SPECS by C486He6T

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									Scaling Progress in Early
  Childhood Settings
        (SPECS)
      STEPHEN J. BAGNATO, Ed.D., NCSP
      Professor of Pediatrics & Psychology
     Director, Early Childhood Partnerships
       Director, SPECS (PAPREKA/PEIOS)
 Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh/UCLID Center
  University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
             steve.bagnato@chp.edu
                  www.uclid.org
   SPECS Program Evaluation
    Research Team Leaders:
           PAPREKA and PEIOS

     Stephen J. Bagnato, Ed.D., NCSP, Director
   Candace Hawthorne, Ph.D., OTR/L, Coordinator
         Ilene Greenstone, MA, Coordinator
      Pip Campbell, Ph.D., OTR/L, Coordinator

Assisted by Western and Eastern PA Research Teams
  What is the Authentic
Assessment Alternative to
 Conventional Testing in
    Early Childhood?
 John T. Neisworth
Stephen J. Bagnato
    John Salvia
  Frances M. Hunt
Inauthentic Measurement in
      Early Childhood

“Much of developmental psychology [early
  childhood assessment] as it now exists
  is the science of the strange behavior of
  children with strange adults in strange
  settings for the briefest possible periods
  of time.” (Bronfenbrenner, 1979, p. 19)
       Authentic Assessment
        in Early Childhood
 Natural observations of ongoing child behavior
  in everyday settings and routines vs. contrived
  arrangements;
 Reliance on informed caregivers (teachers,
  parents, team) to collect convergent, multi-
  source data across settings;
 Curriculum-based measures linked to program
  goals, content, standards, & expected outcomes;
 Universal design; equitable assessment content
  and methods;
 Intra-individual child progress supplemented by
  inter-individual normative comparisons;
 NAEYC/DEC/HS & PA DAP Assessment
  Standards & Practices
Are There Professional and
Pennsylvania Standards for
 Authentic Assessment in
  Early Childhood/Early
      Intervention?
    Selected Professional Standards
    for Early Childhood Assessment
              (DEC, 2004; NAEYC, 1997, HS, 2000)


 Reliance on developmental observations-ongoing observational
  assessments overtime
 Performance on “authentic, not contrived, activities”
 Integration of assessment and curriculum
 Child progress on past performances as the reference, not group
  norms
 Choose materials that accommodate the child’s special functional
  needs
 Use only measures that have high treatment validity
 Rely on curriculum-based measures as the foundation or “mutual
  language” for team assessments
 Defer a diagnosis until evaluation of a child’s response to a
  tailored set of interventions
 Use scales with sufficient item density to detect even small
  increments of progress
     6 “Best Practice” Criteria for Authentic Assessment
              in Pennsylvania’s ECE Programs
1.    Purpose:        Assess for program planning not diagnosis or
      exclusion; eliminate “readiness” testing practices
2.    Method:       “No tabletop testing”; Deemphasize scores; observe
      and assess functional skills that link to the curriculum standards
3.    Context:        Observe and record evidence of natural, ongoing
      child development and behavior in typical, everyday routines not
      contrived settings
4.    Process:        Rely on teachers/caregivers to observe and record
      child progress 2-3 times each year
5.    Standards-based:             Align all assessments and their item
      content with ELS and curricula; link assessment with expected
      outcomes
6.    Parent Partnerships:              Enable parents to have central role
      in providing observational data on progress
     Measures for PEIOS/PAPREKA
     Research: Balance of Attributes
    Tension to balance research rigor with
     utility; Choice of measures based on
     following elements:
1.   Simplicity
2.   Authenticity
3.   Utility
4.   Evidence-base
5.   Standards-referenced
6.   Functional content
7.   Sensitivity
   The Pennsylvania Early
Intervention Outcomes Study
           (PEIOS)

Documenting the Benefits of Early Intervention
  Supports in PA to Fulfill State and Federal
                  Mandates
What are the missions,
research questions and
authentic measurement
   design for PEIOS?
           PEIOS “Fast Facts”
   Aim: Document early intervention outcomes for state &
    federal mandates
   County agencies and MAWAs in 6 PA Regions mapped to
    PQP
   Random selection
   Collect data on entry-level functioning compared to
    performance at followup
   Use both/either an existing measure and a common
    functional measure across programs: ABAS II
   File reviews to code program and service intensity
   Multiple research strategies to analyze interrelationships
    among program intensity and child/family outcomes
   Classify outcomes by OSEP/ECO categories
PEIOS Outcome and Research
         Measures
 Child Measure [Caregiver]:
  Adaptive Behavior Assessment System II
  (ABAS; Harrison & Oakland, 2004)
 Child Measure [Caregiver]:
  Program-Identified Measure (BDI; DC;
  COR)
 Program Measure [PEIOS Team]:
  Program Specs (Bagnato, 2005)
 Program Measure [PEIOS Team]:
  Developmental Specs (Bagnato, 2005)
     Adaptive Behavior Assessment
        System II (ABAS, 2003)
 Multi-dimensional observational & judgment-
  based rating scale (3-point) of functional
  competencies
 Ages: 0-89years
 Early childhood forms: Parent & Teacher/Provider
 Nationally standardized: Ages 0-5=2100; all forms
  and all ages=5270
 Norm-referenced scores: General Adaptive
  Composite (100,15); Subskills (10,3)
 Excellent technical research base; disability
  studies; Aligns with DSM IV; AAMR categories
 Psychological Corporation
       ABAS Rating Format
0……..Is not able [can’t; too young; physical limits]

1……..Never/almost never when needed [prompts]

2……..Sometimes when needed [with/out help]

3……..Always/almost always when needed [before]

G……..Check if you guessed
             ABAS Domains:
     Parent Form (241); Teacher (216)
   Communication
   Community Use
   School Living/Home Living
   Functional Pre-Academics
   Health & Safety
   Leisure
   Self-Care
   Self-Direction
   Social
   Motor
      ABAS Disability Research:
Clinical and Matched Control Samples
 Mental Retardation
 Developmental Delay
 Biological Risk Factors (e.g., prematurity; drugs)
 Motor and Physical Impairments
 Language Disorders
 Autism and PDD
 Learning Disability
 ADHD
 Alzheimer’s Disease
 Neuropsychological Disorders
 Behavior and Emotional Disorders
 Deaf and Hard of Hearing
    PEIOS Program Evaluation Research
          & Measurement Model
   January 2006: Identify and train PEIOS program
    evaluation liaisons
   January-February 2006: Random selection of
    children
   January-February 2006: Train on use of the ABAS
    II (if chosen) with liaisons, teachers, others
   January-April 2006: Collect EI-entry child data
   January-April 2006: Conduct file reviews to
    document program intensity
   May 2006: Collect child progress data using
    ABAS II or program-chosen measure (each
    September and May)
                             TIME IN
                          INTERVENTION




CHILD & FAMILY PROGRESS
       OUTCOMES




       PROGRAM
       INTENSITY
            PEIOS LONGITUDINAL REPEATED MEASURES
            REGRESSION RESEARCH DESIGN AND TIMELINE

REGION 1   September                          May




REGION 2




REGION 3




             ABAS II                   ABAS II
             Program Scale             Program Scale

             D-SPECS                   D-SPECS
             P-SPECS                   P-SPECS
   What are the federal
  OSEP/ECO outcome
indicators and reporting
  timelines for PEIOS?
     OSEP/ECO Child Outcome
        Indicator Domains
1.   Positive social-emotional skills (including
     social relationships)
2.   Acquisition and use of knowledge and skills
     (including early language/communication; early
     literacy)
3.   Use of appropriate behaviors to meet one’s
     needs

     Domains, sub-domains, and item content of
     measures are mapped to these integrated
     functional areas
Sample LaRosa Database
     OSEP/ECO Child Outcome Indicator
                Metrics
1.    % of children who reach or maintain functioning
      level comparable to same-age peers
2.    % of children who improve functioning toward
      same-age levels
3.    % of children who did not improve functioning
4.    % of children maintaining own rate and preventing
      regression
5.    % of children showing specific curricular skill
      improvements compared to own previous skill levels
6.    % of children whose developmental progress profiles
      exceed own pre-intervention (maturational) expectations
      and those of their local EI peer group (IEI; CEI; PCI, HLM-
      EAPS)
              Statistical Impact of ECI on Child Progress
         Exceeding Maturation after 31 Months of Programming
[Pooled HR/DD groups; n = 104; p<.000; 48th%ile>68th%ile; 95% confidence interval]


                   850                                               832

                   825
DOCS total score




                   800                                 790
                                                                     800           ECI
                   775                    761
                                                       776           777
                   750                    757                                      expected
                   725                                 735
                                729
                   700          683       713                                      upper margin
                                                                                   of error of
                   675          684                                                expectation
                   650
                         2.30   3.00   3.20     3.40   3.60   3.80   4.30   5.00
                                              Age (in years)
OSEP/ECO Family Outcome Indicators
       [Draft Reconciliation]
    Based on ratings on the Family Outcomes
     Survey (in development)

1.   Understand their child’s strengths, abilities, and
     special needs
2.   Know their rights and advocate effectively for
     their children
3.   Help their children develop and learn
4.   Have support systems
5.   Access desired services, programs, activities in
     their community
Timelines for State Reporting of Child
       Outcome Data to OSEP
(Recent Report from OSEP/ECO National Meeting , Washington, DC,
                          1/12-13/06

   December 2005 SPP: Measurement plan
    submitted
   February 2007 APR: Report on EI-entry
    child data only—no progress data wanted
   February 2008 APR: 1st progress report
   February 2009 APR: 2nd progress report
   February 2010 APR: 3rd progress report
  What is the collaborative
   model for training and
implementation in PEIOS and
        PAPREKA?
                                      DIRECTOR




                                 PAPREKA COORDINATORS:
                        Western PA                 Eastern PA




     RESEARCH SYSTEMS
                                                                EVALUATION
       DATA MANAGER
                                                                ASSISTANTS




STATISTICIAN
PROGRAMMER                             REGIONAL PA
                                       CONSULTANT
             COORDINATORS


                               LIAISON


                               COUNTY
                                MAWA
REGIONAL     SPECS TEAM     SCHOOL DISTRICT
CONSULTANT                   PARTNERSHIP-
                             Administrators


                              TEACHERS
                              CAREGIVERS


               EVALUATION
               ASSISTANT
       The Pennsylvania
   Pre-Kindergarten Analysis
          (PAPREKA)

  A 4-Year Independent Program Evaluation
Research Collaborative to Document the Impact
 and Outcomes of Partnership for Quality Pre-
             Kindergarten (PQP)
SPECS Pennsylvania Early Childhood
   Intervention Outcome Studies
        www.uclid.org; Early Childhood Partnerships: SPECS


   Heinz Pennsylvania Early Childhood Initiatives
    (ECI) [1997-present) (Bagnato, etal., 2002; 2005)
   Pennsylvania Pre-Kindergarten Analysis
    (PAPREKA; 2005-2009] (Bagnato etal. 2005)
   Pennsylvania Early Intervention Outcomes Study
    (PEIOS; 2005-2008) (Bagnato etal., 2005)
   TRACE Center of Excellence for Early Childhood
    Assessment (2002-2007; Dunst, Trivette,
    Bagnato)
   The Efficacy of a Direct Instruction Add-On to a
    DAP Curriculum in 4KIDS at Braddock (2005-
    2007)
   Pennsylvania Preschool Integration Initiative
    (PAPII; 1989-1993) (Bagnato & Neisworth, 1993)
                   SPECS
    Evaluation of Heinz Pennsylvania ECI
           Outcomes (1997-2004)
   Nearly 4000 at-risk children
   Urban and rural communities: Pittsburgh, Erie, Central PA,
    York, Lancaster, Beaver
   School district collaborations
   Steady developmental gains
   Delayed group gains
   Social-behavioral gains, even for disorders
   Early school success for >400 children: K-5
   Reduced grade retention and special education
   Program quality improvements
   Improvements in parenting skills
   Evolving community networking
   Analysis of time-in-intervention effects (“dosage”)
What are the missions,
research questions and
measurement design for
       PEIOS?
    PAPREKA Missions for PQP
   Document child and program outcomes attributable
    to PQP
   Analyze the comparative impact of various school
    district/community ECE partnership models on child
    and program outcomes
   Analyze the early school success of PQP children
    during their K year
   Field-validate the PA Early Learning Standards and
    develop an ELS assessment rubric
   Set the stage for future followup of PQP children into
    early grades and linkage with PSSA results
         PAPREKA Research
         Questions for PQP
1.   PQP children will show a pattern of actual progress which
     will outpace their maturational expectancies.
2.   Program quality and interactive teaching styles will predict
     child progress and outcomes.
3.   Certain types of partnership models will better predict child
     outcomes and program quality.
4.   For both children at-risk and with delays, those who
     participate and remain engaged in the PQP programs for
     the longest periods of time (“dosage”) will show the most
     significant progress.
5.   PQP children will demonstrate early school success in
     preschool and kindergarten based upon three criteria: blind
     teacher assessments on the BSSI; greater % of ELS
     attainments; and reduced grade retention and special
     education placement rates compared to historical district
     benchmarks.
PARTNERSHIP
   MODEL
                                    TIME IN
                                 INTERVENTION




                  CHILDREN’S
                EARLY SCHOOL
              SUCCESS OUTCOMES




                  PROGRAM
                  ASPECTS
   What is the authentic
measurement approach and
 timeline for PAPREKA?
    Natural learning
      environment
“...the ongoing/routine/typical
circumstances and contexts
of a child”…the child’s natural
“developmental ecology” that
forms the environmental basis
for real-life early learning and
adaptation (OSEP, 1998).
    SPECS Approach for PAPREKA
 Design research model through collaboration with
  community partners (“participatory action
  research”)
 Train teachers for ongoing child assessments
 Conduct “authentic assessments” in everyday
  preschool settings using natural observations
 Provide feedback to teachers & parents for
  individualized early learning plans
 Evaluate progress on “Key Performance
  Indicators (KPI): child, program quality, teacher-
  child interactions, & early school success
  outcomes
 Classify type of partnership model in each site
 Assess K achievements of children
 Research impact of PQP
         PAPREKA Measures
1.   Basic School Skills Inventory 3 (BSSI-3)
     (Hammill, etal, 1998)
2.   Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior
     Scale (PKBS) (Merrell, 2003)
3.   Early Childhood Environment Rating
     Scale (ECERS-R) Screener (Cassidy etal, 2005)
4.   Teaching Styles Rating Scale (TSRS)
     (McWilliam, etal, 1996)
5.   PA Early Learning Standards (ELS)
     Rubric (in development)
Sample MIS Database
A Sample of        Some Things I’m Really Good At

Mary’s Skills       put 2 words together (examples: 'Want more,'
                     'Get down')
                    refer to myself by name
                    participate in and enjoy nursery rhymes and
22 months old        finger games like 'Humpty Dumpty' or 'Itsy
                     Bitsy Spider'

                   Some Things I’m Working On
                    copy sounds made by others
                    drink from a regular cup without help
                    answer simple questions

                   Some Things I Want to Learn Next
                    dress myself, but I may need some help or
                      supervision
                    share toys with other children when asked by
                      an adult
                    count two or three objects (saying the number
                      as I touch the object)
    Database
 Merged Document
            Class Snapshot #2
 Student Progress on Selected Assessment
                  Items
                     January 2003 DOCS Assessments
                     Sunshine Center Young Toddlers

                                                                  1       2      3      4     5     6     7    8       9
               Item                                        Briana           Keisha        Mark Akeem Felix Katy Carlos
               #     Item Description                      J.       Ned T. S.      Ali M. S.    A.    J.    B.   S.
                     24 to 35 months
                     draw a straight line from top to
                 295 bottom                                                       gt           n      gt
 Highlighted         use one hand to open and close
  & Bolded       296 scissors                                       gt      gt    gt           n      gt    gt
  Item #’s           usually use plurals and past
                 297 tense correctly when speaking           gt     gt      gt    n            n      gt           gt
  Areas of           use some verb endings ('-s' for
                     plurals, '-ed' for past, '-ing' for
More Program
                 298 present)                                n       n      n     n            n      gt           gt
  Support       299 tell if self is a boy or a girl          gt                                gt
                    bend at the waist to pick up
                    something off the floor (does not
                300 squat)
                    match to the colors red, blue,
                301 green, and yellow                        gt      n      gt    gt           n      n     gt     gt
                    pull down my pants to use the
                302 bathroom
Basic School Skills Inventory
          (BSSI)
   Learning readiness skills for children
   Authentic teacher observational ratings
   Ages: 48-107 months (Pre-3rd grade)
   6 Domains: Spoken language; Reading; Writing;
    Math; Behavior; Daily living
   Standard and T-Scores (100/15; 50/10)
   Functional skills/benchmarks for learning
   Graduated scoring: 0, 1, 2, 3 (mastery)
   Norms = 757 children; 5 states
   PRO-ED
     BSSI Subscale Samples
                   Spoken Language
   Uses complete sentences when talking
   Listens to and retells a story in sequence
   Initiates and maintains conversations with others

                       Reading
   Recognizes upper/lower case letters
   Names letters when sounds are spoken
   Has basic site vocabulary of 5 words
     BSSI Subscale Samples
                          Writing
   Writes from left to right
   Writes first name without a model
   Writes single letters when asked (b, h, m, t, a, e)

                     Mathematics
   Counts objects in set of fewer than 10
   Counts aloud from 1-20
   Understands concepts of 1st, 2nd, 3rd
        BSSI Subscale Samples
              Classroom Behavior
   Makes friends easily
   Takes turns
   Uses teacher feedback to improve learning
   Can attend to activity for 5 minutes
                Daily Living Skills
   Enters and exits school by self
   Assumes responsibility for own belongings
     BSSI Rating Scale
When completing the BSSI, a four-point
rating scale is used to rate each behavior
or skill:


    0 (Does not perform)
    1 (Beginning to perform)
    2 (Performs most of the time)
    3 (Performance indicates mastery)
                         National Normative Comparisons for ECI Childrens’
                        Early Learning Abilities: Second Semester Grades K-1

                                      Basic School Skills Inventory-Revised
                      150

                      140
Mean Standard Score




                      130

                      120

                      110


                      100

                      90

                      80


                      70

                      60
                             Spoken Reading Writing   Math   Classroom   Daily    Overall   Social    Problem Academic
                            language                          behavior   living             skills   behaviors competence
                                                                         skills
                                                               Domain
           Acquisition of Kindergarten Precursor Skills Matching PA Early
                                Learning Standards:
                        Achievement in Final 6 Months of ECI


                              100                                                                                                                   Time 1
% Learning Skill s Achieved




                               90                                                                                                                   Time 2
                               80
                               70
                               60
                               50
                               40

                               30
                               20
                               10
                                0
                                    Asks   Understands   Counts   Names     Writes    Names     Knows/     Names    Retells     Tells    "Reads"   Total
                                                                  letters   letters   printed    "reads"    items             meanings
                                                                                      letters     signs
              Statistical Impact of ECI on Child Progress
         Exceeding Maturation after 31 Months of Programming
[Pooled HR/DD groups; n = 104; p<.000; 48th%ile>68th%ile; 95% confidence interval]


                   850                                               832

                   825
DOCS total score




                   800                                 790
                                                                     800           ECI
                   775                    761
                                                       776           777
                   750                    757                                      expected
                   725                                 735
                                729
                   700          683       713                                      upper margin
                                                                                   of error of
                   675          684                                                expectation
                   650
                         2.30   3.00   3.20     3.40   3.60   3.80   4.30   5.00
                                              Age (in years)
    Preschool and Kindergarten
      Behavior Scales (2003)
   36-72 months
   Dual focus on social skills and problem behaviors
   Competencies/concerns with treatment validity
   Cooperation, interaction, independence, and
    behavior domains (attention, withdrawal)
   Parent and professional ratings
   Norms = 2,855
   Graduated scoring and SS
   PRO-ED
           Preschool and Kindergarten
             Behavior Scales (2003)
SOCIAL SKILLS                  Never   Rarely    Sometimes   Often

Works or plays independently      0      1          2          3

Follows instructions from
adults                            0      1          2          3

Shows self-control                0      1          2          3

Participates in family or
classroom discussions             0       1          2         3

Follows rules                     0       1          2         3

Takes turns with toys and
other objects                     0          1       2         3
         Preschool and Kindergarten
           Behavior Scales (2003)
PROBLEM BEHAVIOR                   Never   Rarely   Sometimes   Often
Acts impulsively without
thinking                             0       1         2         3

Must have his/her own way            0       1         2          3

Is restless and “fidgety”            0       1         2          3

Withdraws from the company
of others                            0       1         2          3

Is overly sensitive to criticism
 or scolding                         0       1         2          3

Disrupts ongoing activities          0       1         2          3
                      Social-Behavioral Progress Pattern for ECI Children:
                             Behavior Disorder Group (18%) T1-T5

                          150                                            Time 1
                          140                                            Time 3
                                                                         Time 5
                          130
Mean Standard Score




                          120
                          110
                          100
                           90
                           80
                           70
                           60
                           50
                                 Social Skills        Problem Behavior


                                                 Domain
      Roles for Authentic
    Assessment in PAPREKA
      Teachers                   PAPREKA Team
[September and May]            [September and May]
    (Note: January for 2006)       (Note: January for 2006)


 BSSI-3                        ECERS-R Screen
 PKBS                          TSRS
        Linking Assessment to State Early
              Childhood Outcomes:
    PA Early Learning Standards (ELS)
   Approaches to Learning      Demonstrate initiative &
                                 curiosity
   Creative Arts               Expresses self through
   Language & Literacy          movement & music
                                Understands language
   Logical-Mathematical         sounds
   Personal-Social             Develops space-shape
                                 concepts
   Program Partnerships        Develops self-control skills
   Science                     Form school partnerships
                                 with ECE
   Social Studies              Acquire knowledge about
                                 matter and living things
                                Understand role of self in
                                 community
                Linking BSSI Items to the
               PA Early Learning Standards
BSSI Area or            BSSI Item                    PA EL Standard
  Domain                                          (for 4- & 5-year-olds)
Spoken         Answers questions                Develop and expand
Language       correctly after listening to a   listening and
               story [SL 11]                    understanding skills
                                                [RL 1]
Reading        Follows printed
               instructions (reads and
               follows directions) [R 20]
Classroom      Demonstrates a readiness
Behavior       to respond when his or her
               turn comes during group
               activities [CB 11]
Daily Living   Follows directions relating
Skills         to paper-and-pencil tasks
               [DL 10]
                Linking BSSI Items to the
               PA Early Learning Standards
BSSI Area or           BSSI Item                  PA EL Standard
  Domain                                       (for 4- & 5-year-olds)
Mathematics    Assigns the correct           Learn about numbers,
               numeral to a set of objects   numerical representation,
               [M 7]                         and simple numerical
                                             operations [LM 1]
               Understands the concepts
               of “first”, “second”, and
               “third” [M8]
Daily Living   Tells time within 5 minutes
Skills         from analog watch or clock
               face [DL 19]
   Overview of Programmatic
   Measures: ECERS & TSRS
  ECERS-R Screener            TSRS
 16 core items       20 items
 Two factors:        Focus on teacher-
1. Activities-         child interaction
   Materials (9)       during instruction
2. Language-          8 teaching strategy
   Interaction (7)     variables: Redirects,
                       Introduces, Elaborates,
                       Follows, Informs,
                       Acknowledges, Praises,
                       Affect
               PAPREKA LONGITUDINAL REPEATED MEASURES
               REGRESSION RESEARCH DESIGN AND TIMELINE

PARTNERSHIP
  MODEL 1
              September                         May




PARTNERSHIP
  MODEL 2




PARTNERSHIP
  MODEL 3




                BSSI-3                      BSSI-3
                PKBS                        PKBS

                ECERS-R                     ECERS-R
                TSRS                        TSRS
    Roles of Implementation Sites in
            the Partnership:
      Implement Assessment & Gain
            Incentive Funds
    Designate PQP Evaluation Liaison
    Train with PAPREKA team to learn
     assessments
    Train teachers in assessments
    Gain signed parent consent
    Ensure completion of assessments by teachers
     2x/year
    Collect completed assessment forms and
     transfer hard copies to PAPREKA Coordinator
    Show teachers how to use feedback letters
    Roles of PAPREKA Team for
       Implementation Sites

   Meet with partnership to form trusting
    collaboration
   Maintain confidentiality
   Train liaison and teachers in authentic
    assessment “best practices”
   Complete programmatic observations 2x/year
   Collaborate to classify type of partnership in
    each program
   Produce child feedback letters
   Issue 1 year-end “report card”
   Analyze aggregate data on child outcomes
    PAPREKA Team Roles with
     The PQP Planning Sites
   Schedule collaborative meetings to develop our
    partnership early as a basis for future work
   Offer early training sessions on assessment
    purposes and eventual evaluation model and
    process
   Demonstrate computer child feedback options for
    programs to guide teaching and quality
    improvements
   Consult with partnerships to facilitate their
    eventual implementation proposal
   Collect extant information from sites on various
    programmatic features
   Begin process of classifying sites by type of
    partnership model
   Not everything that can be
   measured counts, and not
everything that counts can be
             measured (Einstein, 1951)
   The MisMeasure of Man
         (Stephen J. Gould, 1981)

“We pass through this world but
once. Few tragedies can be more
extensive than the stunting of life,
few injustices deeper than the denial
of an opportunity to strive or ever
hope, by a limit imposed from
without, but falsely identified as lying
within” (p.28).

								
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