.26
        At grades 8-10, students create individual timelines of America’s westward expansion. Students
        create individual color-coded maps that trace America’s expansion up to the Civil War. They also
        take a test on the facts of westward expansion.

How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

Libby creates a timeline of America’s westward               Data chart showing Libby’s ability to demonstrate
expansion and creates a color-coded map that traces           knowledge of America’s westward expansion, including
the expansion up to the Civil War.                            quizzes, timeline, map, and homework assignments
                                                             Libby’s completed timeline
                                                             Libby’s color-coded map
                                                             Libby’s test on westward expansion

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

Jade fills in a map that plots the Oregon Trail. She         Data chart showing Jade’s ability to identify states
colors the states through which the Oregon Trail              traveled on the Oregon Trail
passes and makes a timeline of the sequence of               Jade’s colored map
states through which pioneers traveled.                      Jade’s timeline showing the sequence of states

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

Seth is working on sequencing. He must place                 Data chart showing Seth’s ability to sequence
simple maps and pictures in order showing progress           Work sample of maps placed in order
along the Oregon and Santa Fe Trails.                        Work sample of pictures sequenced in correct order
                                                             Video showing Seth sequencing maps




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities             Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        517
                                                                                                       History and
                                                                                                      Social Science

                                                                                                     U.S. History I

                                                                                                   Economic Growth in
                                                                                                  the North and South,
                                                                                                       1800–1860

                                                                                                      Grades 8–12

CONTENT    History and Social Science
   TOPIC     The Revolution through Reconstruction, 1763–1877
   Learning Standards for: Economic Growth in the North and South, 1800–1860
          THEMES
                         The growth and spread of free markets and industrial economies
                         The origins and impact of sectionalism on American life and politics
                         The rise and continuing international influence of the United States


                              Grades 8–12: U. S. History I
Learning Standard as Written                                                             Essence of Standard
  USI.27      Explain the importance of the Transportation Revolution of the 19th         Explain the importance of
              century (the building of canals, roads, bridges, turnpikes, steamboats,      advances in transportation to
              and railroads), including the stimulus it provided to the growth of a        the growth of the United States
              market economy. (H, E)
  USI.28      Explain the emergence and impact of the textile industry in New England     Explain the significance of the
              and industrial growth generally throughout antebellum America. (H, E)        textile industry in New England
                  A. the technological improvements and inventions that contributed        and overall industrial growth in
                       to industrial growth                                                the U.S. in the 1800s
                  B. the causes and impact of the wave of immigration from
                       Northern Europe to America in the 1840s and 1850s
                  C. the rise of a business class of merchants and manufacturers
                  D. the roles of women in New England textile factories
  USI.29      Describe the rapid growth of slavery in the South after 1800 and analyze    Describe the reasons for the
              slave life and resistance on plantations and farms across the South, as      rapid growth of slavery in the
              well as the impact of the cotton gin on the economics of slavery and         South in the 1800s
              Southern agriculture. (H)

              Seminal Primary Documents to Read: Frederick Douglass’s Independence
              Day speech at Rochester, New York (1852)




    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                 Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        518
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

     Less Complex                                                                            More Complex


    The student will:                 The student will:               The student will:                The student will:
   Match pictures of                Demonstrate                    Examine the importance          Use a timeline to show
    different forms of                understanding of                of improved means of             advances in
    transportation,                   historical events from          transportation in the            transportation during the
    historically and today            this time period by using       1800s                            1800s
   Use a timeline to                 a timeline                     Select an improvement in        Explain why advances in
    demonstrate an                   Compare present-day             transportation that              transportation helped the
    understanding of time,            means of transportation         emerged in the 1800s             United States economy
    sequence, and                     to those that emerged in        and describe its effect on       grow
    chronology                        the 1800s in the United         way of life in the United       Discuss why advances in
   Activate a switch to view         States                          States                           transportation caused
    video on advances in             Identify what workers did      Explore why textile mills        cities to grow in the
    transportation                    in textile mills in New         emerged in New England           United States
   Respond to text being             England in the 1800s            and their effect on ways        Compare working
    read aloud (i.e., remain         Explore how slaves were         of life                          conditions in a New
    alert, request more)              used on plantations to         Create a timeline of             England textile mill to
   Choose appropriate text           grow cotton                     events that led up to the        those on a southern
    to read or to have read          Identify states in the          creation of the textile          plantation
    aloud                             south that supported            industry in New England         Explain why slavery grew
   Orient to books/orient            slavery                        Investigate the growth of        rapidly in the South
    book right side up               Sequence pictures that          slavery in the 1800s, with       during the 1800s, but not
   Turn pages in a book or           show advances and               special attention to its         in the North
    magazine                          changes in transportation       importance to the               Investigate the
   Turn attention toward            Sequence pictures that          southern economy;                emergence of the
    another person                    show the cycle of growth        create a timeline to             abolitionist movement in
   Grasp, manipulate, and            and processing of cotton        illustrate                       Northern states, with
    release objects                                                  Discuss the concept of           special attention to
   Organize instructional                                            and reasons why slavery          abolitionism in
    materials                                                         existed and the efforts to       Massachusetts
   Take turns appropriately                                          end it
    during classroom                                                 Explain why the invention    Continue to address skills and
    discussion                                                        of the cotton gin caused     concepts in this subject that
   Respond to/initiate                                               slavery to grow              approach grade-level
    contacts with others                                             Using a variety of           expectations
   Apply rules for                                                   sources, describe a
    appropriate classroom                                             typical day in a slave’s
    behavior                                                          life
   Use appropriate social
    greetings
   Follow simple directions
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint attention




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                     Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        519
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standard USI.27
        In grades 8-12, students read about and discuss the transportation revolution of the 19th
        century. Students choose an invention or innovation related to the transportation revolution (e.g.,
        canals, bridges, turnpikes, steamboats, railroads), then research and write or present a report on
        its effect on the U.S. economy and culture.

How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

Bernie researches the creation of turnpikes during           Data chart showing Bernie’s ability to demonstrate
the 19th century. He writes notes on his research on          knowledge of the transportation revolution based on
note cards and uses the information to complete an            quizzes, grades on his research notes, and homework
outline for his report. Bernie then writes his report.        assignments
                                                             Bernie’s report outline on the transportation revolution
                                                             Bernie’s completed report on the transportation
                                                              revolution
                                                             Bernie’s completed homework assignment on the
                                                              transportation revolution

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

Bronson chooses to write about steamboats. His               Data chart showing Bronson’s ability to answer
teachers read simplified text to him about the                questions about steamboats
development and use of steamboats in the 19th                Work sample of Bronson’s answers to steamboat
century. Bronson uses “Writing with Symbols” to               questions
answer questions about what he learned. He then              Bronson’s report on steamboats
sequences the information to create a report on
steamboats.

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

Steven is working on increasing his vocabulary. He           Field data chart of Steven’s ability to pronounce initial
is asked to identify different modes of transportation        sounds of words
by pointing and making the initial sound of the              Line or bar graph summarizing field data chart
word.                                                        Video of Steven making initial sounds of transportation
                                                              words




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities             Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        520
                                                                                                       History and
                                                                                                      Social Science

                                                                                                      U.S. History I

                                                                                                   Social, Political, and
                                                                                                    Religious Change,
                                                                                                        1800-1860

                                                                                                      Grades 8–12


CONTENT   History and Social Science
    TOPIC The Revolution through Reconstruction, 1763-1877
    Learning Standards for: Social, Political, and Religious Change, 1800-1860
         THEMES
                         The influence of economic, political, religious, and cultural ideas as human
                          societies move beyond regional, national, or geographic boundaries


                              Grades 8–12: U. S. History I
Learning Standard as Written                                                              Essence of Standard
  USI.30      Summarize the growth of the American education system and Horace             Summarize the growth of
              Mann’s campaign for free compulsory public education. (H)                     education in the early United
                                                                                            States
  USI.31      Describe the formation of the abolitionist movement, the roles of various    Describe how and why
              abolitionists, and the response of southerners and northerners to             opposition grew to the practice
              abolitionism. (H)                                                             of slavery in the 1800s
                   A. Frederick Douglass                                                   Identify influential leaders in
                   B. William Lloyd Garrison                                                the abolitionist movement
                   C. Sojourner Truth
                   D. Harriet Tubman
                   E. Theodore Weld
  USI.32      Describe important religious trends that shaped antebellum America. (H)      Describe important religious
                  A. the increase in the number of Protestant denominations                 movements before the Civil
                  B. the Second Great Awakening                                             War
                  C. the influence of these trends on the reaction of Protestants to
                       the growth of Catholic immigration
  USI.33      Analyze the goals and effect of the antebellum women’s suffrage              Explain how and why women
              movement. (H)                                                                 fought for greater equality
                  A. the 1848 Seneca Falls convention                                       before the Civil War
                  B. Susan B. Anthony
                  C. Margaret Fuller
                  D. Lucretia Mott
                  E. Elizabeth Cady Stanton

              Seminal Primary Documents to Read: the Seneca Falls Declaration of
              Sentiments and Resolutions (1848)
  USI.34      Analyze the emergence of the Transcendentalist movement through the          Identify famous Massachusetts
              writings of Ralph Waldo Emerson and American literature, including the        and New England authors of
              contributions of Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson. (H)             the 1800s




    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                 Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        521
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

      Less Complex                                                                               More Complex



     ACCESS SKILLS                  ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:              The student will:                 The student will:                The student will:
    Match pictures of            Create a timeline of key          Discuss the importance        Explain the contributions of
     famous Massachusetts          historical events from this        of education in society        Horace Mann to the growth
     and New England               period                             throughout history             of free compulsory
     authors                      Use pictures to describe          Examine why                    education in Massachusetts
    Match pictures to             the life of a slave in the         Massachusetts had an           and the United States
     sequence events               United States                      important role in the         Explain that, in general,
    Follow one-step              Identify that some men             growth of public               groups of people had few
     directions to place           could vote but slaves and          education in the United        rights in the 1800s, with
     pictures of events on         women could not                    States                         special attention to slaves
     a timeline                   Identify two rights women         Explain why opposition         and women
    Respond to text being         wanted at the 1848                 to slavery grew in the        Select an abolitionist and
     read aloud (i.e.,             Seneca Falls Convention            North in the 1800s, and        investigate his/her
     remain alert, request         and why these were                 the reasons that slavery       contributions to the
     more)                         important                          flourished in the south        antislavery movement
    Choose appropriate                                              Explain the ways in           Explore the effects that
     text to read or to have                                          which women were not           religion had on the United
     read aloud                                                       treated equally in the         States during the 1800s,
    Turn pages in a book                                             1800s, using a variety         using a variety of sources
     or magazine                                                      of sources                    Trace the various religious
    Activate an electronic                                          Explore how women              trends before the Civil War
     device to access text,                                           began to work for equal        and explain their significance
     communicate with                                                 rights in the 1800s and       Explain the birth and growth
     others, or participate                                           describe what they             of the women’s rights
     in an instructional                                              wanted                         movement in the 1800s,
     activity                                                        Compare the rights of          with special attention to the
    Turn attention toward                                            women to rights of             Seneca Falls Convention of
     another person                                                   slaves in the 1800s            1848
    Grasp, manipulate,                                              Using a map, locate           Profile one suffragette and
     and release objects                                              places where religious         highlight or describe her
    Organize instructional                                           movements were                 importance to the women’s
     materials                                                        developing                     suffrage movement
    Take turns                                                      Explain opposing points       Select a Transcendentalist
     appropriately during                                             of view in the women’s         author and describe several
     classroom discussion                                             suffrage movement              of his/her social ideas as
    Respond to/initiate                                                                             well as rationales for his/her
     contacts with others                                                                            points of view
    Apply rules for
     appropriate classroom                                                                       Continue to address skills and
     behavior                                                                                    concepts in this subject that
    Use appropriate social                                                                      approach grade-level
     greetings                                                                                   expectations
    Identify self and/or
     others
    Initiate or respond to
     request for joint
     attention



      Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                     Fall 2006
      HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        522
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standards USI.31
        In grades 8-12, students study speeches, letters, and editorials written by Frederick Douglass and
        William Lloyd Garrison, as well as the Constitution, to write an essay describing a point of view with
        which they agree, and why (www.PBS.org).

How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

Vanessa lists points with which she agrees and               Data chart showing Vanessa’s ability to demonstrate
disagrees from documents written by Douglass and              knowledge of the Abolitionist Movement, including
Garrison. She uses this information to write an               quizzes, homework assignments, and essays
essay.                                                       Vanessa’s work sample of statements she agrees and
                                                              disagrees with
                                                             Vanessa’s essay with earlier revised drafts and
                                                              completed graphic organizer

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products
                                                             Field data chart showing Wyatt’s ability to complete an
Wyatt is given statements by Douglass and Garrison            opinion form
on a form for each abolitionist with a picture. The          Line or bar graph summarizing field data chart
statements are read to Wyatt and explained as                Wyatt’s completed opinion form
needed. Wyatt states whether he agrees or                    Wyatt’s short essay
disagrees with each statement and checks his
answer in the appropriate box. He then uses a scribe
to complete a short essay describing with whom he
agrees.

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

Raymond is working on answering yes/no questions             Field data chart showing Raymond’s yes/no responses
using PECS. He is asked questions about the                  Line or bar graph summarizing field data chart
Abolitionist Movement that require him to give a yes         Work sample of PECS symbols showing Raymond’s
or no response. Raymond then completes a work                 responses to statements
sample on which he places PECS symbols after
statement showing whether he agrees or disagrees.




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities            Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        523
                                                                                                          History and
                                                                                                         Social Science

                                                                                                        U.S. History I

                                                                                                       The Civil War and
                                                                                                        Reconstruction,
                                                                                                          1860–1877

                                                                                                         Grades 8–12


CONTENT   History and Social Science
   TOPIC The Revolution through Reconstruction, 1763–1877
   Learning Standards for: The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1860–1877
         THEMES
                         The evolution of the concepts of personal freedom, individual responsibility, and
                          respect for human dignity
                         The growth and impact of centralized state power


                              Grades 8–12: U. S. History I
Learning Standard as Written                                                             Essence of Standard
  USI.35      Describe how the different economies and cultures of the North and          Describe significant differences
              South contributed to the growing importance of sectional politics in the     between ways of life in the North
              early 19th century. (H)                                                      and South before the Civil War
  USI.36      Summarize the critical developments leading to the Civil War. (H)           Explain critical events leading to
                 A. the Missouri Compromise (1820)                                         the Civil War
                 B. the South Carolina Nullification Crisis
                     (1832-1833)
                 C. the Wilmot Proviso (1846)
                 D. the Compromise of 1850
                 E. the publication of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin
                     (1851–1852)
                 F. the Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
                 G. the Dred Scott Supreme Court case (1857)
                 H. the Lincoln-Douglas debates (1858)
                 I. John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry (1859)
                 J. the election of Abraham Lincoln (1860)
  USI.37      On a map of North America, identify Union and Confederate States at         Identify states that fought either
              the outbreak of the war. (H, G)                                              for the Union, Confederacy, or
                                                                                           were border states in the Civil
                                                                                           War
  USI.38      Analyze Abraham Lincoln’s presidency, the Emancipation Proclamation         Explain the significance of
              (1863), his views on slavery, and the political obstacles he                 Abraham Lincoln’s presidency
              encountered. (H, C)

              Seminal Primary Documents to Read: Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address
              (1863) and Lincoln’s second inaugural address (1865)

              Seminal Primary Documents to Consider: Lincoln’s “House Divided”
              speech (1858)




    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                   Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        524
USI.39      Analyze the roles and policies of various Civil War leaders and describe      Identify significant Civil War
            the important Civil War battles and events. (H)                                leaders and battles

            Leaders
                A.     Jefferson Davis
                B.     Ulysses S. Grant
                C.     Robert E. Lee

            Battles
                A. the Massachusetts 54th Regiment and the Battle at Fort
                   Wagner
                B. Antietam
                C. Vicksburg
                D. Gettysburg
USI.40      Provide   examples of the various effects of the Civil War. (H, E)            Explain the effects of the Civil
                E.     physical and economic destruction                                   War
                F.     the increased role of the federal government
                G.     the greatest loss of life on a per capita basis of any U.S. war
                       before or since
USI.41      Explain
                  the policies and consequences of Reconstruction. (H, C)                 Explain the successes and failures
                A. Presidential and Congressional Reconstruction                           of Reconstruction
                B. the impeachment of President Johnson
                C. the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments
                 D.the opposition of Southern whites to Reconstruction
                 E.the accomplishments and failures of Radical Reconstruction
                 F.the presidential election of 1876 and the end of
                    Reconstruction
                G. the rise of Jim Crow laws
                H. the Supreme Court case, Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)




  Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                      Fall 2006
  HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        525
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

      Less Complex                                                                            More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                     ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:                 The student will:               The student will:                 The student will:
   Match shapes of states to        Place major events             Describe how life in the         Explain why conflict grew
    a map of North America            leading up to and               North and the South               between the North and
   Match pictures of Civil           through the Civil War on        differed in the years             South in the 1800s, with
    War leaders                       a timeline                      before the Civil War              special attention to the
   Respond to text being            Use a United States map        Explain why slavery               spread of slavery
    read aloud (i.e., remain          to locate Northern and          became a growing source          Identify how life in the
    alert, request more)              Southern states that            of conflict between the           North differed from life in
   Choose appropriate text           fought against each other       North and South in the            the South before the Civil
    to read or to have read           in the Civil War                1800s                             War
    aloud                            Explain that Southern          Identify slave states and        Explain why attempts by
   Orient to books/orient            states practiced slavery        free states before the            the North and South to
    book right side up                and Northern states did         Civil War on a United             compromise over slavery
   Turn pages in a book or           not                             States map                        failed
    magazine                         Identify Abraham Lincoln       Explain why the election         Explain why Southern
   Activate an electronic            as president of the             of Abraham Lincoln to             states believed they had
    device to access text,            United States during            the presidency                    the right to secede and
    communicate with                  much of the Civil War           contributed to the                create their own nation
    others, or participate in         and explain his views on        outbreak of the Civil War        Research one or more
    an instructional activity         slavery                        Investigate a significant         significant events in the
   Turn attention toward            Describe that the Union         Civil War battle, including       presidency of Abraham
    another person                    and the Confederacy             its location on a map,            Lincoln, with special
   Grasp, manipulate, and            became the United States        leader of battle, and             attention to the
    release objects                   again after the Civil War       outcome                           Emancipation
   Organize instructional           List or sort differences       Examine the effects of            Proclamation and/or the
    materials                         between Northern and            the Civil War on the              Gettysburg Address
   Take turns appropriately          Southern states:                South’s economy, cities,         Discuss how
    during classroom                  resources, how location         and way of life                   Reconstruction policies
    discussion                        affected needs, types of                                          affected the South, with
   Respond to/initiate               businesses, lifestyles                                            special attention to laws
    contacts with others                                                                                designed to protect the
   Apply rules for                                                                                     rights of former slaves
    appropriate classroom                                                                              Describe how
    behavior                                                                                            Constitutional
   Use appropriate social                                                                              amendments were meant
    greetings                                                                                           to protect the rights of
   Follow simple directions                                                                            former slaves
   Identify self and/or
    others                                                                                          Continue to address skills and
   Initiate or respond to                                                                          concepts in this subject that
    request for joint attention                                                                     approach grade-level
                                                                                                    expectations




      Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                     Fall 2006
      HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        526
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standards USI.40
        At grades 8-10, students look at photographs from the Civil War and, without being told where
        the photographs are from, write newspaper stories to explain what they see. After finding out the
        true subjects of the photographs, they discuss how points of view can vary, how newspapers can
        influence opinions, and how this may have contributed to sectionalism
        (http://memory.loc.gov/ammem)

How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

Lewis writes three stories based on three different          Data chart showing Lewis’ ability to demonstrate
photographs. He then writes a summary of the true             knowledge of sectionalism before, during, and after the
story for each photograph. He participates in a class         Civil War
discussion about the photographs and how                     Lewis’ stories he wrote based on photographs
newspapers affect opinions by emphasizing a                  Lewis’ summaries of actual stories of the photographs
specific point of view.

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

Kim is given one photograph from the Civil War. She          Data chart showing Kim’s ability to use photographs to
writes several descriptive statements about the               demonstrate understanding of sectionalism before,
photograph, including how the photograph makes                during, and after the Civil War
her feel. She is then told what the photograph is            Kim’s initial written (or dictated) statements about the
actually about. She writes new statements about the           photographs
photograph, and participates in a small group                Kim’s statements about the photograph after being told
discussion about the photographs.                             what the photograph was about

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

Wes is activating a mouse at the computer to show            Field data chart showing Wes’s ability to use a computer
understanding of cause and effect. He sits with a             mouse
small group of students and clicks the mouse to view         Line or bar graph summarizing field data chart
photographs from the Civil War. He then chooses              Album of pictures Wes printed out using the mouse,
five photographs and clicks a button to print them.           including teacher notation next to each indicating
                                                              whether a prompt was needed for Wes to click the
                                                              mouse




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities            Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        527
                                                                                                      History and
                                                                                                     Social Science

                                                                                                    U.S. History II

                                                                                                 Industrial America and
                                                                                                  Its Emerging Role in
                                                                                                  International Affairs,
                                                                                                       1870–1920

                                                                                                     Grades 8–12
CONTENT    History and Social Science
    TOPIC Reconstruction to the Present, 1877–2001
    Learning Standards for: Industrial America and Its Emerging Role in International
                                                   Affairs, 1870–1920
                THEMES
                           The influence of economic, political, religious, and cultural ideas as human
                            societies move beyond regional, national, or geographic boundaries
                           The growth and spread of free markets and industrial economies


                               Grades 8–12: U. S. History II
Learning Standard as Written                                                               Essence of Standard
  USII.1     Explain   the various causes of the Industrial Revolution. (H, E)              Explain the causes of the
                 A.     the economic impetus provided by the Civil War                       Industrial Revolution after 1870
                 B.     important technological and scientific advances
                 C.     the role of business leaders, entrepreneurs, and inventors such
                        as Alexander Graham Bell, Andrew Carnegie, Thomas Edison, J.P.
                        Morgan, John D. Rockefeller, and Cornelius Vanderbilt
  USII.2     Explain   the important consequences of the Industrial Revolution. (H, E)      Explain the effects of the
                 A.      the growth of big business                                          Industrial Revolution in the
                 B.      environmental impact                                                United States
                 C.      the expansion of cities
  USII.3     Describe the causes of the immigration of Southern and Eastern                 Describe the causes and effects
             Europeans, Chinese, Koreans, and Japanese to America in the late 19th           of immigration to the United
             and early 20th centuries, and describe the major roles of these immigrants      States between 1880 and 1917
             in the industrialization of America. (H)
             Seminal Primary Documents to Read: Emma Lazarus, “The New Colossus”
             (1883)

             Seminal Primary Documents to Consider: Younghill Kang, East Goes West
             (1937)
  USII.4     Analyze the causes of the continuing westward expansion of the American        Explain reasons Americans
             people after the Civil War and the impact of this migration on the Indians.     continued to move west after
             (H)                                                                             the Civil War and the effects of
                                                                                             westward migration on Native
                                                                                             Americans
  USII.5     Explain the formation and goals of unions as well as the rise of radical       Explain reasons workers began
             political parties during the Industrial era. (H, E)                             to form unions in the late
                   A. the Knights of Labor                                                   1800s
                   B. the American Federation of Labor headed by Samuel Gompers
                   C. the Populist Party
                   D. the Socialist Party headed by Eugene Debs
    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                   Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        528
USII.6     Analyze the causes and course of America’s growing role in world affairs    Explain the role of the United
           from the Civil War to World War I. (H, E)                                    States in world affairs from the
               A. the influence of the ideas associated with Social Darwinism           end of the Civil War to its
               B. the purchase of Alaska from Russia                                    entrance into World War I
               C. America’s growing influence in Hawaii leading to annexation
               D. the Spanish-American War
               E. U.S. expansion into Asia under the Open Door policy
               F. President Roosevelt’s Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
               G. America’s role in the building of the Panama Canal
               H. President Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy
               I. President Wilson’s intervention in Mexico
               J. American entry into World War I
USII.7     Explain the course and significance of President Wilson’s wartime           Explain the results of World
           diplomacy, including his Fourteen Points, the League of Nations, and the     War I and their effects on the
           failure of the Versailles treaty. (H)                                        United States and the world,
                                                                                        including the diplomacy of
           Seminal Primary Documents to Read: President Woodrow Wilson, “Peace          President Woodrow Wilson
           Without Victory,” speech (1917)




  Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                Fall 2006
  HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        529
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

       Less Complex                                                                            More Complex



     ACCESS SKILLS                     ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:                 The student will:                The student will:                 The student will:
   Sort and match pictures          Use a timeline to               Identify agricultural and        Explain the term
    of agricultural and               sequence historical              industrial goods used in          “Industrial Revolution”
    industrial goods                  events related to the            daily life during this time       and plot its development
   Find familiar locations           Industrial Revolution            period                            on a timeline
    using pictures and maps          Demonstrate an                  Describe what it was like        Discuss how the growth
   Using pictures of local           understanding of                 to work in a factory              of big business in the
    businesses/industries,            agricultural products;           between 1870 and 1914             United States contributed
    match picture to picture          sort goods that are made        Investigate why millions          to the Industrial
   Follow one-step                   largely by hand and              of immigrants came to             Revolution
    directions to place               goods that are made in           the United States                Select an inventor or
    pictures symbolizing              factories                        between 1870 and 1914             entrepreneur and explore
    population growth on a           Identify industries in the       and discuss their                 his/her contributions to
    timeline                          community and/or in              contributions to the              the Industrial Revolution
   Respond to text being             Massachusetts and                country                          Explain why workers
    read aloud (i.e., remain          compare them with the           Identify Presidents               began to form labor
    alert, request more)              goods they produced at           Wilson and T. Roosevelt           unions during the
   Choose appropriate text           the turn of the century          and explain one                   Industrial Revolution
    to read or to have read          Name some of the                 important fact regarding         Explain why millions of
    aloud                             nationalities of people          each presidency                   people immigrated to the
   Orient to books/orient            who immigrated to the           Identify three inventors          United States from 1870
    book right side up                United States between            and their inventions              to 1914 and describe the
   Turn pages in a book or           1870 and 1914                   Explain the events that           role of immigrants in the
    magazine                         Identify an invention            led the U.S. into World           Industrial Revolution and
   Activate an electronic            from this time period and        War I, and locate the             U.S. expansion
    device to access text,            describe its purpose             countries involved on a          Investigate how the
    communicate with                 Using a map, locate              map                               Industrial Revolution
    others, or participate in         countries involved in                                              contributed to the growth
    an instructional activity         World War I                                                        of cities
   Turn attention toward            Identify presidents                                               Discuss reasons
    another person                    Wilson and T. Roosevelt                                            Americans continued to
   Grasp, manipulate, and                                                                               move west from 1870 to
    release objects                                                                                      1914 and how this
   Organize instructional                                                                               migration affected Native
    materials                                                                                            Americans and the
   Take turns appropriately                                                                             environment
    during classroom                                                                                    Identify causes of Word
    discussion                                                                                           War I and explain why
   Respond to/initiate                                                                                  the United States entered
    contacts with others                                                                                 the conflict; locate the
   Apply rules for                                                                                      countries involved on a
    appropriate classroom                                                                                map
    behavior
   Use appropriate social                                                                           Continue to address skills and
    greetings                                                                                        concepts in this subject that
   Identify self and/or                                                                             approach grade-level
    others                                                                                           expectations
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint attention

      Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                      Fall 2006
      HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        530
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standards USII.2
        In grades 8-12, students visit the Boott Cotton Mills Museum in Lowell, MA. After visiting the
        museum they will read letters written by workers and answer questions about the letters
        (http://www.uml.edu/tsongas/).

How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

Jackson completes a set of questions while at the            Data chart showing Jackson’s ability to demonstrate
museum. He then writes an essay on what he                    knowledge of the Industrial Revolution, including
learned at the museum. In class he reads a letter             quizzes, essay, museum question form, and questions
from Barilla Taylor, a mill worker, to her parents. He        about letter
then writes questions about the letter and                   Jackson’s completed museum questions
researches the responses.                                    Jackson’s questions and responses related to Barilla
                                                              Taylor’s letter

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

Miguel completes a set of modified questions with            Data chart showing Miguel’s ability to identify products
picture cues while at the museum. He then dictates            made during the Industrial Revolution
a brief essay about what he learned at the museum.           Miguel’s completed museum questions
                                                             Work sample showing Miguel’s identification of different
                                                              products and inventions from the Industrial Revolution
                                                              he saw while at the museum

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

Jayna is working on participating in group activities        Field data chart showing Jayna’s ability to use an
using an appropriate voice volume. After visiting the         appropriate voice volume while on the field trip and
museum, she participates in a class activity by               during class discussions
listening to what students learned on the trip and           Line or bar graph summarizing field data chart
telling what she saw, using an appropriate voice             Jayna’s self-monitoring form recording her voice volume
loudness.                                                     during small group discussions
                                                             Audiotape of Jayna working on appropriate voice volume
                                                              during small group session




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities            Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        531
                                                                                                   History and
                                                                                                  Social Science

                                                                                                 U.S. History II

                                                                                                The Age of Reform:
                                                                                               Progressivism and the
                                                                                                    New Deal,
                                                                                                    1900–1940

                                                                                                  Grades 8–12
CONTENT    History and Social Science
   TOPIC     Reconstruction to the Present, 1877–2001
   Learning Standards for: The Age of Reform: Progressivism and the New Deal,
                                                1900–1940
                THEMES
                           The growth and impact of centralized state power


                            Grades 8 – 12 – U. S. History II
Learning Standard as Written                                                           Essence of Standard
  USII.8     Analyze the origins of Progressivism and important Progressive leaders,    Explain the origins, key
             and summarize the major accomplishments of Progressivism. (H, E)            reforms, and key leaders of
             People                                                                      Progressivism, including
                 A.     Jane Addams                                                      Presidents T. Roosevelt and
                 B.     William Jennings Bryan                                           Wilson
                 C.     John Dewey
                 D.     Robert La Follette
                 E.     President Theodore Roosevelt
                 F.     Upton Sinclair
                 G.     President William H. Taft
                 H.     Ida Tarbell
                 I.     President Woodrow Wilson
             Policies
                 A.     bans against child labor
                 B.     the initiative referendum and its recall
                 C.     the Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890)
                 D.     the Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)
                 E.     the Meat Packing Act (1906)
                 F.     the Federal Reserve Act (1913)
                 G.     the Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914)
                 H.     the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920

             Seminal Primary Documents to Read: President Theodore Roosevelt, “The
             New Nationalism,” speech (1910).




    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities              Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        532
USII.9      Analyze the post-Civil War struggles of African Americans and women to         Explain the beginnings of the
            gain basic civil rights. (H)                                                    civil rights and women’s rights
                A. Carrie Chapman Catt                                                      movements after the Civil War
                B. W.E.B. Du Bois
                C. Marcus Garvey
                D. the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
                     (NAACP)
                E. Alice Paul
                F. Booker T. Washington

            Seminal Primary Documents to Consider: Booker T. Washington, the
            Atlanta Exposition Address (1895), and the Niagara Movement Declaration
            of Principles (1905)
USII.10     Describe how the battle between traditionalism and modernity manifested        Describe political and social
            itself in the major historical trends and events after World War I and          developments of the 1920s in
            throughout the 1920s. (H)                                                       the United States
                  A. the Boston police strike in 1919
                  B. the Red Scare and Sacco and Vanzetti
                  C. racial and ethnic tensions
                  D. the Scopes Trial and the debate over Darwin’s
                       On the Origins of Species
                E.     Prohibition
USII.11     Describe the various causes and consequences of the global depression of       Explain the causes and effects
            the 1930s, and analyze how Americans responded to the Great                     of the Great Depression
            Depression. (H, E)
                 A. restrictive monetary policies
                 B. unemployment
                 C. support for political and economic reform
                 D. the influence of the ideas of John Maynard Keynes, and the
                     critique of centralized economic planning and management by
                     Ludwig von Mises, Friedrich von Hayek, and Milton Friedman
USII.12     Analyze the important policies, institutions, and personalities of the New     Describe significant leaders and
            Deal era. (H)                                                                   personalities associated with
            People                                                                          the Great Depression and
                 A.    President Herbert Hoover                                             federal policies during this era
                 B.    President Franklin D. Roosevelt
                 C.    Eleanor Roosevelt
                 D.    Huey Long
                 E.    Charles Coughlin
            Policies
                 A.    the establishment of the Federal Deposit Insurance
                       Corporation
                 B.    the Securities and Exchange Commission
                 C.    the Tennessee Valley Authority
                 D.    the Social Security Act
                 E.    the National Labor Relations Act
                 F.    the Works Progress Administration
                 G.    the Fair Labor Standards Act
            Institutions
                 A.    the American Federation of Labor
                 B.    the Congress of Industrial Organizations
                 C.    the American Communist Party
USII.13     Explain how the Great Depression and the New Deal affected American            Explain the effects of the Great
            society. (H)                                                                    Depression and specific New
                 A. the increased importance of the federal government in                   Deal programs on life in the
                      establishing economic and social policies                             United States
                 B. the emergence of a “New Deal coalition” consisting of African
                      Americans, blue-collar workers, poor farmers, Jews, and Catholics



   Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                   Fall 2006
   HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        533
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

     Less Complex                                                                           More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                  ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:              The student will:                 The student will:                The student will:
   Match photographs of          Demonstrate knowledge            Discuss why millions of         Explain why
    Progressive, post-Civil        of historical events from         people moved to United           Progressivism emerged
    War, and women’s rights        this time period                  States cities between            as a reform movement in
    leaders                       Name problems                     1870 and 1920 and the            the United States
   Activate switch to             associated with urban life        conditions they faced in        Explore specific problems
    advance slides of the          between 1870 and 1920             urban areas; plot the            within American society
    Great Depression              Identify different types of       cities in which they             that Progressivism
   Follow one-step                jobs people had during            settled on a map                 sought to correct
    directions to sequence         this time and explain why        Explain why people              Select a leader of the
    pictures of steps the          people worked                     began to demand that             Progressive movement
    government took during        Identify the Great                the government improve           and examine his/her
    the New Deal                   Depression as a time              life in urban areas              contributions to the
   Respond to text being          when millions of people          Describe how                     reform movement
    read aloud (i.e., remain       were unemployed and               government worked to            Discuss the successes
    alert, request more)           had little money                  solve problems in urban          and failures of African
   Choose appropriate text       Identify three African            areas between 1870 and           Americans in gaining civil
    to read or to have read        Americans and their               1920                             rights
    aloud                          contributions to the post-       Research and explain            Explain the major causes
   Orient to books/orient         Civil War society                 specific actions the             of the Great Depression
    book right side up            Identify the various              government took during           and how it affected
   Turn pages in a book or        presidents of this era and        this time to protect the         American society
    magazine                       one thing each was                safety of all Americans         Examine Franklin D.
   Turn attention toward          known for during his             Discuss how African              Roosevelt’s presidency
    another person                 presidency                        Americans and women              with special attention to
   Grasp, manipulate, and                                           continued their efforts to       his New Deal policies
    release objects                                                  gain their civil rights         Identify specific New
   Organize instructional                                           during this time                 Deal programs that still
    materials                                                       Explain why the Great            impact the United States
   Take turns appropriately                                         Depression caused                today
    during classroom                                                 millions of Americans to        Discuss famous women
    discussion                                                       be unemployed                    of this time and their
   Respond to/initiate                                             Discuss how the                  contributions (e.g., Jane
    contacts with others                                             government tried to help         Addams, Ida Tarbell,
   Apply rules for                                                  unemployed people                Eleanor Roosevelt)
    appropriate classroom                                            during the Great                Describe one or more
    behavior                                                         Depression                       ways in which the
   Use appropriate social                                          Explain the role banks           government sought to
    greetings                                                        play in the United States        control and improve the
   Follow simple directions                                         economy                          U.S. economy during the
   Identify self and/or                                            Select a specific New            Great Depression
    others                                                           Deal program and
   Initiate or respond to                                           explain how it was           Continue to address skills and
    request for joint                                                designed to help the         concepts in this subject that
    attention                                                        Untied States economy        approach grade-level
                                                                    Identify and explore one     expectations
                                                                     immigrant group; discuss
                                                                     where they settled and
                                                                     what immigrants did
                                                                     (e.g., home, work)
     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                    Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        534
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standard USII 12.13
        In grades 8-12, students skim several life histories selected from American Life Histories:
        Manuscripts from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936-1940
        (http://memory.loc.gov/learn/lessons/98/dime/teacher). Using the Reading Life Histories Guide,
        each student selects and analyzes one life history to understand the needs of real people whom
        New Deal programs were designed to assist.



How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

Manny chooses Jack Dillin from the American Life             Data chart showing Manny’s ability to demonstrate
Histories and completes a Reading Life Histories              knowledge of Progressivism and the New Deal, including
Guide. He then chooses a New Deal agency or                   pre- and post-tests, quizzes, and homework assignments
program that would have helped Jack Dillin. He also           for Jack Dillon
shares with the class whether that program or                Manny’s completed Reading Life Histories Guide
agency is still in place today.                              Manny’s New Deal program or agency description

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

Trey reads a modified version of American Life               Data chart showing Trey’s ability to complete activities
Histories. He then completes a modified Reading               addressing Progressivism and the New Deal
Life Histories Guide in which he answers questions           Trey’s completed Reading Life Histories Guide
about one person’s problem and how it was solved             Trey’s work sample matching modified New Deal
with government assistance.                                   program descriptions to problems

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

Diana is given examples of problems that she must            Field data chart showing Diana’s ability to problem-solve
solve using a picture communication book on one of            using communication book
the selected American Life Histories. For example:           Line or bar graph summarizing field data chart
“This immigrant is hungry.” Solution: Diana points to        Diana’s completed work sample of solutions to problems
“Eat” in communication book.




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities             Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        535
                                                                                                      History and
                                                                                                     Social Science

                                                                                                    U.S. History II

                                                                                                      World War II,
                                                                                                       1939–1945
CONTENT    History and Social Science
   TOPIC     Reconstruction to the Present, 1877–2001                                                Grades 8–12
   Learning Standards for: World War II, 1939–1945
          THEMES
                        The evolution of the concepts of personal freedom, individual responsibility, and
                         respect for human dignity
                        The influence of economic, political, religious, and cultural ideas as human
                         societies move beyond regional, national, or geographic boundaries
                        The rise and continuing international influence of the United States


                            Grades 8–12: U. S. History II
Learning Standard as Written                                                            Essence of Standard
 USII.14     Explain the strength of American isolationism after World War I and         Explain American isolationism
             analyze its impact on U.S. foreign policy. (H)                               after World War I
 USII.15     Analyze how German aggression in Europe and Japanese aggression in          Explain causes of World War II
             Asia contributed to the start of World War II and summarize the major        and reasons the United States
             battles and events of the war. On a map of the world, locate the Allied      entered the conflict
             powers (Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States) and
             Axis powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan). (H, G)
                  A. Fascism in Germany and Italy
                  B. German rearmament and militarization of the Rhineland
                  C. Germany’s seizure of Austria and Czechoslovakia and Germany’s
                      invasion of Poland
                  D. Japan’s invasion of China and the Rape of Nanking
                  E. Pearl Harbor, Midway, D-Day, Okinawa, the Battle of the Bulge,
                      Iwo Jima, and the Yalta and Potsdam conferences

             Seminal Primary Documents to Read: President Franklin Roosevelt, “Four
             Freedoms,” speech (1941)

             Seminal Primary Documents to Consider: Justice Robert M. Jackson’s
             opinion for the Supreme Court in West Virginia State Board of Education
             v. Barnette (1943) and Learned Hand’s The Spirit of Liberty (1944)
 USII.16     Explain the reasons for the dropping of atom bombs on Japan and their       Identify reasons the United
             short and long-term effects. (H)                                             States used atomic weapons
                                                                                          against Japan
 USII.17     Explain important domestic events that took place during the war. (H, E)    Explain the domestic effects of
                  A. how war-inspired economic growth ended the Great Depression          World War II in the United
                  B. A. Philip Randolph and the efforts to eliminate employment           States
                       discrimination
                  C. the entry of large numbers of women into the workforce
                  D. the internment of West Coast Japanese-Americans in the U.S.
                       and Canada




   Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                Fall 2006
   HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        536
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

     Less Complex                                                                            More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                     ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:                 The student will:                The student will:               The student will:
   Match pictures of World          Demonstrate knowledge           Locate on a world map or       Locate on a world map or
    War II European and               of historical events from        globe the countries that        globe the countries that
    American leaders                  this time period by using        comprised the Allied            comprised the Allied
   Follow one-step                   a timeline of historical         powers and those of the         powers and those of the
    directions to sequence            events leading up to             Axis powers during World        Axis powers during World
    pictures for a timeline           World War II                     War II                          War II
   Demonstrate                      Locate the United States,       Describe how, in the           Discuss the differences
    understanding of conflict         Europe, and Japan on a           1930s, Germany began            between totalitarian and
    in daily life                     world map or globe and           its efforts to conquer          democratic governments
   Activate switch to change         identify on which side           Europe                         Explain why German and
    images on computer                (Axis or Allies) they           Discuss the roles of            Japanese efforts to
    screen                            fought in World War II           Germany and Japan in            expand their empires
   Select favorite picture          Identify the Japanese            the outbreak of World           contributed to the
    from this era and explain         attack on Pearl Harbor as        War II                          outbreak of World War II
    why                               the reason the United           Describe life in a             Describe Hitler’s attempt
   Respond to text being             States entered World             concentration camp              to enslave and kill Jews
    read aloud (i.e., remain          War II                          Explain why the United          and others during
    alert, request more)             Locate Pearl Harbor on a         States entered World            Germany’s expansion
   Choose appropriate text           map                              War II                         Explain the roles of
    to read or to have read          Explain the concept of          Explore how the United          Franklin Roosevelt,
    aloud                             taking sides in a fight as       States contributed to the       Joseph Stalin, Adolph
   Orient to books/orient            it relates to World War II       Allied victory in World         Hitler, and Winston
    book right side up               Explain how weapons              War II                          Churchill in World War II
   Turn pages in a book or           and bombs were used in          Discuss the United States      Examine and explain
    magazine                          World War II                     decision to use nuclear         reasons why the United
   Turn attention toward            Understand and describe          weapons against Japan           States decided to use
    another person                    the significance of Anne        Explain why World War II        atomic weapons against
   Grasp, manipulate, and            Frank’s life                     helped end the Great            Japan
    release objects                  Identify on a map the            Depression
   Organize instructional            various locations of            Describe Hitler’s rise in   Continue to address skills and
    materials                         Japanese internment              Germany                     concepts in this subject that
   Take turns appropriately          camps                           Discuss the Japanese        approach grade-level
    during classroom                                                   internment camps and        expectations
    discussion                                                         their impact on the
   Respond to/initiate                                                Japanese and Americans
    contacts with others                                              Recognize that most
   Apply rules for                                                    countries who fought
    appropriate classroom                                              against each other in
    behavior                                                           World War II are now
   Use appropriate social                                             allies
    greetings
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint attention




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                     Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        537
                                                                                                     History and
                                                                                                    Social Science

                                                                                                   U.S. History II

                                                                                                The Cold War Abroad,
                                                                                                     1945–1989
CONTENT    History and Social Science
   TOPIC     Reconstruction to the Present, 1877–2001                                               Grades 8–12
   Learning Standards for: The Cold War Abroad, 1945–1989
          THEMES
                         The rise and continuing international influence of the United States


                             Grades 8–12: U. S. History II
Learning Standard as Written                                                             Essence of Standard
  USII.18     Analyze the factors that contributed to the Cold War and describe the       Identify major causes of the
              policy of containment as America’s response to Soviet expansionist           Cold War
              policies. (H)
                   A. the differences between the Soviet and American political and
                        economic systems
                   B. Soviet aggression in Eastern Europe
                   C. the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, and NATO

              Seminal Primary Documents to Read: The Truman Doctrine (1947), and
              George Kennan, “The Sources of Soviet Conduct” (1947)
  USII.19     Analyze the sources and, with a map of the world, locate the areas of       Describe the major events of
              Cold War conflict between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. (H, G)              the Cold War and the countries
                  A. the Korean War                                                        and regions in which they
                  B. Germany                                                               occurred
                  C. China
                  D. the Middle East
                  E. the arms race
                  F. Latin America
                  G. Africa
                  H. the Vietnam War
  USII.20     Explain the causes, course, and consequences of the Vietnam War and         Explain causes and effects of
              summarize the diplomatic and military policies of Presidents Eisenhower,     United States involvement in
              Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon. (H)                                             the Vietnam War


  USII.21     Analyze how the failure of communist economic policies as well as U.S.-     Explain reasons the Cold War
              sponsored resistance to Soviet military and diplomatic initiatives           ended
              contributed to ending the Cold War. (H, E)

              Seminal Primary Documents to Read: President John F. Kennedy,
              Inaugural Address (1961)

              Seminal Primary Documents to Consider: President Ronald Regan, Speech
              at Moscow State University (1988)




    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        538
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

     Less Complex                                                                           More Complex



     ACCESS SKILLS                   ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:               The student will:               The student will:                 The student will:
   Match pictures or shapes       Demonstrate knowledge          Show understanding of            Explain significant
    to create timeline or           of historical events from       sequence of events by             differences between
    global map                      this time period by using       using a timeline of               communist and
   Match pictures of U.S.          a timeline of historical        historical events leading         democratic forms of
    Presidents Kennedy,             events leading up to the        up to the Cold War                government, using a
    Johnson, and Nixon              Cold War                       Identify the former               variety of sources
   Respond to text being          Using a map, color-code         Soviet Union as a                Explain why the United
    read aloud (i.e., remain        countries based on              communist nation and              States and the former
    alert, request more)            alliances during the Cold       discuss basic principles of       Soviet Union were the
   Choose appropriate text         War                             communism                         world’s two superpowers
    to read or to have read        Locate the United States,      Explain why the term              after World War II
    aloud                           Europe, and the former          “Cold War” is used to            Describe how the
   Orient to books/orient          Soviet Union on a world         describe relations                Marshall Plan succeeded
    book right side up              map or globe                    between the Soviet                in restoring economic
   Turn pages in a book or        Identify differences            Union and the United              health to much of
    magazine                        between a communist             States from the end of            western Europe
   Activate an electronic          government and a                World War II through the         Using a variety of
    device to access text,          democratic government           1980s                             sources, explain the
    communicate with               Using a map, identify the      Locate on a world map or          meaning of the term
    others, or participate in       countries involved in the       globe areas over which            “Cold War”
    an instructional activity       Cold War                        the United States and the        Discuss why and how the
   Turn attention toward          Identify pictures of key        former Soviet Union               United States sought to
    another person                  U.S. leaders during the         disagreed; explain why            contain communism after
   Grasp, manipulate, and          Vietnam War era,                tensions arose about              World War II
    release objects                 including Eisenhower,           these locations                  Describe how the United
   Organize instructional          Kennedy, Johnson, and          Describe how the United           States became involved
    materials                       Nixon                           States became involved            in the Vietnam War, and
   Take turns appropriately       Describe the Berlin Wall,       in the Vietnam War and            the war’s impact on the
    during classroom                and explain why it was          how its involvement               United States
    discussion                      built and why it was            ended                            Examine reasons for the
   Respond to/initiate             removed                        Explain the significance          end of the Cold War and
    contacts with others                                            of the removal of the             describe the removal of
   Apply rules for                                                 Berlin Wall                       the Berlin Wall
    appropriate classroom
    behavior                                                                                      Continue to address skills and
   Use appropriate social                                                                        concepts in this subject that
    greetings                                                                                     approach grade-level
   Follow simple directions                                                                      expectations
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint
    attention




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                    Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        539
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standards USII.19
        At grade 8, students study a map of the world and locate the areas of the Cold War conflict
        between the U.S. and Soviet Union.

How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

Leah completes a map by color-coding areas of the            Data chart showing Leah’s ability to demonstrate
Cold War conflict. She writes a brief description of          knowledge of geography of the Cold War
how each of the areas was involved with the                  Leah’s color-coded map
conflict.                                                    Leah’s descriptions of each area’s involvement in conflict

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

Nolan is given shapes of geographical regions                Data chart showing Nolan’s ability to label areas involved
involved in the Cold War conflict. He matches these           in the Cold War
shapes to a map, traces the shapes with different            Nolan’s work sample of color-coded countries labeled by
colored markers, and practices saying the names of            a peer with the names
the areas.                                                   Nolan’s map of outlined areas involved in the Cold War

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

Juan is working on matching shapes of regions                Data chart showing Juan’s ability to match shapes
involved in the Cold War to the same shapes on a             Work sample matching shape to shape for Cold War
board. He also completes a puzzle by matching                 regions
shape to shape.                                              Completed puzzle




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities             Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        540
                                                                                                    History and
                                                                                                   Social Science

                                                                                                  U.S. History II

                                                                                                Cold War America at
                                                                                                 Home: Economic
                                                                                               Growth and Optimism,
                                                                                                Anticommunism, and
                                                                                                Reform, 1945–1980

                                                                                                   Grades 8–12
CONTENT    History and Social Science
   TOPIC     Reconstruction to the Present, 1877–2001
   Learning Standards for: Cold War America at Home: Economic Growth and
                                                Optimism, Anticommunism, and Reform, 1945–1980
                THEMES
                           The evolution of the concepts of personal freedom, individual responsibility, and
                            respect for human dignity
                           The growth and impact of centralized state power
                           The origins and impact of sectionalism on American life and politics


                              Grades 8–12: U. S. History II
Learning Standard as Written                                                             Essence of Standard
 USII.22     Analyze the causes and consequences of important domestic Cold War           Explain significant domestic
             trends. (H, E)                                                                events and trends in the United
                 A. economic growth and declining poverty                                  States during the Cold War
                 B. the baby boom
                 C. the growth of suburbs and home-ownership
                 D. the increase in education levels the development of mass media
                      and consumerism
 USII.23     Analyze the following domestic policies of Presidents Truman and             Explain significant events and
             Eisenhower. (H)                                                               developments during the
                 A. Truman’s Fair Deal                                                     Truman and Eisenhower
                 B. the Taft–Hartley Act (1947)                                            presidencies
                 C. Eisenhower’s response to the Soviet’s launching of Sputnik
                 D. Eisenhower’s civil rights record
 USII.24     Analyze the roots of domestic anticommunism as well as the origins and       Describe McCarthyism and its
             consequences of McCarthyism. (H)                                              effects in the United States
             People
                  A.   Whittaker Chambers
                  B.   Alger Hiss
                  C.   J. Edgar Hoover
                  D.   Senator Joseph McCarthy
                  E.   Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
             Institutions
                  A. the American Communist Party (including its close relationship to
                     the Soviet Union)
                  B. the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
                  C. the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC)




    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        541
USII.25     Analyze the origins, goals, and key events of the Civil Rights movement.      Explain the origin, growth, and
            (H)                                                                            significant events and leaders
            People                                                                         of the Civil Rights movement
                A.   Robert Kennedy
                B.   Martin Luther King, Jr.
                C.   Thurgood Marshall
                D.   Rosa Parks
                E.   Malcolm X
            Institution
                 the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
                 (NAACP)
            Events
                A.   Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
                B.   the   1955–1956 Montgomery Bus Boycott
                C.   the   1957–1958 Little Rock School Crisis
                D.   the   sit-ins and freedom rides of the early 1960s
                E.   the   1963 civil rights protest in Birmingham
                F.   the   1963 March on Washington
                G.   the   1965 civil rights protest in Selma
                H.   the   1968 assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.

            Seminal Primary Documents to Read: Reverend Martin Luther King’s, “I
            Have A Dream” speech and his Letter from Birmingham City Jail (1963),
            President Lyndon Johnson, speech to Congress on voting rights (March 15,
            1965)
USII.26     Describe the accomplishments of the civil rights movement. (H, E)             Describe achievements and
                A. the 1964 Civil Rights Act and the 1965 Voting Rights Act                effects of the Civil Rights
                B. the growth of the African American middle class, increased              movement
                      political power, and declining rates of African American poverty

USII.27     Analyze the causes and course of the women’s rights movement in the           Explain the women’s rights
            1960s and 1970s. (H)                                                           movement in the 1960s and
                A. Betty Friedan and Gloria Steinem                                        1970s
                B. the birth control pill
                C. the increasing number of working women
                D. the formation of the National Organization of Women in 1967
                E. the debate over the Equal Rights Amendment
                F. the 1973 Supreme Court case, Roe v. Wade
USII.28     Analyze the important domestic policies and events that took place during     Explain significant events and
            the presidencies of Presidents Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon. (H)                developments of the Kennedy,
                A. the space exploration program                                           Johnson, and Nixon
                B. the assassination of President Kennedy                                  presidencies
                C. Johnson’s Great Society programs
                D. Nixon’s appeal to “the silent majority”
                E. the anti-war and counter-cultural movements
                F. the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in
                      1970
                G. the Watergate scandal (including the Supreme Court case, U.S. v.
                      Nixon)




   Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                 Fall 2006
   HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        542
Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

     Less Complex                                                                              More Complex


    The student will:               The student will:                  The student will:                The student will:
   Sequence events in daily       Demonstrate knowledge             Examine how prosperity          Explore how the fear of
    life on a timeline              of historical events from          for many Americans               communism affected the
   Match pictures of Civil         this time period by using          changed their ways of            United States in the late
    Rights leaders                  a timeline                         daily life during the            1940s and 1950s
   Attend to a story being        Identify “mass media”              1950s and 1960s                 Describe the effects of
    read about the Nixon            (e.g., radio, televisions,        Discuss implications of          population growth and
    presidency or other             newspapers) and how it             population growth                prosperity on American
    significant event(s) from       affected people’s lives           Identify ways that               life.
    this time period (e.g.,         during this time period            African Americans and           Select a significant leader
    remain alert, request          Compare/contrast life              women sought to gain             of the Civil Rights
    more)                           with/without civil rights          their civil rights during        movement and examine
   Choose appropriate text        Identify presidents of the         the 1950s and 1960s              his/her role
    to read or to have read         1950s and 1960s and               Using a variety of              Compare the methods
    aloud                           their contributions to             sources, recognize the           and strategies used by
   Orient to books/orient          America                            significance of the 1954         African Americans and
    book right side up             Identify the major                 Brown v. Board of                women to gain civil
   Turn pages in a book or         leaders who were                   Education decision to            rights during the 1950s
    magazine                        assassinated during this           American society                 and 1960s
   Activate an electronic          time period and tell why          Describe the effects of         Investigate the successes
    device to access text,         Locate on a map the                President Kennedy’s              and failures of President
    communicate with                various places/events              assassination on the             Johnson’s Great Society
    others, or participate in       involved in the civil rights       United States                    programs and policies
    an instructional activity       movement                          Explain why President           Examine the effects of
   Turn attention toward                                              Nixon resigned the               United States
    another person                                                     presidency                       involvement in the
   Grasp, manipulate, and                                            Using a variety of               Vietnam War on the
    release objects                                                    sources, examine and             nation’s politics and
   Organize instructional                                             describe the                     culture
    materials                                                          contributions and roles of      Examine a significant
   Take turns appropriately                                           women in the 1960s               court case from this time
    during classroom                                                  Research how African             period and describe its
    discussion                                                         Americans or women               impact on American life
   Respond to/initiate                                                continued their efforts to
    contacts with others                                               gain civil rights by         Continue to address skills and
   Apply rules for                                                    selecting one leader and     concepts in this subject that
    appropriate classroom                                              examining his/her role in    approach grade-level
    behavior                                                           detail                       expectations
   Use appropriate social
    greetings
   Follow simple directions
   Identify self and/or
    others
   Initiate or respond to
    request for joint
    attention




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                      Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        543
Instructional Idea based on Learning Standards USII.23
        In grades 8-12, students read and answer questions about the domestic policies of Presidents
        Truman and Eisenhower.

How all students can participate in this activity
Addressing Learning Standard(s) as written                Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
for this grade level                                      Products

Abby reads and outlines text about the domestic              Data chart showing Abby’s ability to demonstrate
policies of Presidents Truman and Eisenhower. She             knowledge of the domestic policies of Truman and
then answers questions about the text she has read,           Eisenhower, including class work, quizzes, and
and discusses her answers in class. She summarizes            homework assignments
what she has read in outline form.                           Abby’s work sample answering questions about related
                                                              text
                                                             Abby’s outline summarizing text she has read

Addressing Learning Standard(s) at lower                  Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
levels of complexity (Entry Points)                       Products

Roland reads modified text with picture cues about           Data chart showing Roland’s ability to answer questions
the domestic policies of Presidents Truman and                on domestic policy
Eisenhower. He answers questions using picture               Roland’s completed questionnaire
cues and participates in small group discussion              Video clip of Roland participating in small group
answering simplified questions.                               discussion on domestic policy

Addressing Access Skills embedded in                      Possible Assessment Strategies and Portfolio
academic instruction                                      Products

Keenan is working on attending to pictures in a book         Field data chart on Keenan’s ability to attend to pages of
about Presidents Truman and Eisenhower that is                a book
read to him.                                                 Line or bar graph summarizing field data chart
                                                             Video clip of Keenan attending to the pages of the book
                                                              as it is read to him




     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities             Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        544
                                                                                                       History and
                                                                                                      Social Science

                                                                                                     U.S. History II
                                                                                                      Contemporary
                                                                                                        America,
                                                                                                       1980–2001
CONTENT    History and Social Science                                                                 Grades 8–12
   TOPIC     Reconstruction to the Present, 1877–2001
   Learning Standards for: Contemporary America, 1980–2001
        THEMES
                         The development of scientific reasoning, technology, and formal education over
                          time and their effects on people’s health, standards of living, economic growth,
                          government, religious beliefs, communal life, and the environment
                         The rise and continuing international influence of the United States


                             Grades 8–12: U. S. History II
Learning Standard as Written                                                              Essence of Standard
USII.29   Analyzethe presidency of Ronald Reagan. (H, E)                                   Describe Ronald Reagan’s
              A.  tax rate cuts                                                             presidency, including his
              B.  anticommunist foreign and defense policies                                economic policies and
              C.  Supreme Court appointments                                                anticommunist foreign policies
              D.  the revitalization of the conservative movement during Reagan’s
                  tenure as President
              E. the replacement of striking air traffic controllers with non-union
                  personnel
USII.30   Describe some of the major economic and social trends of the late 20th           Explain major economic, social,
          century. (H, E)                                                                   and technological trends,
              A. the computer and technological revolution of the 1980s and 1990s           including immigration and the
              B. scientific and medical discoveries                                         computer revolution
              C. major immigration and demographic changes such as the rise in
                   Asian and Hispanic immigration (both legal and illegal)
              D. the weakening of the nuclear family and the rise in divorce rates
USII.31   Analyze the important domestic policies and events of the Clinton presidency.    Describe Bill Clinton’s
          (H, E)                                                                            presidency, including his
               A. the passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in         economic policies and his
                   1993                                                                     impeachment
               B. President Clinton’s welfare reform legislation and expansion of the
                   earned income tax credit
               C. the first balanced budget in more than 25 years
               D. the election in 1994 of the first Republican majority in both the
                   House and Senate in 40 years
               E. tax credits for higher education
               F. the causes and consequences of the impeachment of President
                   Clinton in 1998
USII.32   Explain the importance of the 2000 presidential election. (H, C)                 Explain the significance of the
              A. the Supreme Court case, Bush v. Gore                                       2000 presidential election
              B. the growing influence of the Republican Party in the South and the
                   consolidation of the Democratic Party’s hold on the coasts




    Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                  Fall 2006
    HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        545
USII.33    Analyze the course and consequences of America’s recent diplomatic                      Explain significant recent
           initiatives. (H, C)                                                                      developments and events in
                 A. the invasion of Panama and the Persian Gulf War                                 United States domestic affairs
                 B. American intervention in Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and                and foreign policies
                      Kosovo
                 C. the attempts to negotiate a settlement to the Israeli-Palestinian
                      conflict
                 D. America’s response to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack on
                      the World Trade Center in New York City and on the Pentagon in
                      Washington, D.C.


Possible ENTRY POINTS to Learning Standard(s) (and ACCESS SKILLS embedded
in standards-based activities)

     Less Complex                                                                                 More Complex


     ACCESS SKILLS                   ENTRY POINTS
    The student will:               The student will:                The student will:                   The student will:
    Activate communication         Demonstrate knowledge           Investigate how                  Examine reasons why the
     device to ask survey            of historical events from        President Reagan’s                election of Ronald Reagan to
     questions about the             this time period by              foreign policies                  the presidency strengthened
     2000 Supreme Court              using a timeline                 contributed to the end            the conservative movement
     case Bush v. Gore, or          Explore the origins of           of the Cold War                  Investigate the role of
     other relevant questions        computers, why they             Explain why the United            Ronald Reagan’s foreign
     pertaining to the time          are used, and how they           States, Canada, and               policies in the collapse of the
     period                          affect daily life                Mexico signed the                 Soviet Union
    Sequence events by             Locate Canada, the               NAFTA in 1993                    Explore differences in
     matching picture to             United States, and              Explain the events                political beliefs between
     picture on a timeline           Mexico on a world map            leading to Clinton’s              Republicans and Democrats
    Match pictures of               or globe and discuss the         impeachment                       during the 1980s and 1990s
     Presidents Reagan,              importance of trade             Explain why the United           Explain the significance of
     Clinton, and Bush               among the three                  States organized an               the 1993 NAFTA
    Demonstrate                     nations                          international military           Explain the significance of
     understanding of               Describe the                     force to fight the                the Clinton presidency, with
     concepts of economy             significance of the 2001         Persian Gulf War                  special attention to its
     (e.g., payment for              terrorist attacks on the        Examine the 2000                  domestic policies and
     work, debt, and wealth)         United States                    presidential election and         Clinton’s impeachment
    Respond to text being          Identify the places that         the Supreme Court’s              Explain the role of the
     read aloud (i.e., remain        were targeted in the             role                              Supreme Court in the 2000
     alert, request more)            September 2001                  Describe the growth               presidential election
    Choose appropriate text         terrorist attacks and            and use of computers in          Discuss the effects of the
     to read or to have read         who is accused of                one or more facet(s) of           2001 terrorist attacks on the
     aloud                           ordering the attacks             daily life                        United States, and
    Grasp, manipulate, and         Identify presidents             Explain the significance          subsequent changes in its
     release objects                 Reagan, Clinton, and             of the 2001 terrorist             domestic and foreign
    Take turns                      Bush, including one              attacks on the United             policies
     appropriately during            accomplishment of each           States                           Select and describe an
     classroom discussion                                                                               important scientific or
    Respond to/initiate                                                                                technological development
     contacts with others                                                                               during this time period and
    Apply rules for                                                                                    its impact
     appropriate classroom
     behavior                                                                                       Continue to address skills and
    Follow simple directions                                                                       concepts in this subject that
    Initiate or respond to                                                                         approach grade-level
     request for joint                                                                              expectations
     attention

     Resource Guide to the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for Students with Disabilities                         Fall 2006
     HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE                        546

				
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