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					Energy Storage Project Activities
Active / Existing Demonstrations / Projects
                                 Energy Storage
             Project Name         Technology            Participant(s)

                                                  Golden Valley Electrical
                                                  Assn, ABB, Saft, City
                                                  Electric, Philadelphia
                                                  Scientific, Power
GVEA BESS Ni-Cad Project      NiCd                Engineers

Huntdorf CAES Plant           CAES                EN Kraftwerke
                                               Alabama Electric
                                               Corporation, PowerSouth,
McIntosh CAES Plant                 CAES       EPRI, NRECA

                                               S&C Electric,
Arizona Lead Acid Battery Project   Pb Acid    STMicroelectronics

                                               Beacon Power, California
Beacon Power / CEC Demo             Flywheel   Energy Commission

                                               Beacon Power,
Beacon Power / NYSERDA Demo         Flywheel   NYSERDA, DOE

                                               Beacon Power, PJM
                                               Interconnection, American
Beacon Power AEP / PJM Demo         Flywheel   Electric Power

                                               Beacon Power, National
                                               Grid, ISO-NE Alternative
                                               Technology Regulation
Beacon Power ISO-NE Demo            Flywheel   Program
                                                      Southern California Edison
                                                      (SCE), Electric Power
                                                      Research Institute (EPRI),
                                                      Exide, General Electric
Chino Lead Acid Battery Project            Pb Acid    (GE)

                                                      Chugach Electric
                                                      Association (CEA),
                                                      Decision Focus, Inc.,
                                                      Power Technologies, Inc.,
                                                      Sandia National
Chugach Storage System                     multiple   Laboratories (SNL)

                                                      Johnson Controls, Inc.
Johnson Controls Battery Storage Project   Pb Acid    (JCI)
                                                           Metlakatla Power & Light,
                                                           GNB Exide, General
                                                           Electric, Sandia National
Metlakatla Lead Acid Battery Project    Pb Acid            Laboratories, DOE

                                                           Crescent Electric
                                                           Membership Corporation,
Statesville Lead Acid Battery Project   Pb Acid            GNB

                                        Li Ion (advanced   A123Systems, AES,
A123 H-APU Demo                         nanophosphate)     Parker Hannifin
                                           Li Ion (advanced            A123Systems, AES,
AES - A123 Chile Project                   nanophosphate)              Parker Hannifin, ABB

                                                                       Altair Nanotechnologies,
Altairnano-IP&L Li-ion Battery Ancillary                               AES (Indianapolis Power &
Services Demo                              Li Ion (lithium-titanate)   Light)

Altairnano-PJM Li-ion Battery Ancillary                                Altair Nanotechnologies,
Services Demo                              Li Ion (lithium-titanate)   AES, PJM Interconnection

                                                                       Berliner Kraft and Licht
                                                                       (BEWAG; Berlin Power
BEWAG Battery Facility                     Pb Acid                     and Light)

                                                                       Prudent Power (nee VRB
                                                                       Power), PacifiCorp (Utah
Castle Valley VRB Project                  VRB Flow Battery            Power)
                                                                   Hawaii Electric Light
Hawaii Electric Light Company VRLA Battery                         Company (HELCO), GNB,
Project                                    Pb Acid                 General Electric

                                          Ultracapacitor (Electronic HECO, S&C Electric
HECO Wind Integration Project             Shock Absorber)            Company

                                                                   Puerto Rico Electric Power
                                                                   Authority (PREPA), C&D
                                                                   Batteries, Inc., General
PREPA Battery Electric Storage System     Pb Acid                  Electric (GE)

                                                                   Prudent Energy, J-Power,
                                                                   CRIEPI, Sumitomo Electric
SUBARU Project                            VRB Flow Battery         Industries
                                                         NGK Insulators, American
AEP Distribution Grid Capital Investment                 Electric Power, S&C
Deferral                                   NaS battery   Electric

                                                         iCel Systems (Li-ion
                                                         batteries manufactured by
                                                         Panasonic), Anaheim
                                                         Public Utilities Department
Anaheim PUD - iCel Pilot                   Li Ion        (PUD)

                                                         Energie-Anlagen Berlin
                                                         GmbH (EAB), Berliner
Berlin Subway Lead Acid Battery Plant      Pb Acid       Kraft and Licht (BEWAG)
                                                         Crescent City Electric
Crescent City Lead Acid Battery Project    Pb Acid       Cooperative, GNB
                                                                 Delco-Remy Division of
                                                                 General Motors, Electric
                                                                 Power Research Institute
Delco-Remo Battery Storage Project         Pb Acid               (EPRI), Omnion

                                                                 Detroit Edison, Sandia,
Detroit, MI ZBB ZnBr Demo                  Flow battery (ZnBr)   Satcom, ZBB

                                                                 Ecoult, Hampton NSW
Ecoult Hampton NSW Wind Project            Unknown               wind farm

First Energy Advanced Distributed Energy                         FirstEnergy, Premium
Storage Demo                               Flow battery (ZnBr)   Power
                                                    San Diego Trolley, Inc.,
                                                    San Diego Gas & Electric
                                                    (SDG&E), Yuasa-Exide
                                                    Corp., Omnion Power
La Mesa Lead Acid Battery Project    Pb Acid        Engineering

                                                    Cobasys (JV between
                                                    Chevron and Energy
                                                    Conversion Devices),
NiGUARD UPS at SMUD’s EMC Building   NiMH battery   SMUD

                                                    ABB, DOE/NYSERDA,
                                                    EPRI, Long Island Power
                                                    Authority (LIPA),
                                                    Metropolitan Transit
                                                    Authority (MTA /Long
                                                    Island Bus Co.), NGK
NYPA NaS Project                     NaS battery    Insulators, NYPA
                                                                      Oglethorpe Power
Oglethorpe Battery Storage Facility         Pb Acid                   Corporation (OPC), EPRI

PNM Resources Evaluation of Solar PV                                  GreenSmith, PNM
Integrated with Storage                     Li Ion (iron phosphate)   Resources

                                                                      Princeton Plasma Physics
                                                                      Laboratory (PPPL),
                                                                      Johnson Control, Inc.,
                                                                      Robicon, PSE&G, EPRI,
                                                                      U.S. Department of
                                                                      Energy, International Lead-
Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL)                            Zinc Research
Battery Storage System                     Pb Acid                    Organization (ILZRO)

RedFlow Australia Project(s)                Flow battery (ZnBr)       RedFlow Technologies

                                                                      California Energy
                                                                      Comission, Pacific Gas &
San Ramon, CA ZBB ZnBr Demo                 Flow battery (ZnBr)       Electric, ZBB

                                                                      GNB, Tokyo Electric
                                                                      Power Company (TEPCO),
Sodium Sulfur Battery at Ohito Substation   Sodium Sulfur (NaS)       Ohito Substation
                                       Pb Acid and Sodium   Kansai Electric Power Co.,
Tatsumi Energy Storage Test Facility   Sulfur (NaS)         Yuasa, Toshiba

Vernon Lead Acid Battery Project       Pb Acid              GNB-Exide
                                                                 Great Plains Institute,
                                                                 Gridpoint, Minwind Energy,
                                                                 NREL, NGK Insulators,
                                                                 S&C Electric, University of
Xcel Energy NaS/Wind Farm Project          NaS battery           Minnesota, Xcel Energy
                                                                 Xtreme Power, University
                                                                 of Chicago; 4 other US
                                                                 universities, and the
                                                                 National Science
Xtreme Power Antarctic Telescope Project   Adv. Pb Acid          Foundation

                                                                 Ice Energy, >20 utilities
                                           Distributed Thermal   (including SCE, PG&E,
Ice Bear Utility Program                   Storage               SDG&E)
                                                                 Steffes Corp., ~200 utility
                                                                 customers (Otter Tail
                                                                 Power, Great River
                                                                 Energy, "island utility" to
                                                                 potentially develop wind-
                                           Distributed Thermal   assisted heating utility
Steffes Wind Assisted Heating Program      Storage               marketing programs)
1 - bulk storage (transmission level)
2 - power application (transmission level)
3 - distributed storage (transmission level)
4 - distributed storage (distribution level)
5 - distributed storage (smart grid)
6 - emerging tech R&D
7 - other
8 - thermal storage
     Location                    Application(s)                    System Size / Rating

                   VAR-support, spinning reserve, frequency
                   regulation, power system stabilization
                   (e.g., damping of power system              27 MW / 6.75 MWh (27 MW x
                   oscillations, ramp rate constraint relief), 15 minutes) or 46 MW / 3.83
Fairbanks, AK      load following, load leveling, black start  MWh (46 MW x 5 minutes)

                   bulk load shifting, frequency regulation,
Huntorf, Germany   spinning reserve, black start               290 MW x 3 hours
                bulk load shifting, frequency regulation and
McIntosh, AL    spinning reserve                             110 MW x 26 hours

                Power Quality for Uninteruptible Power
Phoenix, AZ     Supply                                     10 MW x 15 sec (12.5 MVA)

San Ramon, CA   frequency regulation                       100 kW x 15 minutes

Amsterdam, NY   frequency regulation                       100 kW x 15 minutes

Groveport, OH   frequency regulation, grid stabilization   1 MW

Tyngsboro, MA   frequency regulation                       3 MW x 15 minutes
                Load Leveling, spinning reserve, load
                following, T&D deferral, economic
                dispatch, frequency regulation,
                voltage/reactive power control, black start
Chino, CA       operation                                     10 MW / 40 MWh

                Load leveling, load following, minimum
                loading, start-up, reduced load shedding,
Anchorage, AK   Transmission and distribution deferral        20 MW / 10 MWh

Milwaukee, WI   Peak Shaving                                  300 kW / 580 kWh
                    Power system stabilization: Spinning
                    reserve, frequency control, and power
Metlakatla, AK      quality improvement                     1.0 MW / 1.4 MWh

                                                            500 kW for 1 hr (500 kWh)
                                                            300 kW for 2 hrs (600 kWh)
Statesville, NC     Peak shaving, battery testing           200 kW for 3 hrs (600 kWh)

Huntington Beach,   frequency regulation, reserve
CA                  requirements                            2 MW / 500 kW
Atacama Desert,
Chile             frequency regulation, spinning reserve     16 MW

                                                             2 1-MW x 15 minute (250 kWh)
IN                frequency regulation                       units

PA                frequency regulation                       1-MW x 15 minute (250kWh)

                                                             8.5 MW (60 min)
Berlin, Germany   Load-frequency control, spinning reserve   17 MW (20 min)

                  peak shaving, load
Moab, UT          leveling                                   250 kW x 8 hours
Keahole Generating Frequency regulation, spinning reserve,
Station, Island of     peak shaving, generation deferral, voltage 10 MW / 15 MWh (at a 3 hour
Hawaii (Big Island) HI support, load leveling, load following     rate)

Big Island, HI       wind power ramp rate mitigation               ~500 kW x 7 seconds

                                                                   20.0 MW / 14.1 MWh

                                                                   Rated for 20 MW for 15
                                                                   minutes, plus 15-minute ramp
                                                                   down to 0 MW for rapid
Sabana Llana         Spinning Reserve, frequency control,          spinning reserve. 10 MW (+/-)
Substation, San      voltage/reactive power control, black start   instantaneous, for continuous
Juan, Puerto Rico    operation                                     frequency control

                     wind power ramp rate mitigation,              4 MW / 6 MWh (6 MW x 30
Hokkaido, Japan      frequency regulation                          seconds pulse power)
                                                                  1.2 MW / 7.2 MWh (Charleston,
                                                                  2 MW / 14.4 MWh
Charleston, WV;       Emergency back-up power / grid              (Churubusco, IN)
Churubusco, IN;       investment capital deferral, peak shaving / 2 MW / 14.4 MWh (Milton, WV)
Milton, WV; Bluffton, load leveling                               2 MW / 14.4 MWh (Bluffton,
OH                                                                OH)

                      peak shaving, load shifting, renewables
Anaheim, CA           integration                               50 kW
BVG (Berliner
Substation, Berlin,   Peak Shaving, Emergency Power, Braking
Germany               Energy Recuperation                    1 MW / 3 MWh

Crescent City, CA                                               500 kW / 500 kWh ??
Delco-Remy Battery
Production Facility,   Peak shaving, battery testing, alternative
Muncie, IN             automotive battery uses                      300 kW / 600 kWh

                       Peak shaving at an overloaded pole-
Detroit, MI            mounted substation.                          200 kW / 400 kWh

                       renewables integration, peak shaving, grid
Australia              upgrade deferral                           300 kW / 100 kWh

ID                                                                  100 kW / 150 kWh
                  Customer peak shaving, spinning reserve,
                  voltage/reactive power control, T&D
La Mesa, CA       deferral                                   211 kW / 422 kWh

Sacramento, CA    backup power                               80 kW x 15 minutes

                  peak shaving / load shifting, backup
Garden City, NY   power, black start, grid investment deferral 1.2 MW / 7.2 MWh
                     Load leveling, generation deferral,
                     spinning reserve, voltage regulation, T&D
                     deferral, power factor correction,
                     frequency regulation, emergency power
Honey Creek Station, supply with isloated-system (black start)
Atlanta, GA          operation                                    3 MW / 9 MWh

Albuquerque, NM      renewables integration, ramping mitigation

                     Customer application: peak shaving
                                                                 5 MW / 5 MWh
                     Utility applications: area reqiurement (AR)
                     regulation, spinning reserve (SR), capacity 5 MW for demand shaving; +/-
Princeton, NJ        addition deferral                           3.6 MW for area requirement
                     backup power, peak shaving, grid upgrade
Australia            deferral                                    several 5 kW/20 kWh Z-Br units

San Ramon, CA                                                     250 kW / 500 kWh

Ohito, Japan         Peak shaving                                 6 MW / 48 MWh
Tatsumi Substation,   Load Leveling, voltage regulation,   Lead Acid: 1 MW / 4 MWh
near Osaka, Japan     frequency regulation                 Sodium Sulfur: 1 MW / 8 MWh

Vernon, CA            Peak shaving                         5000 kW / 3500 kWh
                      Energy arbitrage, frequency regulation,
                      ramp rate control, steady output control
Luverne, MN           renewables integration                     1 MW / 7.2 MWh

South Pole,           smoothing of the telescope's load
Antarctica            requirements                               200 kW / 100 kW

                      load shifting/peak shaving, off-peak
                      wind energy storage, energy
CA and other states   arbitrage

                      renewables load leveling, "wind-assisted
                      heating," energy arbitrage, load
U.S., Canada          shifting/peak shaving
       System Efficiency           Communication Protocol(s)

• Ni-Cd Battery AC-AC: Variable
upon state of charge (SOC). With
70% DOD, possible to return to
80% SOC in a very short time at
>90% efficiency; the last 20%
SOC takes ~24 hours and can
lower efficiency to ~90%.
• Converter: >98%.
 72% AC-to-AC, including battery
and inverter losses and building
81% battery efficiency
96% inverter efficiency
 Overall DC-AC electric efficiency:
~64% (accounts for auxiliary and
converter losses)

AC to AC: 72% (65% for the 1-
hour discharge rate to 75% for the
5-hour discharge rate)
Converter: 95%
Battery: 85%
Plant: 80%
70% overall efficiency of proposed
plant for a 5 MW, 15 MWh
discharge and subsequent
95% one-way efficiency for the
PCS and transformer
78% round-trip battery efficiency
• System roundtrip AC efficiency:
(Operational specifications can
dramatically affect the overall
efficiency; to extend the battery
life, AEP utilized the DESS at 83%
to 90% of its capacity during its
first years of operation.)
• NaS battery DC-DC efficiency:
• PCS efficiency: ~95% (one-way)
74-86% AC to AC
95% converter efficiency
 Converter efficiency: 93%, full
power discharge
Battery efficiency: 82% (6-hour
rate), 80% (2-hour rate)

• System efficiency: 74–81%
• NaS battery DC-DC efficiency:
• PCS efficiency: 95%, one-way
• Batteries (DC base): 86-87%
System (AC base): 74-76%
• Lead Acid AC-AC: 71%
• Sodium Sulfur AC-AC: 76%
• Converter: 94%
• System efficiency: 68% – 79%
(with auxiliary energy
requirements); 85% – 92%
(without auxiliary energy
• PCS efficiency: 95%, one-way
        Funding Source / Cost

$35 million: $1,300/MW or $5,185/MWh
$65 M

CEC, others

NYSERDA, DOE, others

No money has changed hands: Beacon
installed/operating the system, AEP
paying for the connection to PJM.
Cost Breakdown
· Battery: $6,000,000
· Inverter: $1,900,000
· Balance of Plant: $4,700,000
· Engineering: $900,000
Total: $13,500,000
Operation and Maintenance $235,000/yr
Cost Breakdown (in 1997 US$)
· Building/engineering general structure:
· Battery cells: $461,951
· Controls: $776,227
· Converter/miscellaneous plant
equipment: $398,234
All-inclusive project cost: $2,319,978

$1,200/kW, ~1,500/kWh
$1,000/kW, 4,000/kWh


Equivalent Costs in US$
· Battery: $4,300,000
· Inverter: $4,300,000
· Data Acquisition and Monitoring: ·
· Building: $4,300,000
Total: $14,000,000

$1.6 million ($2007)

Cost Breakdown
· Engineering Design: $1,000,000
· Battery (14.1 MWh): $4,500,000
· Power Conversion System: $5,400,000
· Main Transformer: $360,000
· AC Switchgear: $190,000
· DC Switchgear: $650,000
· Facility Control System: $800,000
· Construction Contract: $4,000,000
Total: $16,900,000

NEDO provided funding
All in project cost for 3 2MW systems
(includes site preparation, batteries, and
control systems):

Anaheim PUD applying for grants,
including federal DOE stimulus money, to
fund three combination solar/energy
storage projects and a single energy
storage unit.
Cost Breakdown
· Converter: $180,000
· Topping Charger: $10,000
· Batteries: $60,000
· Balance of Plant (including battery
racks): $50,000
· Instrumentation: $100,000
Total: $400,000

$1.425M grant
Cost Breakdown
· Battery: $224,000
· Inverter: $316,000
· Control and Data Acquisition: $158,000
· Balance of Plant: $255,000
· Property Purchase: $25,000
· Engineering Services: $300,000
· Project Management: $135,000
TOTAL: $1,413,000

• All in project cost: ~$4,300,000
• Battery system (including NGK
engineering and integration): ~$1,600,000
• ABB equipment, integration, hardware:
• Installation labor, engineering:
• Interconnection: ~$300,000
• Fees and interest during construction
(NYPA is financing the project for the
customer): ~$500,000

NYPA was able to raise $2.3 million in co-
funding thru a broad consortium of
stakeholders, including EPRI and its
and LI Bus. Among awarded funding: a $1
million NYSERDA grant under the Electric
Energy Storage Program, Program
Opportunity Notice No. 846.
Sandia Labs

Cost Breakdown Estimate
· Battery: $1,152,000
· Converter: $950,000
· Balance of Plant: $430,000
· Engineering: $125,000
Total: $2,657,000
Operating: $56,000/yr

The project was supported as a part of a
government-supported research program.
Specific financial aspects of the project
have not been published.
All in project cost: ~$4.6 million

The cost of the NaS batteries in Xcel's
pilot were partially offset by a $1 million
grant from Xcel Energy's Renewable
Development Fund.

$300/kWh system production cost
                                      Project Scope and Status
GVEA is a rural electric cooperative serving more than 90,000 residents across 5,000+ square
miles centered on Fairbanks, Alaska. The extreme climate of the region, with an average winter
temperature of
-50ºC (-58°F), makes reliable power an essential requirement for the local population.
Traditional means of providing reserve power, including constructing and maintaining additional
transmission and generation capacity, are costly under these operating conditions. Moreover,
the relatively small capacity (800 MW) of the Railbelt power network—which snakes through a
narrow corridor running from the Kenai Peninsula on the southern coast of the state to
Fairbanks in the center (an area that is home to the majority of Alaska’s population)—coupled
with its large geographical expanse, makes the region sensitive to changes in available
generation or shifts in load. The loss of a single 300-MW generator can, for example, have a
significant impact on grid stability.

Fairbanks, in particular, has suffered from power stability issues because the town draws half of
its power from a single long transmission line running from Anchorage in the far south. The
relatively remote location made extensive spinning reserve resources prohibitively expensive,
leading GVEA to adopt a shed-in-lieu-of-spin (SILOS) approach, which entails shedding loads in
response to rapid changes in frequency caused by loss of generation, until backup diesel
generation can be started and brought online. Because this approach produced substantial
inconvenience to its customers, GVEA sought alternative ways of providing spinning reserve
and emergency frequency support to the transmission system, including energy storage

Studies performed in the early and mid 1990s showed significant dynamic benefits to placing an
energy storage facility in the Alaska Railbelt region. Following these studies, GVEA opted to
build a BESS to provide spinning reserve and frequency stabilization for the Fairbanks area.
The BESS was intended to operate in a full power circle, allowing it to inject or absorb real

1st commercial CAES plant, operational since 1978. The 290-MW plant utilizes nuclear-sourced
night-time power for compression and produces peak power during the day via a natural gas
turbine. The facility stores the compressed air in two "solution-mined" salt caverns which
comprise a total of 310,000 cubic meters. (Water was pumped into and out of a salt deposit to
dissolve the salt and form the cavern.) The depth of the caverns is more than 600 m which
ensures the stability of the air for several months' storage, and guarantees the specified
maximum pressure of 100 bar. One cavern is cycled on a diurnal basis. The second cavern
serves as a black start asset if the nearby nuclear power plant unexpectedly goes down.
The 2nd commercial CAES plant, in operation since 1991. Like the Huntorf plant, the McIntosh
Unit 1 facility stores compressed air in a solution-mined salt cavern. The cavern is 220 ft in
diameter and 1,000 ft tall, for a total volume of 10 million cubic feet. At full charge, the cavern is
pressurized to 1,100 psi, and it is discharged down to 650 psi. During discharge, 340 pounds of
air flow out of the cavern each second. The cavern can discharge for 26 hours. The plant also
utilizes nuclear-sourced night-time power for compression and then produces peak power
during the day by releasing the compressed air into a 100-MW gas-fired combustion turbine
built by Dresser Rand. The turbine unit also makes use of an air-to-air heat exchanger to
preheat air from the cavern with waste heat from the turbine. The waste heat recovery system
reduces fuel usage by roughly 25%.

Installed for UPS at STMicroelectronics Wafer Fabrication Plant in Phoenix, Arizona in 2000.

42 operations in two years directly after its installation.

100kW demo installed during 2005 to prove the technical viability of the underlying technology
for the launching of a 10-20 MW system. Composed of 7 15 kW flywheels capable of delivering
~100 kW x 15 minutes. Successfully responded to variable area regulation control signals and
found to be financially viable. (demo completed and no longer operational)

100 kW demo installed during 2005 to prove the technical viability of the underlying technology
for the launching of a 10-20MW system. Composed of 7 15 kW flywheels capable of delivering
~100 kW x 15 minutes. Successfully responded to variable area regulation control signals and
found to be financially viable. (demo completed and no longer operational)

1MW system installed in mid-2009 at AEP site; will be assessed by AEP / PJM to gauge
operating performance and impact on frequency regulation and grid stability. Project status

Initial 1 MW system launched in November 2008
The two-year test program was designed to assess the plant capabilities, to learn more about
battery system operation in a utility network, and to examine methods of optmizing system
Metlakatla is a remote Alaskan community on Annette Island accessible only by boat or float
airplane. Its small, stand-alone utility, Metlakatla Power & Light (MP&L), has historically been
able to reliably serve approximately 800 residential customers and a handful of commercial
customers via four rainfed hydroelectric generation units totaling 4.9 MW. In 1986, however, the
island’s largest industrial customer, Annette Hemlock Mill, began to cause power disturbances
for MP&L with the purchase and operation of a commercial wood chipper. MP&L’s hydro-
powered system could not sufficiently address the ~500 kW in load swings caused by the
chipper. Despite adequate generation capacity to cover the increased load, hydro response
time of 10 seconds proved too slow to follow the load swings, which occurred in about 0.05
seconds. Insufficient generation output caused brownouts and blackouts, and excess hydro
generation caused overvoltage.

In an attempt to solve the problem, MP&L purchased and installed a 3.3 MW diesel generator in
1987 for $2 million. But even with the diesel generator system instability continued. Moreover,
the operating costs of the diesel genset were expensive: roughly 475,000 gallons of diesel fuel
were consumed each year, all of which had to be transported by barge to the island and
pumped from the shoreline to on-site storage tanks.

To help mitigate the network’s instability in a more financially viable way, MP&L invested in one
of the first MW-scale lead-acid battery energy storage systems (BESS) in the United States.
The BESS unit was purchased and sited at MP&L in 1996 and commissioned in February 1997.

CEMC continues to use the battery facility for the coincident peak shaving. The batteries have
pass the 8-year mark (as of 1993) and are expected to last more than 10 years. Project update

The BEST facility test was the first major utility-scale battery project in the U.S. since the early
days of utility systems. The project represents a milesone in U.S. battery development and led
to such projects as the Chino facility with 20 times the power output.

2 MW test system operating at an AES-owned natural gas plant since 11/2008.
Project deployed at AES Gener's Los Andes substation in late 2009; the first Li-ion battery
system to be deployed to the electric grid in Chile

Units evaluated for charge/discharge capability for frequency regulation

1 1-MW x 15 minute (250kWh) unit evaluated since 1/2009 for charge/discharge capability for
frequency regulation

The battery plant runs basically unmanned, with remote control and monitoring. The only
maintenance requirement is periodic watering of the batteries. In addition, battery capacity tests
are performed annually. The plant ran in this mode for the first three years. In the fourth year,
battery cell failures increased consierably. Over the four years, 126 battery modules (5 cells
each), about 1.8% of the battery cells, failed. Failure was defined for an operating battery
module when the temperature of one cell exceeds 55 degrees C while other cells remain below
40 degrees C. Most failures were traced to the automatic watering system. Some battery cells
were drying out and losing capacity because they were not being filled properly. The solution
was to add additional electrolyte level indicators to use with the watering system. The new
indicators are checked manually to verify that the watering system is working correctly.

No longer operating
The Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) is using ESA ultracapacitors to mitigate fluctuations
arising from intermittent generation at a 4-MW wind farm. These fluctuations present a
particular problem on the small grid on the Big Island of Hawaii, where wind power generation is
relatively large compared to the total installed generation capacity, and is particularly large with
respect to the available regulating reserve.

Ultracapacitors are high-power energy storage devices that make up for their relatively low
energy storage density with very high cycle life and power capabilities. A small ultracapacitor
installation can deliver a large amount of power, albeit for a small period of time. It can also
absorb power quickly. These characteristics make this technology attractive for buffering short-
duration fluctuations in wind turbine power output as they can produce a smoother, more
regular power output. This application is analogous to that of a shock absorber that buffers
mechanical vibrations -- hence the name of the product, the Electronic Shock Absorber (ESA).

HECO has commissioned an ESA unit for a 4-MW wind farm on the Big Island. The prototype
unit, designed and constructed by S&C Electric Company, is sized to deliver up to about 500
kW for up to 7 seconds. The power injection significantly reduces the ramp rate of the wind

The result of the assessment was the decision to install battery storage plants in the PREPA
system. PREPA accepted bids for the battery and converter from C&D Batteries and General
Electric, respectively, in mid-1991. Field construction began in August 1992. Start-up in
October 1993. It is no longer in commission after ~5 years of operation.

Commissioned in Jan 2005 and operated thru Jan 2008, the VRB system was attached to the
30.6-MW Tomamae Wind Villa wind farm
AEP has pioneered the use of NaS batteries in the United States. Following testing at its Dolan
Technology Center near Columbus, OH, the utility became the first U.S. electric company to
deploy NaS batteries in 2002 when it installed and operated a 100kW/500kVA demonstration
unit in Gahanna, OH. In 2006, AEP installed a 1.2-MW stationary NaS battery near Charleston,
WV. And in 2008, the utility installed three, 2-MW NaS batteries: one in Churubusco, IN.; one in
Milton, WV; and one in Bluffton, OH. The 7.2 MW in NaS deployments are part of AEP’s
electricity storage strategy that will also include transportable stationary batteries and distributed
small scale energy storage systems.

AEP deployed all of its NaS installations as a means to provide load leveling and alleviate
transformer loading during summer peaks, defer capital upgrades, and offer emergency backup
power to several hundred customers during electrical system outages. Ultimately, the NaS units
offer AEP a degree of flexibility in determining the optimal approach for handling reliability
problems. The units buy the utility time to decide whether to redesign a substation, build
generation, or keep the storage units in place permanently. (All of the NaS systems are capable
of being relocated for an estimated $85,000 to $115,000 if and when the company’s needs for
storage change.)

One 2-MW unit was originally intended to improve wind energy integration in the utility’s Texas
service territory and to generate revenue as a wind-gas price arbitrage tool. However, these
plans were postponed because of additional costs associated with directly linking the battery
unit with a wind plant. The batteries can also be used for grid frequency regulation, though AEP
has not yet pursued this application.

AEP’s initial 1.2MW/7.2MWh NaS battery project was commissioned at a Charleston, WV,
Anaheim PUD’s two-year pilot project is testing a 50-kW Li-ion energy storage system. It has
been operating since June 2009. Two solar PV systems totaling 75 kW feed power into the
energy storage system, and during peak electricity usage periods the storage system
discharges the power into the grid. The utility would like to offer incentives to customers who
install solar systems to also install energy storage systems. Customers would be encouraged to
dispatch stored energy when called upon by the utility.

During the pilot phase, the utility will be evaluating the dollar value of the $100,000 energy
storage system in terms of the savings it brings to the utility. iCel’s 50-kW energy storage pack
is installed at Anaheim PUD’s pilot project. Operating since June, it contains a pack of 50
lithium ion batteries with a parallel architecture and physically integrated circuitry. It can
simultaneously charge and discharge energy and provides 50 kWh of energy storage. Ryan
Wartena, iCel’s chief technology officer and designer of the system, says the prototype three-
phase system operates at 24 volts DC and 480 volts alternating current (AC), and is fully
After the first year-and-a-half of operation, about 340 cycles, tests were performed on randomly
sampled batteries. The tests indicated that the batteries maintained at least 80% of their
original storage capacity. Tear-down of these batteries revealed evidence of some sponge lead
on the negative plates, some plate expansion, and evidence of electrolyte stratification. After
the first two years of operation, about 400 cycles, the total maintenance of the system consisted
of the replacement of nine batteries (0.8%) for internal shorts, and an equalization charge to
reduce the stratification of the electrolyte by gassing.

The following is typical of the average month's operation, based on two years' experience:
· Number of discharges: 17
· Depth of discharge: 25%
· Peak reduction: 210 kW
· Rate of discharge: 230 kW
· Discharge energy: 307 kWh
· Charging period: 1.27 h
· AC-AC turn-around efficiency: 74 - 86%

300-kW modular unit comprises 210 Ultrabattery cells manufactured by East Penn

Ecoult awarded $1.425 million grant to provide 100-kWh of storage for Hampton NSW wind

This project tested the application of a Premium Power 'PowerBlock 150' zinc-flow battery
installed and operated in an electric distribution system. Project update needed.
The goal of investigations of battery energy storage (BES) systems was to provide lower electric
costs to the customer, as well as utility benefits from peak-load shaving and relief from
minimum load conditions on the system.

The demonstration project had the following objectives:
· Demonstrate the key features of BES systems
· Assess BES benefits for both customer and utility
· Evaluate VRLA battery technology for customer peak-shaving applications
· Evaluate the insulated gate bi-polar transistor (IGBT) power conversion technology for small
customer-owned BES plants
· Evaluate the feasibility of commercially available, off-the-shelf control systems
· Assess reliability, safety, environmental acceptability, and flexibility of BES plants

80 kW x 15 minutes
All buses in the LI Bus company system are powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) and
fueled at a centrally-located fueling station that utilizes four compressors to compress natural
gas. Three of the four compressors are powered by electricity supplied by LIPA, while a fourth is
natural gas-powered via a local gas line. To reduce its steep, on-peak electric charge, LI Bus
historically operated a third shift during nighttime, off-peak hours when utility demand charges
were nil. This approach produced electricity cost savings but also incurred additional labor
costs. Consequently, LI Bus has pursued a battery energy storage project—funded by a broad
consortium of stakeholders, including EPRI and its members, NYPA, NYSERDA, US DOE,
LIPA, and LI Bus—with the following four goals:

1. Achieve cost savings via the elimination of the third shift required to perform fueling without
incurring peak demand charges (accomplished via off-peak battery charging and daytime
2. Increase back up power for the bus fueling to meet a regional emergency response plan;
3. Reduce peak demand on the heavily loaded utility grid through managed time-of-use and
peak shifting; and
4. Demonstrate long term, commercial operation of a high efficiency peak shift energy storage

The battery project effectively began in mid-2004 with the awarding of a $1 million grant by
NYSERDA to NYPA and LI Bus; stakeholder meetings ensued through the end of 2004. During
this time, NYPA, working with EPRI, determined that a battery energy storage system (BESS)
would be best suited for the project’s proposed managed time-of-use application. (Microturbines
and reciprocating gas engines were initially considered, but were not pursued due to long-term
natural gas price uncertainties, generation-related emissions, and the explicit preference by
LIPA for an energy storage solution to on-site electric generation.) To this end, a number of
battery technologies were reviewed, including those composed of zinc-bromine, vanadium
redox, sodium sulfur, and polysulfide bromide chemistries. Of these, only NaS batteries had a
Several 5-kW/20-KWh Z-Br units deployed in Australia; Only community energy storage type of
system with actual deployments
NaS test results were not available in 1993 report since it had only recently been installed.

After four years of operation, the lead-acid batteries cycled approximately 900 times and have
met or exceeded expectations. Scheduled system tests have measured basic system
performance, controllability of operation, reliability, and environmental effects. Following are
some test results:

Battery capacity has dropped to about 82% of the original capacity but is still within acceptable
AC-AC efficiency, including auxiliary losses for the 1 MW, 4 hour discharge and charge is 68%
and the battery efficiency is 81%, slightly loqwer than the original AC-AC efficiency of 73% and
battery efficiency of 85%.
Auxiliary power (building, etc) is only 0.3 to 0.5 percent.
System efficiency improves at lower discharge and recharge rates.
It is more efficient to start the battery at 90% charge and use electrolyte agitators than to charge
the battery to 100% in order to mix the electrolyte by hydrogen bubbling.
Battery self-discharge is ~0.2% per day adusted to 25 degrees C.

Tests at Tatsumi have revealed other important characteristics of the system. For wexample,
the battery system can be used for grid voltage regulation and frequency regulation for spinning

A VRLA (valve-regulated lead-acid) battery system was installed at the GNB Battery Recycling
Facility in Vernon, CA in 1995. The BESS at the Vernon smelter consists of two strings of 378
modules each of 4800-Ah Absolyte batteries (9600-Ah on site). As of the late-1990s, it was
being used to peak-shave at 3150 kW on weekdays during peak demand times.
As of FY03, the BESS's batteries had reached an age where it was desirable to do more
extensive monitoring of their condition and operation to determine whether life expectations
were being met. A contract was placed to continue monitoring battery performance. In addition,
periodic postmortems of modules returned to GNB from the Vernon location were resumed to
assess how much degradation had occurred and estimate the remaining battery life.

The Vernon batteries have passed the end of their warranty period.
Xcel Energy is the number one wind power provider (predominately through PPA) in the United
States. With a large penetration of wind already in the utility’s balancing footprint and plans to
add more in the near future—a partial result of Minnesota’s 30% by 2020 RPS mandate—Xcel
has embarked on a Wind-to-Battery (W2B) Project to test and evaluate the effectiveness of
utilizing a large-scale NaS battery to facilitate grid integration of wind energy and, in turn,
mitigate system impacts of variable generation. Xcel initiated a pilot project in October 2008
with the siting of a 1-MW sodium-sulfur battery next to an 11.5 MW wind plant in Luverne, MN.

Project participants selected the NaS technology reasoning that it has a high energy storage
capacity, can handle a large number of charge/discharge cycles, is capable of dynamic
operation, has demonstrated commercial performance and availability, and is capable of near-
term large scale deployment. Meanwhile, deployment of the battery near the 11.5 MW wind
plant was pursued to allow the utility to avoid potential latency issues when trying to relay output
data from the wind turbines to the battery. This arrangement also allowed project stakeholders
to minimize land purchase and usage fees because Xcel Energy already owned a switching
station at the site. Finally, Minwind Energy, the wind plant owner, offered the use of its
interconnection transformer to the transmission system, which enabled Xcel to avoid the need
to purchase and register an additional transformer.

Research objectives of the utility pilot, the first attempt in the U.S. to utilize a NaS battery as a
direct wind energy storage device, included:

• Evaluating the battery’s ability to firm wind energy and effectively shift it from off-peak to on-
peak availability;
• Evaluating the distributed energy storage system’s (DESS) ability to reduce Xcel Energy’s
need to compensate for the variability and uncertainty impacts of wind against other grid
balancing procedures;
• Evaluating the optimal ratio between energy storage and total wind capacity that would allow
the wind energy storage system to be a more attractive peak-load resource;
• Evaluating the potential for battery technology to provide ancillary service support (e.g.,
reactive load support, spinning reserve, frequency regulation, contingency reserve);
• Assessing the obtainable value of storage in the Midwest ISO (MISO) market for several wind
penetration scenarios; and

200-kW system

Utilities demonstrating, evaluating, or deploying Ice Bears to reduce peak demand

Steffes' distributed electric thermal storage (ETS) systems provide wind-assisted heating and
load leveling
                                        Results & Findings
The GVEA BESS was commissioned on June 19, 2003 and formally inaugurated in August
2003. It saw its first real discharges beginning in November of that year. During commissioning
tests the ABB power conversion system and the Saft battery set an unofficial world record by
achieving a peak discharge of 26.7 MW, while providing -37 MVAR (inductive), with two strings
operational. Data indicates that the power performance of the BESS has exceeded
specifications with 27 MW supplied for 24 minutes with two of four strings. Two more strings
came online on December 10, 2003, providing 46 MW of power.

GVEA has installed substation hardware and the necessary SCADA programming to use the
BESS Auto Scheduling mode. In this mode, GVEA monitors the status and megawatt flow
through remote generator and transmission breakers and, in turn, provides the information to
the spinning reserve and contingency applications running on GVEA’s SCADA master station.
Those applications determine what the output of the BESS should be on a moment-by-moment
basis if one of the monitored breakers goes open. Information is sent every second to a breaker
status table running in the BESS HMI. GVEA monitors the trip coil circuit at each breaker and
the BESS uses the status table to ramp up its output to the required megawatt value. Because
of the speed of the communication system and the fact that GVEA is not waiting for the contact
at the breaker to change state, operators are able to inject power into the system as the breaker
is opening. As a result, rather than waiting for system frequency to decline and then having the
BESS respond in a spinning reserve fashion, GVEA proactively reacts to a coming breaker trip.

The BESS is very quiet from a broadband interference standpoint. EMI measurements from 500
kHz to 2.0 GHz revealed very little additional noise being added to the background noise level.
Harmonic measurements taken to determine the background levels and then again at various
output levels, have shown that the BESS meets the IEEE 519 recommendations for voltage and
current harmonics. This is good endorsement for the IGCT converter technology employed by

The turbine unit can provide up to 890 MWh of continuous power. It is utilized primarily as a
capacity reserve unit.
Compared to conventional combustion turbines, the CAES-fed system can start up in 15
minutes rather than 30 minutes, uses only 30% to 40% of the natural gas, and operates
efficiently down to low loads (about 25% of full load). The key function of the facility is for peak
During the two-year test program, the Chino facility successfully operatied under the following
utility applications:

The plant proivded up to 43 MWh over a constant-pwoer, four-hour discharge.

Load-following and T&D deferral
The battery system was used to reduce the actual peak load on the 12-kV bus. During peak
summer loads, the 12-kV bus exceeded transformer ratings. Upon operator-entered set-points,
the battery system was programmed to help reduce the load on the 12-kV bus as needed.

Frequency Regulation
Tests demonstrated the battery plant's capabilities to compensate for rapidly changing power
flows on the grid and limit the requncy excursions.

Voltage/Regulation power control
The battery plant demonstrated the capability of supplying real and reactive power to the grid.

Black-start operation
The Chino facility successfully completed a black start operation test, which included supplying
pwoer to a de-energized utility line.

After six months of operation, the system still required occasional adjustments to the controller.
The early results of its performance indicate that this system can be matched to a specific utility
demand schedule and used to effectively shave peak-power demand. The foundry's on-peak
energy demands are significantly reduced. The system automatically follows the energy
demand by supplying or delivering energy to the foundry operation, including the use of on-peak
or opportunity charging. This type of charging is done during periods of low power demand and
effectively extends the capability and life of the battery.

Total harmonic distortions (THD) proved to be better than initially anticipated. During discharge
at 280 kW, the THD for the voltage was measured at 1.4%. In charge mode, the measured
value was 1.3%. Two unplanned local power outages have successfully tested the abilities of
the fault protection system. The accuracy of the battery sizing program has been verified with
most cycles running the battery to a 70-75% DOD as compared to an 80% target level.

The JCI turn-key energy management system can provide automatic peak shaving
performance that can lower monthly electrical demand charges by as much as 50%. The
system can be built to the customer's needs and adjusted as their utility demands change.
During the first two years of its operation, the BESS was primarily used to help offset grid
fluctuations created by the Annette Hemlock Sawmill (which closed in 1999). During this period,
the BESS was able to mitigate load swings and the diesel generator was nearly taken out of
service altogether (it is now available as an emergency backup generator and for charging the
BESS). Consequently, the BESS was able to offset the cost of 475,000 gallons of diesel per
year and also lower transportation costs and costs associated with periodic maintenance of the
diesel generator.

In addition, by controlling the BESS to charge and discharge in response to load swings, system
frequency was able to be maintained at much tighter tolerances while giving adequate time for
the hydro units to react. The battery was kept at about 90% state-of-charge to provide capacity
to either absorb or generate real power to the grid. From this state-of-charge, roughly 1.1 MWh
was able to be utilized as reserve power in the event that one of the hydro units were to trip
offline unexpectedly.

With the federal ban on logging in the Tongass National Forest, effective January 2000, the mill
discontinued operation two years after the installation of the BESS. As a result, the original
problems associated with the mill’s load swings are no longer an issue for MP&L. Still in
operation today, the BESS continues, however, to run charge/discharge cycles on an everyday
basis. The battery has not been offline since its commissioning except for scheduled
maintenance and repair.
The availability of the battery plant has exceeded 85%. The main unavailability periods are
during intermediate and equalizing charging. For the first three years of operation, BEWAG
calculated an annual savings of $7,400,000 (US equivalent). In the fourth year, the calculated
savings was about $7,100,000 due to increased maintenance and battery replacements. These
savings can be favorably compared to an initial plant cost of $14,000,000. BEWAG was
surprised to find that spinning-reserve savings were greater than savings from load-frequency
• The installation of the VRB inproves the line voltage on the 25 kV by 2.2% (Combination of
250 kVar and 250 kW)
• Reduced capacitor charging during losses and Line losses will amount to about 40 kW in
reduced power demand. This more than offsets the parisitic losses of the VRB-ESS
• Worst case voltage variation tha twill occur when the VRB-ESS trips off line during maximum
load and when the VRB-ESS was providing maximum power support, will be 4.6% (this has not
been measured during peak season).
PREPA found that battery storage was the most economic alternative for rapid spinning reserve
to eliminate automatic load shedding. CTs would also serve this function, but cost considerably
more. In addition, battery storage was the only technology that could improve spinning reserve
and voltage stability. PREPA estimated an additional savings of $10 million by using batteries
to reduce transmission losses and substitute SVCs for voltage future stability.
1.2 MW unit
The 1.2 MW NaS DESS at Charleston has performed successfully for three summer peak
seasons. During its first year of operation, the unit was available 90% of the time for its
scheduled daily discharges. It experienced a total of 38 days of unscheduled down time, due
mainly to PCS failures and a change in metering of pulse-like battery heater load.

Over its first three years of operation, the unit improved the feeder load factor by 5% (from 75%
to 80%). It also reduced the oil temperature of the transformer by ~4C.

2 MW units
The three 2-MW installations put into service in 2008 have been successfully performing peak
shaving on an ongoing basis.

In addition, the unit sited at the Balls Gap substation in Milton, WV successfully islanded
approximately 700 customers for roughly 30 minutes during a simulated outage staged on July
8, 2009. A live islanding event, meanwhile, took place in December 2009, during a snowstorm
that islanded 25 customers for two days. Over that period, the Milton installation was able to
minimize disruptions; customers experienced less than three minutes of continuous disruption
during the two-day outage period.

Finally, on October 20, 2009, the Milton, WV battery was successfully operated to alleviate load
and voltage concerns during a load transfer event between substations. While the transformer
at one station was taken out of service for maintenance, load was transferred to a different
station which caused voltage and loading concerns. The Milton battery was deployed and
mitigated these concerns.
According to 1993 data, the project has not yet provided definitive results on whether or not the
automotive battery is suitable for use in peak-shaving systems. The project continues to show
great promise and has had positive results in shaving the plant's peak utility use, but the life
expectancy of the batteries is not yet known. The experimental system has met all of its early
expectations, and has required very little maintenance.
Technical specifications for the battery and PCS were developed using experiences from earlier
BES projects as well as vendor interviews. These specifications include:

Battery - A VRLA battery was selected because the VRLA cells require less space and less
maintenance than conventional "flooded electrolyte" cells. Also, the cells have very low
emissions of hazardous gases. An important design feature of VRLA cells is that they do not
require the addition of water throughout their lives. The battery was specified to provide a 210-
kW DC constant power output for a two-hour discharge. A cycle life of 1,500 cycles and eight
years was required.

PCS - The PCS power rating was specified to be 200 kW AC continuous. A life of 30 years,
with nominal maintenance, was stipulated. The maximum reactive power consumption was
specified to be 97 kVAr under all operating conditions. The PCS was required to have a
maximum response time of 20 milliseconds to a 10% power level step charge, and 200
milliseconds for zero to full power.

Control and Data Acquisition System (CDAS) - A commercial process control system, based on

The NaS BESS and ancillary equipment was successfully installed in late 2006, but
interconnection problems and battery failure delayed the facility’s commissioning until
November 2008. Following the resolution of continued nuisance trips and DAS problems during
December 2008, the BESS installation was put into commercial operation at the LI Bus site on
January 1, 2009. Until recently the BESS has operated as intended, silently powering three 600
hp CNG compressors used to fuel 220 CNG busses while providing load shifting capability for
the LI Bus refueling facility. Through September 23, 2009, it had completed approximately 351
cycles and could successfully eliminate the third shift. (For their own reasons, the LI Bus
Operations group has decided to run fueling from 6pm-2am—times that intersect with the third
shift—and, in turn, only realize partial returns from the BESS.)

A data acquisition system (DAS) supplied by US DOE (Enernex developed the software) was
designed to collect a data point roughly once per second, with aggregate data being uploaded
daily to a central server. Information gathered by the DAS includes AC and DC voltage, current,
energy, and power into and out of the system; battery state of charge, cycle count and
internal/ambient temperatures and conversion efficiencies; auxiliary loads and standby losses;
and operating state durations and response times to changes in operating conditions. A single
day of data can represent roughly 13 MB. Problems concerning DAS communication with the
PCS and NaS systems, however, prevented the BESS’s operation in 2008, and, following
additional issues, new DAS equipment is being installed by NYPA.

Several customer issues, largely external to the battery and PCS, have affected the
demonstration. Two of the more notable include:

• Higher than expected energy consumption and cost increases by the customer. Project
participants expected an increase in energy consumption and associated cost due to battery
inefficiency, but the increase has been greater than predicted. NYPA analyzed the potential
causes and found that measured DC-DC battery system cycle efficiency met or exceeded
The following benefits have been identified by investigations on the lead-acid battery system at
the Tatsumi Energy Stoarge Test Facility:

peak shaving
frequency regulation
voltage regulation
real and reactive pweor ocntrol (1 MW and 1 MV Ar)
fast power ramp-up (0 to 100% in <2 seconds)
spinning reserve
environmentally safe
unmanned, remote operation
high reliability
Following are preliminary results derived from 21 months of data gather and analysis.

The battery was able to effectively time shift wind energy from off-peak to on-peak availability.
Overall, the DESS performed as expected for the majority of scenarios tested. Project analysts
did find that a modification to the PCS software was required for one of the discharge profiles.
During the testing period, the 1 MW wind farm scenario was incapable of fully charging the
battery during the allowed charging window of 8.5 hours, while the 10 MW wind farm scenario
generated more wind energy than needed. Project analysts recommend additional testing,
especially at and around a 5-MW scenario, to better understand the optimal ratio of wind farm
capacity to DESS capacity for time shifting applications.

The DESS adequately responded to economic dispatch signals. The DESS followed set-points
based on an algorithm that uses forward and spot energy prices in the MISO market along with
settings from the user. (The battery was never offered into the MISO market; project analysts
instead estimated settlements results.) Although arbitrage potential was limited due to market
conditions, stakeholders aver that results can potentially be improved by optimizing the control
algorithms. Performing additional testing using different market nodes and pricing information
from previous years could better estimate potential financial returns over an extended period of
time at various physical locations.

Despite frequent temporary system alarms, the DESS performed well when following a
frequency regulation signal. The DESS followed a frequency regulation signal derived from
changes in the Area Control Error (ACE) for the MISO market. On a continuous basis, the
device followed the rapidly changing set-points issued by the NSP Energy Management System
(EMS) in a timely and accurate manner and displayed excellent ramping capabilities. Additional
testing is recommended to determine if any long-term battery damage is incurred as a result of
rapid and frequent battery charge/discharge.

Though test results measuring the effectiveness of the DESS to smooth wind output via ramp
rate control were mixed, the battery was successful in limiting the rate of change in a 1 MW
wind energy output scenario. Ramp rate control was tested by using a first order lag function to
vary the charge/discharge rates of the battery based on the output of the wind plant. However,
test results were mixed due to range limits in the PCS source code. The DESS was able to limit
                                       Lessons Learned

The BESS has, to date, experienced only minor problems related to materials and
maintenance—both of which have largely been resolved. Problems have, for example,
developed concerning the water injector strings. Each cell has one water injector string, which is
sealed to the cell with a gasket. Although the internal components of the injector are resistant to
the KOH electrolyte, they are not completely resistant to the cell oil that floats on top of the
electrolyte to prevent water evaporation. As a result, during heavy discharges or vigorous
recharges, cell oil sometimes makes it way into an injector, which eventually causes the injector
to either stick open or close prematurely. GVEA revised its module refilling procedure to check
each cell and manually verify that the injector is working correctly, and is working with
Philadelphia Scientific to correct the problem. GVEA expects to eventually replace all of the
water injector strings.

Separately, GVEA has learned to coax more megawatt-hours (20MW+) out of the BESS during
large spinning reserve events. The battery voltage declines during any event until either the
event is over or the battery hits the 1 VDC/cell limit (3,440 VDC). If the battery hits the 1
VDC/cell limit, the BESS automatically starts ramping down at 4 MW/minute. If the BESS is still
needed the dispatcher can arrest the decline at, say, 15 MW and sustain that level until the
battery once again reaches the 1 VDC/cell limit. This can be done 3-5 times during an event.
GVEA has been able to coax over 12 MWh out of the battery during some events.

In addition, GVEA dispatchers have been using the BESS in the AGC mode more than
previously anticipated and have been able to cover some morning and evening peaks.
Moreover, GVEA is triggering the BESS AGC mode to a preset level whenever the Alaska
Intertie between the Anchorage and Fairbanks grid goes over its operational MW import limits.
This happens automatically and allows GVEA to stay below grid stability limits without operator
Overall, the Chino facility completed the two-year demonstration period meeting all of the
project goals. Project responsibility was then transferred within SCE from their research and
development to operations staff. Over the span of the project, a few problems were
encountered and handled. Druing a heavy rainstorm in December 1988, water leaked through
the roof, causing a short circuit in a DC-ebntrance cabinet to the PCS for one battery string.
The partial range fuses on the postiive battery leg failed and provided a ground fault. A flash
fire resulted, causing minor damage. The facility was shut down for three months to improve its
electrical safety and weather resistance.

In addition, over 300 cells developed leaking joints between the battery case and cover. In
December 1990, the battery manufacturer repaired the cell leaks on-site at no cost to SCE.
The battery watering system has been adjusted and upgraded several times to reduce the
associated manpower requrements and improve reliability. the PCS and battery controllers also
had numerous failures until it was determined that overheating on hot summer days was the
cause. Adding air conditioning units solved the problem. Finally, the PCS has shut down on
several occasions for GTO thyrister failure. This fauilure mode hadn't been well understood,
but the SCE miantenance organization had reduced down time for changing-out the parts to a
few hours.

Through 1993, SCE has been operating the Chino battery storage facility as a system resource.
The plant continued to meet all design and operation requirements.
Securing project funding was a major challenge. MP&L exhausted state funding assistance in
1987 when it purchased a 1 MW hydro unit with a $500,000 grant through the Alaskan
Department of Community and Regional Affairs’ Rural Utility Service. As a result, subsidized
rural utility rates provided via state programs were unavailable to the community to support the
project and its commissioning.

MP&L’s decision to use a different discharge testing plan than suggested by the BESS’s
operating specifications has not been problematic. As part of scheduled maintenance, the utility
runs annual equalizing tests on the BESS that entail a full discharge and full charge of the
battery system.

Though MP&L has been satisfied with the performance and reliability of its large-scale lead acid
BESS, technology advances have made it difficult to maintain the system. In particular, parts for
the 14-year-old inverter have become obsolete and are becoming increasingly difficult to
The battery plant has a much higher power gradient that a turbogenerator and BEWAG found
that the battery plant was used much more than anticipated for load-frequency control. The
daily capacity turnover was designed for 2.0 to 2.3 times the rated capacity. On hot summer
days, the turnover reached 3.5 times rated capacity. In order to avoid cell temperatures abouve
40 degrees C, the power output was reduced. To avoid this problem, BEWAG ran additional
tests on heat exchangers. Specifically, BEWAG found the inner cells of the 5-cell modules
were running up to 5 degrees C hotter than end cells. The heat exchangers were redesigned
for lower overall temperature operation and 1 degree C cell-to-cell temperature differences.
This is expected to eliminate the need for power reductions.

An earth fault in the grid system generated an overvoltage that harmed the thyristors in the
converters. The solution was to add voltage-limiting varistors to the converter damping
networks. A second earth fault occurred recently and the overvoltage protection functioned
1.2 MW unit
• Though the collaboration between AEP, NGK and S&C resulted in the successful installation
of the DESS, AEP had to manage five different entities in multiple contracts and coordinate a
variety of tasks and schedules in order to complete the task. A single company should assume
the complete task of DESS delivery and system integration; and, in turn, this should be reduced
to a single contractual relationship between the utility and the DESS supplier.
• Battery module shipping should take into account that some cost components of shipping
charges are based on a ―per container‖ basis. Because initial plans for the Charleston unit
involved testing the PCS with NaS batteries in advance of completion of all 20 of the DESS
batteries, AEP ordered six modules to be shipped prior to completion of the entire system. As a
result, one container was partially empty, resulting in unnecessary shipping charges.
• On-site modifications of the battery enclosures was required to rectify differences between
Japanese and US manufacturing practices and standards, causing considerable delays. NAS
batteries cannot be stored outdoors while awaiting completion of the battery enclosures. And
storing them indoors might require permits. Unless the NaS batteries are delivered pre-installed
in integrated, relocate-able enclosures, it is necessary to closely coordinate battery delivery
schedules with the delivery schedules of the battery enclosures.
• The NaS battery offers the potential for greater energy savings. AEP utilized its battery at 83%
to 90% of its capacity to extend battery life. Applying PJM’s Locational Marginal Price (LMP)
data for AEP revealed that the DESS, with its existing daily charge/discharge schedule, could
have saved AEP approximately $57,000 during the first 11 months of operation, if it had been
utilized at 100% of its capacity. This saving could have been further increased if the daily charge-
discharge pattern were to be adjusted for optimum energy arbitrage, as opposed to actual
system capacity need.
• Insure NaS battery modules receive a proper number of burn-in cycles prior to leaving the
The following benefits can be associated with the use of automative batteries in utility load
leveling systems:
· Peak shaving
· Lower cost batteries
· System virtually maintenance free
· Minimal gassing during recharge
· Efficient battery recycling operations in place
A BES plant installed at the San Diego Trolley Grossmont substation would provide potential
benefits for both SDG&E and its customer, San Diego Metropolitan Transit Board (MTDB). In
simple terms, the benefits of BES from SDG&E's perspective would be to reduce capital and
operating costs of the electric system, while MTDB's benefit would be a reduction of its electric
bill, and provision of emergency power.

• Adequate specification of functional requirements is a must. Functional requirements for the
NaS system were not adequately determined by NYPA at project inception. Among the most
critical of these were the need for a wye grounded delta connection and the power requirements
for compressor start. In addition, NGK did not specify that its batteries must not be allowed to
stand for more than 10 hours in a discharged condition without appropriate heaters to keep
them hot.

• The NaS battery is suitable for its intended application, but the modules need initial ―burn in.‖
New NaS battery modules require nominal initial cycling (roughly six cycles) before shipment if
they are expected to be kept in hot standby for an extended period of time. This can help
mitigate potential issues that may occur as a result of delayed grid interconnection. The
project’s interconnection difficulties were a direct contributor to the failure of many of the battery
modules before the facility was even commissioned.

• Normal project delays can ―cascade‖ to major issues. For example, a grounding event
occurred during the summer of 2007 because of a miscommunication about the short-circuit
capability of the local feeder. As a result, NYPA had to re-perform the grounding study, adding
to project costs and causing a two-month delay, which further postponed cycling of the battery
(which had been kept in hot standby for six months in anticipation of connection to the grid and
commercial operation), and led to module failures. Replacement modules consequently needed
to be shipped and installed.

• The PCS units presented interconnection and operational problems, which can be resolved.
These problems were the result of a failure to properly specify system requirements and
understand site characteristics; equipment design and manufacturing inadequacies; extended
outage time during problems with the battery; and inadequate project team member
coordination. ABB’s PCS was a modified unit originally designed and UL approved for use with
a fuel cell. It needed to be re-designed for the battery and also obtain a new UL 1741
There have not been any major problems with the lead-acid battery system. The researchers
have made several recommendation to improve flodded lead-acid batteries over the design they
used in 1986. The recommendations focus on battery design, battery operation, and battery
room layout for better space utilization. The recommendations would increase battery energy
density, lower battery costs and improve battery life. The researchers determined that the
battery could be cycled from 100 to 20% charge, an increase over the originally conservative 90
to 35% cycling. This reduces the effective cost of the batteries.
• A DESS control system covering multiple modes of operation spans a wide array of skill sets
and requires an extensive amount of development time. An extensive amount of time was
required by project participants to define in detail various modes of operation. As a result,
multiple iterations to the PCS specification and control set-points list were required, and S&C
was delayed in beginning their programming tasks.

• Once designed, a PCS requires an extensive amount of programming time and a thorough
commissioning process. After the design specifications and control set-points list was finalized,
S&C started to program the PCS—a task originally scheduled to be completed within one
month. To minimize the number of errors encountered in the field, S&C constructed a control
test-bed and S&C and GridPoint performed lab-to-lab testing over several weeks to ensure data
connectivity between the two systems. S&C also performed in-house testing of the software to
minimize errors in the control logic. To verify the PCS operated according to the specification,
Xcel Energy generated a field commissioning document. During field testing procedures, project
analysts encountered multiple errors that were not originally identified during the lab testing
without the PCS.

• When defining a project test plan, it is best to identify only the most appropriate and/or
effective analytics approach for each value proposition in order to establish a plan that is
reasonable in scope and extensive enough to cover important research areas. Xcel Energy
worked with a number of analysts to identify multiple value propositions warranting investigation.
As a result, it was difficult for stakeholders to identify the most appropriate and effective
analytics approach for each value proposition. Furthermore, once project researchers identified
a method of analysis and began collecting data, additional time was required for data gathering
and analysis to adequately cover each value proposition. In addition to the multiple modes of
operation, project researchers encountered multiple errors in the datasets due to variety of
reasons ranging from user input error, communication outages, and unexpected PCS operation.
Each invalid dataset required project researchers to retest the battery, resulting in greater time

• It would have been better to establish a central on-site data repository to collect data from all
the appropriate sources with uniform time stamps. For the project, GridPoint used the DNP3
protocol to collect and archive data, which project researchers then used in their analysis.
   Project Contact     Useful Links   Date Case Study Completed

Tim DeVries, Manager
of Engineering
Services, GVEA
(907) 451-5669,
m                                             May 2010

Robert Schainker, Sr
Technical Executive,
(650) 855-2104,
Robert Schainker, Sr
Technical Executive,
(650) 855-2104,

Chet Lyons
Director of Marketing
and Sales
Beacon Power
(978) 661-2831
Chet Lyons
Director of Marketing
and Sales
Beacon Power
(978) 661-2831
Chet Lyons
Director of Marketing
and Sales
Beacon Power
(978) 661-2831
Chet Lyons
Director of Marketing
and Sales
Beacon Power
(978) 661-2831
om                      Under development
Lorn Ellico
Chino Battery Facility
(714) 628-6907
John Cooley
Chugach Electric
(907) 762-4577

Abbas Akhil
Sandia National
(505) 844-3353

Johnson Controls Inc.
(414) 961-6500
Paul Bryant, General
Metlakatla Power &
Light                  mages/ideas-in-
(907) 886-4451,        action/MetlakatlaPaperJan292010.   pdf                                    August 2010

Charlie Vartanian
Director of Grid
A123 Systems
(626) 818-5230

Praveen H. Kathpal,
Energy Storage,
Market & Regulatory
AES Corporation
(703) 682-
6690praveen.kathpal                                                   Under development
Charlie Vartanian
Director of Grid
A123 Systems
(626) 818-5230

Praveen H. Kathpal,
Energy Storage,
Market & Regulatory
AES Corporation
(703) 682-
6690praveen.kathpal              detail.cfm?ReleaseID=425735
Robert Pedraza
VP, Corporate
Strategy, Altairnano
(775) 858-3702,
om                                                      Under development
Robert Pedraza
VP, Corporate
Strategy, Altairnano
(775) 858-3702,
om                                                      Under development

Klaus Kramer

Brian Beck, VP,
Business Development http://www.utility-
Prudent Power
(604) 247-3300       Case_Study_Rural_Feeder.pdf
Clyde Nagata
Hawaiian Electric Light
(808) 969-0321

Wenceslao Torres
Puerto Rico Electric
Power Authority
(809) 725-6747
Emeka Okafor, AEP
Research and
(614) 716-4975,          May 2010

• Edward Murdock, the
New Product
Specialist for Anaheim
• Steven Meixner,
executive director of
business development
at iCel
Dr. -Ing. Bernhard
Berlin GmbH
Robert Rider
Delco-Remy Division
of General Motors
(317) 646-2774
Hawk Asgiersson
Manager Power
Technologies, DTE
(313) 235-9371,

Eva Gardow
Project Manager,
Utility Retail
Technologies and
First Energy
(973) 401-8347,
Tiff Nelson
San Diego Gas and
Electric Co.
(619) 696-1913
Doug Norwood
Project Manager,
(916) 732-6623,       Under development

Charles W. Hermann,
Research &
Development Engineer
(914) 390-8208,
Chuck.Hermann@nyp                      May 2010
Keith Scruggs
Oglethorpe Power
(404) 270-7932
Steve Willard
PNM Resources
 (505) 241-2566,

Dan Huttar
Princeton Plasma
Physics Laboratory
(609) 243-3771

Christopher Kuhl,
Sales Application
Engineer / Account
Manager                hpapers_%20Demostrationproject.
ZBB Energy             pdf
(262) 951-6680    ogy/                               Under development
Atsumi Miyoshi
Manager, Tatsumi
Battery Test Facility
Kansai Electric Power
(06) 491-0221
Frank Novachek,
Director of Corporate
Xcel Energy
(303) 294-2410,
frank.novacheck@xcel               August 2010
Darrell Hayslip, Chief
Development Officer
Xtreme Power
Greg Tropsa,
Executive Vice
Ice Bear
(870) 545-3630 x1910,

Paul Steffes, CEO
Steffes Corporation
(701) 483-5400,
Last Demo Update                                    Commissioning
      in DB               Categorization                Date

                   1 - bulk storage (transmission
   6/30/2010                    level)                  2003

                   1 - bulk storage (transmission
   6/30/2010                    level)                  1978
            1 - bulk storage (transmission
6/30/2010                level)                   1991

                2 - power application
9/3/2010         (transmission level)             2000

                2 - power application        2005 (no longer
9/3/2010         (transmission level)          operating)

                2 - power application        2005 (no longer
6/3/2010         (transmission level)          operating)

                2 - power application
6/3/2010         (transmission level)             2009

                2 - power application
9/3/2010         (transmission level)             2009
            2 - power application
8/25/2010    (transmission level)   1988

            2 - power application
8/25/2010    (transmission level)   1995

            2 - power application
8/25/2010    (transmission level)   1989
            2 - power application
8/25/2010    (transmission level)     1997

            2 - power application
8/25/2010    (transmission level)     1987

            3 - distributed storage
8/25/2010    (transmission level)     2008
            3 - distributed storage
8/25/2010    (transmission level)          2009

            3 - distributed storage   2008 (no longer
4/10/2010    (transmission level)       operating)

            3 - distributed storage
4/10/2010    (transmission level)          2008

            3 - distributed storage
8/30/2010    (transmission level)          1986

            3 - distributed storage   2004 (no longer
9/3/2010     (transmission level)       operating)
            3 - distributed storage
8/26/2010    (transmission level)          1994

            3 - distributed storage
4/10/2010    (transmission level)         2006?

            3 - distributed storage   1993 (no longer
8/26/2010    (transmission level)       operating)

            3 - distributed storage   2005 (no longer
4/10/2010    (transmission level)       operating)
            4 - distributed storage
6/30/2010     (distribution level)    2006

            4 - distributed storage
4/10/2010     (distribution level)    2009

            4 - distributed storage
8/30/2010     (distribution level)
            4 - distributed storage
8/30/2010     (distribution level)    1983
            4 - distributed storage
8/26/2010     (distribution level)    1987

            4 - distributed storage
4/10/2010     (distribution level)

            4 - distributed storage
4/10/2010     (distribution level)    2010

            4 - distributed storage
4/10/2010     (distribution level)    2009
            4 - distributed storage
8/26/2010     (distribution level)    1993

            4 - distributed storage
8/26/2010     (distribution level)    2007

            4 - distributed storage
6/30/2010     (distribution level)    2009
            4 - distributed storage
8/30/2010     (distribution level)    ~1992

            4 - distributed storage
5/15/2010     (distribution level)

            4 - distributed storage
8/26/2010     (distribution level)    ~1994
            4 - distributed storage
4/10/2010     (distribution level)    Variable

            4 - distributed storage
8/27/2010     (distribution level)     2007

            4 - distributed storage
9/3/2010      (distribution level)     1999
            4 - distributed storage
8/25/2010     (distribution level)    1986

            4 - distributed storage
8/25/2010     (distribution level)    1995
            4 - distributed storage
8/13/2010     (distribution level)     2009

4/10/2010          7 - other           2006

4/10/2010    8 - thermal storage      Variable

4/10/2010    8 - thermal storage      Variable
Energy Storage Project Activities
Planned Demonstrations / Projects
                                             Energy Storage
              Project Name                    Technology             Participant(s)

Advanced CAES Using an Existing Salt
Storage Cavern                             CAES               NYSEG, EPRI

Advanced Underground CAES Project
w/Saline Porous Rock Formation (EPRI
Demo)                                      CAES               PG&E, EPRI

                                                              Iowa Stored Energy Plant
                                                              Agency (ISEPA), ~52
                                                              electric co-ops/munis in IA,
Iowa Stored Energy Park (ISEP)             CAES               MN, ND, SD

                                                              SustainX, AES, Creare,
                                                              Parker Hannifin, the Hope
                                                              Group, Kingsbury,
                                                              Greenerd, MTechnology,
Isothermal CAES to Support RE Production   CAES               and KEMA

Next Gen CAES using Steel Piping (EPRI
Demo)                                      CAES               EPRI

                                                              Haddington Ventures,
                                                              American Electric Power,
                                                              First Energy, MISO
Norton Energy Storage Project              CAES               ancillary services market
20-MW Smart Energy Matrix                  Flywheel                 Beacon Power, NYISO

                                                                    AES ES Westover,
AES 20-MW Ancillary Service Demo in New                             NYSEG, NYISO,
York                                    Li Ion (lithium-titanate)   Altairnano, Parker SSD
Amber Kinetics Flywheel Energy Storage
Demonstration                           Flywheel                    Amber Kinetics, LLNL

Beacon 20 MW Flywheel in Glenville, NY     Flywheel                 Beacon Power, NYISO?
Beacon Power 20-MW Flywheel Frequency
Regulation Plant                             Flywheel                  Beacon Power, PJM

                                                                       Beacon Power, California
                                                                       Energy Commission, SCE,
                                                                       CAISO, Alternative Energy
                                                                       Systems Consulting
Beacon Power Tehachapi Project               Flywheel                  (AESC)

SANYO Battery - Regulation Services Pilot    Li Ion (advanced          A123Systems, AES
Test                                         nanophosphate)            Energy Storage, CAISO

                                                                       Xtreme Power, Tres
Xtreme Power grid interconnection intertie   Adv. Lead Acid            Amigas LLC

                                                                       Duke Energy, EPRI,
Duke Energy 20 MW Battery System             TBD                       ERCOT

Pacificorp - BYD Pilot                       Li Ion (iron phosphate)   BYD, PacifiCorp
Ultralife SUNY Canton Wind Integration       Li I on (advanced         Ultralife Corp., NYPA,
Demo                                         nanophosphate)            NYSERDA

                                                                       Prudent Power (nee VRB
                                                                       Power), Sustainable
                                                                       Energy Ireland (SEI),
VRB-ESS Sorne Hill Wind Farm Project         VRB Flow Battery          Tapbury Management Ltd.

                                                                       First Wind, Xtreme Power,
Xtreme Power Maui US Wind                    Adv. Pb Acid              HECO

High Penetration Solar Deployment project:
Arizona Public Service Company               TBD                       Arizona Public Service

BC Hydro NaS Demo                            NaS Battery               NGK Insulators, BC Hydro

Building Lobby Modification                  TBD                       Ford

City of Lancaster / BYD Environmentally                                City of Lancaster, BYD, KB
Friendly Prototype Home                      Li Ion (iron phosphate)   Home

                                             Li Ion (advanced
DTE Smart Grid Demo - Rooftop PV             nanophosphate)            DTE, A123Systems, S&C
                                                                       Premium Power, Duke
Duke Energy Solar Storage Pilot              ZnBr                      Energy

EPRI Li-ion Battery Supplemental Project     Li Ion                    NEC, EPRI

                                                                       DTE, Ford, Xtreme Power,
Ford MAP                                     Adv. Pb Acid              A123Systems

HECO / Greensmith                            Li Ion (iron phosphate)   HECO, GreenSmith

High Penetration Solar Deployment project:
Commonwealth Edison Company                  TBD                       ComEd

High Penetration Solar Deployment project:                             SMUD, GridPoint, Saft,
Sacramento Municipal Utility District        TBD                       Navigant

PG&E NaS Battery Storage Facility            NaS Battery               NGK Insulators, PG&E
                                                                       Comisión Federal de
                                                                       Electricidad (CFE),
                                                                       ERCOT, Electric
                                                                       Transmission Texas
                                                                       (ETT), NGK-Locke, S&C
                                                                       Electric, Schweitzer
                                                                       Engineering Laboratories
Presidio NaS Battery Project                 NaS Battery               (SEL)

                                                                       Progress Energy,
Progress Energy /GreenSmith                  Li Ion (iron phosphate)   GreenSmith

RDSI Project - Beach Cities Microgrid        TBD                       SDG&E

RDSI Project - CERTS Microgrid Demo          TBD                       Chevron Energy Solutions

RDSI Project - Hybrid Homes (Dramatic
Residential Demand Reduction)                TBD                       UNLV

RDSI Project - Mixed Distributed Resources   TBD                       City of Ft Collins
RDSI Project - Powering a Defense
Company                                      TBD                       ATK Space Systems
RDSI Project - The Never-Failing Perfect                               Illinois Institute of
Power Prototype                              TBD                       Technology
RDSI Project - West Virginia Super Circuit
(Dynamic Feeder Reconfiguration)             TBD                       Allegheny Power

Southern Co. Testing & Evaluation of DESS                              GreenSmith, Southern
Systems                                      Li Ion (iron phosphate)   Company
                                            Li Ion (advanced    Southern California
A123 - SCE 2-MW SGSS Pilot                  nanophosphate)      Edison, A123Systems

                                                                A123Systems, Southern
                                                                California Edison, Quanta
                                                                Technology, California
                                            Li Ion (advanced    State Polytechnic
A123 Tehachapi Project                      nanophosphate)      University at Pomona

Advanced Implementation of A123 CES         Li Ion (advanced
Systems for Grid Support                    nanophosphate)      DTE, A123Systems, S&C

                                                                Premium Power, SMUD,
Distributed Energy Storage System Demo      ZnBr Flow Battery   NGRID

EnerDel / Portland General Electric Smart                       EnerDel, Portland General
Grid Project                                Li Ion              Electric
Enhanced Demand and Distribution
Management Regional Demonstration           multiple            NRECA
Flow Battery Solution for Smart Grid RE                          Ktech Corp., EnerVault,
Applications                              Fe / Cr Flow Battery   PG&E, Montpelier Nut

Green Impact Zone Smart Grid Demo         multiple               KCP&L

                                                                 LIPA, Stony Brook
                                                                 University, Farmingdale
Long Island Smart Energy Corridor         multiple               State College

Pacific Northwest Smart Grid Demo         multiple               Battelle
Secure Interoperable Open Smart Grid
Demo                                      multiple               ConEd

                                                                 Columbus Southern Power
SGIG - AEP Ohio gridSMART Demonstration                          Company dba AEP Ohio),
Project                                 Li Ion                   International Battery, S&C

SGIG - Irvine Smart Grid Demonstration    multiple               Southern California Edison
SGIG - KCP&L Green Impact Zone Smart                               KCP&L, Dow Kokam,
Grid Demonstration                            Li Ion               Siemens

SGIG - NSTAR Urban Grid Monitoring and
Renewables Integration                        multiple             NSTAR

SGIG - Pacific Northwest Smart Grid                                Battelle Memorial Institute,
Demonstration Project                         multiple             Pacific Northwest Division

                                                                   Center for the
SGIG - Technology Solutions for Wind                               Commercialization of
Integration in ERCOT                          multiple             Electric Technologies

                                                                   PNM Resources, EPRI,
Smart Grid Demo Project - High-Penetration                         East Penn, University of
PV thru Grid Automation and Demand                                 New Mexico, Northern
Response                                   Adv. Pb Acid            New Mexico College

Smart Grid Demo Project - Interoperability of
Demand Response Resources                     multiple             ConEd, EPRI

Smart Grid Demo Project - PREMIO:
Distributed Energy Resources Aggregation
and Management                                multiple             EDF, EPRI
Smart Grid Demo Project - Virtual Power
Plant Simulator (VPPS)                        multiple             AEP, EPRI
Sodium Ion Battery for Grid Level                                  44 Tech, Inc., Carnegie
Applications                                  Sodium-ion battery   Mellon
Solid State Batteries for Grid-Scale Energy
Storage                                       Li Ion     Seeo

Technolology Solutions for Wind Integration
in ERCOT                                      multiple   Austin Energy

UC San Diego Microgrid                        Li Ion     UC San Diego, Sanyo

Urban Grid Monitoring and RE Integration      multiple   NSTAR

ABB Superconducting Magnetic Energy
Storage System with Direct Power                         ABB Inc, SuperPower Inc.,
Electronics Interface - Cary, NC              SMES       Brookhaven National Lab

                                                         Applied Materials, A123
                                                         Systems, Lawrence
                                                         Berkeley National
Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Manufacturing Adv. Li Ion   Laboratory)

Beacon Flywheel: Development of a 100                    Beacon Power, Imlach
kWh/100kW Flywheel Energy Storage                        Consulting Engineering,
Module - Tyngsboro, MA                        Flywheel   IONICORP
Boeing Flywheel: Low-Cost, High-Energy
Density Flywheel Storage Grid Demo:
Huntington Beach, CA                        Flywheel                  Boeing

                                                                      Recapping, Penn State
Capacitive Storage                          capacitor                 University

CUNY Energy Institute Flow-Assisted        Rechargeable Zinc-         CUNY Energy Institute,
Rechargeable Zinc-Manganese Oxide          Manganese Oxide            Rechargeable Battery
Battery - New York, NY                     Battery                    Corporation (RBC)
                                           High-Amperage Energy
Electroville: High-Amperage Energy Storage Storage Device-Energy
Device-Energy Storage for the Neighborhood Storage                    MIT

Fluidic Energy Enhanced Metal-Air Energy
Storage system with Advanced Grid-
Interoperable Power Electronics Enabling    Metal-Air Energy Storage
Scalability and Low Cost - Scottsdale, AZ   System                   Fluidic Energy, Inc.

General Atomics Soluble Lead Flow Battery - Soluble Lead Flow         General Atomics, UC San
San Diego, CA                               Battery                   Diego

                                          Fuel-Free, Ubiquitous,
                                          Compressed Air Energy
General Compression Fuel-Free, Ubiquitous Storage (CAES) and
CAES and Power Conditioning - Newton, MA Power Conditioning           General Compression
                                                                      Envia Systems, Argonne
High Energy Density Lithium Batteries       Li Ion                    National Labs
                                                                   Lawrence Berkeley
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory                              National Laboratory,
Hydrogen-Bromine Flow Battery for Grid-    Hydrogen-Bromine Flow   DuPont, Bosch, 3M,
Scale Energy Storage - Berkeley, CA        Battery                 Proton Energy

                                                                   PolyPlus Battery Company,
Lithium-Air Battery                        Lithium-Air Battery     Corning
                                                                   Missouri University of
                                                                   Science & Technology,
                                                                   Brookhaven National
                                                                   Laboratory, MaxPower,
Lithium-Air Battery                        Lithium-Air Battery:    NanoLab

                                                                   Sion Power Corporation,
                                                                   BASF, Lawrence Berkeley
                                                                   National Laboratory,
                                           Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S)   Pacific Northwest National
Lithium-Sulfur Battery Development         Battery                 Laboratory

Low Cost, High Energy and Power Density,   Nanotube-enhanced
Nanotube-Enhanced Ultracapacitors          ultracapacitors         FastCAP SYSTEMS, MIT

                                                                   Pellion Technologies, Inc.,
Magnesium-Ion Battery                      Magnesium-Ion Battery   MIT, Bar-Ilan University

                                                                   Stanford University,
Novel All-Electron Battery                 All-Electron Battery    Honda, Applied Materials

                                                                   MIT, A123Systems,
Novel Semi-Solid Rechargeable Flow Battery Flow Battery            Rutgers University
Planar Na-beta Batteries for Renewable
Integration and Grid Applications          Planar Na-beta Batteries EaglePicher, PNNL

Primus Power Flow Battery - Alameda, CA    Flow Battery            Primus Power
                                                                    Proton Energy, Penn State
Proton Energy Fuel Cell - Wallingford, CT    Fuel Cell              University
                                                                    Princeton Power Systems,
                                                                    TDI Power Corp.,
                                                                    Worldwater and Solar
SEGIS Stage 1 Award: Demand Response                                Technologies, Gaia Power
Inverter                                     TBD                    Technologies
                                                                    University of Central
                                                                    Florida, SatCon,
                                                                    SENTECH Inc., EnFlex,
SEGIS Stage 1 Award: Development,                                   SunEdison, Northern
Validation and Commercialization of Grid-                           Plains Power
Smart Inverters for Wider PV Technology                             Technologies,
Utilization                                  TBD                    Lakeland Electric Utilities
                                                                    Edison Materials
                                                                    Technology Center
                                                                    (EMTEC), Liebert
                                                                    Corporation, Hull and
                                                                    Associates, Ohio State
SEGIS Stage 1 Award: Emerson PV Inverter TBD                        University

                                                                    General Electric Global
SEGIS Stage 1 Award: Grid Integration of                            Research, Sentech, NM
High-Penetration Solar Energy                TBD                    Tech, AEP, Duke Energy

SEGIS Stage 1+2 Award: Advanced Grid-
Tied Inverter, Charge Controller, Energy
Monitor, and Internet Gateway                TBD                    Apollo Solar
                                                                    Inorganic Specialists,
                                                                    Ultramet, EaglePicher,
                                                                    Southeast Nonwovens,
Silicon Coated Nanofiber Paper as a Lithium-                        Edison Materials
Ion Anode                                    Li Ion                 Technology Center

                                                                    Planar Energy Devices,
                                                                    National Renewable
                                                                    Energy Laboratory, UC
                                                                    San Diego, University of
                                                                    Central Florida, University
                                                                    of Colorado - Boulder,
                                           Solid State Lithium      University of Florida,
Solid State Lithium Battery                Battery                  University of South Florida
Sustainable, High-Energy Density, Low-Cost
Electrochemical Energy Storage - Metal-Air Metal-Air Ionic Liquid   Arizona State University,
Ionic Liquid (MAIL) Batteries              (MAIL) Batteries         Fluidic Energy
                                                                     United Technologies
                                                                     Research Center (UTRC),
                                                                     University of Texas,
                                                                     Clipper Wind power, Pratt
United Technologies Research Center Flow                             & Whitney, Sandia
Battery - East Hartford, CT                  Flow Battery            National Laboratory

USC Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery for Grid- Iron-Air Rechargeable    USC, Jet Propulsion
Scale Energy Storage- Los Angeles, CA       Battery                  Laboratory (JPL)

Zinc Flow Air Battery                        Zinc Air Flow Battery   ReVolt Technology LLC

                                                                     Samsung, SK Telecom,
                                                                     KT, LG, KEPCO, GS
                                                                     Caltex, Hyundai Heavy
Island of Jeju (Korea) Smart Grid Project    Li Ion                  Industries

Sanyo Solar (Bicycle) Parking Lots Project   Li Ion                  Sanyo

SOL-ION Initiative                           Li Ion                  Saft, Conergy, Tenesol

                                                                     Ice Energy, Southern
                                             Distributed Thermal     California Public Power
SCPPA Ice Energy Initiative                  Storage                 Authority (SCPPA)
                                                                     Ice Energy, SunPower,
                                                                     PG&E, CPUC, KEMA,
                                                                     Sandia National
                                               Distributed Thermal   Laboratories and a major
SunPower/Ice Energy Pilot                      Storage               national retailer

1 - bulk storage (transmission level)
2 - power application (transmission level)
3 - distributed storage (transmission level)
4 - distributed storage (distribution level)
5 - distributed storage (smart grid)
6 - emerging tech R&D
7 - other
8 - thermal storage
      Location                   Application(s)                    System Size / Rating

                   bulk load shifting, frequency regulation,
Watkins Glen, NY   spinning reserve                            145 MW

                   bulk load shifting, frequency regulation,
Kern County, CA    spinning reserve                            300 MW

                   bulk off-peak wind energy
Dallas, IA         storage/integration, energy arbitrage       268 MW x 12 hours

                   bulk off-peak wind energy
MA, NH             storage, energy arbitrage                   1 MW / 4 MWh

                   bulk load shifting, frequency regulation,
TBD                spinning reserve                            15 MW

                                                               Initial phase: 200 MW
                   bulk load shifting, frequency regulation,
Norton, OH         spinning reserve                            Potential: 2.7 GW
                  frequency regulation, renewables
Stephentown, NY   integration                                20 MW

Union, NY         frequency regulation, voltage regulation   20 MW

Fremont, CA       frequency regulation

                  Frequency Regulation, Renewables
Glenville, NY     integration                                20 MW
Chicago, IL           frequency regulation

                      frequency regulation, reactive power, wind
Tehachapi, CA         energy integration

Southern California   ancillary services                              2 MW / 500 kWh

                      enhance the reliability of the electricity
                      network and facilitate the efficient transfer
                      of clean energy between regions
                      ensure the reliable flow of power,
                      controlling and smoothing the variations
                      fro gigawatts of energy output and delivery
                      amongst the eastern, western (WECC)
TX?                   and Texas interconnections

                      wind power ramp rate
TX                    mitigation/integration                          20 MW

Portland, OR          renewables integration, grid support            MW scale, 2-4 hours
Canton, NY (on the
SUNY Canton           wind power ramp rate
campus)               mitigation/integration                       500 kW /2 MWh

                      wind power ramp rate mitigation, off-peak
Sorne Hill, Ireland   wind energy storage, energy arbitrage        2 MW /12 MWh

                      wind power ramp rate mitigation, peak
Maui, HI              shifting                                     1.5 MW

                      solar integration

British Columbia,
Canada                grid support

                      solar integration

Lancaster, CA         home energy management, solar
(Alamosa County)      integration

                      solar integration, shift output to match
                      circuit load profile,frequency regulation,
                      customer demand response, customer           500 kW / 250 kWh to integrate
MI                    VAR and power factor control                 a 500 kW PV array
NC                     solar integration                          500 kW
Knoxville, TN; other   grid investment deferral, renewables
locations              integration, ancillary services

                       solar integration, frequency regulation,
                       customer demand response, customer
Detroit, MI            VAR and power factor control               750 kW / 2 MWh


                       solar integration

                       solar integration                          5 kW / 9 kWh

                       renewables integration, ramping mitigation,
                       frequency regulation, potential daytime
CA                     baseload power delivery                     5-6 MW
                       line loading relief, grid reliability within
                       ERCOT (e.g., voltage regulation),              4 MW/32 MWh (4 MW x 7 or 8
Presidio, TX           emergency back-up power                        hours)


                       microgrid development: use of DER to
                       provide peak power, storage for grid
San Diego, CA          support and solar integration
                       microgrid development: use of DER to
Santa Rita, CA         provide peak power

                       microgrid development: use of DER to
Las Vegas, NV          provide peak power

                       microgrid development: use of DER to
Ft Collins, CO         provide peak power
                       microgrid development: use of DER to
Promontory, UT         provide peak power
                       microgrid development: use of DER to
Chicago, IL            provide peak power
                       microgrid development: use of DER to
Morgantown, WV         provide peak power
throughout Southern                                                   10 battery systems, each
service territory; one                                                battery: 6 kW/24 kWh; 4-5
unit in lab            peak load shifting                             hours of storage
                    frequency regulation, standby reserve
CA                  capacity                                  2 units each 1 MW x 15 min

                    frequency regulation, spinning reserve,
                    wind power ramping mitigation, grid
Tehachapi, CA       support                                   8 MW / 32 MWh

                                                              • 500 kW / 250 kWh Li-Ion
                                                              system with A123
                                                              • comprised of 20 units sized 25
                                                              kW / 50 kWh A123 battery
                                                              system where S&C will be
MA, MI, VA          grid support                              system integrator

Sacramento, CA;
Everett, MA;
Syracuse, NY        renewables integration                    7 units each 500-kW / 3 MWh

                    renewables integration, peak shaving, load
                    shifting, islanding, frequency regulation,
Salem, OR           backup,                                    5 units each 1 MW / 250 kWh
Throughout East     home energy management, load
coast and Midwest   management
Modesto, CA          renewables integration         250 kW / 1 MWh
                     home energy management, load
Kansas City, MO      management

Long Island, NY      load management

Throughout ID, OR,
MT, WA, WY           load management
Throughout NY and
NJ                   load management

                                                    25 kW batteries to be
                                                    aggregated in CES systems
throughout OH        multiple - TBD                 totaling 2 MW

Irvine, CA           multiple - TBD
Kansas City, MO      multiple - TBD

Boston, MA           multiple - TBD

Seattle, WA;
Kennewick, WA; Fox
Island, WA;
Ellensburg, WA;
Salem, OR; Airway
Heights, WA; Milton
Freewater, OR;
Pullman, WA; Helena
and Georgetown,
MT; Idaho Falls, ID;
Libby and Kalispell,
MT; Jackson Hole
and Afton, WY        multiple - TBD

Houston, TX          multiple - TBD

                     Development of a firm, dispatchable
                     renewable energy resource utilizing
                     simultaneous smoothing and peak shifting
Albuquerque, NM      capability

NY                   multiple - TBD

Southeast France     multiple - TBD

South Bend, IN       multiple - TBD

Pittsburgh, PA       grid support
Berkeley, CA      grid support                                  25 kWh

Houston, TX       wind integration

San Diego, CA     multiple - TBD                                12 MWh

Boston MA         renewables integration

                  power quality, possible energy applications
Cary, NC          in future

Santa Clara, CA   early R&D - TBD

Tyngsboro, MA     power quality, renewables integration         100 kW / 100 kWh
Huntington Beach,
CA                     power quality

University Park, PA;
Menlo Park, CA         early R&D - TBD

New York, NY           Grid support (Goal <$100/kWh)

MA                     early R&D - TBD

                       support solar and wind generation on the
Scottsdale, AZ         grid

                       inexpensive grid-scaled battery energy
San Diego, CA          storage

                       bulk energy storage, renewables
Newton, MA             integration

CA                     early R&D - TBD
                 provide proof of concept HBr Flow Battery,
Berkeley, CA     peak shaving

Berkeley, CA     early R&D - TBD

Rolla, MO        early R&D - TBD

Tucson, AZ       early R&D - TBD

MA               early R&D - TBD

Menlo Park, CA   early R&D - TBD

Stanford, CA     early R&D - TBD

Cambridge, MA    early R&D - TBD

MO               early R&D - TBD

                 a 5X decrease in costs of flow batteries
                 and 2X power density of current flow
Alameda, CA      batteries, peak shaving
                  This design is hoped to dramatically
                  reduce cost and enable the economical
Wallingford, CT   use this fuel cell on the grid

TBD               solar integration

TBD               solar integration

TBD               solar integration

TBD               solar integration

TBD               solar integration

                  early R&D - TBD

Orlando, FL       early R&D - TBD

AZ                early R&D - TBD
                    This design is hoped to provide energy
                    storage at 1/3 the cost of current flow
East Hartford, CT   battery systems

                    This design is hoped to provide proof of
                    concept for the iron-air battery, one step
Los Angeles, CA     toward commercialization of the battery

Portland, OR        early R&D - TBD

Island of Jeju,
Korean              multiple - TBD

Setagaya, Tokyo,    electric bike battery recharging, LED light
Japan               illumination

                    peak shifting, grid upgrade deferral,
                    renewables integration, reserve power         75 2 kW / 5-15 kWh units to be
Germany, France     (with islanding)                              sited by end 2011

                    load shifting/peak shaving, off-peak
CA                  wind energy storage, energy arbitrage         53 MW
     load shifting/peak shaving, energy
CA   arbitrage
System Efficiency   Communication Protocol(s)
        Funding Source / Cost
DOE SGD - Energy Storage Demo:
$125.0 M
DOE Award: $30 M
DOE SGD - Energy Storage Demo:
$355.9 M
DOE Award to PG&E: $25 M
EPRI funding, others

~$215 million (supplemented by funding
from DOE and 52 electric co-ops and
munis in IA, MN, ND, SD)

DOE SGD - Energy Storage Demo: $10.8
M (or $5.4 M?)

EPRI, others
Total project cost: $69M
$43M DOE loan guarantee
$2M funding provided by NYSERDA

Total project cost, including proposed
financing: $22.3 M; AES is seeking to
finance 80% of direct project construction
costs under a DOE loan guarantee with
the remaining costs met through equity
contributions from AES.
DOE SGD - Energy Storage Demo: $10.0

DOE currently evaluating loan guarantee
DOE SGD - Energy Storage Demo: $48.1
M ???
Smart Grid stimulus grant awarded by
DOE: $24M

CEC, others


Total Project Costs: $ 43.6 M
DOE Award: $ 21.8 M
NYSERDA Program Opportunity Notice
1670: $1.5 million

NYPA $1.5 million in co-funding

~$9.4 million

First Wind received $117 M in DOE loan
guarantees for the Kahuka project. (or

DOE High Penetration Solar Deployment
(Solar Energy Technologies Program,
SETP) (part of ARRA): $3.3 M



$2M from the State of Michigan.(Michigan
Public Service Commission)

$2M from the State of Michigan.(Michigan
Public Service Commission)

DOE High Penetration Solar Deployment
(Solar Energy Technologies Program,
SETP) (part of ARRA): $5 M

DOE High Penetration Solar Deployment
(Solar Energy Technologies Program,
SETP) (part of ARRA): $4.3 M
The NaS battery system represents part
of a ~$70 million overall commitment by
ETT to improve transmission reliability in
Presidio, TX and surrounding areas. All
costs will be recovered through the rate
• All in project cost (includes substation,
building, and battery): ~$25,000,000
• New 60-mi, 69-kV transmission line:

DOE RE and Distributed Systems
Integration Demo Projects
DOE RE and Distributed Systems
Integration Demo Projects

DOE RE and Distributed Systems
Integration Demo Projects

DOE RE and Distributed Systems
Integration Demo Projects
DOE RE and Distributed Systems
Integration Demo Projects
DOE RE and Distributed Systems
Integration Demo Projects
DOE RE and Distributed Systems
Integration Demo Projects
DOE SGIG-funded: $53.5 million (all-
inclusive matching grant)

DOE SGD - Energy Storage Demo: $10.8

DOE SGD - Energy Storage Demo: $16.0

DOE providing half of the $178 M in
funding through the ARRA, with the
balance coming from utilities and other
DOE SGD - Smart Grid Regional Demo:
$67.8 M
DOE SGD - Energy Storage Demo: $10.0

Funding beyond the DOE grant is coming
from EnerVault investors.
DOE SGD - Smart Grid Regional Demo:
$48.1 M

DOE SGD - Smart Grid Regional Demo:
$25.3 M

DOE SGD - Smart Grid Regional Demo:
$177.6 M
DOE SGD - Smart Grid Regional Demo:
$92.4 M

DOE SGIG - Category 6 Integrated and/or
Crosscutting Systems: $150.3 M

DOE SGIG - Category 6 Integrated and/or
Crosscutting Systems: $$40.1 M
DOE SGIG - Category 6 Integrated and/or
Crosscutting Systems: $48.1 M

DOE SGIG - Category 6 Integrated and/or
Crosscutting Systems: $10.5 M

DOE SGIG - Category 6 Integrated and/or
Crosscutting Systems: $177.6 M

DOE SGIG - Category 6 Integrated and/or
Crosscutting Systems: $27.4 M

EPRI Smart Grid Host-Site demo (funded
by 19 EPRI members)

EPRI Smart Grid Host-Site demo (funded
by 19 EPRI members)

EPRI Smart Grid Host-Site demo (funded
by 19 EPRI members)
EPRI Smart Grid Host-Site demo (funded
by 19 EPRI members)
DOE SGD - Energy Storage Demo: $10.0
DOE SGD - Energy Storage Demo: $12.4
M (includes cost share)

DOE SGD - Smart Grid Regional Demo:
$27.4 M

In July 2009, UCSD was awarded $11
million in incentives, from the CPUC, to
install the fuel cell and energy storage
DOE SGD - Smart Grid Regional Demo:
$10.5 M (includes cost share)

ARPA-E Award of $4,200,000

ARPA- E: $4.37 M

ARPA-E Award of $2,250,000
ARPA-E Award of $2,264,136

ARPA- E: $1 M

ARPA-E Award of $3,000,000

ARPA-E: $6.9 M

ARPA-E Award of $3,000,000

ARPA-E Award of $1,986,308

ARPA-E Award of 750,000

ARPA-E Award of $1,592,730

ARPA- E: $5 M

ARPA- E: $1 M

ARPA- E: $5 M


ARPA- E: $3.2 M

ARPA- E: $1 M

ARPA-E: $4.97 M


ARPA-E Award of $2,000,000
ARPA-E Award of $2,148,719

The Solar Energy Grid Integration
Systems (SEGIS): $250k

The Solar Energy Grid Integration
Systems (SEGIS): $250k

The Solar Energy Grid Integration
Systems (SEGIS): $250k

The Solar Energy Grid Integration
Systems (SEGIS): $250k

The Solar Energy Grid Integration
Systems (SEGIS): $250k


ARPA- E: $4.025 M

ARPA-E Award of $3,000,000

ARPA-E Award of $1,459,324

ARPA- E: $5 M

Korean government to invest 37 billion
won (~$32 M) initially into building out the
smart grid test-bed.


53 MW
                                    Project Scope and Status

145-MW A-CAES Demo Plant; underground storage container: Solution Mined Salt Cavern

300 MW A-CAES demo plant will use an underground storage container (depleted gas/porous
rock reservoir), and next-generation turbomachinery. Still in RFP stage; vendors, utility
sponsors, and site locations not yet determined; Groundbreaking slated for 2011
ISEP is likely to become the world’s third CAES facility and the nation’s first to use an aquifer.
The project will use surplus electricity generated by a nearby wind farm to power a large air
compressor, which will compress air into a 3,000-ft deep well (the site will hold air at around
500 psi). Stakeholders hope that the ISEP facility will primarily convert variable wind resources
in the Iowa plains into a dispatchable resource. In addition to offering RE firming and energy
arbitrage opportunities, project participants also hope the plant will improve efficiencies of fossil-
fueled generation by allowing baseload units to operate for more hours near their cleanest and
most efficiently operating loads.

Construction delayed (originally scheduled for min-2009, with 2012 debut).
SustainX has committed to three project phases. Phase I is construction of a Pilot system
capable of 50 kilowatts (kW) of electric output, Phase II is construction of a 250 kW Demo
system, and Phase III is construction of a one-megawatt, four megawatt-hour (1 MW, 4 MWh)
energy-storage system to be demonstrated at an AES Energy Storage, LLC affiliated site. The
latter will be capable of storing enough energy to power 1,000 typical U.S. homes for
approximately 4 hours.

15-MW plant will use steel piping to hold pressurized air instead of geologic containers. Still in
RFP stage; vendors, utility sponsors, and site locations not yet determined; Groundbreaking
slated for 2011

The Norton Energy plant is being planned at a 340 million cubic foot abandoned limestone mine
in Norton, OH. The first round of the multistage project will produce a 200-MW unit that will
serve the bulk load shifting storage needs of two Midwestern utilities: American Electric Power
and First Energy. The mine is also located near the intersection of a 138kV First Energy
transmission line and a 765kV AEP transmission line. Additionally, the plant is intended to
provide ancillary services, including frequency regulation and spinning reserve, to the MISO
ancillary services market. Ground breaking is scheduled to occur before end-2010.
The nation's first grid-scale 20-MW flywheel frequency regulation plant is being constructed in
Stephentown, NY, when fully operational in 2011 it will operate in the NYISO market.

As of July 2010 Beacon has delivered and put in place the initial flywheel power electronics and
associated support equipment. The systems, consisting of power electronics, cooling and other
support equipment housed in specially equipped containers, were lowered onto permanent
foundations. After the containerized systems are wired in place, they will be interconnected with
Beacon flywheels. Support equipment for a total of 4 MW of energy storage capacity was also
delivered to the site. 80 flywheel foundations have been installed at the site, and Beacon
expects to deliver and begin installing 40 flywheels (4 MW) during 3Q10. The 4 MW are
planned to be connected and earning revenue from frequency regulation services by the end of
2010. The balance of the 20 MW plant is expected to be completed and operational by the end
of the first quarter of 2011.
New York regulators in April 2010 approved construction of a 20-MW energy storage system at
an operating coal-fired power station. The $22.3 million project, owned by AES ES Westover
LLC—an AES Corp. subsidiary—will participate in New York’s growing day-ahead market for
ancillary services and regulation. AES will build the project in two phases at Westover
Generation Plant, 175 miles northwest of New York City, starting in the second quarter of 2010.
That plant includes the 84-MW Unit 8, which entered service in 1951, and a non-operating 44-
MW Unit 7, completed in 1943. AES will connect the battery project to the power grid using Unit
7’s facilities.

Based on the pilot and demonstration projects, the project will comprise 10 containers, each 53
feet tall and capable of housing inverters and 2-MW DC battery subsystems. The units will then
be connected through standard electrical industry transformers, switchgear, and protective
relays to the high-voltage system. According to developers and the New York Public Service
Commission (PSC), the project will be able to provide or absorb some 5 MWh to and from the

The site will reportedly require minor modifications to install foundations to support the energy
storage units, but no new interconnection facilities will be required to interconnect the project to
the New York State Electric & Gas Corp.’s transmission system. The PSC said in a statement
that an interconnection request has already been filed for the project with the New York
Independent System Operator (NYISO) as part of NYISO’s Small Generator Interconnection
Smart Energy 25 (Gen 4) flywheel energy storage system installed at Tehachapi in march 2010.
The system is part of a wind power/flywheel demonstration project being carried out for the
California Energy Commission. The primary goal of the project is to demonstrate that advanced
control technology with energy storage can help expand the delivery of wind energy by
effectively increasing the capacity of constrained transmission facilities in the area.

2 MW / 500 kWh Li-ion battery installed at Sano Regulation Center

Pilot Test for Regulation Services, scheduled to start in February 2010 with a series of 8-hour
tests performed over a 2 week period
• Test of market system to accept a battery storage resource for regulation
• Test of EMS / AGC signal
• Verification unit ramp rate
• Test of settlements system and financial consequences

~20 MW of batteries (tech TBD) to be deployed at Duke Energy’s 151-MW Notrees Windpower

BYD intends to build a megawatt-class (~2-MW)/ 2-4 hour demonstration energy storage
system in a 40-foot mobile container. PacificCorp is still in discussions with BYD, however, and
no real project committment has been made as of yet. PacificCorp is having a hard time making
the economics work, given the Pacific Northwest market economy, etc.
Ultralife's advanced 2 MWh Li-ion battery will be integrated with a single wind turbine being
planned for installation and operation in 2011. (500 kW x 4 hrs)

This demo will result in data to confirm the technical performance and economic benefits of
Ultralife’s energy storage system, specifically targeting renewable integration, peak shifting,
peak shaving, and frequency regulation. With excess power generated by the wind turbine to be
controlled in a ―dispatchable‖ manner, SUNY Canton will be able to reduce campus peak
demands and target specific utility rate structures to lower electricity costs. SUNY Canton is
supporting the siting of both the wind turbine and energy storage projects, and will also benefit
from the projects for educational purposes.

Project status: uncertain; originally to be commissioned by spring 2008,
Planned installation: One 2 MW x 6-hour VRB-ESS system coupled w/one wind turbine; 3 MW
of pulse power every 10-minute periods to handle short-term volatility

Xtreme Power to deploy 1.5 MW (or 10 MW?) system adjacent to First Wind’s 30-MW
Kaheawa Wind Project (comprised of GE turbines) and proposed Kahuka Wind Project. First
Wind intends to incorporate a 15 MVA, 10 MWh Xtreme Power system in its DOE-financed
Kahuku Wind project.

This project will develop, construct, manage, and study a high penetration of 1.5 megawatt
(MW) of distributed photovoltaic generation on a typical residential feeder in Flagstaff, Arizona,
including a mix of residential and commercial systems, as well as a 0.5 MW utility system. The
model and evaluation will be according to utility standard practice.
Plans to install 2 x 1 MW NaS Batteries on a substation

Gain first-hand experience in the use of storage and DR techs within the power grid to optimally
manage energy use/flow and improve system reliability. This project is a critical step in
accelerating the adoption and integration of energy storage at BC Hydro.
Modification of a building lobby to include Armstrong 24Vdc bus system in ceiling for lighting;
380Vdc bus power for other lighting, HVAC and vehicle charging; grid tie via inverters; 10-50kW
solar, modest battery (10kW to 50kW); some vehicle charge stations. Ford is thinking of
secondary vehicle batteries for this system.
Project encompasses demonstrating a new environmentally-friendly prototype home utilizing
BYD’s solar and battery system. BYD will provide all solar panels, batteries, LED lights,
inverters, EV charging pedestal and other necessary energy-related materials; KB Home will
provide the home site, as well as oversee the construction of the home and the installation of
the BYD system. Lancaster has committed to waive all local municipal development fees for the
As part of DTE's 5-year effort to install and own 15 MW of solar (initiated to meet the State of
Michigan's 10% by 2015 RPS), the utility is working with select battery manufacturers to install a
batteries on some sites with PV. A123 is, for example, affixing a battery unit to a 500-kW PV
array on top of the company's manufacutirng facility. The deployment has been contracted and
is moving forward. Stakeholders have decided to keep the integration on the AC side by
implementing separate inverters for the battery system and the PV system. Integration
happening at 480VAC. DTE may containerize the A123 battery and move it to another site.
The McAlpine Creek project, partially involves the deployment of a 50-kW PV array at a
substation that feeds the grid or can charge up a 500-kW ZnBr system.

TBD - EPRI Li-ion Scoping initiative

Project comprises 500kW solar PV system, 2MWh (750kW) fully integrated Xtreme Power
battery/control storage system (can do KVAR or KWh power flow control), and has a vehicle
element with 10 charging stations associated. The Xtreme system optimizes the solar array
loading with the batteries and uses what appear to be DC-DC connections within the system.
This project is being conducted with DTE and has a $2M funding element from the State of

This 1-year project will evaluate consumer reactions when a utility provides advanced metering
and price signals for electric power without PV, with PV, and with both PV and energy storage.
The impact will be a utility-based understanding of market response for photovoltaics.

This 1-year project will evaluate the value of advanced metering infrastructure, PV, and storage
for homes with advanced metering infrastructure and PV along with the variables of no storage,
home-based storage, or community-based storage. Actual utility-collected data will be available
to assess the performance and market impacts of these options.

5-6MW to be potentially installed in 2010
Project status: uncertain
Presidio, Texas, a border town located in the southwestern portion of the state, suffers chronic
power outages and voltage fluctuations as a result of its dependence on a single aging,
transmission line. Built in 1948, the transmission line stretches 60 miles from Marfa in the high
desert to the banks of the Rio Grande along the Mexican border. Electrical storms frequently
erupt in the rugged expanse between Marfa and Presidio, disrupting power service.

To remedy the situation, Electric Transmission Texas (ETT), a joint venture between
subsidiaries of American Electric Power (AEP) and MidAmerican Energy Holdings, has invested
in a 4 MW/32 MWh NaS BESS. (AEP has itself already installed four smaller NaS systems
totaling approximately 7.2 MW.) With the purchase, ETT, which acquires, constructs, owns and
operates transmission facilities within ERCOT, became the owner of the largest NaS
deployment in the United States to date.

Part of a larger modernization project that includes plans for a new 60-mi, 69-kv transmission
line from Marfa to Presidio, the NaS BESS is intended to provide real and reactive power to
maintain reliable service to Presidio, and to supply uninterrupted emergency backup power in
the event of an outage on the radial transmission line providing power to Presidio. During such
outages, the BESS will provide interim support while Presidio switches over to temporarily
receive power from Mexican electric utility, Comisiόn Federal de Electricidad. (The switchover
process can take several hours).

RDSI Project awards will receive a total of $55M of DOE funds over 5 years, >$100M
w/participant cost share

Still in negotiations to determine battery storage system – down to 2 vendors
RDSI Project awards will receive a total of $55M of DOE funds over 5 years, >$100M
w/participant cost share

RDSI Project awards will receive a total of $55M of DOE funds over 5 years, >$100M
w/participant cost share

RDSI Project awards will receive a total of $55M of DOE funds over 5 years, >$100M
w/participant cost share
RDSI Project awards will receive a total of $55M of DOE funds over 5 years, >$100M
w/participant cost share
RDSI Project awards will receive a total of $55M of DOE funds over 5 years, >$100M
w/participant cost share
RDSI Project awards will receive a total of $55M of DOE funds over 5 years, >$100M
w/participant cost share

10 Li-ion batteries to be installed throughout Southern service territory and integrate into
communication infrastructure; one unit in lab for testing/monitoring.
Southern California Edison has ordered two 1-MW Smart Grid Stabilization Systems (SGSS) for
pilot testing.

A123 says its first SGSS — a 2MW system housed in a 53-foot-long trailer — has been
installed at an AES facility in California, and another 16MW-worth of units have been installed at
AES Gener’s substation in Chile’s Atacama Desert, and California utility Southern California
Edison has ordered two units for pilot testing.

SCE has not yet connected its two 1-MW Smart Grid Stabilization Systems (SGSS) from A123
and so has not begun to pilot test them. These Li -ion (advanced nanophosphate) units are the
same productions units as those used by AES at its natural gas plant in Huntington Beach, CA
(2 MW / 0.5 MWh). The utility hopes to connect the units at its test facility for large transportable
devices by the end of 2010.

SCE plans to design and build an 8 MW / 32 MWh lithium ion battery system and inverter, and
connect it to a substation near the 66 kv Tehachapi Wind Resource Area. The battery will be
housed not on a trailer, as is conventional, but in a building. The demonstrations are slated to
be implemented in two years with a two-year evaluation period and a one-year wind-up
following. The project will test 13 of the 24 possible uses for energy storage urged by EPRI.

A123's batteries include nano-scale materials developed by -- and exclusively licensed from --
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Quanta Technology will provide measurement and
verification. California State Polytechnic University at Pomona will assist in those tasks.

Project status: the project was awarded in 2009, but A123 is still waiting on an upstream
contract from DOE/SCE.
CES deployment scheduled to commence at end-2010/beginning-2011

A123 will provide 20 CES units to demonstrate individual battery capabilities and aggregated
dispatch. This project has been awarded, but is not yet contracted. A123 is building its units to
meet specs devised by AEP (25 kW/50 kWh per unit); unit characteristics will be compliant with
AEP specs. A123 is having a hard time meeting the physical dimensioning embedded in the
spec and may deviate somewhat. The biggest challenge is space constraints.

3-year project that incorporates the fleet control engineering, manufacturing and installation of 7
500-kW/6-hour energy storage systems. Installations scheduled for 3Q10

The project will validate Premium Power’s Zinc-Flow technology, particularly in PV and micro-
grid applications, by demonstrating multiple use cases. Goal: extend peak load management,
demonstrate multiple approaches to storage integration with intermittent RE, develop / verify
control algorithms to manage fleet operation of energy storage systems that are not co-located,
and improve the performance of a micro-grid by deploying advanced energy storage with
sophisticated control systems.

EnerDel to supply Li-ions for five 1-MW power systems to be used by Portland General Electric
(PGE); Equipment will be installed at 15 sites over the next two years, after which developers
will spend 2-3 years testing system performance under wide variety of geographic and
meteorological conditions. It is one of 16 projects announced by DOE.
The project will use technology from start-up EnerVault of Sunnyvale, Calif, that has been
benchtop-tested but not manufactured. The plan is to build two batteries: a 40 kw capacity alpha-
test model and then the 250 kw version to be installed at Montpelier Nut of Modesto, CA. The
privately owned nut firm has a 180 kW PV array used to power a large irrigation pump. The
farm will be able to choose whether to run the pump off the array, off the grid or from the
battery, whichever is cheapest. Project stakeholders plan to time-shift the PV energy. The farm
is served by PG&E.

EnerVault's patent-pending technology was developed years ago at NASA but then languished
until the need for energy storage grew larger. The 250-kW test battery will consist of four 20-
foot units, stacked two by two. Each twosome will consist of an electrolyte tank on the bottom
that pumps electrolytes through an array of cells directly above it.

Ktech will do the engineering and integration, developing controls and monitoring apparatus and
integrating inverters, transducers and sensors. That will be done in Albuquerque before the unit
is moved to California. There, Ktech will collect data to measure the project's success. Startup
in ABQ occurred in January 2010, and development is expected to last one year. Relocation to

5-year effort

Project objectives. The Pacific Northwest Smart Grid Demonstration Project will:
+ validate new smart grid technologies and business models
+ provide two-way communication between distributed
generation, storage, and demand assets and the existing grid infrastructure
+ quantify smart grid costs and benefits
+ advance standards for ―interoperability‖ (the smooth,
seamless integration of all elements of the electric system) and cyber security approaches.

Will include 13 different technologies from the substation to the customer, including distribution
automation and control, smart meters and appliances, home area networks, plug-in hybrid
electric vehicles, energy and battery storage, and renewable generation sources. These
technologies are estimated to improve the reliability and efficiency of the distribution system 30-

Planning to deploy distributed energy storage (CES) systems totaling 2 MW in Columbus, OH
by mid-2011. 25 kW – 25 kVA Li-Ion battery supplied by International Battery using S&C as the
system integrator.

Demonstrate an integrated, scalable Smart Grid system that includes all of the interlocking
pieces of an end-to-end Smart Grid system - from the transmission and distribution systems to
consumer applications like smart appliances and electric vehicles. The project will focus on the
interoperability and interactions between technologies and systems working at the same time -
such as communications networks, cyber-security requirements, and interoperability standards.
Will demo end-to-end Smart Grid that will include advanced renewable generation, storage
resources, distribution system automation, in-home customer systems and digital technologies,
and innovative rate structures.

Will demo use of advanced sensors and monitoring instrumentation on low voltage (secondary)
networks to improve grid reliability and safety. Will provide visibility for operators, which will
increase the system's capacity to integrate on-site energy technologies, such as solar
photovoltaic energy systems, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles or battery storage.

Will demo / validate new smart grid technologies and inform business cases; provide two-way
communication between distributed generation, storage, and demand assets and the existing
grid infrastructure; quantify smart grid costs and benefits; and advance interoperability
standards and cyber security approaches.
Will manage the fluctuations in wind power in ERCOT transmission grid through better system
monitoring capabilities, enhanced operator visualization, and improved load management.
Project includes the use of integrated Smart Grid technologies, including household and
community battery storage, smart meters and appliances, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and
homes equipped with 1-3 kW solar photovoltaics.
Startup Seeo will develop and deploy a 25 kWh prototype battery system based on Seeo’s
proprietary nanostructured polymer electrolytes. This new class of advanced lithium-ion
rechargeable battery is intended to demonstrate the substantial improvements offered by solid
state lithium-ion technologies for energy density, battery life, safety, and cost. These batteries
would be targeted for utility-scale operations, particularly Community Energy Storage and grid-
connected electric-vehicle projects. Seeo has an exclusive license to advanced technology from
the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and was established with initial funding from Silicon
Valley VC firm Khosla Ventures.

UCSD’s microgrid operates on 26 MW of cogeneration, 1 MW of solar PV, and 60 gen-sets
totaling 32 MW, all in parallel with SDG&E's distribution network. Its 3.8-million-gallon chilled
water storage system for cooling shifts about 14% of its load off-peak. The university will add a
2.8-MW fuel cell (from FCE) paired with a 2.8-MW advanced energy storage system.

A solicitation for proposals to supply the energy storage system was released in September
2009, with responses due in 60 days. The system should have at least 12 MWh of energy
discharge capacity. Sanyo reportedly selected

ABB will lead a team developing an advanced superconducting magnetic energy storage
(SMES) device. SMES is a novel technology that stores electricity from the grid in the magnetic
field of a coiled wire with near-zero loss of energy. The proposed device will have
instantaneous response and nearly infinite cycle life. If the high-risk breakthrough technologies
in this project are successfully developed, the result will advance SMES from a high-cost
solution for delivering short bursts of energy to a technology that is cost competitive for
delivering megawatt hours of stored electricity.
Low-cost, ultra-high energy lithium-ion batteries will be developed using an innovative
manufacturing process. High energy cathodes will be integrated with new anodes and prototype
manufacturing will be demonstrated that could achieve an extremely low cost. If successful, this
project will establish U.S. leadership in the manufacturing of high energy, low cost advanced
lithium-ion batteries.

Beacon Power will lead a team in developing a next generation flywheel energy-storage
technology. In a flywheel system, electricity is stored as kinetic energy in a spinning wheel. The
proposed flywheel could store four times more energy than current flywheels at 1/8th the cost.
It employs a radically new ―flying ring‖ design that is capable of accepting and delivering energy
over 40000 times during its 20-year lifetime. The proposed technology is ideal for
simultaneously addressing both the renewable ramping challenge and other grid-storage
In this project, Boeing will develop a high-risk material technology for low-cost, high energy-
density flywheel energy-storage. In a flywheel, electricity is stored as kinetic energy in a
spinning wheel. While flywheels are currently used for short-duration energy storage, this
project will make possible a dramatic increase in the energy density of flywheels for longer-
duration applications including renewable energy ramping. To increase energy density, Boeing
will develop a new fiber material that allows the flywheel to spin at higher speeds without
breaking. The resulting high energy density material will enable subsequent scaling to utility-
size and amenable to factory production at low cost.
The project will develop a novel energy storage device – a high energy density capacitor –
based on a 3D nanocomposite structure. The approach combines the benefits of high cycling
ability, high power density, and low cost.
In this project, the CUNY Energy Institute, in partnership with Rechargeable Battery Corporation
(RBC) and the Ultralife Corporation, will develop a novel battery that radically transforms the
chemistry and low-cost materials found in disposable consumer-grade alkaline batteries into a
long-lasting, fully-rechargeable energy storage system. While CUNY has already demonstrated
some of the basic scientific principles, work in this high-risk project will achieve a rechargeable
battery system that lasts for over ten years, costs under $100/kWh, demonstrating potential for
use on the electric grid.

Fluidic Energy will develop an advanced multi-functional energy storage (AMES) battery
prototype. This is a high-risk technology which, if successful, will enable a highly scalable
energy storage system well suited for supporting intermittent renewable resources (solar, wind)
on the electric grid. The novel battery chemistry will overcome traditional electricity storage
challenges of limited re-chargeability, low power density and poor efficiency. This low-cost
battery technology will be based exclusively on domestically-available, earth abundant active
materials. A partnership with Satcon and Chevron Energy Solutions will ensure this project
translates rapidly to products supporting renewable generation on the grid.

General Atomics and the University of California San Diego will develop a novel flow battery
technology, which pumps chemicals through the battery cell when electricity is needed. The
proposed flow battery revolutionizes a century-old lead-acid battery technology to achieve low
cost, high efficiency and reliability needed for use on the electric power grid. This high-risk
technology development program will use novel materials that greatly increase power while
resisting the corrosion that limits the cycle life of conventional lead acid batteries. These
innovations will result in a battery that can be scaled for grid-scale energy storage, but which
costs less and performs far longer than today’s’ technologies.

General Compression will lead a team investigating a novel compressed air energy storage
process (GCAES™) that is highly efficient and requires no fossil fuel. In this project, a team of
industry and academic researchers will show the potential for a near-isothermal CAES unit,
which could result in an energy storage technology with high round-trip electrical efficiency and
fast response times. Unlike conventional CAES installations, no fuel will be burned in the
expansion stage of the process, dramatically reducing emissions and operating costs. Once
successfully developed, the GCAES™ can accelerate the integration of renewable electricity
generation, particularly wind, into the grid.
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, DuPont, Bosch, 3M, and Proton Energy will develop a
novel flow-battery system for grid applications. Flow batteries pump reactive chemicals through
the battery cell when electricity is needed; this project’s battery will use hydrogen and bromine
as its active materials. While this type of flow battery has existed for decades, it has been
plagued by high costs, short lifetimes, and safety concerns. The storage technology would be
developed to allow solar-generated electricity to be tapped after dark or on days when the wind
does not blow. It is aimed at improving the operation of the electric grid through the temporary
storage of electrical energy with a new battery system. The project hopes to contribute to
innovation sin technology that allow for better energy efficiency while reducing greenhouse gas
Rechargeable Li-Air batteries for electric vehicle applications will be developed using protected
Lithium metal cathodes. This approach has a clear path to scaling commercially, and the
batteries may rival the energy density of gasoline.

A new high energy air cathode will be created to enable the successful development of ultra-
high energy Lithium-Air batteries. The project will seek to dramatically improve cathode
performance through the development of a new electrode structure and improved catalysts.

The project seeks to develop an ultra-high energy Li-S battery that can power electric vehicles
for more than 300 miles between charges. The approach uses new manufacturing processes
and six physical barrier layers to address cycle life and safety.

The project will develop an inexpensive, rechargeable magnesium-ion battery for electric and
hybrid-electric vehicle applications. Computational methods and accelerated chemical synthesis
will be used to develop new materials and chemistries. If successful, this project will develop the
first commercial magnesium-ion battery and establish U.S. technology leadership in a new field.

Researchers will seek to develop an "All-Electron Battery", a completely new class of electrical
energy storage devices for electric vehicles. The new battery stores energy by moving electrons
rather than ions and uses a novel architecture that has potential for very high energy density.

This is a new battery concept that combines the best aspects of rechargeable batteries and fuel
cells. It could enable batteries for electric vehicles that are much lighter and smaller - and
cheaper - than today's batteries. This flow battery potentially could cost less than one-eighth of
today's batteries, which could lead to widespread adoption of affordable electric vehicles.

Primus Power will develop new durable, inexpensive metal electrodes for flow batteries for
energy storage on the electric grid. Electrodes are a key component of flow batteries, which
pump reactive chemicals through the battery cell when electricity is needed. Flow batteries are
potentially ideal for electric grid storage applications, but are often limited by the high cost and
poor durability of the electrodes. In this project, Primus Power will leverage processes
developed for other chemical industries to develop novel, low-cost metallic flow battery
electrodes. If successful, the result will be a 5X decrease in costs while simultaneously
doubling the power density of the energy storage system.
Proton Energy and Penn State University will develop an advanced energy storage device that
incorporates a regenerative fuel cell. Like batteries, fuel cells use chemical reactions to
produce electricity. Many fuel cells require expensive precious metals such as platinum to
operate. In this novel design, a unique component will be developed that allows the fuel cell to
operate without significant use of precious metals. This innovation will dramatically reduce cost,
and enable the economical use of this fuel cell system for electricity storage on the grid.

Princeton Power to develop complete design for a 100-kW ―Demand Response Inverter." The
design will be optimized for low-cost, high-quality manufacture, and will integrate control
capabilities including dynamic energy storage and demand response through load control.

The FSEC/UCF to develop a ―shared‖ inverter serving multiple residential or commercial PV
arrays located at a distribution transformer. Work includes battery storage, utility control,
communication, monitoring, or building energy management systems (BEMS). An ―anti-
islanding‖ strategy that allows PV to remain on line during grid disturbances will improve grid
stability. New inverter architectures will bring more stability.
EMTEC to develop, 3-phase, highly efficient, small footprint, innovative power conversion,
energy storage and energy management components for commercial-and utility-scale PV
systems. The new products will include an integrated grid controller that works in conjunction
with customer smart meters to respond to time of day pricing signals. The total system provides
improved economics for distribution and will minimize fluctuations in supply and demand of
GE to advance residential PV generation coordination with energy storage, responsive loads,
and demand side management programs. New and enhanced three-phase inverter and
distribution system control concepts to be developed to meet anticipated new requirements for
grid connectivity.
Apollo Solar will develop advanced modular components for power conversion, energy storage,
energy management and a portal for communications for residential solar electric systems. The
inverters, charge controllers, and energy management systems will have provisions to
communicate with utility energy portals for implementation of the seamless two-way power flows
of the future.

This project seeks to develop an ultra high energy, long cycle life all solid-state lithium battery
that can manufactured using low cost techniques. Pilot-scale manufacturing of the batteries will
be demonstrated using all inorganic materials and solid state electrolytes whose properties are
similar to existing liquid electrolytes.
United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), in partnership with the University of Texas and
Sandia National Laboratory, will develop a novel flow battery, a type of battery system that
pumps reactive chemicals through the battery cell when electricity is needed. The proposed
flow battery uses a unique design to deliver 10X more power than conventional flow batteries.
The breakthrough will enable a dramatic reduction in the size and cost of the flow battery. The
advanced prototype flow battery developed in this program will provide energy storage at 1/3 the
cost of current flow battery systems, and will lay the technical foundation for commercially-
available grid-scale energy storage solution.

Researchers at the University of Southern California and NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory will
team to develop a high-performance rechargeable battery for large-scale energy storage on the
electricity grid. Iron air batteries have the potential to store large amounts of energy
inexpensively since they rely on extremely low-cost materials: iron, which costs less than
$.20/pound, and oxygen which is free in ambient air. Existing iron-air batteries have suffered
from low energy efficiency and poor cycle life. So, in this high-risk technology development
project, new materials and structures will be tested with the goal of increasing battery efficiency
and cycle-life. This project will develop an iron-air proof of concept battery, the first step in the
commercialization of this promising, low-cost battery chemistry.
A large, high-energy zinc-air flow battery will be developed to enable long range plug-in hybrid
and all-electric vehicles. Zinc, suspended as a slurry, is stored in a tank and transported
through tubes to charge and discharge the battery.

8 consortiums to build a smart grid test bed in South Korea, which is vying for ―30% share of the
global smart grid industry.‖ Smart Grid cost include: SK Telecom and KT, consumer electronics
and cell phone heavyweight LG, power companies KEPCO and GS Caltex, and Hyundai Heavy
Sanyo installed two ―Solar Parking Lots,‖ incorporating solar panels and lithium-ion battery
systems for 100 electric hybrid "eneloop" bicycles. Parking lots operated by the city of Setagaya
at Keio Line Sakurajosui Station and Tokyu Den-en Toshi Line Sakurashinmachi Station.
―eneloop bike‖ is SANYO’s energy recycling electric hybrid bicycle featuring a regenerative
charging function that enables electricity generation and battery charging during riding. The 100
―eneloop bike‖ units provided at the three locations, including Odakyu Line Kyodo Station, in
addition to Sakurajosui Station and Sakurashinmachi Station will be used as ―community
bicycles‖ by a wide range of people residing in and outside Setagaya. Storage component: 6
―Standard Battery System for Power Storage‖ units in each location (312 batteries [18650-

75 2 kW / 5-15 kWh units to be sited in Germany and France by end 2011, thousands rolled out
throughout Europe starting in 2012

53 MW of distributed thermal storage Intended to permanently reduce CA's peak demand by
annually shifting up to 64 GWh of peak to off-peak. Installation to begin during first half of 2010,
over two years.
Ice Energy is collaborating with SunPower on a pilot project funded by the California Public
Utilities Commission that will combine its Ice Bear energy storage technology with SunPower's
PV solar systems. The project, part of the California Solar Initiative's Research, Development,
Deployment and Demonstration Program, seeks to demonstrate the economic and operational
benefits of integrating advanced energy storage systems with existing PV systems for peak
demand reduction directly on commercial buildings. Ice Energy is one of three energy storage
companies selected to participate in the program, which will be implemented by SunPower in
conjunction with PG&E, KEMA, Sandia National Laboratories and a major national retailer. The
project is supposed to demonstrate that the combination of solar and ice storage will
significantly reduce a building's peak demand charge.

This is the first collaboration between Ice and SunPower.

The timeline for the project is that contracts will be finalized during the fall of 2010, with design,
planning and permitting completed in the first quarter of 2011 The demonstration phase is
planned for Summer 2011.

The goal of the CPUC California Solar Initiative (CSI) is to create 1,940 megawatts of new,
Results & Findings
To be determined as project experience accrues and operational data becomes available.
Lessons Learned
To be determined as project experience accrues and operational data becomes available.
                                      Last Demo Update
    Project Contact    Useful Links         in DB



Kent Holst
Development Director
(319) 239-8968,                      6/30/2010

Dax Kapshire, Co-
(603) 276-3393,                         9/3/2010
Rober Schainker, Sr
Technical Executive
650-855-2104,                         5/1/2010

Chet Lyons
Director of Marketing and
Beacon Power
(978) 661-2831
m                           7/7/2010

Praveen H. Kathpal,
Energy Storage, Market
& Regulatory Affairs
AES Corporation
(703) 682-
6690praveen.kathpal@a                      6/15/2010

Chet Lyons
Director of Marketing and
Beacon Power
(978) 661-2831
m                           4/22/2010
Chet Lyons
Director of Marketing and
Beacon Power
(978) 661-2831
m                                                           4/1/510
Chet Lyons
Director of Marketing and
Beacon Power
(978) 661-2831
m                                                           4/1/510
Charlie Vartanian
Director of Grid
A123 Systems
(626) 818-5230

Praveen H. Kathpal,
Energy Storage, Market
& Regulatory Affairs
AES Corporation
(703) 682-   
6690praveen.kathpal@a Files/20100326175021-ER10-660-                 000.pdf                              4/1/510
Darrell Hayslip, Chief

Development Officer

Xtreme Power

dhayslip@xtremepowers                                                4/1/510
Anuja Ratnayake
Duke Energy
anuja.ratnayake@duke-                                                  4/1/510


Darrell Hayslip, Chief
Development Officer
Xtreme Power           http://education-government-
dhayslip@xtremepowers           for-hawaiian-wind-farms             4/1/2010

Phil Smithers, Technical
Services Leader
Renewable Energy
(602) 250-4250,                                      4/1/2010
Julien Lafaille
BC Hydro
(604) 623-4587,
om                                                         4/1/2010


Patrick Duan, BYD
America Corp’s regional
manager for North
America                                                    4/1/2010

Hawk Asgiersson
Manager Power Systems
Technologies, DTE
(313) 235-9371,
com                                                        9/13/2010
Anuja Ratnayake
Duke Energy
anuja.ratnayake@duke-                                                   4/1/2010

Hawk Asgiersson
Manager Power Systems
Technologies, DTE
(313) 235-9371,
com                                                          09/13/10

Maryl Freestone, Sr
Engineer, ComEd
(630) 437-2471,
com                                                          4/1/2010

Mark Rawson, Project
Advanced, Renewable &
Distributed Generation
(916) 732-6364           /UploadedFiles/PressOffice/2010/         CP_24-10_en.pdf                     4/1/2010
Hal LaFlash, director of
integrated resource
planning and policy,
(415) 973-7928,                                                 5/15/2010
Brett Madison,
Manager, AEP
Transmission                                              6/30/2010


Michael Brown, Director
of Customer Strategy
and Programs, NV
(702) 402-5421,                                            4/1/2010
Dennis Sumner, Fort
Collins Utilities
(970) 221-6718,                                              4/1/2010




Joe Schatz, Drew
McGuire, Southern Co.                                          7/13/2010
Naum Pinsky, Manager
Technologies, Advanced
Technology SCE
(714) 895-0645,        8/31/2010

Naum Pinsky, Manager
Technologies, Advanced
Technology SCE
(714) 895-0645,        9/13/2010

Hawk Asgiersson, DTE       9/13/2010


Mark Osborn, Distributed
Resources Manager


Mark Dougherty,
Assistant Director in
Department of
Environmental Affairs
LIPA                    4/1/2010




                           18.html                               4/1/2010



Steve Willard
(505) 241-2566,
steve.willard@pnmresou                                                         4/1/2010
Margarett Jolley
(212) 460-3328,                                                 4/1/2010
Olivier Huet
w - +33 1 47 65 37 60, m
- +33 6 98 59 42 37,                                              4/1/2010


Mark Kapner
Manager, Renewable
(512) 322-6123,
mark.kapner@austinene                                                        4/1/2010

Byron Washom, Director      and-UCSD-Sign-Multi-Year-Multi-
of Strategic Energy         Disciplinary-Research-Agreement-
Initiatives at UCSD         for-Renewable-Energy-to-Pioneer-
(858) 869-5805,             the-Next-Generation-of-Energy-            Management                         6/30/2010



Chet Lyons
Director of Marketing and
Beacon Power
(978) 661-2831
m                                                              8/1/2010





David Marcus
General - 617-559-9999
W - 508 696 6444
M - 617 512 7900
dmarcus@generalcompr               8/1/2010






















                           1.html                              5/14/2010
Jim McDowall
Business Development
jim.mcdowall@saftbatteri                                                         5/14/2010

Greg Tropsa, Executive
Vice President
Ice Bear
(870) 545-3630 x1910,                                         8/12/2010
Greg Tropsa, Executive
Vice President
Ice Bear
(870) 545-3630 x1910,   9/27/2010
                                 Planned Project
       Categorization                 Date

1 - bulk storage (transmission

1 - bulk storage (transmission

1 - bulk storage (transmission

1 - bulk storage (transmission

1 - bulk storage (transmission

1 - bulk storage (transmission
2 - power application
 (transmission level)

2 - power application
 (transmission level)
2 - power application
 (transmission level)

2 - power application
 (transmission level)
2 - power application
 (transmission level)

2 - power application
 (transmission level)

2 - power application
 (transmission level)

2 - power application
 (transmission level)

3 - distributed storage
 (transmission level)

3 - distributed storage
 (transmission level)
3 - distributed storage
 (transmission level)

3 - distributed storage
 (transmission level)

3 - distributed storage
 (transmission level)

4 - distributed storage
  (distribution level)

4 - distributed storage
  (distribution level)

4 - distributed storage
  (distribution level)

4 - distributed storage
  (distribution level)

4 - distributed storage
  (distribution level)
4 - distributed storage
  (distribution level)
4 - distributed storage
  (distribution level)

4 - distributed storage
  (distribution level)
4 - distributed storage
  (distribution level)

4 - distributed storage
  (distribution level)

4 - distributed storage
  (distribution level)

4 - distributed storage
  (distribution level)    2010?
4 - distributed storage
  (distribution level)    2009?

4 - distributed storage
  (distribution level)

4 - distributed storage
  (distribution level)
4 - distributed storage
  (distribution level)

4 - distributed storage
  (distribution level)

4 - distributed storage
  (distribution level)
4 - distributed storage
  (distribution level)
4 - distributed storage
  (distribution level)
4 - distributed storage
  (distribution level)

4 - distributed storage
  (distribution level)
5 - distributed storage (smart

5 - distributed storage (smart
              grid)              2011 - 2012

5 - distributed storage (smart

5 - distributed storage (smart

5 - distributed storage (smart
5 - distributed storage (smart
5 - distributed storage (smart
              grid)              2012
5 - distributed storage (smart

5 - distributed storage (smart

5 - distributed storage (smart
5 - distributed storage (smart

5 - distributed storage (smart

5 - distributed storage (smart
5 - distributed storage (smart

5 - distributed storage (smart

5 - distributed storage (smart

5 - distributed storage (smart

5 - distributed storage (smart

5 - distributed storage (smart

5 - distributed storage (smart
5 - distributed storage (smart
5 - distributed storage (smart
5 - distributed storage (smart

5 - distributed storage (smart

5 - distributed storage (smart
5 - distributed storage (smart

   6 - emerging tech R&D

   6 - emerging tech R&D

   6 - emerging tech R&D
6 - emerging tech R&D

6 - emerging tech R&D

6 - emerging tech R&D

6 - emerging tech R&D

6 - emerging tech R&D

6 - emerging tech R&D

6 - emerging tech R&D

6 - emerging tech R&D
6 - emerging tech R&D

6 - emerging tech R&D

6 - emerging tech R&D

6 - emerging tech R&D

6 - emerging tech R&D

6 - emerging tech R&D

6 - emerging tech R&D

6 - emerging tech R&D

6 - emerging tech R&D

6 - emerging tech R&D
6 - emerging tech R&D

6 - emerging tech R&D

6 - emerging tech R&D

6 - emerging tech R&D

6 - emerging tech R&D

6 - emerging tech R&D

6 - emerging tech R&D

6 - emerging tech R&D

6 - emerging tech R&D
   6 - emerging tech R&D

   6 - emerging tech R&D

   6 - emerging tech R&D

7 - other (focus is first on US

7 - other (focus is first on US

7 - other (focus is first on US

     8 - thermal storage
8 - thermal storage

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