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					                    BACHELOR'S DEGREE PROGRAMME
                              Term-End Examination
                                    June, 2006

                         AND TECHNOLOGY

        Time :3 hours                                 Maximum Marks: 700
                                                            (Weightage 70%o)

         Note :     Your answersshould be brief and to the point.
                    Whereuerpossible,supportyour answerswith facts
                    and figures.

                                     SECTION A

              Answer altl questions.

        Al.   (a)   Give in one or two sentences, the major contribution
    ,               of any three of the following scientists:         IxB:J
                    (i)    C.V. Raman
                    (ii)   Ronald Ross
                    (iii) Charaka
                    (iv) Charles Darwin

-       FST                               1                          p.T.O.
      (b)    Give one term for each of the following :             7x3:3

             (i)    A collectionof billions of stars,and clouds of gas
                    and dust.

             (iil   Science of communication and control in
                    machinesand living organisms.

             (iiil The technique of transmitting light waves
                   through glassfibres.

      (c)    Fill in the blanks |                                   1'x4:4

             (il    Trophic levelsare the links in a

             (ii)   The hormone

             (iii) Wheat is our chief              crop whereas rice
                   is the chief kharif crop.
             (iv) The -             is the part of nervoussystem
                  through which simple rellexesare routed.

A2. Answer each part brieflywithin 50 words'                     2x10:20

      (i)    How is photochemicalsmog formed ?

      (ii)   Explain the term artificial intelligence.

      (iil   State two advantages human factor engineering'
      (iv) State two main symptomsof kwashiorkor.

           (v)    List two technicalinnovationsof medieval

          (ti)   Give one advantageand one limitation of
                                                         radio as a
                 medium of communication.

          (vii) State the two major contributions
                                                 of Arvabhatta.

          (viii) Name any four renewable
          (ix) State two applications laser
                                    of     in medicine.

          (x)    Which parts of the brain are involvedin :
                 (a) regulation of body temperature

                 (b) maintainingthe balanceof the

                         SECTION B

    Answer any eight questions' Each question carries t'iue
    morks. Answer each question within 700 words'

B1. What is mixed cropping ? Give an example' State
    advantages this agrotechnique'

82. Mention five different ways in which the environment
                                                          7x5:5   t
    been adverselyaffecteddue to technologicaladvances'

83. Describethe atomic theory given by Kanad'

84. What is remote sensing Describe
                          ?        how remote sensinghelps
                                                        2+3=5         I
    to surveyvegetationcover.

85. Distinguishbetweenhypothesisand theory' Give an
    in support of Your answer.

                                               used by
86. List any four modes of communication being
    IGNOU to impart education'Which one of these is
    useful for You and whY ?

                                      that are preventedby
    infections ? Name any four diseases

                                               of the
 88. What is the Big Bang theory of the origin

 89. What is biotechnology ? List any three applications of
     biotechnology.                                      2+3=5

       Draw the diagramof a chain reaction.            2+3=5

Bl l. Differentiate between stimulus and r€sponse. Describe
      Pavlov'sexperimenton learning.                    2+3=5

 FST                                                   P.T.O.
                              SECTION C
      Answer any three questions.Each question carries ten
      marks. Answer each question within 250 words.

Cl. Explain how the needs of city based cMlisationsled to
    scientific and technical advancements the
                                        in            Age'.
    Select any five areas.                             2x5:70

C2. What is water cycle? Discuss impact of human activities
    on water cycle. Suggestany two measuresto prevent the
      adverse impact of these activities.               2+6+2:70

C3. "Science and technology have played a vital role in
    transforming our way of life through the ages." Justify the
    statement with the help of examples from the transport
      sector.                                              2x5=70

C4. Dilferentiate between chemical evolution and biological
    evolution. Discussbriefly any two evidencesin favour of
      biological evolution.                                4+6:10

C5. What is technology foreiasting: ? Explain why it is an
    important area of study. Mention two areas in which
                          would be usefuland why.       2+4+4:10

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   FST                              12


                           BACHELOR'S DEGREE
                           Term-End Examination
                                   June, 2006

                     AHE-1: HUMANENVIRONMENT

        Time :3 hours                                  Maximum Marks : 700

        Note :     This paper containsthree sections B qnd C. Reqd
                   the instructions caret'ully bet'ore answering the
                   questionsunder each section.

                                    SECTION A

        Note :     Answer all the questionsin this section.

        Al. Fill in the blankswith appropriatewords :                  7xS

            (i)    Fixed energy in the form of food passes from
                   autotrophs through              to carnivores.

            (ii)   A large number of animals in the Thar desert no
                   more exist or are at the verqe of

        AHE-1                                                       P.T.O.


    (iiil               , a major component of acid rain, is                   :
            considered as one of the toxic and dangerous air

    (iv) The compound                   is a product of incomplete
            combustion of fuets. It reducesthe oxygen cam;ing
            capacity of the blood.

    (v)     Accidentscan occur in heavyengineeringindustrydue
            to -            effect of noise.

A2. Write the full form of the following :                           7xS

     (i) coD
     (ii)   BOD

     (iii) DOM

     (iv)   PKU

     (v)    ppm

A3. Define the following :                                           7xS

     (i)    Desiccation

     (ii)   Bioluminescence

     (iii) Demography

     (iv) Epidemic

     (v)    Genetic Diversity

A4. state whether the followingstatements true or
                                        are       t'alse: 7xS
    (i)    Energy is consumed only at the first level of an

    (ii)   A cat eating rat should be categorisedas secondary

    (iii) Chlorofluorocarbons released in the environment
          causesoil pollution.

    (iv) 5o/oenergyis lost at each trophic level in a food chain.

    (v)    Carp is an edible freshwaterfish.

AHE-1                                                        P.T.O.
                              SECTION B

Note:        Answer any fiue questions.

81. (i)      What characteristics  determine the size, composition
             and distribution of the population ?                    5

     (iil    Give two ways in which the world population growth          -
             is different today from that of 500 years ago.          5

B,2. (il     Discussany three causesof desertification.              6

     (iil    Briefly describe the major vegetation cover of Thar
             desert.                                                 4

83. (il      Give the main redsonsfor people living in suburban
             areas.                                                  2

     (iil    Discuss psychological aspects of urbanisation with
             respect to problems faced by urban people resulting
             in various kinds of stress.                             I

84. (i)      What are the characteristics treated sewage?
                                        of                           6

     (ii)    List any four industries and their polluting waste
             nroducts.                                               4

85. (i)      List the characteristics hazardous
                                    of         wastesgiving one
             exampleof each.

      (ii)   Discuss any two strategies adopted for hazardous
             waste management.

86. Write short notes on :                                      5+5

    (i)    Project Tiger

    (ii)   SustainableDevelopment

87. (i)                              along with their agents.
           Classifyfood-borne diseases                              5

    (ii)   Discussbriefly the adulterationof food and its quality
           control.                                                 5

AHE-1                                                          P.T.O.

Note:      Answer any three questions.

Cl. What is the role of NGOs in imparting environmental
    education ?                                         10

C2. Briefly describethe measures curb land degradation.
                                to                                 10

Ca. (i)    Mention the importance of the element nitrogen in
           the living beings.                                      2
    (ii)   Briefly describethe various aspectsof nitrogen cycle.   I

C4. Do you think there.is a need to improve social awareness
    for environmentalmanagement? Discuss.                          10

C5. (i)    What is cancer ?                                        2

    (ii)   Name the four categoriesof cancer.                      2
    (iii) Name any three types of radiationsand explain their
          effects on human health.

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AHE-1                                           P.T.O.

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                                               |  6

AHE-1                            12                            4,000
                    MATHEMATTCS  (C.T.P.M.)
                        Term-End Examination
                               June, 2006

          AMT-1 : TEACHTNG pRtMARy
                         OF      SCHOOL

    Time : 3 hours                              MoximumMarks: 700

    Note :      Question no. I is compulsory. Attempt any eight
                questionsfrom questionsno. 2 to 10.

,   l.   (a)    A painter(who paintswalls)
                                         saysthat she needsto use
                a lot of Mathematics her work. Give two examples,
                with justification, supportthis. The examples
                                  to                        should
                be from different fopics in Mathematics.

         (b)    What is the differencebefipeencapacityand volume ?
                Describe an activity to help a child realise this

    AMT- 1
                                                     'the word
     (c)    What is the difference in the meaning of
            'power' as used in daily life and in Mathematics ?

            Give one more example of such a word, briefly giving
            its meaning in daily life and in Mathematics'

     (d)    Using paper folding, how wjllyou help Class5 children

            realise that, /or example,     is          to    ?
                                       ]    "O,iuulent    fi
            Give at least two reasonswhy this method is more
            effective than the blackboard-and-chalk

     (e)    What is classification Why is it called a pre-number
            concept ? Give an activityto help children to improve
            their abilitY to classifY'

2.    (a)    Describe an activity to help children learn that any
             line need not be an axis of symmetryof a given circle'
             Give another activity to assessthe elfectivenessof the
             first activitY'

      (b)    What is a variable ? Explain two common uses of
             variablesin school algebra' Give at least one example
             of each use.

3.    Explain the E.L-P-S sequence for learning a concept'
      Illustrate the sequence in the context of learning the
      concept of multiPlication.

     4.     (a)     Give one real-lifesituationeach
                                                  which requiresa child
                   to use the concepts of an
                                               interval of time and an
                   instant of time, respectively.
                                                 Justify your choice of

           (b) Give an exampleeach,
                                    with justification,
                                                      to         support
                   the following statements:

                   (i)    Mathematicsis useful.

                   (ii)   Mathematicalknowledge is like
                                                        a ladder.
                   (iii) Mathematicscan
                                        be a lot of fun I

 5.       (a)     Childrenmakemany errorswhile
                                                   dealingwith fractions.
                  List four such disrincf errors.
                                                  How would you find
                  out the child's reasoningbehind
                                                    these errors ?

          (b)     State whether true or
                                        false, giving reasons.
                  (i) Counting is just reciting
                                                number names.
                  (ii) Zero is ,nothing,.

                (iii) Children shouldnot
                                         be introducedto any concept
                      through related word problems.

6.    Give two reasonsfor why a teacher
                                        shouldplan her teaching.
      State 5 guidelinesfor making
                                    a unit plan. Illustratethem in
      the context of introducing
                                 Class5 children to the concept
      of a negative number.

AMT- 1


                                                 word problems on
7.    (a)        What are the different types of
                                                    problem of each
                 subtraction ? Construct one word
                                                        - 4 = 3'                 6
                 type correspondingto the iubtractionT
                                                  performing         basic
       (b)    Children make many errors while
                                                   Give two          such
              operations on decimal fractions'
                                                            in       detail
            . disiinct errors' Further' describean activity
                                                 any one of          these
              for helping the child to correct
             .     errors'

                                                     a four-digit number
 8.    (a)         Describean algorithm lor diuiding
                                                      the mathematical
                   by a single-dgit number' Explain
                   reasoninginvolved in each steP'
                                                    on fractions' explain
        (b)        Using examplesfrom operations
                   how the ability to estimateis useful'

                                                        deductive and
 g.     (a)        Explain the difference between
                                                         should include
                   inductive reasoning' Your explanation
                                                   in Mathematics' and
                   one exampln of thn use of each
                   onn n*utple each from dailYlife'
         (b)        Describetwo distincf activitiesfor
                    to the concePt of an angle'

                                                     in base 5 ? Further'
     1O. (a)        How would you write 2136
                                                         levels of dilficulty'
                    describetwo activities' at different
                                                           concdpt of place
                    for helping children understandthe
                             --o -

             (b)     'Mathematics is a language'' Explain this statement'
                     with examPles'

      AMT-1                                   4
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AMT-1                                           P.T.O.
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AMT-1                                           P.T.O.
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AMT-1                                         4,000
                     Term-End Examination
                             June, 2006

            (APPLICATION      COURSE)
            AST-1 : STATISTICAL

Time : 2 hours                                 Maximum Marks: 50

Note :      Question no. 7 is compulsory. Do any four
            questions from the remaining questions no.

l.   (a)    The number of defectiveapples found in 10 boxes of
            100 each, are given as follows :

                          t,2, 0, 0,2, 4, 5, 6,2, 75.

            (i)    Find the averagenumber of defectiveapples per

            (ii)   Find the median value of defectiveapples per
                   box and compare it with the averagevalue.

            (iii) Calculate the probability that an apple selected
                  at random will be defective.                       4

AST-1                                                          P.T.O.
     (b)   A researcherconsideredtwo batches, each of 12
           experimental ,animals. One batch was vaccinated
           againstan infectiousdisease and the other batch
           was not vaccinated.After that the batches were
           exposedto A and the frequencyof dead and surviving
           animalswere noted, as given below.

                                       Dead      Survived

                  Vaccinated             2          10

                  Not vaccinated         8          4

           Can the vaccine be regardedas effective against the
           disease ? Set up the null hypothesis and apply an
           appropriate test at 5o/olevel of significanceto study

2.   (a)   The number of phone calls receivedper hour by an
           organisation follows the Poisson distribution with
           mean 1'5. Obtain the probabilityof

           (i)     getting no call in an interval of one hour;

           (ii)    getting at least one call in one hour;

           (iii) getting 3 callsbetween10'00 a.m. to
                 12'00 noon.

     (b)   In a company manufacturingTV sets, a random
           sample oI 200 TV sets is selected from a day's
           production, to assessthe quality of TV sets. The
           number of TV sets found defective durinq |ive
           continuousdays is as under :
                       76, 14, 10, 4, 6
           (i)    Suggesta suitablecontrol chart for moniioring
                  the quality of TV sets.
           (it    Calculatethe control limits for this case. If the
                  number of defectiveTV sets found on the 6th
                  day is 23, can the processbe consideredas
                  under control ? Give reasonsfor your answer.

3.   For eight families,the amountspentannuallyon food, and
     their annualincomes,are given below :

                  Food expenses             Income
                 (in thousandRs.)     (in thousand Rs.)

                        4                    20
                        6                    40
                        3                     11
                        5                    30
                        2                     11
                        3                     I2
                        4                     15
                        5                    21

AST-1                                                           P.T.O.
             Compute the sampleregression   line, where income is
             the independent variable and the amount spent on
             food is the dependentvariable.

     (ii)    Predict the expenseson the food if the income is
             Rs. 25,000.

     (iii)   Calculatethe correlation coefficient,and interpret it.    10

4.   (a)     Assuming that only the linear trend component is
             present in a demand for a product, complete the
             following time-series,writing the demand f.or every
             year given :

                           Year          Demand

                          1999              20

                          2000               ?

                          200L               ?

                          2002               ?

                          2003               ?

                          2004              80

     (b)                            'process
             What is meant by                capability analysis' in
             statisticalquality control ? When do we say that the
             process is capable of meeting a customer's

     (c)   In a town, 55o/opeople are overweight (Ar), 2070
           have high blood pressure (Ar) and 60%ohave high
           blood pressureor are overweight.

           (i)    Are the events At and 42 mutually exclusive?
                  Give reason for your answer.

           (ii)   Are the events 41 and 42 independent ? Give
                  reasons for your answer.

     (d)   Can two events be       mutually exclusiveand equally
           likely ? Justify your answer.

5.   (a)   What type of sampling is more appropriate in each
           of the following situations ? Glve reasons for your

           (i)    Estimatingthe averageyield of orangesper tree
                  in an orchard of orange trees.

           (ii)   A crty has a number of different marketplaces
                  of varying sizes. It is required to estimate the
                  average total sales made (in Rs.) in a day in
                  that city.

           (iii) A batch of medicinesmade by a manufacturing
                  company, under identicalconditions, is supplied
                  to the market. It is requiredto assess quality
                  of the medicines.

AST-1                                                           P.T.O.
     (b)   An experiment was planned to study the life oI 4
           different types of batteries. 4 batteries from each
           brand were tested and their life was recorded in
                     of hours'. You are given the following
           information :

                   Total Sum of squares= 1500

                      Mean Error square = 25

           Set up the ANOVA table and test the hypothesisthat
           there is no difference in the four brands of batteries
           at a 5o/olevel of significance.
           You may use the following F-values:
                F-value= 3.49 for v, = 3, v, = 12
                F-value: 3.06 for v, = 4, v, = 15
                F-value= 3.29 for v, = 3, v, = 15

     (c)   The demand for a product for the last four weeks is

                      60, 66, 64, 59
           Using the moving averagesof length 3, predict the
           demand for the 5th week.

6.   (a)   In a city a random sample of 200 industries was
           studiedand it was found that 40 industriesviolate the
           labour laws. Using this information, determine the
           95olo confidence interval for the proportion of the
           industrieslikely to violate the labour laws in a city.

     (b)    Give the three advantages
                                    and three disadvantages
            using a sampling approach instead of a census
            approach for studyinga characteristic a population.
     (c)    Distinguishbetweena continuousrandom variableand
            a discreterandom variable. Further, give an example
            of each in supportof your explanation.

7.   Which of the followingstatements true and which are
     t'alse ? Justify your answers.                      10
     (i)    In a normal distribution,


     (ii)   The greaterthe levelof significance, higher is the

     (iii) A producer'srisk is the probabilityof rejectinga bad

     (iv) If at a check-post,every 5th vehicle is checkedfor
          conformanceto pollution norms, then the type of
          samplingbeing usedis systematic sampling.
     (v)    In the caseof Binomial distribution,
                                               the mean is less
            than the variance.

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AST-1                                                       P.T.O.
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AST-1                     10
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AST-1                         11                     P.T.O.
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AST-1                    12
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AST-1                            13              P.T.O.
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AST-1                      14
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AST-1                      15                      3,000


                            Term-End Examination
                                  June, 2006

                      AOR-1 : OpERATTONS
         Time: 2 hours
                                                     Maximum Marks: 50
         Note :     Attempt fioe questionsin a!1.
                                                  euestion no. 7 is
                    compulsory. Do any four questions
                                                            out of
    .               questions no. 2 to 7.

        1.   Are the following statementstrue or
                                                 false? Give reasons
             for your answers.
             (i)    When the orderingquantityis the sameas EOe,
                    orderingcost is equalto the holding cost.

             (ii)   xt - 1, xz = 2 and xS : 1 is a basic feasible
                    solution for the systemof equations
             (iii) In an assignmentproblem, the
                                                  optimal solution is
                   alwaysalong the main diagonal.

             (iv) In order to shorten a project
                                                 completion time, we
                  must reduce the duration of non_critical
     (v)    Little's formula relatesthe waiiing time of a customer
            and the number of customers present in a service

2.   (a) A farm is engagedin breedingpigs' The pigs are fed
            on various products grown on the farm' Becauseof
            the need to ensurethat certain important nutrients cr'
            p and y, are presentin the meal, it is necessary buy
            the products A and/or B. The amount of each
            nutrient availableper unit of either product is given
            below, along with the minimum requirement of each
                                 Product       Min. amount ol
                 Nutrient                      nutrient required
                                A        B
                        c[      36       6            108
                        p       3        72           36
                                20       10           100
               Product cost              40
                (per unit)

             Formulate the problem of decidingthe amount of the
             products that should be purchasedin order to meet
             the minimum requirementsof nutrient at lowest cost'
             as an LP problem.

      (b)    A petrol stationsells4000 titresof petrol every month'
             The parent company' whenever it refills the station's
             tank, charges the station Rs. 50 besidesthe cost of
             petrol. The annual cost of holding a litre o{ petrol is
             Rs. 0'30. Find out the economicorder quantity'

3.   (a)    A factory has four machines.Four jobs are required
            to be processed on them. Each machine must be
            assigned exactly one job. The time (set_up and
            processing)requirementof each machine to complete
            any job is shown below. How should the jobs be
           assigned the machinesso that the total time needed
           to complete the jobs is minimized ? What is the total
           machinetime for the optimal assignmqnt  ?

            'Machine              Time (hours)
                        Job 1    Job 2    Job 3   Job 4
                1          74      5          8     7
                2          2       72         6     5
                3                  8          3     9
                4          2       4          6    10
     (b)   Write down the dual (D) of the Lpp, (p), given by
           (P) Minimize 80x, + IZ}x,

                        5x, + 6xr<200
                           3x, + 2xr380
                                x1, x, ) 0.
           Further, without actually solving the Lpps check
           whether (xr: 20, x, = 10) is an optimal solutionfor
           the primal (P) and (V, : 20, 92 = 70, V3 : 5) is an
           optimal solutionfor the dual, D.

AOR-1                                                          P.T.O.
4:   (a)                              problem with the data :

                      1          5            10
                      2          9            2
                      3          76           15
                      4          18           5
           (i)    Obtain an optimal sequenceof jobs.
           (ii)   Find the total idle time of M2 and the value of
                  F-* for the oPtimal sequence.

     (b)   For Rail booking there are two reservation counters
           for customers who arrive according to a Poisson
           distribution at an average rale of 10 per hour' The
           service time for booking clerks at both the counters
           are exponentiallydistributed with a mean time of
           5 minutes. The counters remain open for 12 hours
           per day.
           (i)    Find the hours of the day for which all the clerks
                  are busy.
           (i0    Find the probabilitythat both the clerks are idle'
           (iiil Find the probability that one clerk is idle'

            M     Find the expectedwaiting time of customersin
                  the queue.

 AOR-1                                4
 5.    (a)     We havea projectwith the activities A, B, ..., F.
                                                  :              The
               following table givesthe immediatepredecessor(s)
               duration of each activitv :

                                      Immediate     Duration
                                     predecessor(s) (days)
                          A                                  4
                          B                A                 5
                          C                A                 4
                          D                B                 3
                          E                c                 3
                          F               B,E                4
              (i)     Draw the corresponding
                                           network diagram.
              (ii)    Find the critical path.
             (iii) What is the shortest completion
                                                   time of the
                   project ?

      (b)    At a certain iteration, the simplex table
                                                       of a
             maximisation        looks like this :
               Basic - 2 - 4      -                -3
                                                   0    0
               Variables x 1          x2   xq      x4   XE       x6   Solution
       -2            x1          1    -1       3   0     2       0      10
      -3                      0       2                 -2
                      o                   1        0             1      4
       0             x4       0      - 1 -2        1     2       0      5
             Determine the leaving and entering
                                                    variables and
             hence find the values of the new basic

6.    (a)   Suppose that an averageof 1.0 customersper
                                   bank teller' The average
            anive at a single-seruer                         servlce
            time for eachiustomer is 4 minutes'Assumeihat both'
            ;;i;;-;-;;;i times and servicetimes, are exponentiallv
            (i) What is the probabilitythat the teller is idle ?
             (ii) Find the averagenumber of waiting customers'
             (iil) Determinethe average  amountof time a customer
                   spendsin the bank (includingtime in service)'
      (b)    Consider the following integer linear programming
             problem :
                  2x1 + 3x2 + xg< 7
                       X1, X2, X3 ) 0
             where *t, xzand x, are integers' The final table
             the LP relaxation is given below :

                                - 21     1
                                         t                    t
                                  3      1                    7
                                  t      t                    t

              Use the branch and bound algorithm to find
              optimal solution of the integer linear programming

 7.   (a)    The proportion of defective pieces of
                                                         a certain
             product in a manufacturing     processis 0.10. Call a
             piece D (for defective)if it is defective, (for
                                                       G      good)
             othenvise.Simulate the outcomes (D or G)
                                                             of 10
             pieces from the given process using the
             numbers 0.ST 0.76, 0.49,0.09, 0.95, 0.35,
                      :    ,                                 0.6g.

      (b)    The following table shows all the necessary
             information on the availability of supply to
             warehouse,the requirementof each market and
             transportation cost (in Rs.) from each warehouse
             each market :
                                 P      a      R     S   Supply
                        A        6       3     5     4     22
      Warehouse         B        5       9     2           15
                        C        5      7     8     6       8
                    Demand       7      12    77    9      45
            The shipping clerk has worked out the following
            schedulefrom experiencei
                 12 units from A to e, 1 unit from A to R,
                 9 units from A to S, 15 units from B to R,
                 7 units from C to p and 1 unit from C to R.
            Check if the clerk has the optimal schedule. If
            scheduleis not optimal, find the optimal schedule
            minimum transportationcost.


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AOR-1                                  15                                       3,000

                                Term-End Examination
                                      June, 2006
:   ,
I                      ( AP P L IC A T ION IE N T E D OURSE)
                                         OR         C

I                   AE C - 1 : E N V T R ON ME N T A L
                                                   C HEMISTRY

         T i m e: 3 h o u r s
                                                     Maximum Marks : 700

         Note :      Questionno. 7 is compulsory. Attempt any eight
                     questionsfrom questionsno. 2 to 70.

        l.    (a)    Fitl in the blanks.
                     (i)  The soil horizon ,O, indicates
                     (ii) 'C' classwater becomes drinking
                                                  a         water source
                          after .-=-         treatment.
                    (iii) Copper and silvertarnishrapidlyin
                                                            the presence
                    (iv) Density and pressure
                                                 =__-.--       with the
                          height of atmosphere.
                    (v) Disinfectionof waste water can
                                                          be carried out
                           by using
                    (vi) Photovoltaic cells are used to
                                                          detect and
                         measureradiationin             raninn

     (b)     Answer the following brieflY '

             (i)    Give one example each of phosphatip and

             (ii)   What are two benefits of construction of big
                    dams ?

                                                          secondary             ]
             (iii) Name     two   primary     and   two

             (iv) Briefly explain the principle of the chemical
                  method used for the detection of carbon
                  monoxide in the arr samPle'

              (v)   Give two sources of cadmium in the
                    environment.Also name two diseases
                    excessof cadmium

              (vi) Write the principle of determination of
                   phosphorusby gravimetric analysis'

              (vii) How is'deionizationol water cartied aut ?

2.    (a)      What is the differencebetuieenu *tt'onuu'ent and
               macronutrient ? Give two examplesof each type'

      (b)      Explain any three reasonsfor water scarcity in India'

       (c)     Explain how temperatureinfluences processof
                                              '                             4

3.   (a)   What is dry adiabaticlapse rate ? How is it different
           from environmentallapse rate ?                          3
     (b)   Give the full forms for the following :                 3
           (i)   AQMS
           (ii) NAAQS
           (iii) cPcB

     (c)   Give two advantagesand two problems associated
           with monitoring of water quality by physical and

4.   (a)   What is integratedpest management Give two of its

     (b)   Give one chemicalandone biological changethat may
           take place in a sample of water after its collection.
           Name any two common techniquesused for the
           preservation the eollected
                      of            sample.

     (c)   Giving suitableexamples.
                                  describethe effect of any
           two air pollutants human health.

5"   (a)   Describe anaerobic
                   the                           Also give
                               treatmentof sewage.
           three advantages this method.

     (b)   Using suitable        give four main causes soil
                         examples,                   of

     (c)   What are surfactants ? Give one           important
           environmental.impact surfactants.

AEC-1                                                        P.T.O.
6-   (a)   Explain the'preparation and functioning of acid cation

     (b)   Describe the agar plate technique for studying soil
                          Name any two microbeswhich will
           not be detectedif the agar plates are incubated at
           35' C in air in the dark for 48 hours.                   4   r

     (c)   Give one exampleof a redox indicator,used in the
           analysis of water and state the colour change it

7.   (a)   List three differentwaysin which soilsbecomeacidic.
           Give two advantages acid soils.

     (b) State two different ways in which the organic matter
           arises in water. What are the different methods used
           for its determination Givethe commonbasicprinciple
           involved in these methods.

8.   (a)   What is globalwarming? Name three differentagents
           which causeglobalwarming and explainthe origin of
           any one of them.

     (b)   Briefly describethe activatedsludgeprocess.List any
                                              from pulp and
           three shortcomings treatingeffluents
           paper industry.

AEC-1                              4
9.   (a)   Why is KMnOn widely used in volumetricanalysis?
           Give two advantagesand one limitation of its use.
           Briefly explain its oxidising action on Fe2* ion in a
           strongly acidic medium, including the reactions

     (b)                                        the
           With the help of a diagram,describe construction
           of the Standard Hydrogen Electrode. Give two
           reasonsfor its use as a primary refetenceelectrode'

f O. (a)   Explain the principleof flame photometry.What are
           the basic elementsof a flame photometer? Give its
           one application.

     (b)   What is meantby "designated   bestuse" in the context
           of water quality? Give any three recommendations  of
           CPCB in this reqard.

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AEC-1                    10
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AEC-1                    11                  3,000
                     Term-End Examination
                             June, 2006

            ( AP P L IC A T ION IE N T E D OURSE)
                              OR         C
                      PEST MANAGEMENT

Time : 3 hours                             Maximum Marks: 700

Note :      Questionno. I is compulsory. Attempt any eight
            questionsfrom questionsno. 2 to 70.

l.   (a)   What is a pest ? Name the plant partsattacked the
           following pests :                                     s
           (i)    Gundhi bug
           (ii)   Gujhia weevil
           (iii) San Jose scale
           (iv) Red cotton bug

     (b)   Give one example each of an insect which introduces
           its venom by :                                        1
           (i)    stinging
           (ii)   biting

APM-1                                                      P.T.O.
                                                 rats' and
 (c)   Which of the following pesticidescan kill
       even elePhants?
       (il      Carbofuran
        (iil    Endosulfan
        (iiD Znc PhosPhide
        (iv) Carbaryl

 (d)    Fill in the blanks with suitablewords :
        (i)     The economic injury level is inverselyrelated
                the            of the crop' and directly related
                to the           of control'

         (ii)   Pests that are capable ol causing damage
                throughout the Year are called
         (iii) The population density of a pest type over
               period of time stabilises remaining unaffectedby
               all pest control interventions' This density
               termed as -             .

          (iv) Pests which get introduced into a new country
          '    are called -          Pests'

     (e)     Match the items given under Column
                                                I will those given
             under Column IL
                      Column I               Column II
             (i)      Adjuvant          (a) Botanicalpesticide
            (ii)      Neem              b)   Enhances  the
                                             performance  of
            (iii)    Bt cotton         (c)   Food lure
            (iv)     Eugenol           (d)   Transgenic
            (v)      Sterile insect    (e)   Geneticcontrol

    (f)    Name the following :
           (t)       The pest causing,deadhearts,and ,bunchy
                     in sugarcane.
           (it      The common insect pest presentin
                                                      old books,
                    papers and behind picture frames
                                                     hanging on
           (iii) The pest which can be
                                         managedeffectively a
                 wheat field that is irrigated with kerosenated
           (iv) Chemicals that deliver
          (v)       The regulatorymethod to prevent the
                                                        spread of
                    pestsfrom infestedto non_infested

                                                           '                   6
2.        (a) Give differencesbetween the following
                  (il      Occasionaland SeverePests
                  (ii)     Parasiteand Parasitoid
                                               How does it lead to a
          (b)     What is pesticideresistance?
                  Pesticidetreadmill ?

                                                      strategiesused for
3.        (a)      Briefly explain the five principal
                   managing Pests'
                                                           of simulation
           (b)        Briefly explain any two applications
                      models in Pest management'

           (a)                                   for pestsin order according
                      List four control strategies
                                                          reasons for your
                      to the r - K continuum' Give
                                                          rodent managemenr
           (b)          Briefly explain any four effective
                                            'Bt' in 'Bt cotton" Give three
     5.     (a)         Explain the term
                                                              of growing Bt
                        advantagesand three disadvantages
                        cotton plants vis-a-visthe normal cotton plants'

                                                      which the biological
            (b)         Explain the circumstancesin
                                                          other methods'               5
                        control methods are preferredover

                                                      do you think is
     6.      (a)         Which method of pest control
                         ecologicallYsound' and whY ?
                                                               a common
                (b)      "lPM and sustainableagriculture share
                         goal." JustifYthis statement'

7.   (a)   List the three models of agriculturalextension.Which
           of theseis considered best for IPM, and why ?
                                 the                               5

     (b)   Giv" any five considerations for the        effective
           development IPM programmes.
                     of                                            5

8.   (a)   How would you control pests by manipulating
           temperatureand moisture ?

     (b)   Describe any five devices that are used to prevent
           insects from reaching crops and the agricultural

g.   Explain the concept of "host plant resistance".Why is
     ecologicalresistance                        ?
                         calledapparentresistance Describe
     three types of apparentresistance.                    70

10. With the help of a suitablediagram,describethe different
    levelsof IPM.                                            10

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    APM-1                    11                     3,000

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Description: IGNOU Question Papers June/December 2006