Introduction to Plant Biotechnology Introduction to Plant Biotechnology Plant by cuiliqing

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									Introduction to Plant
    Biotechnology
           Plant Biotechnology
• Dates back to the origins of agriculture
• Involved collecting/planting seeds
• Later involved controlling pollination and
  selective breeding

  – Pollination: transfer of pollen (male gametes) to
    the pistil (female gametes)
  – Selective breeding: pollinating and fertilizing
    plants with desired characteristics.
 Results of Selective Breeding




mmilam.com




  gobeyondoil.com         organicalcohol.com
       Recent Results of Selective
               Breeding
• Fruits, vegetables,
• Flowers




      flickr.com




  artdurkee.blogspot.com   stuffaverylikes.com
1browngirl.blogspot.com




                          landlogics.net




 picasaweb.google.com
              Plant Fertilization
• 1. pollen grain from
  anther reaches stigma
  of pistil.
• 2. pollen tube forms
  that the sperm use to
  form embryo and food
  source.
• 3. ovule matures into a
  seed; ovary swells into a
  fruit                        tutorvista.com
Plant Fertilization
          Seeds Get Around! 
• Animals eat and then
  excrete
• Wind carries seeds
• Seeds stick to fur or
  feathers                                 tanopurse.com
• Seeds explode from
  pods – blast to a new
  locale


                          piecesfrommyheart-sgervais.blogspot.com
                     Monsanto
• Monsanto.com
  – R&D pipeline
    •   Overview
    •   Corn
    •   Cotton
    •   Soybeans
    •   Specialty
    •   Vegetables
          Archer Daniels Midland
• Adm.com

  – Products and services
     •   Food
     •   Feed
     •   Fuel
     •   Industrials
     •   brands
  Sexual Reproduction vs. Asexual
           Reproduction
• Sexual reproduction increases variety…good
  and bad

• Asexual reproduction…allows maintenance of
  desirable traits
  – Called cloning: production of plants from a single
    parent
           Cloning Techniques
• 1. Cuttings: most common
  – Take pieces of stems, roots or leaves
  – Place in appropriate media (vermiculite, sand,
    perlite, potting soil or water)
  – Plants will develop from these
  – Many houseplants can be cloned this way
• 2. Tissue culture
  – A few cells from the parent are put into a growth
    medium
  – Cells will grow and divide resulting in a mass of
    cells called a callus
  – Put callus in appropriate medium
  – Will grow into a clone
  – Better than cuttings: grow hundreds/thousands of
    plants from a small sample; sterile conditions used
    so no pest problems

								
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