cell 20structure 20 20function 20 20questions 20 202006 by PoOwbFh

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									                 CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
Cytology Techniques
    Multiple Choice
__ 1. Of the objects listed, which is the smallest that you can see with the unaided eye?
 a) DNA molecule
 b) Human egg
 c) Virus
 d) Ribosomes
 e) Human skin cell
__ 2. The limit of effective magnification with a light microscope is __________ times.
 a) five hundred
 b) two thousand
 c) four thousand
 d) one hundred thousand
__ 3. The highest magnification that is generally used to study cells is provided by the
 a) transmission electron microscope
 b) compound light microscope
 c) phase contrast microscope
 d) high voltage vacuum cleaners
__ 4. Our increase in knowledge of the cell closely paralleled the development of the:
 a) jail house
 b) civil war
 c) microscope;
 d) pH meter
 e) telescope
__ 5. A high-powered microscope that produces an image from scattered secondary electrons is
      the
 a) immunofluorescence microscope.
 b) bright-field light microscope.
 c) transmission electron microscope (TEM).
 d) scanning electron microscope (SEM).
 e) confocal microscope.
__ 6. A microscope that uses antibodies that glow to reveal the location of a protein in a cell is the
 a) immunofluorescence microscope.
 b) bright-field light microscope.
 c) transmission electron microscope (TEM).
 d) scanning electron microscope (SEM).
 e) confocal microscope.
__ 7. A microscope used to observe living cells and organelles by contrasting the phase differences
      so that some regions appear brighter is the
 a) immunofluorescence microscope.
 b) phase contrast light microscope.
 c) transmission electron microscope (TEM).
 d) scanning electron microscope (SEM).
 e) confocal microscope.
__ 8. From your knowledge of the size of cell components and the process of centrifugation, what
      is the order (from first to last) that the nucleus and organelles will be extracted?
 a) ribosomes–mitochondria and chloroplasts–nucleus–soluble cytoplasm
 b) nucleus–mitochondria and chloroplasts–ribosomes–soluble cytoplasm
 c) nucleus–mitochondria and chloroplasts–soluble cytoplasm–ribosomes
 d) mitochondria and chloroplasts–nucleus–soluble cytoplasm–ribosomes
 e) soluble cytoplasm–ribosomes–mitochondria and chloroplasts–nucleus
__ 9. To best preserve the enzymes of a cell when we cut a cell apart in a blender to separate the
      organelles, the solution should be
 a) warm and acidic.
 b) warm and basic.
 c) cold and neutral.
 d) The temperature and pH does not matter.
__ 10. Functions of a microscope that permit the sharpest view of an organism include(s) which of
      the following?
 a) resolution
 b) contrast
 c) magnification
 d) All of the choices are correct.
    True - False
    Short Answer
    Essay
Cells -- General
    Multiple Choice
__ 11. The function of organelles in eukaryotic cells is to:
 a) provide compartments that separate different chemical activities
 b) allow the cell to move within its environment
 c) provide protection for the cell
 d) provide separation between the cell and its environment
 e) increase the cell's surface area
__ 12. An animal secretory cell and a photosynthetic leaf cell are similar in all but one of the
     following ways EXCEPT:
 a) They both have Golgi apparatus
 b) They both have mitochondria
 c) They both have transport proteins for active transport of ions
 d) They both have chloroplasts
 e) They both have a cell membrane
__ 13. Cell biologists have introduced radioactively labeled carbohydrates, fats and amino acids to
     living cells, allowed time for cell metabolism, and then disrupted the cells in a blender and
     separated out the various cell organelles from the cytoplasm. They found the radioactive
     molecules could soon be detected as part of various cellular compounds, although the visible
     cell structures appeared unchanged. This leads us to conclude that
 a) these "food" molecules are used only for energy.
 b) most cell components are constantly being broken down and rebuilt.
 c) radioactivity was transferred from the introduced molecules to the resident stable molecules.
 d) molecules diffuse at random through the cytoplasm and into cell organelles.
 e) radioactivity has an unusual role in metabolism of living cells.
__ 14. Which of the following is not present in all cells
 a) cell wall
 b) plasma membrane
 c) ribosomes
 d) DNA molecules
 e) None of the above
__ 15. The first cell that was seen under a microscope was a _________ cell.
 a) cork
 b) blood
 c) sperm
 d) skin
 e) root tip
__ 16. The cell theory states state
 a) all cells have a nucleus
 b) all cells divide by mitosis
 c) all living organisms are made up of cells
 d) cells arise through spontaneous generation.
 e) growth is solely the result of cell division
__ 17. The cell was first seen by
 a) Robert Brown
 b) Robert Hooke
 c) Theodor Schwann
 d) Virchow
 e) Leeuwenhoek
__ 18. Which of the following is not true?
 a) According to the definition of an organ, the human heart is an organ.
 b) Bacterial cells have nuclei and several different kinds of organelles.
 c) The fundamental nature of chemical reactions is determined by the electrons in the outer orbital of
      atoms.
 d) According to the definition of a molecule, carbon dioxide is a molecule.
 e) None of these.
__ 19. About when did Schleiden and Virchow propose that ALL LIVING THINGS ARE COMPOSED
      OF ONE OR MORE CELLS?
 a) mid 1500s
 b) mid 1600s
 c) mid 1700s
 d) mid 1800s
 e) mid 1900s.
__ 20. MOST CELLS REMAIN SMALL because AS THEY GROW LARGER:
 a) it is harder to get nutrients dispersed throughout the cell
 b) it is harder to get waste products out of the cell
 c) there is less surface area per volume of the cell
 d) the more the volume increases in relation to the cell-surface area
 e) all of these answers are correct.
__ 21. All cells, regardless of type, have which three of the following features in common?
A. DNA          B. golgi        C. cytoplasm D. endoplasmic reticulum E. plasma membrane
 a) A, B, C
 b) C, D, E
 c) A, B, D
 d) B, C, E
 e) B, D, E
__ 22. Prokaryotic cells:
 a) have a well defined nucleus
 b) have organelles with membranes that separate them from the cytoplasm
 c) usually have a rigid cell wall
 d) are multicellular
 e) both A and B, but not C or D
__ 23. Which of the following statements about bacteria, plant, and animal cell structure is
     correct?
 a) Bacteria and plants are prokaryotic, but animal cells are eukaryotic
 b) Plant and animal cells are prokaryotic, but bacteria are eukaryotic
 c) Animal cells and bacteria are eukaryotic, but plant cells are prokaryotic
 d) Bacteria are prokaryotic, but animal and plant cells are eukaryotic
 e) Bacteria lack cell structure, but plants and animals have cell structure
__ 24. The diameter of a typical PROKARYOTIC cells is about:
 a) 1 millimeter
 b) 1 meter
 c) 1 micrometer
 d) 1 nanometer
 e) 1 megameter
__ 25. The typical BACTERIAL cell is about the same size as the eukaryotic:
 a) Golgi complex
 b) mitochondrion
 c) nucleus
 d) ribosome
 e) endoplasmic reticulum
 f) endocytosis or exocytosis
__ 26. A cellular diameter of 40 micrometers is equivalent to:
 a) 0.4 millimeter
 b) 0.04 millimeter
 c) 40,000 nanometers
 d) 4,000 nanometers
 e) Both 0.04 millimeter and 40,000 nanometers are correct
__ 27. Which of the following would be found in an animal cell, but not in a bacterial cell?
 a) DNA
 b) cell wall
 c) plasma membrane
 d) ribosomes
 e) endoplasmic reticulum
__ 28. Eukaryotic cells can be larger than prokaryotic cells because:
 a) their plasma membrane has more control over the movement of materials into the cell.
 b) their internal membrane system allows compartmentalization of functions and extra surface area for
     nutrient exchange and placement of enzymes.
 c) their DNA is localized in the nucleus whereas protein synthesis occurs in the cytoplasm, separating these
     competing functions.
 d) they have more chromosomes and a mitotic process of cell division.
 e) they have a cytoskeleton composed of microtubules and microfilaments.
__ 29. A cell has the following molecules and structures: enzymes, DNA, ribosomes, plasma
     membrane, and mitochondria. It could be a cell from:
 a) a bacterium
 b) an animal, but not a plant
 c) a plant, but not an animal
 d) a plant or an animal
 e) any kind of organism
__ 30. Found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
 a) centriole
 b) lysosome
 c) nucleolus
 d) peroxisome
 e) ribosome
__ 31. All cells possess all the following components except:
 a) Cytoplasm
 b) Genetic material
 c) Nuclear membrane
 d) Plasma cell membrane
 e) Ribosomes
__ 32. The cell is the basic unit of function and reproduction because
 a) subcellular components cannot regenerate whole cells.
 b) cells are totipotent.
 c) single cells can sometimes produce an entire organism.
 d) cells can only come from preexisting cells.
 e) a cell can arise by the fusion of two cells.
__ 33. What is the meaning of the term "prokaryotic"?
 a) "False nucleus"
 b) "Before the nucleus"
 c) "True nucleus"
 d) "Small nucleus"
 e) "Before the cell"
__ 34. Which does NOT agree with part of the cell theory?
 a) Insects are composed of cells.
 b) Paramecia come from Paramecia.
 c) Bacteria are the smallest possible organisms.
 d) Minerals are important for good health.
 e) Spontaneous generation can not occur.
__ 35. What is not characteristic of a prokaryotic cell?
 a) A plasma membrane
 b) A nuclear membrane
 c) Ribosomes
 d) Enzymes
 e) DNA
__ 36. What is not characteristic of a prokaryotic cell?
 a) A plasma membrane
 b) A nuclear membrane
 c) Ribosomes
 d) Enzymes
 e) DNA
__ 37. Prokaryotic as well as eukaryotic cells possess:
 a) Mitochondria
 b) Chloroplasts
 c) A cytoskeleton
 d) Ribosomes
 e) A nucleus
__ 38. Which is a difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
 a) Prokaryotes have RNA, eukaryotes have DNA
 b) Prokaryotes have DNA, eukaryotes have RNA
 c) Prokaryotes have a nucleus, eukaryotes have a nucleoid
 d) Prokaryotes have a nucleoid, eukaryotes have a nucleus
 e) Prokaryotes have a cell wall, eukaryotes do not
__ 39. The cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells contains:
 a) Water
 b) Dissolved nutrients
 c) Organelles
 d) Enzymes
 e) All of these
__ 40. A cell has the following molecules and structures: enzymes, DNA, ribosomes, plasma
     membrane, and mitochondria. It could be a cell from:
 a) a bacterium
 b) an animal, but not a plant
 c) a plant, but not a animal
 d) a plant or animal
 e) any kind of organism
__ 41. Which is NOT true about the cell theory?
 a) Its various parts were described by Schleiden, Schwann, and Virchow.
 b) It states that all organisms are composed of cells.
 c) It states that all cells come from preexisting cells.
 d) It states that bacteria and other small organisms can arise spontaneously.
 e) It is accepted today by biologists as applying to virtually all forms of life.
__ 42. As they flow over rotten logs as a fluid sheet, slime molds appear to lack any partitioning
     into cell units; however, slime molds do become cellular when they change form to produce
     spores. And the surface of some parasitic flatworms and some insect tissues are a
     "syncytium" or layer of living material that contains many nuclei and cell organelles but lacks
     partitioning by cell membranes. These tissues consume food and produce wastes. In light of
     the cell theory that "all living things are composed of cells," then
 a) these tissues are not living because they are not cellular.
 b) these tissues are obviously a bridge between nonliving and primitive living cells.
 c) the general concept of life-is-cellular still holds because these organisms still utilize cells sometime in their
     life, but this shows that cell membrane partitions can be abandoned.
 d) this proves that a "vital force" beyond cell chemistry can give life to substances.
 e) All of the choices are true.
__ 43. Which is NOT a reason for the small size of cells?
 a) As the linear dimensions of a cell increase, the volume increases twice as fast as the surface area.
 b) Nutrients and wastes must enter and leave the cell through the plasma membrane.
 c) The nucleus can only control a certain amount of cytoplasm.
 d) The increased number of organelles requires that eukaryotic cells be smaller than prokaryotic cells.
 e) Materials must be able to move quickly and efficiently through the cytoplasm.
__ 44. Which term is based on the Greek root words for "before" and "kernel"?
 a) peptidoglycan.
 b) eukaryote.
 c) nucleolus.
 d) prokaryote.
 e) nucleus.
__ 45. Which is NOT true of eukaryotic cells?
 a) A true nucleus contains the chromosomes.
 b) Eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bounded compartments.
 c) They contain ribosomes that are smaller than those of prokaryotic cells.
 d) They all contain mitochondria.
 e) They contain many organelles in the cytoplasm.
__ 46. Eukaryotic cells are substantially larger than bacterial cells and average over 20 times more
     volume-per-surface-area than bacterial cells. How can the eukaryotic cell membrane provide
     this higher rate of exchange of materials?
 a) Plasma membrane folds increase the surface area.
 b) Carrier proteins speed the rate at which a solute crosses the plasma membrane in the direction of
     decreasing concentration.
 c) Mitochondria are concentrated near membranes to provide energy for active transport of molecules or
     ions.
 d) Large molecules are engulfed by vesicle formation.
 e) All of the choices are correct.
__ 47. An animal secretory cell and a photosynthetic leaf cell are similar in all but one of the
     following ways EXCEPT:
 a) They both have Golgi apparatus
 b) They both have mitochondria
 c) They both have transport proteins for active transport of ions
 d) They both have chloroplasts
 e) They both have a cell membrane
    True - False
__ 48. All cells contain the same kinds of proteins in the same relative locations.
 a) True
 b) False
 c) False
__ 49. An extracellular matrix helps some cells to adhere to neighboring cells.
 a) True
 b) False
__ 50. As the size of a cell increases, so does its surface-to-volume ratio.
 a) True
 b) False
__ 51. A cell is the smallest unit of living matter.
 a) True
 b) False
__ 52. The cytoplasm is the fluid that bathes the structures that are located in the cell.
 a) True
 b) False
    Short Answer
    Essay
Fluid-mosaic model
    Multiple Choice
__ 53. Based on your understanding of the composition of a cell membrane, what would it
     probably feel like to the touch?
 a) Tough, like skin
 b) Thin and hard, like a nutshell
 c) Stretchy and soft, like a balloon
 d) Pliable and soft, like jelly
 e) Wet and without substance, like water
__ 54. What prevents your immune system from attacking your own cells?
 a) inadequate enzymes
 b) fever
 c) cholesterol
 d) recognition proteins
 e) receptor proteins
__ 55. Each time the water in a cell freezes slowly, long sharp crystals spear through the
     membrane structures of the cell. However, in the frozen state, virtually no chemical reactions
     occur. The most likely explanation for the bad taste of meat that has "freezer burn" from
     repeated freezing is the destruction of
 a) the Golgi bodies and their vesicles.
 b) lysosomes and resultant autodigestion.
 c) rough endoplasmic reticulum causing the release of ribosomes.
 d) ribosomes causing them to break into subunits.
 e) the nuclear membrane causing mixing of nucleoplasm and cytoplasm.
__ 56. Having similar ____________ would allow tissues and organs to be transplanted easily.
 a) cell recognition proteins
 b) major histocompatibility complex proteins
 c) carbohydrate chains in the cell membrane
 d) all of the choices are involved in tissue transplantation
__ 57. Some parasites and disease agents regularly change their identity before our immune
     system can build up substantial antibodies. How could cells change their chemical identity on
     a regular basis?
 a) Rapid evolution produces mutations.
 b) A new phospholipid bilayer is generated to replace the old layer.
 c) Because the membrane is "set," the cell must reproduce and then the cell with the old membrane must
     die.
 d) Cells eliminate all surface proteins and present only a naked lipid bilayer.
 e) Different glycolipids and glycoproteins are produced internally and moved into the plasma membrane.
__ 58. The major functions of the plasma membrane do NOT include
 a) separation of the fluid environments inside and outside the cell.
 b) regulation of molecules and ions that pass into and out of the cell.
 c) recognition and communication between different cells and tissues.
 d) maintaining connections between adjacent cells.
 e) production of proteins used in construction of the cell wall.
__ 59. Which of the following functions does the lipid bilayer component of the cell membrane
     NOT provide for the cell?
 a) controls the exchange of matter and chemical information between one cell and adjacent cells or
     environment
 b) provides an impermeable, self-sealing membrane capable of dividing or fusing the cell without breaking
 c) provides the matrix into which are inserted proteins that facilitate the exchange of matter between the
     inside and outside of the cell
 d) clearly defines a boundary preventing an equilibrium between the outside and inside of the cell
 e) provides a fluid and flexible boundary that insulates the interior from the variations in humidity, food,
     and other external conditions
__ 60. The current theory of the structure of the plasma membrane is best described by the____
     model.
 a) sandwich
 b) fluid-mosaic
 c) unit membrane
 d) electrochemical
 e) unipermeable
__ 61. In a phospholipid bilayer, the
 a) phosphate groups are hydrophobic.
 b) fatty acid tails are ionized.
 c) fatty acid tails are hydrophilic.
 d) proteins are located only between the two layers.
 e) phosphate heads are oriented toward the exterior of the cell or toward the cytoplasm.
__ 62. Which statement is true about the plasma membrane?
 a) The proteins make up the matrix of the membrane.
 b) The model can be likened to a sandwich where phospholipids are like the bread and proteins are like the
     filling.
 c) The fluid nature of the membrane is regulated by flip-flopping of the phospholipids from one side of the
     membrane to the other.
 d) Movement of proteins and phospholipids can occur sideways within the plane of the membrane.
__ 63. Which statement is NOT true about the proteins in the plasma membrane?
 a) Proteins may be attached to the inner surface of the plasma membrane.
 b) The hydrophobic portion of a protein is embedded within the membrane.
 c) Some peripheral proteins are connected to cytoskeletal filaments.
 d) Integral proteins are responsible for membrane functions.
 e) Glycoproteins contain carbohydrate chains that are oriented toward the inner surface of the membrane.
__ 64. Which phrase does NOT describe one of the functions of proteins of the plasma membrane?
 a) forming a channel through the membrane
 b) initiating the replication of the genetic material
 c) binding to a substance to carry it through the membrane
 d) acting as a receptor for substances external to the cell
 e) increasing the rate of a chemical reaction
__ 65. Red blood cells come in many "blood types" including type A, type B, type AB, type O
     [lacking proteins A and B], Rh positive, and Rh negative [lacking Rh+] and many others. If
     blood is transfused, the recipient detects any new or "foreign" proteins. These blood type
     proteins are
 a) in the plasma where they have been secreted by the red blood cells.
 b) inside the red blood cell cytoplasm.
 c) on the outer surface of the red blood cell membrane.
 d) evenly distributed throughout the cell contents and plasma.
 e) in the red blood cell nucleus.
__ 66. In speculating upon the origin of early cells and the cell membrane, which of the following
      statements is/are NOT plausible?
 a) Due to similarities in basic structure, the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi body, vesicles, and other
      "cytomembranes" may have arisen as invaginations of the cell membrane.
 b) As long as a phospholipid-production mechanism is present, these molecules would naturally arrange
      themselves in two layers with the hydrophobic tails on the inside away from water.
 c) It would be nearly impossible to have a cell without a cell membrane.
 d) All of the choices are plausible.
 e) None of the choices are plausible.
__ 67. All life forms currently have a basic cell membrane so we presume that the earliest forms of
      life had this "fence" isolating the internal organization from the external chaos. It is likely
      that the primordial environment was acidic. In such a case, the cell membrane would have
      to include
 a) a sodium (Na+) pump.
 b) a proton (H+) pump.
 c) mitochondria underneath in order to provide energy for active transport.
 d) an acid-proof cell wall.
 e) a totally nonpermeable membrane.
__ 68. A major chemical that functions to stiffen animal cell membranes and thus regulates the
      fluidity of the animal cell membrane is
 a) cholesterol.
 b) lipid in nature.
 c) a steroid.
 d) All of the choices are correct.
__ 69. Proteins in a membrane are
 a) peripheral if they are on the inside surface held in place by the cytoskeleton.
 b) integral if they are embedded in the membrane.
 c) integral if they protrude from only one surface of the bilayer.
 d) All of the choices are correct.
__ 70. Which of the following protein functions is not correctly associated with its correct integral
      protein?
 a) carrier proteins–passage of molecules through the membrane
 b) enzymatic proteins–carry out metabolic reactions directly
 c) channel proteins–block the activity of carrier proteins
 d) cell recognition proteins–recognize pathogens
__ 71. One of the functions of cholesterol in plasma membranes is to:
 a) facilitate transport of ions
 b) store energy
 c) maintain membrane fluidity
 d) speed diffusion
 e) phosphorylate ADP
__ 72. The phospholipid molecules of most membranes have:
 a) a hydrophobic head and a hydrophilic tail
 b) a hydrophobic head and a hydrophobic tail
 c) a hydrophobic head and two hydrophobic tails
 d) a hydrophobic head and two hydrophilic tails
 e) none of the above
__ 73. Unsaturated tails of lipids:
 a) are hydrophilic
 b) are unstable and tend to break apart
 c) tend to make the membrane more fluid
 d) will create phosphate
 e) all of the above
__ 74. The relative impermeability of membranes to water-soluble molecules is a result of
 a) the nonpolar nature of water molecules
 b) the presence of large proteins that extend through both sides of membranes
 c) the presence of inorganic salt crystals scattered through some membranes
 d) the presence of cellulose and chemicals such as lignin and prectin in the membranes
 e) none of the above
__ 75. Which of the following statements is not true?
 a) Membranes are often perforated by proteins that extend through both sides of the membrane.
 b) Some membranes have proteins with channels or pores that allow for the passage of hydrophilic
     substances
 c) Hydrophilic substances have an easier time passing through membranes than hydrophobic substances.
 d) The current concept of a membrane can be best summarized by the fluid mosaic model.
 e) The lipid bilayer serves as a hydrophobic barrier between two fluid regions.
__ 76. Membrane carbohydrates:
 a) extend into the cytoplasm
 b) serve as surface markers for cells
 c) function as pumps to move material through the membranes
 d) are the basic structural units in all membranes
 e) render the membrane hydrophobic
__ 77. Which of the following statements is true?
 a) Plasma membranes have molecules on their surfaces that identify them.
 b) Plasma membranes are essentially sacs that keep materials inside them.
 c) Plasma membranes are basically static, non-changing structures.
 d) Plasma membranes function primarily through the activity of their carbohydrates.
 e) Plasma membranes are hydrophilic barriers between cells.
__ 78. All of the following except one is a chemical part of biological membranes. Which one is
     the exception?
 a) phospholipids
 b) proteins
 c) enzymes
 d) nucleic acids
 e) fatty acids
__ 79. Which one of the following is an important FUNCTION of the LIPIDS in a cell's plasma
     membrane?
 a) accomplishes electron transport
 b) provides a hydrophobic barrier
 c) accomplishes active transport
 d) identifies adjacent cells as similar or different
 e) opens and closes to regulate flow of ions across membrane
__ 80. All of the following except one are characteristic of the STRUCTURE, CHEMISTRY, or
     FUNCTION of the cell's PLASMA MEMBRANE. Select the EXCEPTION
 a) contain lipid bilayers
 b) part of the membrane is a solid sheet (layer) of protein
 c) contain functional proteins and phospholipids
 d) serves as boundary between outside of cell and cytoplasm
 e) have hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions
__ 81. Consider the CHEMICAL STRUCTURE of a typical PHOSPHOLIPID. Which of the following
     contributes most to the plasma membrane acting (in part) as a HYDROPHOBIC BARRIER?
 a) phosphate group
 b) the hydrocarbon part of the fatty acids
 c) bound receptor proteins
 d) glycerol backbone
 e) electron transport proteins.
__ 82. Plasma membrane.
 a) structure or process is a feature of all cells
 b) structure or process is found in prokaryotic cells only
 c) structure or process is found in eukaryotic cells only
 d) structure or process is found in plant cells only
 e) structure or process is found in animal cells only
__ 83. Which organelle is involved in the synthesis of lipids?
 a) ribosomes
 b) lysosomes
 c) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
 d) mitochondria
 e) contractile vacuoles
__ 84. Why do the heads of the phospholipids point out and the tails point to each other?
 a) The tails are nonpolar and form hydrogen bonds with each other.
 b) The tails are repelled by the aqueous environment.
 c) The heads are attracted to the water inside and outside.
 d) a and c.
 e) b and c.
__ 85. Within the fluid mosaic of a plasma membrane, what is the role of transport and channel
     proteins?
 a) They prevent passage of amino acids.
 b) They allow movement of salts and sugars through the plasma membrane.
 c) They may set off cellular changes such as cell division or hormone secretion.
 d) They are cell-surface attachment sites.
 e) They identify the cell.
__ 86. How are plasma membranes best described?
 a) A double layer of phospholipid molecules with hydrophobic tails directed toward cytoplasm of the cell.
 b) A single layer of phospholipid molecules with water molecules attached along one side.
 c) A double layer of phospholipid molecules with hydrophilic heads directed toward each other.
 d) A double layer of phospholipid molecules with hydrophobic tails oriented toward each other.
 e) A single layer of phospholipids with tails pointed to the inside of the cell.
__ 87. The hydrophobic tails of a phospholipid bilayer are oriented toward the:
 a) Interior of the plasma membrane (i.e. each other)
 b) Extracellular fluid surrounding the cell
 c) Cytoplasm of the cell
 d) Nucleus of the cell
 e) Both b and c
__ 88. Which of the following accounts for the fluid aspect of the fluid mosaic model of plasma
      membranes?
 a) The individual phospholipid molecules are not bonded to each other so movement of certain proteins
      and lipids is possible within the bilayer.
 b) The plasma membrane is "fluid" because of movement of substances across the membrane.
 c) The bilayer permits diffusion of certain lipid-soluble substances.
 d) The membrane is water soluble.
 e) One of the components of the membrane is water.
__ 89. According to the fluid mosaic model of cell membranes, which of the following is a true
      statement about membrane phospolipids?
 a) They move laterally along the plane of the membrane.
 b) They frequently flip-flop from one side of the membrane to the other.
 c) They occur in an uninterrupted bilayer, with membrane proteins restricted to the surface of the
      membrane.
 d) They are free to depart from the membrane and are dissolved in the surrounding solution.
 e) They have hydrophilic tails in the interior of the membrane.
__ 90. Recognition proteins are most important for
 a) facilitated diffusion of molecules.
 b) active transport of molecules.
 c) maintaining membrane integrity.
 d) maintaining membrane fluidity.
 e) distinguishing foreign cells from "self" cells.
__ 91. The compounds in biological membranes that form a barrier to the movement of materials
      across the membrane are
 a) internal proteins.
 b) carbohydrates.
 c) lipids.
 d) nucleic acids.
 e) external proteins
__ 92. The biological membranes, the phospholipids are arranged in
 a) a bilayer with the fatty acids pointing toward each other.
 b) a bilayer with the fatty acids facing outward.
 c) a single layer with the fatty acids facing the interior of the cell.
 d) a single layer with the phosphorus-containing region facing the interior of the cell.
 e) a bilayer with the phosphorus groups in the interior of the membrane.
__ 93. When a mouse cell and a human cell are fused, the membrane proteins of the two cells
      become uniformly distributed over the surface of the hybrid cell. This occurs because
 a) many proteins can move around within the bilayer.
 b) all proteins are anchored within the membrane.
 c) proteins are asymmetrically distributed within the membrane.
 d) all proteins in the plasma membrane are extrinsic.
 e) different membranes contain different proteins.
__ 94. The hydrophilic regions of a membrane protein are most likely to be found
 a) only in muscle cell membranes.
 b) associated with the fatty acid region of the lipids.
 c) in the interior of the membrane.
 d) exposed on the surface of the membrane.
 e) either on the surface or inserted into the interior of the membrane.
__ 95. In general, which of the following is largely responsible for moving substances across the
        plasma membrane, communicating with other cells and identifying the cell?
  a)   Phospholipids
  b)   Carbohydrates
  c)   Proteins
  d)   Nuclei acids
  e)   Cytoskeleton
       True - False
__ 96. Cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane.
 a) True
 b) False
__ 97. The modern model of plasma membrane structure was first described in 1986.
 a) True
 b) False
__ 98. Fluidity of a membrane increases as the percentage of unsaturated fatty acids in the
     phospholipids goes up.
 a) True
 b) False
__ 99. The lipid portion of a plasma membrane acts like a liquid at the temperature of the human
     body.
 a) True
 b) False
       Short Answer
       Essay
Transport of solutes
       Multiple Choice
__ 100. The slowest rate of diffusion of dye particles in water will occur in which situation?
 a) Dye particles in water at 10 degrees C
 b) Dye particles in water at 20 degrees C
 c) Dye particles in water at 30 degrees C
 d) Dye particles in water at 40 degrees C
 e) Dye particles in water at 80 degrees C
__ 101. You fill a shallow tray with water and place a drop of red ink in one end of the tray and a
     drop of green ink in the other end. Which of the following is true at equilibrium?
 a) The red ink is uniformly distributed in one half of the tray and the green ink is uniformly distributed in
     the other half of the tray.
 b) The red and green inks are both uniformly distributed throughout the tray.
 c) Each ink is moving down its concentration gradient.
 d) The concentration of each ink is higher at one end of the tray than at the other end.
 e) No predictions can be made without knowing the size of the ink molecules.
__ 102. Carbon dioxide crosses the plasma membrane by simple diffusion. What determines the
     rate at which carbon dioxide enters the cell?
 a) The concentration of carbon dioxide on each side of the membrane.
 b) The amount of energy being produced by the cell.
 c) The amount of transport protein in the membrane.
 d) The concentration of carbon dioxide outside of the cell.
 e) The amount of oxygen being exported from the cell.
__ 103. Glucose is a six-carbon sugar that diffuses slowly through artificial phospholipid bilayers.
     The cells lining the small intestine, however, rapidly move large quantities of glucose from
     the glucose-rich food into their glucose-poor cytoplasm. Using this information, which
     transport mechanism is most probably functioning in the intestinal cells?
 a) Simple diffusion
 b) Exocytosis
 c) Active Transport
 d) Facilitated diffusion
 e) Endergonic reactions
__ 104. Which of the following substances passes most easily into a cell?
 a) ions
 b) large molecules
 c) small, charged molecules
 d) small, hydrophobic molecules
 e) polar molecules
__ 105. Movement of a molecule against a concentrations difference is characteristic of:
 a) simple diffusion
 b) facilitated diffusion
 c) osmosis
 d) active transport
 e) bulk flow
__ 106. Which of the following PROTEINS are imbedded in the cell's plasma membrane and are
     directly involved in FORMING a PROTON GRADIENT across that membrane?
 a) receptor proteins
 b) electron-transport proteins
 c) carrier proteins
 d) channel proteins
 e) binding proteins
__ 107. WHICH TWO of the following things passively diffuse across the cell's plasma membrane?
     (A) GLUCOSE, B. PROTEINS, C. OXYGEN, D. AMINO ACIDS, E. CARBON DIOXIDE.
 a) A, D
 b) C, D
 c) A, E
 d) C, E
 e) A, B
__ 108. One important CHARACTERISTIC of LIVING CELLS is that:
 a) most solutes go across the plasma membrane by exo- or endocytosis
 b) solute concentration outside is greater than inside
 c) most solutes passively diffuse across the plasma membrane;
 d) solute concentration inside is much grater than on outside
 e) no one of these answers is correct
__ 109. Which of the following imbedded PROTEINS is most involved in ACTIVELY TRANSPORTING
     solutes across the cell's plasma membrane?
 a) channel proteins
 b) recognition proteins
 c) soluble proteins
 d) electron transport proteins
 e) receptor proteins
__ 110. Which one of the following is believe to PROVIDE THE ENERGY that drives ACTIVE
      TRANSPORT of solutes across the plasma membrane?
 a) hydrophobic barrier
 b) diffusion
 c) endocytosis
 d) proton gradient
 e) channel proteins
__ 111. The method of transport that requires the expenditure of ATP is
 a) simple diffusion
 b) facilitated diffusion
 c) osmosis
 d) active transport
 e) bulk flow
__ 112. The sodium / potassium pump is an example of
 a) simple diffusion
 b) facilitated diffusion
 c) osmosis
 d) active transport
 e) bulk flow
__ 113. The carrier molecules used in active transport are
 a) calcium ins in the calcium pump.
 b) proteins.
 c) ATP molecules.
 d) carbohydrates.
 e) lipids.
__ 114. To say a cell is "differentially permeable" means:
 a) It has different sized perforations in the membrane.
 b) It is permeable to different substances than other cells.
 c) Only certain molecules can pass through.
 d) Sometimes water passes through, and sometimes it can't.
 e) Permeability depends on gradient differences.
__ 115. The net movement of molecules from a high concentration to a low concentration is
      described by which of the following?
 a) diffusion
 b) active transport
 c) osmosis
 d) facilitated diffusion
 e) exocytosis
__ 116. When substances move through a plasma membrane and down gradients of concentration
      this is called:
 a) Active transport
 b) Passive transport
 c) Pinocytosis
 d) Exocytosis
 e) Entropy
__ 117. What happens when diffusion moves molecules across the plasma membrane?
 a) The cell gains needed materials and gets rid of excess materials very quickly.
 b) Most molecules are capable of crossing the phospholipid bilayer at any location and at basically the same
     rate.
 c) Energy input is required to transport molecules.
 d) The rate of diffusion cannot be influenced by the cell.
 e) The process is very slow and is driven by concentration gradients.
__ 118. For diffusion to occur there must be:
 a) a membrane
 b) a gradient
 c) water
 d) ATP
 e) all of these
__ 119. Which of the following may influence the rate of simple diffusion across a differentially
     permeable membrane?
 a) Size of molecule
 b) Lipid solubility of the molecule
 c) Concentration gradient
 d) a and c are correct
 e) All are correct
__ 120. Facilitated diffusion is most like:
 a) Coasting across a bridge on your bike.
 b) Being carried across a stream.
 c) Walking across a room.
 d) Riding a ski lift.
 e) Swimming.
__ 121. Molecules which permeate a plasma membrane by facilitated diffusion:
 a) Require an expenditure of energy
 b) Require the aid of transport proteins
 c) Move from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration
 d) Do so much more quickly than those crossing by simple diffusion
 e) All of these
__ 122. A molecule that can diffuse freely through a phospholipid bilayer is probably:
 a) Hydrophilic
 b) Positively charged
 c) Hydrophobic
 d) Negatively charged
 e) A sugar
__ 123. In reference to diffusion, "passive" really means:
 a) without a membrane
 b) in the air
 c) no gradient
 d) very slowly
 e) no energy required
__ 124. Molecules assisted by carrier proteins may cross a differentially permeable membrane by:
 a) Facilitated diffusion
 b) Active transport
 c) Osmosis
 d) Endocytosis
 e) Simple diffusion
__ 125. A certain cell, such as a neuron, has a high concentration of K+ ions. How can K+ ions
     continue to enter the cell?
 a) Active transport
 b) Facilitated diffusion
 c) Osmosis
 d) Endocytosis
 e) Infusion
__ 126. Active transport requires:
 a) Transport proteins
 b) ATP
 c) A membrane
 d) A gradient
 e) All of these
__ 127. What is active transport?
 a) Diffusion of molecules within a cell.
 b) Movement of molecules into or out of a cell against a concentration gradient.
 c) Movement of molecules into or out of a cell down a concentration gradient.
 d) The movement of molecules into or out of a cell using special proteins and not requiring an expenditure
     of energy.
 e) Rapid movement of molecules in a solution.
__ 128. Transport processes (for example, diffusion and active transport) occur across which
     membranes?
 a) Plasma membranes
 b) Chloroplast membranes
 c) Mitochondrial membranes
 d) ER membranes
 e) All of these
__ 129. Active transport
 a) require an input of ATP.
 b) is involved in diffusion.
 c) occurs in osmosis and facilitated transport.
 d) All of the choices are correct.
__ 130. Whether a molecule can cross the plasma membrane depends upon
 a) the size of the molecule.
 b) the shape of the molecule.
 c) the chemical properties of the molecule.
 d) the charge of the molecule.
 e) All of the choices are correct.
__ 131. Which is the best definition of active transport?
 a) movement of molecules from an area of their higher concentration to an area of their lower
     concentration
 b) movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from an area of high water concentration to an
     area of lower water concentration
 c) movement of molecules from an area of their lower concentration to an area of their higher
     concentration
 d) movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from an area of low water concentration to an
     area of higher water concentration
 e) movement of a substance against its concentration through the release of energy from ATP
__ 132. The sodium-potassium pump moves sodium and potassium ions across the plasma
     membrane by
 a) facilitated transport.
 b) active transport.
 c) cotransport.
 d) endocytosis.
 e) exocytosis.
__ 133. Sugars and amino acids are carried into the cell by means of
 a) facilitated transport.
 b) active transport.
 c) simple diffusion.
 d) endocytosis.
 e) exocytosis.
    True - False
__ 134. Small, hydrophilic molecules pass easily through the plasma membrane of the cell.
 a) True
 b) False
__ 135. Carrier molecules in the plasma membrane are only required for active transport.
 a) True
 b) False
__ 136. The barrier between the interior of a human cell and its external environment is known as
     the cell wall.
 a) True
 b) False
__ 137. Carrier proteins are necessary for active transport to occur.
 a) True
 b) False
__ 138. In the sodium-potassium pump, sodium is transported out of the cell and potassium is
     transported into the cell as ATP is broken by a membrane protein.
 a) True
 b) False
__ 139. Lipid-soluble molecules are able to diffuse into a cell more rapidly than water-soluble
     molecules.
 a) True
 b) False
__ 140. Receptor-mediated endocytosis involves the use of specific proteins in the cell membrane.
 a) True
 b) False
__ 141. Receptors are involved in the movement of some materials across the plasma membrane.
 a) True
 b) False
    Short Answer
    Essay
Endocytosis & Exocytosis (including lysosomes)
    Multiple Choice
__ 142. COLLOID-SIZE PARTICLES may pass across an animal cell's membrane by a PROCESS
     known as:
 a) coloidocytosis
 b) active transport
 c) passive diffusion
 d) osmosis
__ 143. Which process accounts for the movement of solids into some animal cells?
 a) Active transport
 b) Facilitated diffusion
 c) Diffusion
 d) Osmosis
 e) Phagocytosis
__ 144. What does a cell use exocytosis for?
 a) To move away from danger.
 b) To release substances from the cell.
 c) To incorporate nutrients.
 d) To pump hydrogen molecules across the membrane.
 e) To create new cells.
__ 145. White blood cells engulf bacteria through what process?
 a) exocytosis
 b) phagocytosis
 c) pinocytosis
 d) osmosis
 e) receptor mediated exocytosis
__ 146. White blood cells use ___________ to devour disease agents invading your body.
 a) diffusion
 b) exocytosis
 c) pinnocytosis
 d) active transport
 e) phagocytosis
__ 147. The process whereby white blood cells engulf bacteria is termed:
 a) Adhesion
 b) Exocytosis
 c) Pinocytosis
 d) Phagocytosis
 e) Ingestion
__ 148. The process by which cholesterol is transported into the cell by binding of LDL to its
     receptor and the internalization of the receptor-LDL complex is
 a) facilitated transport.
 b) active transport.
 c) cotransport.
 d) endocytosis.
 e) exocytosis.
__ 149. Cell products are secreted from the cell through
 a) facilitated transport.
 b) active transport.
 c) cotransport.
 d) endocytosis.
 e) exocytosis.
__ 150. Pinocytosis is an example of
 a) facilitated transport.
 b) active transport.
 c) cotransport.
 d) endocytosis.
 e) exocytosis.
__ 151. If phagocytosis can be compared to cellular eating, the pinocytosis can be compared to
 a) cellular elimination.
 b) cellular drinking.
 c) cellular dehydration.
 d) None of the choices are correct.
__ 152. The process by which a white blood cell or an amoeba engulfs bacteria is called
     phagocytosis.
 a) True
 b) False
    True - False
    Short Answer
    Essay
Cell-Cell junctions
    Multiple Choice
__ 153. Plasmodesmata in plant cells are similar in function to which structure in animal cells?
 a) peroxisomes
 b) desmosomes
 c) gap junctions
 d) glycocalyx
 e) tight junctions
__ 154. Ions can travel directly from the cytoplasm of one animal cell to the cytoplasm of an
      adjacent cell through:
 a) plasmodesmata
 b) intermediate filaments
 c) tight junction
 d) desmosomes
 e) gap junctions
__ 155. Plasmodesmata.
 a) structure or process is a feature of all cells
 b) structure or process is found in prokaryotic cells only
 c) structure or process is found in eukaryotic cells only
 d) structure or process is found in plant cells only
 e) structure or process is found in animal cells only
__ 156. Which of the following is NOT associated with animal cells?
 a) an extracellular matrix
 b) plasmodesmata
 c) gap junctions
 d) adhesion junctions (desmosomes)
 e) tight junctions
__ 157. Tight junctions.
 a) structure or process is a feature of all cells
 b) structure or process is found in prokaryotic cells only
 c) structure or process is found in eukaryotic cells only
 d) structure or process is found in plant cells only
 e) structure or process is found in animal cells only
__ 158. Specialized cell junctions include
 a) gap junctions.
 b) tight junctions.
 c) desmosomes.
 d) a, b, and c.
 e) a and b.
__ 159. Adhesion of animal tissues is accomplished by cell-to-cell junctions called:
 a) Desmosomes
 b) Tight junctions
 c) Gap junctions
 d) Plasmodesmata
 e) Cell plates
__ 160. The urinary bladder is protected from leaking due to cell-to-cell junctions called:
 a) Desmosomes
 b) Tight junctions
 c) Gap junctions
 d) Plasmodesmata
 e) Stretch receptors
__ 161. Involved in cell-to-cell communication.
 a) plasmodesmata
 b) intermediate filaments
 c) tight junction
 d) desmosomes
 e) gap junctions
__ 162. Protein channels that provide passage for hormones and nutrients between animal cells
      are termed:
 a) Desmosomes
 b) Tight junctions
 c) Gap junctions
 d) Plasmodesmata
 e) Capillaries
__ 163. Which of the following associations is NOT correct?
 a) adhesion junctions---hold cells together to form a flexible sheet of cells in an organ
 b) tight junctions---between cells serving as barriers
 c) plasmodesmata---between adjacent plant cells
 d) gap junctions---between differing types of plasma membranes
    True - False
__ 164. In the cells that line the lumen of the small intestine, gap junctions keep materials from
     the digestive tract from slipping between the cells and entering the tissues.
 a) True
 b) False
    Short Answer
    Essay
Osmosis
    Multiple Choice
__ 165. The diffusion of water molecules across a differentially permeable membrane is termed:
 a) Facilitated diffusion
 b) Hydrolysis
 c) Active transport
 d) Exocytosis
 e) Osmosis
__ 166. If red blood cells are taken from the body and placed in a hypertonic solution, what
     happens to the cells?
 a) The cells swell and burst because water moves into the cells.
 b) The cells shrivel up because water leaves the cells.
 c) The cells remain unchanged due to equal solute concentration inside and outside the cells.
 d) The cells remain unchanged due to equal water concentrations inside and outside the cells.
 e) They become white blood cells.
__ 167. Inside a "cell" you construct, you place a 1 M salt solution. You place the cell in a 1 M
     sugar solution. What happens?
 a) Water enters the cell because there is more water outside than inside.
 b) Water leaves the cell because sugar is a larger molecule than salt.
 c) Water leaves and enters at the same rate.
 d) Sugar diffuses in and salt diffuses out until equilibrium is reached.
 e) c and d.
__ 168. A freshwater protozoan, such as Paramecium, tends to _______ because it lives in a
     _______ environment.
 a) gain water; hypotonic
 b) lose water; hypertonic
 c) gain water; hypertonic
 d) lose water; hypotonic
 e) gain water; isotonic
__ 169. Osmosis depends on:
 a) Random movement of water molecules until equilibrium is reached.
 b) Random movement of solute molecules until equilibrium is reached.
 c) Differences in water concentration between solutions.
 d) The amount of water inside and outside the cell.
 e) All of these.
__ 170. Solutions that cause water to enter cells by osmosis are termed:
 a) Hypertonic
 b) Isotonic
 c) Hypotonic
 d) Permeable
 e) Hydrophilic
__ 171. The blood plasma of a human becomes _______ to their red blood cells if they drinks
     saltwater.
 a) hyposmotic
 b) isotonic
 c) hypotonic
 d) hypertonic
 e) hydroponic
__ 172. Plant cells transport sucrose across the vacuole membrane against its concentration
     gradient by a process known as
 a) simple diffusion.
 b) active transport.
 c) passive transport.
 d) facilitated diffusion.
 e) osmosis.
__ 173. When a red blood cell is placed in an isotonic solution, which of the following will occur?
 a) The cell will shrivel.
 b) The cell will swell and burst.
 c) The cell will shrivel, and then return to normal.
 d) The cell will swell and then return to normal.
 e) Nothing.
__ 174. The rate of facilitated diffusion of a molecule across a membrane does not continue to
     increase as the concentration difference of the molecule across the membrane increases
     because
 a) facilitated diffusion requires ATP energy.
 b) as the concentration difference increases, molecules interfere with one another.
 c) there are a limited number of carrier proteins in the membrane.
 d) increased concentration difference causes a situation far from equilibrium.
 e) the diffusion constant depends on the concentration difference.
__ 175. Osmosis moves water from a region of
 a) high concentration of dissolved material to a region of low concentration.
 b) low concentration of dissolved material to a region of high concentration.
 c) hypertonic solution to a region of hypotonic solution.
 d) negative osmotic potential to a region of positive osmotic potential.
 e) low concentration of water to a region of high concentration of water.
__ 176. A concentration gradient of glucose across a membrane means
 a) there are more moles of glucose on one side of the membrane than the other.
 b) glucose molecules are more crowded on one side of the membrane than the other.
 c) there is less water on one side of the membrane than the other.
 d) the glucose molecules are chemically more tightly bonded together on one side than the other.
 e) there are more glucose molecules within the membrane than outside of the membrane.
__ 177. Two similar-sized animal cells are placed in a 0.5% sucrose solution. Cell A enlarges in size
     for a while, then stops; cell B continues to enlarge and finally ruptures. Which of the
     following was true at the beginning of the experiment?
 a) Cell A was hypotonic to the solution and cell B was hypertonic.
 b) Cell A was hypertonic to the solution and cell B was hypotonic.
 c) Cell A was hypertonic to cell B.
 d) Cell B was hypertonic to cell A.
 e) Cells A and B were isotonic to each other.
__ 178. Most bacteria live in a solution that is hypotonic relative to the cytoplasm of the bacteria.
     The cell wall of a bacterium is a peptidoglycan polymer that is tightly cross-linked. This
     would therefore function to
 a) regulate the flow of most molecules into and out of the bacterial cell.
 b) provide a rigid wall that prevents the cell from swelling.
 c) provide a rigid wall that prevents the cell from shrinking.
 d) confirm a close relationship to plant cells that have a similar structure and live in hypotonic solutions.
 e) make all bacteria fairly uniform in metabolic chemistry.
__ 179. If a living plant were moved from a freshwater aquarium to a saltwater aquarium, which
     of the following would occur?
 a) Nothing. The plant would be fine in either aquarium.
 b) The plant's cells would take on ions.
 c) The plant's cells would take on water.
 d) The plant's cells will lose water.
__ 180. Which is the best definition of diffusion?
 a) movement of molecules from an area of their higher concentration to an area of their lower
     concentration
 b) movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from an area of high water concentration to an
     area of lower water concentration
 c) movement of molecules from an area of their lower concentration to an area of their higher
     concentration
 d) movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from an area of low water concentration to an
     area of higher water concentration
 e) movement of a substance against its concentration through the release of energy from ATP
__ 181. Which is the best definition of osmosis?
 a) movement of molecules from an area of their higher concentration to an area of their lower
     concentration
 b) movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from an area of high water concentration to an
     area of lower water concentration
 c) movement of molecules from an area of their lower concentration to an area of their higher
     concentration
 d) movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from an area of low water concentration to an
     area of higher water concentration
 e) movement of a substance against its concentration through the release of energy from ATP
__ 182. Plants show turgor pressure when
 a) cells are losing water from their water vacuoles.
 b) cells contain water vacuoles that are full of water.
 c) water is being used up in photosynthesis.
 d) water is being evaporated from the leaves.
__ 183. If a cell is placed in a hypotonic solution, which will occur?
 a) Salts will move into the cell from the surrounding solution.
 b) Water will move into the cell from the surrounding solution.
 c) Salts will move out of the cell into the surrounding solution.
 d) Water will move out of the cell into the surrounding solution.
 e) None of the choices will occur.
__ 184. If a cell is placed in a hypertonic solution, which will occur?
 a) Salts will move into the cell from the surrounding solution.
 b) Water will move into the cell from the surrounding solution.
 c) Salts will move out of the cell into the surrounding solution.
 d) Water will move out of the cell into the surrounding solution.
 e) None of the choices will occur.
__ 185. If a cell is placed in an isotonic solution, which will occur?
 a) Salts will move into the cell from the surrounding solution.
 b) Water will move into the cell from the surrounding solution.
 c) Salts will move out of the cell into the surrounding solution.
 d) Water will move out of the cell into the surrounding solution.
 e) None of the choices will occur.
__ 186. Freshwater protozoans react to a/an _____ environment by removing water through
     _____.
 a) hypertonic, turgor pressure
 b) hypotonic, turgor pressure
 c) isotonic, a contractile vacuole
 d) hypertonic, a contractile vacuole
 e) hypotonic, a contractile vacuole
__ 187. _______ is a shrinking of the cytoplasm due to osmosis.
 a) Plasmolysis
 b) Endocytosis
 c) Crenation
 d) Diffusion
 e) Turgor
__ 188. Which of the following is the reason plants wilt on a hot summer day?
 a) loss of water
 b) lack of turgor pressure
 c) heat weakens the plant cell walls
 d) both loss of water and therefore lack of turgor pressure.
__ 189. A red blood cell placed in 50% NaCl solution will
 a) undergo crenation.
 b) swell and eventually burst due to water intake.
 c) stay the same size.
 d) None of the choices are correct.
    True - False
__ 190. Plant cells will usually burst if an abundance of water has moved into the cell.
 a) True
__ 191. Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules across differentially permeable membranes.
 a) True
 b) False
__ 192. Crenation of red blood cells results when the red bloods cells lose water into a fluid
     environment that contains more solutes than the cell.
 a) True
 b) False
__ 193. Cells placed in an isotonic environment will die as they swell and burst.
 a) True
 b) False
__ 194. An isotonic solution has a solute concentration that is the same as that found inside of the
     cell.
 a) True
 b) False
__ 195. A hypertonic solution has a water concentration greater than that that is found inside the
     cell.
 a) True
 b) False
    Short Answer
    Essay
Cell walls
    Multiple Choice
__ 196. What is the primary function of the cell wall?
 a) selectively permeable
 b) transport
 c) contains hormone receptors
 d) used in cell-cell recognition
 e) none of these
__ 197. What is the innermost portion of some mature plant cell walls called?
 a) primary cell wall
 b) secondary cell wall
 c) middle lamella
 d) glycocalyx
 e) tonoplast
__ 198. Which statement is true of cell walls?
 a) Cell walls are nonliving.
 b) Cell walls are secreted by the cells they surround.
 c) Bacteria, fungi, and some protists possess cell walls.
 d) a and c are correct.
 e) All of these are true.
__ 199. What is a major component of cell walls of plants?
 a) Chitin
 b) Cellulose
 c) Pectin
 d) Lignin
 e) Protein
__ 200. What is a major component of cell walls of bacteria?
 a) Chitin
 b) Cellulose
 c) Peptidoglycan
 d) Lignin
 e) Protein
__ 201. An amino sugar called N-acetylmuramic acid is an important building block of the cell wall
     of some bacteria. Penicillin prevents this amino sugar from being incorporated into the
     bacterial cell wall. Therefore,
 a) penicillin affects bacteria but not eukaryotes because eukaryotic cell walls are different.
 b) bacterial cells that had already formed their cell walls would be unaffected.
 c) penicillin would stop the growth of active colonies of susceptible bacteria.
 d) All of the choices are correct.
__ 202. Cells that do not produce cell walls are
 a) animal cells.
 b) plant cells.
 c) bacterial cells.
 d) fungal cells.
__ 203. All cells have a cell wall that regulates the passage of molecules into and out of the cell.
 a) True
 b) False
__ 204. Which is NOT true about plant cell walls?
 a) All plant cells have a primary cell wall.
 b) Primary cell walls contain cellulose and microfibrils.
 c) Secondary cell walls are located just outside the primary cell wall.
 d) Secondary cell walls occur only in woody plants.
 e) Cell walls are penetrated by extensions of cytoplasm that connect adjacent cells' cytoplasm.
__ 205. Which of the following is true with respect to plant cell walls?
 a) They contain n-acetylglutamic acid.
 b) They all have secondary cell wall to some extent.
 c) There is a greater amount of cellulose in secondary cell walls than in primary cell walls.
 d) Lignin is found in primary cell walls of plants.
    True - False
    Short Answer
    Essay
Endomembrane system -- General
    Multiple Choice
__ 206. Which of the following cell components is not directly involved in synthesis or secretion of
     proteins?
 a) ribosomes
 b) rough endoplasmic reticulum
 c) Golgi bodies
 d) vesicles
 e) lysosome
__ 207. Which statement most accurately describes the interaction between ER, ribosomes and
     Golgi bodies in the export of protein from the cell?
 a) Golgi bodies manufacture proteins which travel through the ER to be packaged by the ribosomes for
     export.
 b) ER manufactures proteins which are carried by ribosomes to the Golgi bodies for export.
 c) ER manufactures proteins which are carried by Golgi bodies to the ribosomes for export.
 d) Ribosomes manufacture proteins which travel through the ER to be packaged by the Golgi bodies for
     export.
 e) Ribosomes make proteins that travel through the Golgi bodies to the ER which exports them.
__ 208. Which of these is NOT part of the endomembrane system of the cell?
 a) mitochondria
 b) endoplasmic reticulum
 c) lysosomes
 d) Golgi complex
__ 209. Which is NOT true concerning the Golgi complex?
 a) It consists of a stack of saccules.
 b) Golgi complexes in animal cells have an inner face and an outer face.
 c) Molecules are modified within the lumen of Golgi saccules.
 d) Lysosomes are vesicles that bind to enter the Golgi saccules.
 e) Golgi apparatus contains enzymes.
__ 210. The organelle of the endomembrane system associated with the sorting of lipids and
     proteins for various cellular functions are
 a)   rough endoplasmic reticula.
 b)   lysosomes.
 c)   vesicles.
 d)   Golgi apparati.
      True - False
      Short Answer
      Essay
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
      Multiple Choice
__ 211. Cells that primarily produce steroid hormones, such as testosterone and estrogen, for
     export have large quantities of:
 a) Cytoplasmic ribosomes
 b) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
 c) Plasma membranes
 d) Hydrolytic enzymes
 e) DNA
__ 212. Makes steroid hormones.
 a) mitochondria
 b) Golgi complex
 c) rough endoplasmic reticulum
 d) lysosomes
 e) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
__ 213. Detoxifies alcohol in the liver.
 a) lysosome
 b) tonoplast
 c) mitochondrion
 d) Golgi apparatus
 e) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
      True - False
      Short Answer
      Essay
Ribosomes & Rough endoplasmic reticulum
      Multiple Choice
__ 214. ___________ are sometimes referred to as rough or smooth depending upon its structure.
 a) Golgi bodies
 b) ribosomes
 c) mitochondria
 d) lysososmes
 e) endoplasmic reticulum
__ 215. Ribosomes are the site of synthesis of:
 a) DNA
 b) RNA
 c) Proteins
 d) Nucleoli
 e) Glucose
__ 216. Each is composed of two parts or subunits made of proteins and RNA.
 a) Golgi bodies
 b) ribosomes
 c) mitochondria
 d) lysososmes
 e) endoplasmic reticulum
__ 217. ___________ are the primary sites for the production of proteins.
 a) Golgi bodies
 b) ribosomes
 c) mitochondria
 d) lysososmes
 e) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
__ 218. All of the following except one are CHARACTERISTIC of the eukaryotic cell's ROUGH AND
      SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. Select the EXCEPTION.
 a) some make proteins
 b) place address tag on proteins and lipids for eventual cell placement
 c) may be rough of smooth
 d) some make lipids
 e) appears like stacks of flattened sacs without a surrounding membrane
__ 219. Each is composed of two parts or subunits made of proteins and RNA.
 a) Golgi bodies
 b) ribosomes
 c) mitochondria
 d) lysososmes
 e) endoplasmic reticulum
__ 220. Ribosomes.
 a) structure or process is a feature of all cells
 b) structure or process is found in prokaryotic cells only
 c) structure or process is found in eukaryotic cells only
 d) structure or process is found in plant cells only
 e) structure or process is found in animal cells only
__ 221. Large numbers of ribosomes are present in cells that specialize in producing which of the
      following molecules?
 a) lipids
 b) starches
 c) proteins
 d) steroids
 e) glucose
__ 222. What is the difference between "free" and "attached" ribosomes?
 a) Free ribosomes are in the cytoplasm while attached ribosomes are anchored to the endoplasmic
      reticulum.
 b) Free ribosomes produce proteins that remain in the cytosol while attached ribosomes produce proteins
      that may be exported from the cell.
 c) Free ribosomes produce proteins that are exported from the cell while attached ribosomes make proteins
      for mitochondria and chloroplasts.
 d) a and c.
 e) a and b.
__ 223. If you identified a cell with large amounts of rough ER, which would not be a logical
      conclusion about that cell?
 a) Large quantities of enzymes for biochemical processes are manufactured by that cell.
 b) Quantities of nuclear membrane are produced by that cell.
 c) Proteins for export are manufactured by that cell.
 d) Membrane lipids are produced by that cell.
 e) Large amounts of proteinaceous hormone are exported by the cell.
__ 224. Which of the following is associated with rough ER?
 a) Chlorophyll
 b) Ribosomes
 c) Lipid synthesis
 d) Plasma membrane
 e) DNA
__ 225. Endoplasmic reticulum is the site of synthesis of:
 a) Lipids
 b) Testosterone
 c) More ER
 d) Choices a and b are correct
 e) Choices a, b, and c are correct
__ 226. Site of protein synthesis.
 a) Mitochondria
 b) Golgi bodies
 c) Rough Endoplasmic reticulum
 d) Lysosomes
 e) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
__ 227. After being formed by the ribosomes located on the endoplasmic reticulum, what is the
      next organelle to which a protein could be transported?
 a) mitochondria
 b) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
 c) Golgi apparatus
 d) nucleus
 e) nucleolus
__ 228. Which is a true statement about ribosomes?
 a) Ribosomes contain DNA and protein.
 b) Ribosomes are active in carbohydrate synthesis.
 c) Ribosomal subunits leave the nucleus after being formed by the nucleolus.
 d) Polyribosomes are the subunits of ribosomes.
 e) Ribosomes are only found associated with the endoplasmic reticulum in prokaryotic cells.
__ 229. The Greek root word that means "net" and "within" is
 a) prokaryote.
 b) eukaryote.
 c) cytoplasmic.
 d) nucleoid.
 e) endoplasmic.
__ 230. Large numbers of ribosomes are present in cells that specialize in producing which of the
      following molecules?
 a) lipids
 b) starches
 c) proteins
 d) steroids
 e) glucose
    True - False
__ 231. The endoplasmic reticulum is a membranous system that is continuous with the nuclear
     envelope.
 a) True
 b) False
    Short Answer
    Essay
Golgi apparatus
    Multiple Choice
__ 232. A primary function of Golgi bodies in eukaryotic cells is to:
 a) make new lipids
 b) tag lipids and proteins with an address which says where they are to be sent within the cell
 c) to general ATP for the cell
 d) serves as the site where photosynthesis occurs
 e) the place where golgies are made
__ 233. Vesicles are developed from the membranes of the ____________ and move to the cell
     membrane where they fuse during exocytosis.
 a) mitochondria
 b) Golgi bodies
 c) ribosomes
 d) plastids
 e) nucleoli
__ 234. Sorts out mixtures of substances and sends them to their proper destinations.
 a) mitochondria
 b) Golgi complex
 c) rough endoplasmic reticulum
 d) lysosomes
 e) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
__ 235. Golgi bodies.
 a) structure or process is a feature of all cells
 b) structure or process is found in prokaryotic cells only
 c) structure or process is found in eukaryotic cells only
 d) structure or process is found in plant cells only
 e) structure or process is found in animal cells only
__ 236. The golgi packages materials into _________ for transport or export.
 a) organelles
 b) plastids
 c) vesicles
 d) microns
 e) nucleoli
__ 237. Which cellular component packages hydrolytic enzymes into lysosomes?
 a) Golgi complex
 b) Smooth ER
 c) Mitochondrion
 d) Cytoskeleton
 e) Rough ER
__ 238. What "buds off" of the Golgi complex?
 a) Nuclei
 b) Cytoskeleton
 c) Ribosomes
 d) New cells
 e) Vesicles
__ 239. Which of the following gives rise to both lysosomes and vesicles? The
 a) rough endoplasmic reticula
 b) mitochondria
 c) Golgi apparati
 d) ribosomes
__ 240. Sorts our mixtures of protein and sends them to their proper destination.
 a) Mitochondria
 b) Golgi bodies
 c) Rough Endoplasmic reticulum
 d) Lysosomes
 e) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
__ 241. _________ are the primary structures for the packaging of cellular secretions for export.
 a) Golgi bodies
 b) ribosomes
 c) mitochondria
 d) lysososmes
 e) endoplasmic reticulum
__ 242. Vesicles leave the Golgi from the _____ side.
 a) cis
 b) medial
 c) trans
 d) all of these
 e) none of these
__ 243. The Golgi body could be compared to a:
 a) stack of pancakes
 b) balloon
 c) fork
 d) jelly bean
 e) kidney bean
__ 244. The Golgi body could be compared to a
 a) stack of pancakes
 b) balloon
 c) fork
 d) jelly bean
 e) kidney bean
__ 245. A primary function of Golgi bodies in eukaryotic cells is to
 a) make new lipids
 b) tag lipids and proteins with an address which says where they are to be sent within the cell
 c) to general ATP for the cell
 d) serves as the site where photosynthesis occurs
 e) the place where golgies are made.
__ 246. Sorts out mixtures of proteins and sends them to their proper destinations.
 a) mitochondria
 b) Golgi complex
 c) rough endoplasmic reticulum
 d) lysosomes
 e) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    True - False
    Short Answer
    Essay
Lysosomes
    Multiple Choice
__ 247. From your knowledge of the function of lysosomes, the pH of lysosomes is likely to be
 a) highly variable.
 b) 5.
 c) precisely neutral or 7.
 d) 9.
 e) 12.
__ 248. Lysosomes are produced by the
 a) vacuoles.
 b) nucleus.
 c) mitochondria.
 d) Golgi apparatus.
 e) ribosomes.
__ 249. Digests damaged organelles and phagocytized materials.
 a) Mitochondria
 b) Golgi bodies
 c) Rough Endoplasmic reticulum
 d) Lysosomes
 e) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
__ 250. How does a cell rid itself of defective or malfunctioning organelles?
 a) They are engulfed by plastids and stored until export from cell is possible.
 b) Defective parts accumulate until the cell itself dies.
 c) Lysosomes assist in the removal of defective organelles by digesting them.
 d) Ribosomes play a significant role in the removal of malfunctioning parts by absorbing the parts.
 e) They are exported by exocytosis.
__ 251. If all the lysosomes within a cell suddenly ruptured, what would be the most likely result?
 a) The macromolecules in the cell cytosol would begin to degrade.
 b) The number of proteins in the cytosol would begin to increase.
 c) The DNA within the mitochondria would begin to degrade.
 d) The mitochondria and chloroplasts would begin to divide.
 e) There would be no change in the normal function of the cell.
__ 252. Digests worn out organelles.
 a) mitochondria
 b) Golgi complex
 c) rough endoplasmic reticulum
 d) lysosomes
 e) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
__ 253. __________ contain enzymes for digestion of bacteria and viruses.
 a) Golgi bodies
 b) ribosomes
 c) mitochondria
 d) lysosomes
 e) endoplasmic reticulum
__ 254. Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
 a) nucleolus : ribosome assembly
 b) nucleus : DNA replication
 c) lysosome : protein synthesis
 d) cell membrane : lipid bilayer
 e) cytoskeleton : microtubules
__ 255. Contains hydrolytic enzymes.
 a) lysosome
 b) tonoplast
 c) mitochondrion
 d) Golgi apparatus
 e) peroxisome
__ 256. Helps to recycle the cell's organic material.
 a) lysosome
 b) tonoplast
 c) mitochondrion
 d) Golgi apparatus
 e) peroxisome
__ 257. Involved in storage diseases such as Tay-Sach's.
 a) lysosome
 b) tonoplast
 c) mitochondrion
 d) Golgi apparatus
 e) peroxisome
   True - False
   Short Answer
   Essay
Nucleus
   Multiple Choice
__ 258. The Greek root word that means "center" is the main root for
 a) prokaryote.
 b) eukaryote.
 c) centriole.
 d) cilia.
 e) nucleus.
__ 259. The Greek root word that means "true kernel" is
 a) prokaryote.
 b) eukaryote.
 c) nucleolus.
 d) nucleoid.
 e) nucleus.
__ 260. A eukaryotic organelle that can best be seen with the light microscope is the
 a) endoplasmic reticulum.
 b) nucleus.
 c) ribosome.
 d) polyribosome.
 e) microtubule.
__ 261. The nucleus is NOT important as the site of
 a) DNA synthesis.
 b) RNA synthesis.
 c) synthesis of ribosomal subunits.
 d) protein synthesis.
__ 262. An organelle capable of synthesis of nuclear membrane is the:
 a) Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
 b) Nucleus itself
 c) Golgi complex
 d) Mitochondrion
 e) Chloroplast
__ 263. A nucleolus is:
 a) An extra nucleus in the cell
 b) A dark area in the nucleus where ribosomes are made
 c) An area where the nucleus is synthesized
 d) A membrane-bound organelle
 e) The area in a prokaryote where DNA is concentrated
__ 264. The nuclei of eukaryotic cells are characterized by:
 a) A single-layered membrane
 b) One or more nucleoids
 c) One or more nucleoli
 d) A non-porous membrane
 e) All of these
__ 265. Assembles ribosomal precursors.
 a) centriole
 b) lysosome
 c) nucleolus
 d) peroxisome
 e) ribosome
__ 266. All of the following except one are CHARACTERISTIC of the eukaryotic cell's NUCLEAR
     MEMBRANE. Select the EXCEPTION.
 a) contains pores
 b) nucleus surrounded by a double (inner and outer) membrane
 c) provides a partial physical barrier between chromosomes and cytoplasm
 d) membranes bleb off to form vesicles known as lysosomes
 e) surrounds the nucleolus
__ 267. All of the following except one are CHARACTERISTIC of the eukaryotic cell's NUCLEAR
     MEMBRANE. Select the EXCEPTION.
 a) contains pores
 b) nucleus surrounded by a double (inner and outer) membrane
 c) provides a partial physical barrier between chromosomes and cytoplasm
 d) membranes bleb off to form vesicles known as lysosomes
 e) surrounds the nucleolus.
__ 268. Chromatin is composed of:
 a) RNA and protein
 b) DNA and histones
 c) lipids and histones
 d) RNA and DNA
 e) none of these
__ 269. Which of the following is associated with the inner membrane of the nucleus?
 a) nucleoli
 b) nucleod
 c) lamins
 d) ribosomes
 e) RNA
__ 270. Place where ribosomal precursors are assembled.
 a) centriole
 b) lysome
 c) nucleolus
 d) peroxisome
 e) ribosome
__ 271. Cycloheximide is a drug that inhibits protein synthesis on eukaryotic ribosomes.
      Chloramphenicol is a drug that inhibits protein synthesis on prokaryotic ribosomes. Which of
      the following cells (or parts of cells) would have protein synthesis inhibited if they were
      grown in the presence of chloramphenicol?
 a) bacteria
 b) chloroplasts
 c) mitochondria
 d) bacteria and mitochondria only
 e) bacteria, chloroplasts, and mitochondria
    True - False
    Short Answer
    Essay
Mitochondria & Chloroplasts
    Multiple Choice
__ 272. Contains its own DNA and ribosomes.
 a) lysosome
 b) tonoplast
 c) mitochondrion
 d) Golgi apparatus
 e) peroxisome
__ 273. Site of aerobic respiration.
 a) lysosome
 b) tonoplast
 c) mitochondrion
 d) Golgi apparatus
 e) peroxisome
__ 274. All of the following except one are characteristic of MITOCHONDRIA in eukaryotic cells.
     Select the EXCEPTION.
 a) found in great number in cells having high energy demands
 b) found in plant and animal cells
 c) their membranes contain photosynthetic pigments
 d) contains an outer and deeply folded inner membrane
 e) accomplishes ATP formation from materials such as sugars used as energy sources.
__ 275. A biologist ground up some plant cells and then centrifuged the mixture. She obtained
     some organelles from the sediment in the test tube. The organelles took up CO2 and gave
     off O2. The organelles are most likely:
 a) chloroplasts
 b) ribosomes
 c) nuclei
 d) mitochondria
 e) Golgi apparatus
__ 276. Contains cristae.
 a) lysosome
 b) tonoplast
 c) mitochondrion
 d) Golgi apparatus
 e) peroxisome
__ 277. Where in the mitochondria is the Kreb’s (tricarboxylic acid) cycle located?
 a) outer membrane
 b) inner membrane
 c) cristae
 d) thylakoids
 e) matrix
__ 278. Where in the mitochondria is the electron transport chain located?
 a) outer membrane
 b) inner membrane
 c) cristae
 d) thylakoids
 e) matrix
__ 279. Which of the following is capable of converting light energy to chemical bond energy?
 a) chloroplasts
 b) mitochondria
 c) leucoplasts
 d) peroxisomes
 e) Golgi bodies
__ 280. All of the following except one are terms and concepts that are associated with
     CHLOROPLASTS. Select the EXCEPTION.
 a) Grana
 b) Lysosomes
 c) Stroma
 d) Photosynthesis
 e) Chlorophyll.
__ 281. The primary function of a plant CHLOROPLAST is to:
 a) store food materials and cellular wastes
 b) accumulate starch
 c) help the cell maintain its structural rigidity
 d) form rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum
 e) to accomplish photosynthesis.
__ 282. __________ are the primary sites for extraction of energy from carbohydrates.
 a) Golgi bodies
 b) ribosomes
 c) mitochondria
 d) lysososmes
 e) endoplasmic reticulum
__ 283. All of the following except one are characteristic of MITOCHONDRIA in eukaryotic cells.
      Select the EXCEPTION.
 a) found in great number in cells having high energy demands
 b) found in plant and animal cells
 c) their membranes contain photosynthetic pigments
 d) contains an outer and deeply folded inner membrane
 e) accomplishes ATP formation from materials such as sugars used as energy sources
__ 284. All of the following except one are terms and concepts that are associated with
      CHLOROPLASTS. Select the EXCEPTION.
 a) Grana
 b) Lysosomes
 c) Stroma
 d) Photosynthesis
 e) Chlorophyll
__ 285. The primary function of a plant CHLOROPLAST is to:
 a) store food materials and cellular wastes;
 b) accumulate starch;
 c) help the cell maintain its structural rigidity;
 d) form rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum;
 e) to accomplish photosynthesis.
__ 286. What do both mitochondria and chloroplasts have in common?
   1. ATP is produced. 2. DNA is present. 3. Ribosomes are present.
 a) 1
 b) 2
 c) 3
 d) Only 2 and 3 are correct.
 e) 1, 2, and 3 are correct.
__ 287. Lamellae, grana, thylakoids and CF1 particles are all structural components found in:
 a) cilia and flagella
 b) chloroplasts
 c) mitochondria
 d) lysosomes
 e) nuclei.
__ 288. Organelles that contain DNA include:
 a) ribosome
 b) mitochondria
 c) chloroplasts
 d) mitochondria and chloroplasts only
 e) ribosomes, mitochondria, and chloroplasts
__ 289. Contains cristae:
 a) lysosome
 b) tonoplast
 c) mitochondrion
 d) Golgi apparatus
 e) peroxisome
__ 290. Which of the following is capable of converting light energy to chemical bond energy?
 a) chloroplasts
 b) mitochondria
 c) leucoplasts
 d) peroxisomes
 e) Golgi bodies
__ 291. A biologist ground up some plant cells and then centrifuged the mixture. She obtained
     some organelles from the sediment in the test tube. The organelles took up CO2 and gave
     off O2. The organelles are most likely:
 a) chloroplasts
 b) ribosomes
 c) nuclei
 d) mitochondria
 e) Golgi apparatus
__ 292. The utilization of "food" in the mitochondria, with the associated formation of ATP, is
     termed
 a) cellular respiration.
 b) metabolic rate.
 c) diffusion.
 d) metabolic processing of fuels.
 e) catabolism.
__ 293. Which of the following is/are evidence that mitochondria were once free-living organisms?
 a) They produce ATP
 b) They contain their own DNA
 c) They are found in all eukaryotic cells
 d) a and b
 e) a, b, and c
__ 294. In comparison of similarities between mitochondria and chloroplasts, which of the
     following is not a similarity?
 a) Both are capable to ATP synthesis.
 b) Both capture the energy of sunlight to meet metabolic demands.
 c) Both possess their own DNA.
 d) Both are surrounded by a double membrane.
 e) Both may have originally been independent organisms.
__ 295. Which of the following does not possess a double membrane?
 a) Mitochondrion
 b) Nuclear envelope
 c) Lysosomes
 d) Chloroplast
__ 296. Where in the unicellular organism Euglena would you expect to find the greatest
     concentration of mitochondria?
 a) Site of lysosome production
 b) Near the nuclear membrane
 c) Area surrounding basal bodies
 d) Within the chloroplasts
 e) Near the ribosomes
__ 297. Which of the following relationships between cell structures and their respective functions
     is not correct?
 a) cell wall--support, protection
 b) chloroplasts--chief site of cellular respiration
 c) chromosomes--genetic control information
 d) ribosomes--site of protein synthesis
 e) mitochondria--formation of ATP
__ 298. Which of the following organelles would only be found within a cell that was both
     eukaryotic and autotrophic?
 a) mitochondria
 b) ribosomes
 c) rough endoplasmic reticulum
 d) chloroplast
__ 299. Which pair of organelles is responsible for energy supply to eukaryotic cells?
 a) Ribosomes and mitochondria
 b) Chloroplasts and ribosomes
 c) Golgi bodies and ribosomes
 d) Mitochondria and lysosomes
 e) Chloroplasts and mitochondria
__ 300. Aerobic metabolism occurs in the:
 a) Ribosome
 b) Chloroplast
 c) Mitochondrion
 d) Cytosol
 e) Nucleus
__ 301. In metabolically active cells, you would expect to find a large number of:
 a) Golgi bodies
 b) Chloroplasts
 c) Vesicles
 d) Microtubules
 e) Mitochondria
__ 302. Which organelle does one expect to be most abundant in human skeletal muscle cells?
 a) Mitochondria
 b) Lysosomes
 c) Golgi complexes
 d) Smooth ER
 e) Plastids
__ 303. An organelle associated with carbohydrate synthesis is the:
 a) Golgi complex
 b) Ribosome
 c) Centriole
 d) Nucleolus
 e) Nucleus
__ 304. Which organelle extracts energy from food molecules and stores it in the high-energy
     bonds of ATP?
 a) Mitochondrion
 b) Chloroplast
 c) Ribosome
 d) Centriole
 e) ER
__ 305. Which of the following is capable of converting light energy to chemical energy?
 a) Chloroplasts
 b) Mitochondria
 c) Amyloplasts
 d) Vacuoles
 e) Golgi bodies
__ 306. A biologist ground up some plant cells and then centrifuged the mixture. She obtained
     some organelles from the pellet in the test tube that took up CO2 and gave off O2. The
     organelles are most likely
 a) Nuclei
 b) Ribosomes
 c) Chloroplasts
 d) Mitochondria
 e) Golgi bodies
__ 307. Which of the following relationships between cell structures and their respective functions
     is NOT correct?
 a) cell wallsupport and protection
 b) chloroplastschief site of cellular respiration
 c) nucleussite of genetic control of information
 d) ribosomessite of protein synthesis
 e) mitochondriaformation of ATP for the cell
__ 308. Site of cellular respiration.
 a) Mitochondria
 b) Golgi bodies
 c) Rough Endoplasmic reticulum
 d) Lysosomes
 e) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
__ 309. Responsible for most of a muscle cell's ATP generation.
 a) Mitochondria
 b) Golgi bodies
 c) Rough Endoplasmic reticulum
 d) Lysosomes
 e) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
__ 310. Which of the following is NOT offered as evidence in support of the endosymbiotic theory,
     the belief that a eukaryotic cell has evolved as a "committee" of prokaryotic cells?
 a) Mitochondria and chloroplasts are similar in size and structure to some species of bacteria.
 b) The ribosomes of chloroplasts and mitochondria are similar to eubacteria.
 c) Mitochondria and chloroplasts can actively break away from eukaryotic cells and live on their own.
 d) Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA coding separate from the eukaryotic nucleus.
 e) All of the choices offer support of the endosymbiotic theory.
__ 311. Membrane-bounded vesicles that contain enzymes for oxidizing small organic molecules
     with the formation of hydrogen peroxide are
 a) vacuoles.
 b) vesicles.
 c) glyoxisomes.
 d) lysosomes.
 e) peroxisomes.
__ 312. Which is NOT a characteristic of chloroplasts?
 a) A chloroplast is surrounded by a double membrane.
 b) Chlorophyll absorbs solar energy that is used to form chemical bonds.
 c) A membrane inside a chloroplast is called a thylakoid.
 d) Stacks called grana are linked by membranous connections.
 e) Chlorophylls are found in the fluid stroma of the chloroplast.
__ 313. Which is NOT a characteristic of mitochondria?
 a) A mitochondrion has two membranes.
 b) Mitochondria are the site of cellular respiration.
 c) Mitochondria are found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
 d) Mitochondria contain DNA and ribosomes.
 e) The inner space of the mitochondrion contains a fluid matrix.
__ 314. Of the following, which is NOT associated with the mitochondria?
 a) ATP productions
 b) cristae
 c) stroma
 d) matrix
    True - False
__ 315. Mitochondria have an inner membrane system called thylakoid membranes.
 a) True
 b) False
__ 316. Peroxisomes are abundant in cells that metabolize lipids or alcohol.
 a) True
 b) False
__ 317. Chloroplasts are found in plants but not in bacteria.
 a) True
 b) False
__ 318. Mitochondria are thought to be derived from photosynthetic bacteria that became part of
     the eukaryotic cell through endosymbiosis.
 a) True
 b) False
__ 319. Mitochondria and chloroplasts are able to reproduce independently from the division of the
     cell.
 a) True
 b) False
    Short Answer
    Essay
Cytoskeleton
    Multiple Choice
__ 320. Microfilaments participate in the formation of:
 a) cilia
 b) cell cleavage furrows
 c) flagella
 d) mitotic spindles
 e) basal bodies
__ 321. Cells can be described as having a "cytoskeleton" of internal structures that contribute to
      the shape, organization, and movement of the cell. All of the following are part of the
      "cytoskeleton" EXCEPT:
 a) cell wall
 b) microtubules
 c) microfilaments
 d) intermediate filaments
 e) microtrabecular lattice
__ 322. Structures used to move organelles are:
 a) cilia
 b) vesicle
 c) endoplasmic reticula
 d) cytoskeleton
 e) flagella
__ 323. Possesses a microtubular structure similar in form to a basal body.
 a) centriole
 b) lysosome
 c) nucleolus
 d) peroxisome
 e) ribosome
__ 324. Cytoskeleton.
 a) structure or process is a feature of all cells
 b) structure or process is found in prokaryotic cells only
 c) structure or process is found in eukaryotic cells only
 d) structure or process is found in plant cells only
 e) structure or process is found in animal cells only
__ 325. The signal that passes from one smooth muscle cell to the next (i.e. cell-to-cell
      communication) occurs through:
 a) tight junctions.
 b) desmosomes.
 c) gap junctions.
 d) internal proteins.
 e) external proteins
__ 326. The cytoskeleton is to the cell what...
 a) bones are to humans
 b) a frame is to a house
 c) a desk is to an office
 d) a and b
 e) all of these
__ 327. What primarily determines the shape of cells that lack cell walls?
 a) Nucleus
 b) Cytosol
 c) Endoplasmic reticulum
 d) Cytoskeleton
 e) Ribosomes
__ 328. All the following are important functions of the cytoskeleton except:
 a) Storage of food molecules
 b) Support of organelles
 c) Movement of organelles
 d) Maintenance of shape
 e) Maintenance of organization in the cell
__ 329. Fibers of the cytoskeleton are composed primarily of:
 a) Nucleic acids
 b) Polysaccharides
 c) Lipids
 d) ER
 e) Proteins
__ 330. Which of the following is NOT a known function of the cytoskeleton?
 a) to maintain a critical limit on cell size
 b) to provide mechanical support to the cell
 c) to maintain a characteristic shape of the cell
 d) to hold mitochondria and other organelles in place
 e) to assist in cell motility
__ 331. Actin filaments are
 a) also known as microtubules.
 b) able to assemble and disassemble from component proteins.
 c) found in the center of flagella and cilia.
 d) intermediate in size between microtubules and microfilaments.
 e) made of different kinds of components in different tissues.
__ 332. Without a cytoskeleton, eukaryotic cells would NOT
 a) synthesize protein.
 b) have an efficient way to transport materials from one organelle to another.
 c) have an efficient means of metabolism.
 d) communicate with adjacent cells.
__ 333. Actin filaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules compose the cytoskeleton.
 a) True
 b) False
__ 334. A cytoskeleton is found in prokaryotic cells.
 a) True
 b) False
__ 335. Structures used to move organelles are
 a) cilia
 b) vesicle
 c) endoplasmic reticula
 d) microtubules
 e) flagella
__ 336. Primarily used for contraction and movement of pseudopodia.
 a) actin filaments
 b) lysome
 c) intermediate filaments
 d) peroxisome
 e) microtubules
__ 337. Possesses a microtubular structure.
 a) cilia
 b) lysome
 c) nucleolus
 d) peroxisome
 e) ribosome
__ 338. Microfilaments participate in the formation of:
 a) cilia
 b) DNA
 c) flagella
 d) mitotic spindles
 e) microvilli
__ 339. Which cytoskeletal element is NOT correctly associated with its characteristic?
 a) Cilia are small extensions of membrane-surrounded microtubules.
 b) Microtubules are made up of a globular protein called tubulin.
 c) Centrioles are found in the microtubule organizing centers of plants.
 d) Flagella have a 9 + 2 pattern of microtubule structure.
 e) Basal bodies are located at the base of cilia and flagella.
__ 340. Which of the following help direct the movement of materials or organelles throughout the
     cell?
 a) rough endoplasmic reticulum
 b) cytoskeleton
 c) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
 d) all of the choices are true
__ 341. Cells can be described as having a "cytoskeleton" of internal structures that contribute to
     the shape, organization, and movement of the cell. All of the following are part of the
     "cytoskeleton" EXCEPT:
 a) cell wall
 b) microtubules
 c) intermediate filaments
 d) actin
 e) all of these are part of the cytoskeleton
    True - False
    Short Answer
    Essay
Cilia, Flagella & Microvilli
    Multiple Choice
__ 342. Used to move substances past cells in humans.
 a) cilia
 b) flagella
 c) basal bodies
 d) microfilaments
 e) capsules
__ 343. Cells would be unable to form cilia or flagella if they did not have which cell structures?
 a) ribosomes
 b) chloroplasts
 c) microtubules
 d) plastids
 e) microfilaments
__ 344. Which of the following contains the 9+2 arrangement of microtubules?
 a) flagella
 b) centrioles
 c) microvilli
 d) fimbrae
 e) pili
__ 345. The organelle that is compared to a whip is a:
 a) microfilament
 b) cilium
 c) microvillus
 d) flagellum
 e) microtubule
__ 346. Cells would be unable to form cilia or flagella if they did not have which cell structures?
 a) ribosomes
 b) chloroplasts
 c) centrioles
 d) plastids
 e) microfilaments
__ 347. Which of the following is found on cells lining the small intestines and increases surface
     area for nutrient absorption?
 a) cilia
 b) microvilli
 c) pilli
 d) fimbrae
 e) basal bodies
__ 348. Which of the following contains the 9+2 arrangement of microtubules?
 a) cilia
 b) centrioles
 c) basal bodies
 d) microfilaments
 e) macrotrabecular lattice
__ 349. All of the structures listed below are associated with movement in cells EXCEPT:
 a) cilia
 b) centrioles
 c) microtubules
 d) flagella
 e) microbodies
__ 350. The cells that line our respiratory tract and one-celled paramecia both have these short
     hair-like projections.
 a) flagella
 b) microfilaments
 c) centrioles
 d) cilia
 e) pili
    True - False
    Short Answer
    Essay
Organelles -- General
    Multiple Choice
__ 351. What do both mitochondria and chloroplasts have in common?
   1. ATP is produced.             2. DNA is present.      3. Ribosomes are present.
 a) 1
 b) 2
 c) 3
 d) Only 2 and 3 are correct.
 e) 1, 2, and 3 are correct.
__ 352. Organelles that contain DNA include:
 a) ribosome
 b) mitochondria
 c) chloroplasts
 d) mitochondria and chloroplasts only
 e) ribosomes, mitochondria, and chloroplasts
    True - False
    Short Answer
    Essay
Prokaryotic structure
    Multiple Choice
__ 353. Which of the following is used in specific adhesion and conjugation in bacteria?
 a) cilia
 b) microvilli
 c) pilli
 d) capsule
 e) cell wall
__ 354. Which structure helps protect bacteria from phagocytosis?
 a) cilia
 b) microvilli
 c) pilli
 d) capsule
 e) cell wall
__ 355. Which of the following is found as part of the eukaryotic cell's nucleus but NOT the
     prokaryotic cell's nucleus?
 a) DNA
 b) chromosome
 c) porous limiting membrane system
 d) long chains of nucleotides covalently bonded together
 e) deoxyribonucleic acid
__ 356. All of the following except one are found as part of the typical BACTERIAL CELL. Select
     the EXCEPTION.
 a) internal membranes
 b) ribosomes
 c) cell wall
 d) membrane-bound nucleus
 e) plasma membrane
__ 357. The typical BACTERIAL cell is about the same size as a:
 a) chloroplast
 b) central vacuole
 c) mitochondrion
 d) eukaryotic nucleus
 e) plasma membrane
__ 358. If you removed the pili from a bacterial cell, which of the following would you expect to
     happen?
 a) The bacterium could no longer swim.
 b) The bacterium could no longer adhere to other cells.
 c) The bacterium could no longer regulate the movement of molecules into and out of the cell.
 d) The bacterium would dry out.
 e) The shape of the bacterium would change.
__ 359. Which statement is NOT true about bacteria?
 a) Their cell wall is made of a slime layer that is the same as in plant cell walls.
 b) Some are photosynthetic.
 c) Some are motile due to flagella.
 d) They are all prokaryotes.
 e) They have a cell wall that contains peptidoglycan.
__ 360. Which statement is NOT true about bacterial anatomy?
 a) The cell wall is located outside of the plasma membrane.
 b) The glycocalyx sheath is located inside the cell wall.
 c) There may be small rings of accessory DNA called plasmids.
 d) Bacteria may have fimbriae that help attach the bacteria to other structures.
__ 361. Prokaryotes are characterized by all of the following structures EXCEPT
 a) a nucleoid.
 b) inclusion bodies.
 c) mitochondria.
 d) mesosomes.
__ 362. Which of the following molecules would be found in an animal cell, but not in a bacterial
     cell?
 a) DNA
 b) Cell Wall
 c) Plasma Membrane
 d) Ribosomes
 e) Endoplasmic Recticulum
    True - False
__ 363. The DNA of a prokaryotic cell is located in the nucleoid region.
 a) True
 b) False
__ 364. Eukaryotic ribosomes make proteins. What is the function of prokaryotic ribosomes?
 a) make RNA
 b) make histones
 c) make proteins
 d) make lipids
 e) make phospholipids
__ 365. Ribosomes are found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
 a) True
 b) False
__ 366. Bacteria and algae are prokaryotic cells.
 a) True
 b) False
__ 367. Prokaryotic cells are about half the size of eukaryotic cells, on average.
 a) True
 b) False
__ 368. Bacterial and eukaryotic flagella have the same structure made of microtubules.
 a) True
 b) False
    Short Answer
    Essay
Plants – Excluding Cell Wall & Chloroplast
    Multiple Choice
__ 369. Which of the following is commonly found in plant cells but not animal cells?
 a) mitochondria
 b) vacuoles
 c) ribosomes
 d) cell membranes
 e) nucleus
__ 370. The plant cell's central vacuole
 a) provides the plant cell with support.
 b) stores nutrients and cellular waste products.
 c) is a reservoir for water.
 d) All of the choices are correct.
__ 371. Starch in plant cell may be stored in:
 a) vacuoles
 b) vesicle
 c) endoplasmic reticula
 d) microtubules
 e) all of the above
__ 372. You are shown one picture taken with a transmission electron microscope that shows a
     thin-section of a eukaryotic cell. Of the following, which structure will allow you to say that
     this is most likely a mature PLANT cell?
 a) huge central vacuole
 b) mitochondria
 c) membrane-bound nucleus
 d) endoplasmic reticulum
 e) Golgi complex
__ 373. Secretes many polysaccharides.
 a) lysosome
 b) tonoplast
 c) mitochondrion
 d) Golgi apparatus
 e) peroxisome
__ 374. What is the function of a plant cell vacuole?
 a) Storage of wastes
 b) Support of the cell
 c) Excretion of wastes
 d) a and b
 e) b and c
__ 375. Large membranous sacs that are more prevalent in plant cells and some protozoa than in
     animal cells are called
 a) vacuoles.
 b) vesicles.
 c) glyoxisomes.
 d) lysosomes.
 e) peroxisomes.
__ 376. All of the following are parts of plant cells EXCEPT
 a) centrioles.
 b) mitochondria.
 c) chloroplasts.
 d) cell walls.
    True - False
    Short Answer
    Essay
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__ 377. Plant cell walls are primarily composed of ___________________.

__ 378. A shrinking machine has been invented that will allow you, as a cell biologist, to actually
     explore the inside of an animal and a plant cells. On your journey, describe some of the
     structures that you observe and discuss their use in the cell. What are the similarities and
     differences you observe in the two different cell types.

__ 379. Why is the cytoskeleton such an important structural component of cells?

__ 380. Describe the three parts of the cell theory, and explain how this concept is related to the
     principle of evolution.

__ 381. Describe several major differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.

__ 382. Distinguish between a nucleus and a nucleoid, telling where each is found and what each
     contains.

__ 383. Describe the structure and function of a ribosome, and tell how they differ between
     prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

__ 384. Describe the various portions of the endomembrane system, giving the function of each
     part.
__ 385. Diffusion should result in a fairly even distribution of cell components. Proteins may be
     produced in ribosomes, but they are often further modified and delivered to other specific
     locations and are not spread around evenly. How does this happen?

__ 386. Describe the structure and function of chloroplasts and mitochondria.

__ 387. Explain the endosymbiotic theory and the lines of evidence that support it.

__ 388. Describe the structure of cilia and flagella in eukaryotic cells, and contrast that with the
     structure of flagella in prokaryotic cells.

__ 389. Describe three kinds of cytoskeletal elements in eukaryotic cells.

__ 390. A kitchen blender severely disrupts the organization that allows cells to carry on the
     chemical machinery of "life." How does a living cell maintain the correct working structure
     that gives it both its external and internal "shape" and also partitions cell organelles for
     proper functioning?

__ 391. Why is the plasma membrane necessary for the life of a cell?

__ 392. Why would the rudiments of a plasma membrane have to be present for the development
     of the first cell(s) from nonliving chemicals?

__ 393. Describe the current fluid-mosaic model of the plasma membrane.

__ 394. Describe the asymmetrical nature of the plasma membrane, and explain how the
     differences relate to the functions of the inside and outside of the membrane.

__ 395. Explain how the plasma membrane is selectively permeable, and tell how that is related to
     the movement of materials across the membrane.

__ 396. Describe osmosis and tonicity, and explain how they are related.

__ 397. Correlate the movement of materials across the cell membrane with the terms hypertonic,
     hypotonic, and isotonic.

__ 398. Why would different kinds of proteins be found in the membranes of cells in different
     tissues?

__ 399. Describe active transport and give an example of its use in the cell.

__ 400. Explain the process of receptor-mediated endocytosis.

__ 401. The small molecules of gases and water can readily diffuse across a membrane based on
     diffusion gradients. Other molecules move against a gradient due to specific carriers that use
      energy for active transport. How could a cell move a variety of molecules, such as Cl- ,
      against a gradient without having a specific transport system that actively moves this
      molecule?

__ 402. List and describe three kinds of cellular junctions found in animal cells.

__ 403. The cell theory stated all life was made from cells. However, cells of multicellular
     organisms often have difficulty living alone in culture without researchers supplying a special
     support media and environment. From your understanding of cell junctions, why does the
     cell theory not assert an independence for cells in multicellular organisms? What would
     happen to you if all of your cell junctions were eliminated?

__ 404. When very small viruses infect a plant cell by crossing its membrane, the viruses often
     spread rapidly throughout the entire plant without crossing additional membranes. Explain
     how this occurs?

__ 405. Compare and contrast the intercellular junctions that allow communication between plant
     and animal cells.

__ 406. In plant cells, __________ allow for communication between cells and in animal cells the
     __________ serve the same purpose.

__ 407. The cells of the intestinal epithelium (lining) are joined to one another by
     ________________ that prevent substances from passing between the cells of this tissue.

__ 408. _________________ is used by cells to pick up large particles like bacteria.

__ 409. ___________________ hold cells together much like glue.

__ 410. What components do all cells possess?

__ 411. Discuss the three main components of modern cell theory that evolved from Rudolf
     Virchow's ideas from the 1850's.

__ 412. Describe the main functions of the plasma membrane.

__ 413. Why are cells generally small in size?

__ 414. Cells having a nucleus are referred to as ___________________ cells and those lacking a
     true nucleus are called _________________ cells.

__ 415. Most of the cell's metabolic activities occur in the cell __________________.

__ 416. The DNA in a prokaryotic cell is contained in the _____________ region of the cytoplasm.
__ 417. The __________________ may help some pathogenic bacteria evade their host's immune
     system and attach to host cells.

__ 418. Compare/contrast plant and animal cell structure. Include at least two similarities and two
     dissimilarities.

__ 419. The ________________ extracts energy from food molecules, while the ______________
     captures solar energy.

__ 420. The ________________ has the ability to digest organelles once they become defective or
     malfunctioning.

__ 421. Briefly describe the interrelationship of structure and function among the rough ER,
     smooth ER, and golgi.

__ 422. Of the following cell components which is composed primarily of protein?

__ 423. Briefly describe the similarities and differences between cilia and flagella. Give an example
     of an organism that is ciliated and one that is flagellated. Where do you find ciliated and
     flagellated cells in humans?

__ 424. Briefly describe what distinguishes a eukaryotic cell from a prokaryotic cell.

__ 425. A protein molecule is to be exported from the cell. Describe the pathway that the protein
     takes from the point of synthesis to export.

__ 426. Write a short essay describing the similarities and differences between a plant cell and an
     animal cell.

__ 427. A cell that contains large numbers of ribosomes, would produce a large number of
     __________ molecules.

__ 428. The _______________ is an organelle, which serves as a sort of "postal depot" where
     some of the proteins synthesized on ribosomes and rough ER are processed.

__ 429. RNA carries information for protein synthesis from the DNA in the nucleus to the
     ribosomes in the cytoplasm. To get from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, RNA must pass
     through _______________.

__ 430. In plant cells, glucose is produced by photosynthesis in the __________ (organelle) and
     converted to usable energy in the form of ATP in the __________ (organelle).

__ 431. Although both extensions from the cytoplasm serve to move the cell or move fluid past the
     cell, the __________ are often short and numerous, while the _________ are longer and
     few in number.
__ 432. Describe the difference between the nucleolus, nucleus and nucleoid regions in cells?

__ 433. When a cell grows in size it must produce more plasma membrane material. How does the
     cell do this?

__ 434. How is the vacuole involved in plant growth?

__ 435. As the "gatekeeper" of the cell, what is the responsibility of the plasma membrane?

__ 436. The phospolipid contains two different parts, a _________ head and a pair of __________
     tails.

__ 437. The major lipids in biological membranes are called _____________________.

__ 438. How does the plasma membrane act as gatekeeper for the cell?

__ 439. Design an experiment to show the effect of hypertonic, hypotonic and isotonic solutions on
     cells. Hint: Use differentially permeable membranes and remember to include a hypothesis,
     experimental design and how the results would be recorded and also state what the
     expected results would be for your experiment.

__ 440. Why is the biological membrane referred to as being differentially permeable?

__ 441. Compare and contrast the terms diffusion and osmosis.

__ 442. Why does the cell perform endocytosis in addition to active and passive transport
     mechanisms?

__ 443. Suppose a bag made of a differentially permeable membrane was filled with a 5% solution
     of glucose and sealed. What would happen if the bag was placed in 1) pure water or 2) 10%
     glucose solution?

__ 444. Distinguish between the three types of endocytosis?

__ 445. Which types of molecules move most easily through the plasma membrane and which
     types of molecules cannot pass easily through the membrane?

__ 446. The movement of molecules across a cell membrane in which no energy is required (i.e.
     diffusion) is called __________ transport and the movement of molecules across the
     membrane in which energy (i.e. ATP) is required is called __________ transport.

__ 447. Facilitated diffusion and active transport both require ____________________ for the
     movement of molecules across the membrane.

								
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