1 Wildlife on Fort Huachuca by cuiliqing

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									Integrated Training Area Management – Fort Huachuca


           Wildlife on Fort Huachuca
           (Text taken from the Ongoing and Programmed
           Future Military Operations and Activities at Fort
           Huachuca,     Arizona   Programmatic    Biological
           Assessment (SAIC, 1998a))



               Fort Huachuca’s significant wildlife
           diversity is directly related to the habitat
           diversity in the region.       Biotic diversity
           mirrors similar habitats outside installation
           boundaries.       Various inventories have
           confirmed the occurrence of almost 500
           birds, and a variety of mammals, reptiles,
           and amphibian species on the installation.
           The following sections summarize the
                                                                    Figure 2.    Pronghorn     antelope    in   the
           biological diversity on Fort Huachuca.
                                                                    grasslands
           Mammals
                                                                        Common small mammals found on the
                Large mammals on Fort Huachuca                      installation include the desert cottontail,
           include the Coues white-tailed deer, desert              eastern cottontail, black-tailed jackrabbit,
           mule deer, pronghorn antelope, collared                  antelope jackrabbit, spotted ground squirrel,
           peccary or javelina, mountain lion, and black            rock squirrel, Huachuca gray squirrel,
           bear (Figure 1)                                          hooded skunk, striped skunk, spotted skunk,
                                                                    hog-nosed skunk, coati-mundi, ringtail,
                                                                    raccoon, bobcat, coyote, and gray fox (Sam
                                                                    Houston State University 1996).

                                                                        Mines, natural caves, cliff faces, and
                                                                    rocky ledges located on the installation
                                                                    provide roosting habitat for bats. At least 14
                                                                    species of bats occur on the installation,
                                                                    many of which are Arizona species of
                                                                    special concern (see threatened and
                                                                    endangered species fact sheets).

                                                                    Birds
           Figure 1. Javelina
                                                                        Southeastern Arizona possesses one of
                                                                    the greatest diversities of bird species of any
                Although pronghorn antelope is a native             similarly-sized region in North America.
           to southeastern Arizona, it was extirpated in            More than 400 bird species occur here each
           the late 1800s. Pronghorn were first re-                 year, and a total of almost 500 bird species
           introduced to Fort Huachuca in 1949 by the               has been recorded (Taylor 1995). The Birds
           Arizona Game Commission. A Chihuahuan                    of Fort Huachuca – An Informational
           subspecies of pronghorn was introduced to                Checklist (Breland 1981) lists 313 bird
           the installation in 1987. A strong population            species found on the installation. Partners
           of pronghorn roams not only Fort Huachuca,               in Flight had identified 254 Neotropical
           but throughout the surrounding grasslands                migrants which spend some time on the
           (Figure 2).                                              installation.

                                                                    Some common bird species include the
                                                                    Mexican jay, scrub jay, bridled titmouse,
                                                                    painted redstart, gray vireo, warbling vireo,
                                                                    gray   flycatcher,   vermillion   flycatcher,
                                                                    summer tanager, yellow warbler, and the


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elegant trogon.   Common game birds                  Two amphibians commonly found on the
include the mourning dove, white-winged              installation are the red-spotted toad, and the
dove, Gambel’s quail, scaled quail,                  bullfrog (Sam Houston State University
Montezuma quail, and Gould’s turkey                  1996). Two federal-listed amphibians that
(Figure 3).                                          occur on Fort Huachuca are the Sonora tiger
                                                     salamander and the Ramsey Canyon
                                                     leopard      frog   (see    threatened    and
                                                     endangered species fact sheets).

                                                     Other Species

                                                     Kral (1991) observed, collected and
                                                     identified 129 species of butterflies in
                                                     Garden and Sawmill canyons.         Species
                                                     identified represent the following families:
                                                     Hesperiidae,      Papilionidae,    Pieridae,
                                                     Lycaenidae,      Riodinidae,    Libytheidae,
                                                     Heliconiidae, Nymphalidae, Satyridae, and
Figure 3. Montezuma quail                            Danaidae.

                                                     A wide variety of insects inhabit the
Three federally-listed species occur on Fort         installation including many spiders such as
Huachuca; the bald eagle, peregrine falcon,          the black widow, various tarantula species,
and the Mexican spotted owl (SAIC 1998a)             scorpions, sunspiders, whip scorpions or
(see threatened and endangered species               vinegarones, and centipedes.            The
fact sheets).                                        Huachuca springsnail is a federal candidate
                                                     species that occurs on Fort Huachuca (see
Reptiles and Amphibians                              threatened and endangered species fact
                                                     sheets).
A good example of the diversity of the region
is the 75 species of amphibians and reptiles
that occur in the Huachuca Mountains and
Upper San Pedro River (Taylor 1995).
Lizards are the most abundant reptiles on
Fort Huachuca (Morrison et al., 1995).
Lizards found on the installation include the
Yarrow’s swift lizard, collared swift lizard,
Uta climbing lizard, whiptail, Sonoran
alligator lizard, and mountain skink. Snakes
found on Fort Huachuca include the Black-
tailed rattlesnake, western diamondback
rattlesnake, green rock rattlesnake, Willard’s
rattlesnake, Arizona king snake, ridge-nose
rattlesnake, and Sonoran racer (Figure 4).
                                                     Figure 5. Sun spider




Figure 4. Ridge-nose rattlesnake




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