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Hmong - PowerPoint by 3KuG7B


									Hmong People and Culture

      By: Chaleng N. Lee
    Asian Outreach Liaison
    Hennepin County Library
                  Hmong Population Around
The word Hmong means free. the World Today
They are a group of mountain-                                 •   China – 4,500,000 (estimate)
dwelling people who lived                                     •   Vietnam – 558,000
mainly in Southern China,                                     •   Laos – 316,000
primary in the Guizhouand and                                 •   Thailand – 124,000
Yunna provinces.                                              •   Burma – 2,656

                                                              Western Countries
                                                              •   United States – 200,000-250,000
                                                              •   France – 15,000
                                                              •   Australia – 1,860
                                                              •   Canada – 640
                                                              •   French Guyana – 1,800
                                                              •   Argentina – 250
Estimates from Dr. Nicholas Tappand Dr. Gary YiaLee,
                                                              •   New Zealand - 150
Resource table data from the Hmong Cultural Center            •   Germany - 70
Brief timeline Overview
          • 1790-1860 A.D.: Many Hmong migrate out of
            China to Laos, Northern Vietnam, and
          • 1963-1975: The Vietnam War and the U.S.
            Secret Army in Laos
          • 1975: Hmong Refugees escape to Thailand
          • 1976 to Present Time: Hmong refugees
            move to the U.S., France, Australia, French
            Guyana, and Canada
          • The first Hmong refugees began arriving in
            the United States from Thailand camps in
            December 1975 and January 1976
          • 2004-2006: More than 15,000 Hmong
            refugees from Wat Tham Krabok arrive in
            Minnesota, California, Wisconsin and other

             The photo shows a Black Hmong boy in Vietnam. Hmong began moving
             to Vietnam and other Southeast Asian countries at the end of the
             18thcentury. The photo is from the Tribal Textiles
 209,000 Hmong estimated in the U.S. 2006
       American Community Survey
Top 10 Hmong                Top 10 Hmong
Populations by State        Metropolitan Areas in the U.S.
1. California – 71,244
                            1.   Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN – 40,707
2. Minnesota – 49,200
                            2.   Fresno, CA – 22,456
3. Wisconsin – 38,949
                            3.   Sacramento-Yolo, CA – 16,261
4. Michigan – 8,686
                            4.   Milwaukee-Racine, WI – 8,078
5. North Carolina – 8,451
                            5.   Merced, CA – 6,148
6. Colorado – 3,875
                            6.   Stockton-Lodi, CA – 5,653
7. Georgia – 3,407
                            7.   Appleton-Oshkosh-Neenah, WI – 4,741
8. Washington – 3,050
                            8.   Wausau, WI – 4,453
9. Oregon – 2,729
10. Florida – 1,856         9.   Hickory-Morganton-Lenoir, NC – 4,207
                            10. Detroit-Ann Arbor-Flint, MI – 3,926
                        Hmong Clans
The 18 Hmong Clans         Functions of Hmong Clans
1.Chang/Cha (Tsaab)        •   Clans are Hmong Family Groups, the Clan Name is the
2.Chue (Tswb)                  Family Name
3.Cheng (Tsheej)           •   Clans provide the basic form of social and political
4.Fang (Faj)                   organization in Hmong society
5.Her/Hue (Hawj)           •   At birth, a Hmong person takes his or her father's clan
6.Hang (Taag/Haam)             name and remains a member for life with the exception
                               of Hmong women who marry and take on new
7.Khang (Khaab)                identities in their husbands' clans
8.Kong (Koo)               •   Hmong clans provide their members with social
9.Lee/Ly (Lis)                 support. Members of a clan are expected to provide
10.Kue (Kwm)                   mutual assistance to one another. In the U.S. there
11.Lor/Lo (Lauj)               continue to be Lee, Moua, Vue, etc. clan associations
                               for this purpose
12.Moua (Muas/Zag)
                           •   Hmong clans provide their members with legal and
13.Pha (Phab)                  mediation assistance. Any dispute between two Hmong
14.Thao (Thoj)                 or different clans (such as a divorce) will typically be
15.Vang (Vaaj/Vaj)             settled by leaders of the two clans
16.Vue/Vu (Vwj)            •   Traditionally, clans also provide economic assistance
17.Xiong/Song (Xyooj)          to their members
18.Yang (Yaaj)
                         Hmong Religion
•   About 70% of Hmong in the U.S.          •   Hmong who continue to practice
    continue to practice the traditional        Animism and Shamanism believe that
    Animist Hmong Religion and                  a spiritual world continues to coexist
    Shamanism                                   with the physical world
                                            •   The Hmong believe in many spirit
•   About 1/3 of the Hmong population in        types including ancestral spirits, house
    the U.S. are Christians. Hmong              spirits and spirits in the natural world
    Christians belong to many               •   Many ritual ceremonies are performed
    denominations, but the largest number       by the Hmong for the purpose of
    are members of the Christian                fulfilling the will of the ancestors and
    Missionary Alliance Church                  natural spirits
                                            •   The Hmong use Shamans as a way to
                                                maintain communication between the
                                                physical and the spiritual world
                                            •   Hmong people use Shamans to
                                                perform rituals and sacrifice animals
                                                with the goal of pacifying the various
                                                spirits and curing illnesses
                                            •   Hmong believe in reincarnation
        Hmong Funerals
•   Hmong believe that proper burial and
    worship of ancestors directly influence
    the health, safety and prosperity of the

•   Access to a traditional Hmong funeral
    ceremony is perceived as a religious
    freedom issue by non-Christian
    Hmong families.

•   The Hmong funeral ceremony in
    Minnesota usually involves a full 3 day
    process, it is often longer in Southeast
    Asia. Family members usually will stay
    awake for most if not all of the 3 days
    to take part in ceremonies and give
    proper respect to the deceased

•   Currently, there are 4 Hmong funeral
    homes in the Twin Cities.
                             Hmong marriage

•   Hmong may not marry a member of           •   Hmong Mej Koobs (M8 kong) are
    their own clan, no matter how distantly       marriage negotiators who work to
    related. Marriage are chosen from             resolve past problems between the
    among the other 17 clans.                     families involved while also setting the
                                                  dowry. Two Mej Koobs represent the
•   Hmong perceive a marriage as a                bride’s family and two represent the
    relationship not only between the two         interests of the groom’s family.
    households but also between the two
    clans.                                    •   The Dowry paid by the husband’s
                                                  family to the wife’s family varies, the
•   Divorce is a taboo in traditional Hmong       18 Clan Council in Minnesota has set
    Culture but is becoming more common           the standardized Dowry of $5,000.
    among younger Hmong in the United
    States.                                   •   Many Hmong in the United States
                                                  continue to be married only to the
                                                  Hmong culture and they do not have a
                                                  U.S. marriage license. This sometimes
                                                  causes problems in obtaining health
                                                  and other social program benefits.
                        The Hmong language

•   The Hmong language branches into         •   Many of the Hmong elders were born
    two dialect: White Hmong and Green           before this system and don’t know how
    (or Blue Hmong) Hmong. The colors in         to read and write the language
    these names represent the color used     •   Even though a Romanized system is
    in the traditional women’s costumes of       used, the sound system that goes
    the different groups                         along with the Hmong alphabet is very
•   The differences between the White            different from English
    and Green Hmong dialects are             •   There are 8 tones in the Hmong
    probably not much greater than those         language. The tones completely
    which distinguish British and American       change the meaning of the words that
    English                                      may sound very much alike to non-
•   About equal numbers of the American          Hmong
    Hmong population speak White and         •   The Hmong language uses tonal
    Green Hmong                                  markers, which are the last letter at the
•   The majority of books published in the       end of each word. The makers are not
    Hmong language are in White Hmong            pronounced but indicate the tone
•   In the modern Era, a Hmong writing
    system wasn’t develop until the late
                  Working with Hmong

•   When talking to a Hmong person, he or she may not look directly at you or
    give eye contact. The person you are speaking to may look down or away
    from you. Traditionally looking directly into the face of a Hmong person or
    making direct eye contact is considered to be rude and inappropriate

•   Hmong people tend to be humble. They usually do not want to show or
    express their true emotions in front of others. Often, they will say: "maybe" or
    "I will try" instead of giving a definite positive or negative reply. Sometimes
    they might say "okay" or "yes" which actually means "no", when they feel

•   Most traditional Hmong elders, especially men, do not want strangers to touch
    their heads, or those of their children, due to their religious beliefs and
    personal values
     Working with Hmong continues
• Most traditional Hmong men take on an adult name after they have
  married and had their first child. The adult name is added to the first
  name. Most Hmong men prefer to be called by their adult name

• When conversing with a Hmong family, one should always ask for the
  head of household which is usually the father.

• Hmong who practice the tradition religion also may wear unusual
  accessories such as red necklaces made from silver and brass, white
  cloths around their wrist, and red or white strings on their wrists,
  necks, or ankles. These accessories may be worn for health and
  religious purpose.
 Hmong Cultural and Resource Center
995 University Avenue, Suite 214
Saint Paul, MN 55104
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                    Brookdale Library
                 International Teen Club
“To engage Hmong youth in creating programs for
other Hmong youth at the library and exposing them to
a positive environment while maintaining their Hmong
“To encourage youth leadership,
community involvement, asset
building, and life-long learning.”
          Who are the ITC Teens?
• Hmong teenagers, ages 12 - 18, who live in the
  cities of Brooklyn Park, Brooklyn Center and
  Minneapolis. Students come from five different
  school districts.
• Participants are the children or grandchildren of
  first generation Hmong immigrants who primarily
  came to the United States in 1980's. The Hmong
  population in the Twin Cities is the largest in the
  United States with many families living in the
  northern suburbs.
   Encouraging Youth Leadership
Hmong New Year celebration at Brooklyn Park Library
Hmong New Year Celebration
  Brooklyn Park Library
Learning to Play the Traditional
         Hmong Flute
Performed at the Hmong Culture
Celebration at Brookdale Library
      Making Shakers for
Brookdale Library Baby Storytime
 Making Bilingual Buttons for
Hennepin County Library Staff
         Community Involvement
Staffing Booth at Brooklyn Center Night Out Event
Eighty Scarves Knitted and Distributed
         at Homeless Shelter
Making Valentine Cards for HCL
   Homebound Customers
Staff MELSA Booth at Minneapolis
  Hmong New Year Celebration
                        Asset Building
Partnering with Asian Media Access – a community-based organization
  – to write, direct, and act in a short film on using your local library.
Learning the Art of Script-Writing
Learning How to Act
Learning How to Direct
Bee Vang from Gran Torino
         Lifelong Learning
Poetry writing w/ Hmong author Mai Neng Moua,
    co-author of “Bamboo Among the Oaks”
Book Signing by Mai Neng Moua
Hmong teen book club
Poetry Slam w/ Hmong rap artist,
Tou Saiko Lee “Delicious Venom”
Youth Development

         ITC is an example of a
         library working with
         teens, not for teens. In
         ITC, teens are treated
         as individuals, not
            Adolescent Literacy

Book discussion groups, poetry slams, writing
workshops, and the ITC poetry publication have all
promoted reading among ITC members.
       Learning and Achievement

The ITC has been a model for other Out School
Teen programs at the library.
            Library Foundation

The program is funded through the Library
Foundation of Hennepin County. They have supplied
about $3,000, annually, to fund all aspects of the
program, such as:
• book discussions
• hiring performers
• creating ITC T-shirts
• and many others
ITC was one of the top 5 winners of the YALSA’s fifth round
  of Excellence in Library Service to Young Adults’ project.
  Hennepin County Library/TeenLinks
Poetry with Mai Neng Moua, Writer-in-Residence and
  editor of “Bamboo Among the Oaks”
Poetry with Tou Saiko/ Delicious Venom
What is the International Teen Club (ITC)?
The history of the International Teen Club (ITC)?
Thank You!

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