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					Name:                  __________________________________________


Instructor:            __________________________________________


Office:                __________________________________________


Office Hours:          __________________________________________


Phone/E-Mail:          __________________________________________


Web Pages: http://www.cengage.com/communications

                http://www.cengage.com/communications/verderber/communicate13e

                ___________________________________________

                ___________________________________________

                ___________________________________________

                ___________________________________________
      Student Workbook

               for

Verderber/Verderber/Sellnow‘s


     Communicate!
      Thirteenth Edition




        Leonard E. Assante
 Volunteer State Community College

           Updated by
          Robert Weiss
                     TABLE OF CONTENTS

Acknowledgments

Preface

PART I: FOUNDATIONS OF COMMUNICATION

CHAPTER 1: Communication Perspectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Learning Objectives
Interactive Chapter Outline
Key Terms
Activities
Chapter Self-Test
Helpful Links

CHAPTER 2: Perception of Self and Others . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Learning Objectives
Interactive Chapter Outline
Key Terms
Activities
Chapter Self-Test
Helpful Links

CHAPTER 3: Communicating Verbally. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
Learning Objectives
Interactive Chapter Outline
Key Terms
Activities
Chapter Self-Test
Helpful Links

CHAPTER 4: Communicating Through Nonverbal Behaviors.. . . . . . . . . . .63
Learning Objectives
Interactive Chapter Outline
Key Terms
Activities
Chapter Self-Test
Helpful Links
CHAPTER 5: Listening and Responding.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 87
Learning Objectives
Interactive Chapter Outline
Key Terms
Activities
Chapter Self-Test
Helpful Links

PART II: INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION


CHAPTER 6: Communicating across Cultures . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Learning Objectives
Interactive Chapter Outline
Key Terms
Activities
Chapter Self-Test
Helpful Links

CHAPTER 7: Understanding Interpersonal Relationships. . . . .. . . . . . . 125
Learning Objectives
Interactive Chapter Outline
Key Terms
Activities
Chapter Self-Test
Helpful Links

CHAPTER 8: Communication Skills in Interpersonal Relationships . . . 140
Learning Objectives
Interactive Chapter Outline
Key Terms
Activities
Chapter Self-Test
Helpful Links

APPENDIX: Interviewing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Learning Objectives
Interactive Chapter Outline
Key Terms
Activities
Chapter Self-Test
Helpful Links
PART III: GROUP COMMUNICATION

CHAPTER 9: Communicating in Groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Learning Objectives
Interactive Chapter Outline
Key Terms
Activities
Chapter Self-Test
Helpful Links

CHAPTER 10: Problem-Solving in Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 194
Learning Objectives
Interactive Chapter Outline
Key Terms
Activities
Chapter Self-Test
Helpful Links


PART IV: PUBLIC SPEAKING

CHAPTER 11: Developing and Researching a Speech Topic. . . . . . . . . . 214
Learning Objectives
Interactive Chapter Outline
Key Terms
Activities
Chapter Self-Test
Helpful Links

CHAPTER 12: Organizing Your Speech.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 249
Learning Objectives
Interactive Chapter Outline
Key Terms
Activities
Chapter Self-Test
Helpful Links
CHAPTER 13: Adapting Verbally and Visually. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
Learning Objectives
Interactive Chapter Outline
Key Terms
Activities
Chapter Self-Test
Helpful Links

CHAPTER 14: Overcoming Speech Apprehension by Preparing Deliver 293
Learning Objectives
Interactive Chapter Outline
Key Terms
Activities
Chapter Self-Test
Helpful Links

CHAPTER 15: Informative Speaking. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
Learning Objectives
Interactive Chapter Outline
Key Terms
Activities
Diagnostic Speech Checklist
Chapter Self-Test
Helpful Links

CHAPTER 16: Persuasive Speaking. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Learning Objectives
Interactive Chapter Outline
Key Terms
Activities
Chapter Self-Test
Helpful Links


Answers to Sample Quiz Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .357
                           ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

      Many people have assisted me in preparing my second student workbook for the
Communicate! text. As with the first, without their help, this text would not be as
thorough and useful as it is! I would like to specifically acknowledge the following:

      -Deirdre Anderson
      -Breanna Gilbert-Gambacorta
       -Stuart Schrader
      -Cindy McLeod
      -The faculty of the Department of Communication at Volunteer State Community
College

       -And especially to all of those colleagues across the country who have offered
feedback –all constructive- since the release of the first workbook. I hope this new
edition is useful.


      -Leonard Assante, January 1, 2004, Gallatin, TN
                                         PREFACE
       Welcome to the Student Workbook for Communicate! Thirteenth Edition by
Rudolph, Kathleen Verderber, and Deanna Sellnow! Congratulations on your decision
to enroll in an introductory communication course. Effective communication skills are
an important component to a successful career and satisfying interpersonal
relationships. When I decided to accept the offer to write this companion volume, I
knew that for it to be a truly useful addition to the text (they call it an ―ancillary‖ in the
book business), students had to actually use it. And use it regularly. And use it often.
The publisher also sent me copies of other ―student workbooks‖ that had been written
for other texts. In each of these, I found useful and interesting ideas. What I decided I
would try to do was create a book that was hopefully more than a workbook, but actually
a companion guide to the textbook that incorporates both my own ideas and the best of
what I have found in reviewing other similar texts. My hope is that you will find this
approach useful in your study of communication. This Student Workbook‖ is designed
to be used with the textbook in studying for exams, learning key concepts, doing
application exercises, researching speeches and taking notes in class. I encourage you
to take this book to class along with your textbook, use it to help you take notes, to tie
the individual concepts together into the ―big picture,‖ and to assist your communication
education. Below I list the key objectives of the textbook and course. I then introduce
you to the key parts of this book and how they are designed to help you. Good luck!

       Textbook Objectives. The textbook is designed to meet several objectives;
      To make the communication process understood by defining and clarifying key
       terms used to talk about communication.
      To apply communication concepts to situations we encounter in our everyday
       lives.
      To present guidelines for communication competency and skill development.

        Course Objectives. While all communication courses (and communication
instructors!) are different, it is very likely that any course that uses Communicate! has
the following objectives:
     Define and describe the communication process.
     Relate self-perception and behaviors to verbal and non-verbal communication.
     Recognize various meanings of verbal, vocal, and non-verbal symbols and
        their effect on interpersonal relationships.
     Describe conversations related skills, including in electronically mediated
        contexts.
     Identify methods of dealing with conflict in interpersonal relationships.
     List and describe effective techniques for communicating ideas and feelings.
     List and define guidelines for effective listening and responding techniques.
      Describe the nature and stages of relationships.
      Describe the interviewing process and related interpersonal skills
      Identify the process and procedures of decision-making in groups.
      Identify leadership styles
      Identify steps for personal leadership development
      Identify key techniques for successful interviews
      Prepare and deliver an informative speech
      Prepare and deliver a persuasive speech

       This student companion contains the following components:

      Learning Objectives. Each chapter begins with a short list of objectives for that
chapter. These are written in the form ―After studying this chapter you should be able
to…‖. The idea here is to give you an idea of what your instructor expects you to
understand when the chapter is completed. Think of it as a list of your goals for that
chapter. The sample test questions are based on these.

       Interactive Chapter Outline. This is a detailed outline of the corresponding
textbook chapter. It includes space for you to write your own notes. Use it as a guide to
the organization of each chapter and to help you takes notes in class or while reading.
Research suggests that students learn better if they can concentrate more on the
concepts themselves and less on how they are organized when taking notes. The
interactive outline provides the organizational structure, allowing you to concentrate on
the individual terms and ideas.

       Key Terms. A list of all terms highlighted and defined in the margins of the
textbook is presented here. Space is provided for you to write in the definition,
examples, or additional notes. Looking up and writing out the definitions of these terms
is an excellent study aid and helps to build your vocabulary. Test questions often use
these terms.

       Activities. One of the most important features of this companion is the selection
of chapter exercises. These activities are designed to help you understand and apply
the key ideas and concepts from each chapter. There are several different types of
exercises. These include:

       InfoTrac and Internet-based: These activities make use of technology, the
Internet and InfoTrac College Edition, an Internet-based research resource you will find
useful when seeking additional information on key concepts or when doing research for
speeches or projects. This text contains all exercises found in the textbook as well as
additional activities.
      Observe and analyze: In selected locations throughout the textbook are the
Observe and Analyze icons. These prompt you to complete a journal activity in this
workbook. All the necessary journal forms are located in this text.

       Chapter Self-Test. True/false, multiple choice, and short essay questions are
provided. These questions are designed to be similar to those you might encounter in
an examination. If you think any of my answers are incorrect or my questions
misleading, let me know. My students do!

         Helpful Links. At the end of each chapter I list several useful or interesting
Internet links that are relevant to the material covered in that chapter. I have collected
these over the years and have ―borrowed‖ many from colleagues. Feel free to check
them out. All links were accurate and current at the time of writing. If you find a ―dead
link‖, let me know.

       Miscellaneous Resources. Some chapters include other materials in addition
to those listed above. This is especially true in the Group Communication and Public
Speaking chapters.

      I hope this text is useful to you. Please let me know what you think so I can
make future editions even more useful.

       Leonard Assante
       Department of Communication
       Volunteer State Community College
       Gallatin, TN 37066
       Len.Assante@volstate.edu
I
FOUNDATIONS OF
COMMUNICATION


1.   Communication Perspectives
2.   Perception of Self and Others
3.   Communicating Verbally
4.   Communicating through Nonverbal Behaviors
5.   Listening and Responding




                        1
CHAPTER 1: Communication Perspectives

Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer these questions:

      How does the communication process work?
      What characterizes each of the communication settings you will study in
       this course?
      What are basic principles of communication?
      What major ethical issues face communicators?
      What is communication competence, and what can you do to achieve it
      What is communication apprehension, and how does it relate to
       communication competence?

Interactive Chapter Outline
I. The Communication Process
       A. Participants
       ___________________________________________________________

       ___________________________________________________________

       B. Messages
       ___________________________________________________________

       ___________________________________________________________

             1. Meanings

       _____________________________________________________

             2. Symbols

       _____________________________________________________

             3. Encoding and Decoding

       _____________________________________________________

             4. Form (Organization)

       _____________________________________________________



                                        2
C. Context
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________



1. Physical Context

_____________________________________________________


2. Social Context

_____________________________________________________

3. Historical Context

_____________________________________________________

4. Psychological Context

_____________________________________________________

5. Cultural Context

_____________________________________________________




D. Channels
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


E. Interference (Noise)
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________




                           3
     F. Feedback
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________

     G. A Model of the Basic Communication Process
     _________________________________________________________



II. Communication Settings
      ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________


III. Communication Principles
       ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________

     A. Communication Has Purpose
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________

     B. Communication Is Continuous
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________

     C. Communication Messages Vary in Conscious Thought
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________

     D. Communication is Relational
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________




                                4
            E. Communication is Guided by Culture
            ___________________________________________________________

            ___________________________________________________________

            F. Communication has Ethical Implications
            ___________________________________________________________

            ___________________________________________________________


            G. Communication is Learned

            ___________________________________________________________




    IV. Increasing Our Communication Competence
           ___________________________________________________________

            ___________________________________________________________

            A. Develop Communication Skill Improvement Goals

            ________________________________________________________


Key Terms
    communication
    ________________________________________________________________

    ________________________________________________________________

    participants
    ________________________________________________________________

    ________________________________________________________________




                                          5
messages
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

meaning
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

symbols
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

encoding
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

decoding
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


context
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

physical context
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


synchronous technologies
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________




                                6
asynchronous technologies
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


social context
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

historical context
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

psychological context
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

cultural context
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

channels
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


emoticons
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

acronyms
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________




                                7
interference (noise)
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

physical interference

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

External Noise
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


psychological interference
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


internal noise
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

semantic noise
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

feedback
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


communication settings
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________




                                8
intrapersonal communication
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


interpersonal communication
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


small group communication
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


public communication

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

spontaneous expressions
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

scripted message
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

constructed message
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

immediacy
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

control
________________________________________________________________



                                9
________________________________________________________________

culture
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


ethics
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

truthfulness & honesty
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

moral dilemma
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

integrity
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

fairness
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

respect
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

responsibility
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

communication competence
________________________________________________________________



                               10
________________________________________________________________


skills
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


credibility
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


social ease
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


communication comprehension
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

traitlike communication apprehension
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


audience-based communication apprehension
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


situational communication apprehension

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________




                                     11
       context-based communication apprehension
       ________________________________________________________________

       ________________________________________________________________




Activities
Activity 1.1
Test Your Competence: Identifying Elements of the Communication Process



      For the interaction, identify the context, participants, channel, message, noise
and feedback.

1. Contexts:

         Physical:

         Social:

         Historical:

         Psychological:




2. Participants:




3. Channels:




                                               12
4. Message:




5. Interference (Noise):




6. Feedback:




                           13
Activity 1.2
Communication over the Internet
The Internet has thoroughly revolutionized communication over the last 20 years.
Consider the advantages and disadvantages of communicating via the following
Internet-based mediums: e-mail, newsgroups, Internet chat, social networking sites,
social messaging services (e.g., Twitter), and blogs. Spend some time evaluating these
mediums if you are not already familiar with them. Enter your thoughts into a two-
column table, with advantages in the first column and disadvantages in the second. Did
your analysis produce any discoveries that surprised you?
To help you complete this activity, you can use the table provided in your Premium
Website for Communicate! Look for it in the Skill Learning activities for Chapter 1.


Activity 1.3
Communication Functions
Keep a log of the various communications you have today. Tonight, categorize each
episode by one of the five functions it served. Each episode may serve more than one
function. Were you surprised by the variety of communication you engaged in even in
such a relatively short period?
To help you complete this activity, you can use the log sheet provided in your Premium
Website for Communicate! Look for it in the Skill Learning activities for Chapter 1.




Activity 1.4
Conversations

        Think of two recent conversations you participated in, one that you thought went
really well and one that you thought went poorly. Compare them using the form that
follows. Describe the context in which the conversations occurred, the participants, the
rules that seemed to govern your behavior and that of the other participants, the
messages that were used to create the meaning and, the channels used, any noise that
interfered with communication, the feedback that was shared, and the result.




                                              14
         Activity 1.4 Worksheet.                Name:________________________


                           Conversation that                Conversation that
                              Went Well                       Went Poorly


         Cont
ext


       Parti
cipants


         Rule
s


         Mess
ages


         Chan
nel


         Nois
e


         Feed
back



         End
Result




                                               15
Activity 1.5
Use of Email
       Do you use Email? Consider the mailing you have done over the last week.
Using the worksheet that follows, classify the kinds of messages you have written (use
such headings as letters to friends, inquiries to Web sites, questions to professors, and
so forth). How many messages do you receive each day? What percentage of those
do you reply to? Compare your email use to regular mail. How many letters (not bills,
advertisements or solicitations) do you send or receive each day?

      Activity 1.4 Worksheet.            Name:________________________

      Email:
      Kinds of messages written over the past week:

      1.

      2.

      3.

      4.

      5.


      How many messages do you receive each day? _________________

      Percentage that you reply to:      ___________


      Email vs. regular mail:
      How many letters do you send or receive each day?       Send: ___ Receive: ___


Activity 1.7
Using InfoTrac College Edition
        Cultural issues play an important role in global business. For example, in the
airline industry gate agents, flight attendants and other service providers must be able
to communicate effectively with people who come from different cultures and speak
different languages. Using InfoTrac College Edition, you can find an interesting article
on this subject. After typing in ―Intercultural Communication‖ as the Subject Guide,
locate the article ―Plane Talk,‖ by John Freivalds. Read what the airline industry is
doing to make language learning a priority among flight attendants and pilots. How is
this training working to achieve industry goals?




                                               16
Activity 1.8
Using InfoTrac College Edition.

The ability to communicate in complex ways is often seen as a key difference between
humans and lower animals. Using InfoTrac College Edition, type in ―human
communication‖ as the subject guide and locate articles that contrast human and animal
communication. Then list what you perceive to be three key differences between
animal and human communication. (Remember to use the ―View other articles linked to
these subjects‖ function to assist your search.)


Activity 1.9
Using the Web.

Using the links listed at the end of this chapter, browse through some of the sites
devoted to the study and research of communication. Are you surprised by how many
sites there are? About the amount of research being done in the field? About the
different types of communication specialties? Pick any two sites and write a brief
comparison essay. Focus on the content and organization of the two sites. What did
you learn from your visits?

Activity 1.10
Analyzing Feedback.

Keep a one-day log of all the feedback (verbal and nonverbal) you receive from others
while communicating. Ask someone who knows you well to indicate the kinds of
feedback you typically give him or her while they communicate with you. Analyze the
similarities and differences in the feedback you give and receive.

Activity 1.11
Diagram a Communication Event.
Using the model of communication presented in Figure 1.1, diagram a recent
conversation you had. Who were the participants? What messages were sent? Using
what channels? What feedback was given? Was there any noise present? In what
context did the communication take place. Draw a diagram of the model and insert
each answer in the correct location.




                                             17
Activity 1.12
Communication Settings.

After reviewing the four communication settings discussed in the chapter, identify the
setting you feel you are most effective in and why you feel that way. Which setting are
you least effective in? Why? Using the example presented in Figure 1.2 as a guide,
develop a Communication Improvement Plan to help you increase your competence in
the communication setting in which you feel least effective.

Activity 1.13
What Would You Do? A Question of Ethics

Read the scenario in the text, and complete the exercise at the end of the story.


Web Resource 1.1
Profile of Foreign-Born Population

Read more about the U.S. foreign-born population at the U.S. Census Bureau website.
This site provides reports, data tables, and other information about people living in the
United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth.


Web Resource 1.2
Ethics Connection

Learn more about ethics at the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara
University, a forum for research and discussion on ethical issues in American life. The
Center‘s site features information about ethics in business, healthcare and
biotechnology, education, government and public policy, and technology.




                                               18
      Chapter 1 Self-Test (answers at the end of this workbook)
      True/False

      _____1. The mood and feelings each person brings to the conversation is called
―psychological context.‖

      _____2. The process of transforming messages from another person back into
your own ideas is called ―encoding.‖

      _____3. The route traveled by a message is called the context.

      _____4. The major criteria for determining communication competence are
successful and concrete.

     _____5. A salesperson giving reasons why you should purchase a product is an
example of how communication has purpose.

      _____6. Communication is continuous.

      _____7. Skills are goal-oriented actions or action sequences that we can master
and repeat.

      _____8. Fairness means showing regard or consideration for others.

Multiple Choice

_____1. The fact that you are likely to take legal advice from your lawyer is a good
example of the importance of ____________ to communication.
             a. physical context
             b. social context
             c. complementary context
             d. fairness

_____2. The process of creating or sharing meaning is called
           a. communicating
           b. encoding
           c. transmitting
           d. decoding
           e. receiving

_____3. Joe is normally an easygoing person. However, he recently broke up with his
girlfriend to whom he was very close, although he hasn‘t informed most of his friends.
When Lee passes Joe in the hallway and asks how he is doing, Joe walks away without



                                               19
answering. Lee is surprised and puzzled by Joe‘s behavior. Joe‘s response is an
example of
             a. physical context
             b. historical context
             c. psychological context
             d. noise

_____4. If a person is thinking about the great time she had last night while listening to
a class lecture, these thoughts would be considered
              a. encoding
              b. decoding
              c. feedback
              d. noise
              e. none of the above
_____5. Which of the following is considered an ethical question?
              a. Saul gives Maria a reward for finding his lost dog.
              b. Juan takes Leonard‘s book out of his bag.
              c. Cindy tells her friends she bought the food for lunch when in fact
       Amanda did.
              d. Joe punches Nick in the arm.

_____6. Juanita walks into a room and sees her two children arguing over a toy. She
listens patiently and openly while allowing both children to explain their side of the story.
Juanita is exemplifying which ethical implication of communication?
               a. respect
               b. fairness
               c. responsibility
               d. integrity
               e. moral imperative

_____7. According to Samovar and Porter, which three cultural elements have the
potential to affect situations in which people from different backgrounds come together?
               a. perception, communication, context
               b. communication, context, respect
               c. nonverbal processes, context, communication
               d. verbal processes, psychological context, cultural context
       e. perception, verbal processes, nonverbal processes

_____8. Mandy is preparing a speech on a complex chemical process for her Organic
Chemistry class. She spends a great deal of time deciding the order of main ideas, the
use of examples, and preparing summary statements. Mandy‘s project is a good
example of the importance of what aspect of messages?
             a. form or organization
             b. channel
             c. noise
             d. decoding



                                                 20
      Essay

      1. Explain how the different types of noise affect meaning.




       2. Define communication competence, and discuss various strategies we can
use to achieve and improve our competence.




        3. How have mourning rituals changed in U.S. society? How do those changes
reflect current cultural and technological trends?




      4. Describe a moral dilemma. Provide an example. Why do many people lie
when in a moral dilemma?




                                              21
      Helpful Links
       http://www.natcom.org - National Communication Association (NCA)
       NCA is the largest organization of communication students, researchers and
teachers. This site previews some of the activities communication scholars engage in
and offers a variety of links to other sources.

    http://www.cios.org - Communication Institute for Online Scholarship (CIOS)
    CIOS provides discussion in a variety of current issues in the filed of
communication, links to extensive resources and links designed especially for students.

      http://www.mapnp.org/library/grp_skll/grp_skll.htm - Group Skills
      A selection of web resources assembled by Carter McNamara of the
Management Assistance Program for Non-Profits, this site lists numerous resources for
group dynamics and problem-solving.

      http://www.hack.gr/jargon/ - Jargon –The New Hacker’s Dictionary
      This link is one of many on the net to one version or another of ―The New
Hacker‘s Dictionary,‖ a list of the slang of the computer user and the computer-
mediated-communication user.

      http://www.toastmasters.org/pdfs/top10.pdf - Ten Tips for Effective Public
      Speaking
      This guide created by Toastmaster‘s International shows the importance of
understanding the setting when making oral presentations. Part of the Toastmaster‘s
website http://www.toastmasters.org

       (See your Communicate! companion website for links to other websites
referenced in your text.)




                                              22
CHAPTER 2: Perception of Self and Others

Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer these questions:

      How does the perception process work?
      What is a self-concept, and how is it formed and maintained?
      What is self-esteem, and how is it developed?
      How might culture or gender influence our perceptions of self?
      How can our perceptions of self change?
      How can our perceptions of self become distorted?
      How do perceptions of self affect our communication with others?
      What influences our perceptions of others?
      What can we do to improve the accuracy of our perceptions of others?

Interactive Chapter Outline
I. The Perception Process
       A. Attention and Selection
       ___________________________________________________________

       ___________________________________________________________

             1. Needs

             _____________________________________________________

             2. Interests

             _____________________________________________________

             3. Expectations

       _____________________________________________________


       B. Organization of Stimuli
       ___________________________________________________________

       ___________________________________________________________




                                       23
           1. Simplicity

           _____________________________________________________

           2. Pattern

           _____________________________________________________


     C. Interpretation of Stimuli
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________


II. Perception of Self: Self-Concept and Self-Esteem
       A. Forming and Maintaining a Self-Concept
       ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________

           1. Personal Experiences

      ___________________________________________________

           2. Reactions and Responses of Others

      ___________________________________________________

     B. Developing and Maintaining Self-Esteem
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________


     C. The Influence of Gender and Culture on Self-Perception
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________

     D. Changing Self-Perceptions
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________




                                     24
C. Accuracy of and Distortions of Self-Concepts
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


      1. Self-Fulfilling Prophecies

      ___________________________________________________

      2. Filtering Messages

      ___________________________________________________


      3. Media Images

      __________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________


D. The Effects of Self-Perceptions on Communication

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

     1. Self-Perceptions Moderate How We Talk to Ourselves
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

     2. Self-Perceptions Moderate How We Talk about Ourselves to
        Others
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


      3. Self-Perceptions Affect Communication Apprehension

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________




                                 25
III. Presenting Self to Others
        ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________

      A. Self-Monitoring
      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________

      B. Social Construction of Self

      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________




IV. Perception of Others

      A. Observing Others
      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________



      B. Using Stereotypes
      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________

C. Emotional State
     ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________


      D. Perceiving Others‘ Messages
      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________




                                       26
      E. Improving the Accuracy of Social Perceptions
      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________

Key Terms
perception
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

pattern
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

interpret
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


self-concept
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


ideal self-concept


self-esteem
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

incongruence
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

self-fulfilling prophecies
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


                                27
self-talk
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


self-monitoring

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


role
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

uncertainty reduction
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

implicit personality theories
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

halo effect
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

stereotype
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

prejudice
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________




                               28
       discrimination

       ________________________________________________________________

       ________________________________________________________________

       attributions
       ________________________________________________________________

       ________________________________________________________________

       perception check

       ________________________________________________________________

       ________________________________________________________________




Activities



Activity 2.1
Observe and Analyze: Who Am I?
        Using the directions found in Skill Learning Activity 2.1 in your textbook, complete
the following two worksheets.




                                                29
 Self-Perception Worksheet
      I am         I have             I            I am           By
skilled at   the ability to   know things   competent at   personality I
                                 about         doing           am




                                       30
 Others’ Perceptions Worksheet
      Other         Other        Other          Others         Others
s believe    s believe I   s believe I    believe I am   believe that
that I am     have the    know things    competent at         my
skilled at    ability to     about           doing       personality
                                                              is




                                    31
Activity 2.2
Who Am I?

Compare your self-perception and others‘ perception lists from Activity 2.1. How are
these lists similar? Where are they different? Do you understand why they are
different? Are your lists long or short? Why do you suppose that is? Reflect on how
your own interpretations of your experiences and what others have told you about you
have influenced your self-concept. Now organize the lists you created, perhaps finding
a way to group characteristics. Use this information to write an essay titled ―Who I am,
and how I know this.‖ If you wish, you can use the table below to help organize your
thoughts.



                                                                       OTHER-
           CATEGORY                  SELF-PERCEPTION
                                                                   PERCEPTION
      Skills




      Abilities




      Knowledge




      Competencies




Personality Characteristics




                                               32
Activity 2.3
The Speech of Introduction about You

Listen to the speech of introduction that a classmate gives about you. How do you feel
about what was said? Did anything the speaker said embarrass you? On a scale of 1 to
10, rate how pleased you were to be introduced as you were. What did you like about
what the speaker said about you? What did you dislike? Do you think that the other
members of the class have an accurate perception of who you are based on what the
speaker said about you? Why or why not? Is there anything the speaker did not know
about you that, if he or she had included it in the speech, would have helped the
speaker to do a better job? If you could go back and have your get-acquainted
conversation with the speaker again, what would you do or say differently to help the
speaker do a better job of presenting you as you would like others to know you? How
does all of this relate to the concept of self-monitoring? This activity corresponds with
Skill Learning Activity 2.2 in your textbook.



Activity 2.4
Monitor Your Enacted Roles

For three days, record your roles in various situations such as ―lunch with a best friend‖
or ―meeting professor about a class project.‖ Describe the roles you chose to enact in
each setting such as student, friend, or customer.
At the conclusion of this three-day observation period, analyze what you observed. To
what extent does your role behavior change across situations? What factors seem to
trigger you to enact a particular role? Are there certain roles that you take on more than
others? Are there roles you need to modify? Are there roles you are reluctant to enact
that would help you be a more effective communicator? How satisfied are you with the
roles you took? With which are you most and least pleased?
Write a paragraph explaining what you have learned.
You can find a data collection sheet for this activity at your Premium Website for
Communicate! Look for the Skill Learning activities for Chapter 1.

Activity 2.5
Stereotypes and Media

Spend a few days cataloging the stereotypes in mass media. Enter your research into a
log broken out by the following categories: (1) medium of communication (TV, radio,
magazines, newspapers, the Internet, or signage/posters); (2) source (general content
or advertising); (3) target (race, ethnicity/culture, religion, gender, sexual orientation,
age, income, profession, hobby, or appearance); and (4) connotation (positive or
negative).

After you have completed your research, analyze the results. What target was most
frequently stereotyped in your findings? Did some mediums of communication indulge in


                                                33
more stereotyping the others? Did regular programming or advertising employ more
stereotyping than the other? Were the majority of the stereotypes positive or negative in
connotation? Did anything in your research surprise you? Write a paragraph explaining
what you learned in this activity.
You can find a data collection sheet for this activity at your Premium Website for
Communicate! Look for the Skill Learning activities for Chapter 1.


Activity 2.6
Culture and Perception

1. Describe a recent encounter you had with someone of a different race or ethnic
   group.
    _____________________________________________________________
    _____________________________________________________________
2. How comfortable did you feel talking with this person?
    _____________________________________________________________
    _____________________________________________________________
3. In what ways did this person's race or ethnic group influence how you acted or
   reacted?
    _____________________________________________________________
    _____________________________________________________________
4. Did it affect the topics you discussed or the care with which you phrased your
   messages?
    _____________________________________________________________
    _____________________________________________________________
Activity 2.7
Accuracy and Inaccuracy in Perception.

Some perceptions are not always accurate. To test this idea, do the following activity.
Record your work on the worksheet that follows.
       A. Observe several other students in your classes in an attempt to determine
their mood. Choose both students you know well as well as those you don‘t know.
       B. Using the three-step process of perception as outlines in Chapter 2, do the
following:
             1.     Attend and select stimuli. List what items you focused on.7
             2.     Organize the stimuli. Look for any patterns in behavior. What did
             you observe?



                                               34
             3.     Interpret the stimuli. What conclusion have you come to
             concerning his/her mood?
      C. Finally, check your perception. Ask the students you observed to confirm
your perception. Note the stimuli you observed and the conclusion you came to. Is
each student‘s mood what you thought it would be?




                                             35
2.7 Accuracy and Inaccuracy in Perception Worksheet.

Name: ____________________________


                                                               Kn
                                                           ow/            Ac
       Stimuli         Patterns          Interpretation
                                                              Not   curate?
                                                          Know?




                                        36
Activity 2.8
Culture and Self-Esteem/Self-Concept.

Imagine you live in a culture which values age over youth and group over individual. In
a brief essay, speculate as to how your life would be different than it is now. Are these
differences positive, negative, both or neither? If you live in such a culture, reverse the
assignment.


Activity 2.9
Knowledge of Self.

Read each of the following scenarios. Put yourself in each situation, and answer the
questions for each.

      Situation: A friend and classmate asks if you want a copy of a stolen answer
sheet he has for an upcoming exam in your next class. How do you answer?




      Situation: Someone you are really attracted to has just asked you out to a
dance, but you had already agreed to do something with a friend that evening. How do
you answer?




       Questions:
       1. What role did your self-concept play in your responses?




      2. What role did others‘ possible impressions of your behavior play in your
responses?



                                                37
Activity 2.12
What Would You Do? A Question of Ethics

Read the scenario
in the chapter. Answer the questions at the end in the space below. Your essay should
include a plan for Mr. Hernandez and discuss how he can use social perceptions.




Web Resource 2.1
Real Self-Esteem?

Read this provocative article about self-esteem by Dr. Richard O‘Connor, ―Self-Esteem:
In a Culture Where Winning Is Everything and Losing Is Shameful.‖ What points does
O‘Connor make? How does his conclusion coincide with what you have observed?


Web Resource 2.2
Self-Esteem Model

The Web site Coping.org is the home of onsite manuals for coping with a variety of life‘s
stressors, including the Model of Self-Esteem. This site provides information about self-
esteem and offers suggestions for improving one‘s self-esteem.


Web Resource 2.3
Identity in Cyberspace

With the advent of the Internet and anonymity it affords, we now create roles that are
quite different from our offline roles. Read about five interlocking factors that are useful
in understanding how people manage identities in cyberspace.




                                                 38
Web Resource 2.4
Fighting Words with Words

Learn how to identify the sweeping generalizations behind stereotypes and how to use
balancing statements to counteract them with this Coverdell World Wise Schools
activity. Coverdell World Wise Schools seeks to foster student inquiry about the world
and others and began as a correspondence ―match‖ program between Peace Corps
Volunteers and U.S. school students.




                                              39
      Chapter 2 Self-Test (answers at the end of this workbook)
      True/False

       _____1. Selectively attending to information and assigning meaning to it is
called perception.

        _____2. As you get ready for the big game, you say to yourself, ―I know I won‘t
play well today, I‘m too stressed,‖ and you end up playing poorly. This is an example of
a self-fulfilling prophecy.

       _____3. The three steps of the perception process are selection, retention and
attention.

      _____4. Self-concept and self-esteem are essentially the same.

      _____5. It is possible to improve the accuracy of our perceptions.

      _____6. Prejudice and discrimination are synonymous.

      _____7. Our emotional state at the time of a perception may influence that
perception.


      Multiple Choice

      _____1.   Self-esteem is defined in your text as
           a.   our overall evaluation of our competence and personal worthiness
           b.   the list of characteristics that define who we are
           c.   part of the self-perception process that never changes
           d.   all of the above


      _____2. When you focus on how you are presenting yourself to others, you are
engaging in
            a.   the self-fulfilling prophecy
            b.   self-monitoring
            c.   attribution
            d.   stereotyping


      _____3.   The richer our self-concept
           a.   the higher our self-esteem
           b.   the lower our self-esteem
           c.   the better we are at the selection phase of perception
           d.   the better we know and understand who we are


                                              40
      _____4. Suppose you prepare a meal for several friends. One of them
comments that you are a good cook. You ignore the message or reply, ―It was nothing
special, anyone could have made that meal.‖ This is an example of
             a. self-fulfilling prophecy
             b. how we may distort self-perceptions by filtering messages
             c. a negative role
             d. halo effect

       _____5. You just received your income tax refund. You are in a very good mood
all day. As a result you tend to see other people and events in a more positive way than
you might otherwise. This is an example of
              a. how emotional states influence our perception
              b. halo effect
              c. roles
              d. none of the above

      _____6.   Which of the following is not a way of improving social perceptions?
           a.   questioning the accuracy of your perceptions
           b.   ignoring information that does not fit a pattern
           c.   seeking more information to verify perceptions
           d.   realize that your perceptions of a person will change over time

      _____7. A role is:
           a. a pattern of learned behaviors that people use to meet the perceived
      demands of a given context
           b. enacted based on our own needs and relationships
           c. something we only enact one of each day
           d. a and b

       _____8. You make a dinner date with your best friend for 7pm. It is now 7:30pm
and they have not shown up yet. You guess that your friend had something come up
that they have no control over. This is an example of:
             a. improved social perception
             b. social role
             c. attribution
             d. self-presentation




                                              41
      Essay

      1. Contrast self-perception and self-esteem




     2. Describe how we can improve our perception ability. Offer at least one
example.




      3. Define stereotypes, and discuss the ways the affect our perceptions of others.




      4. What are the different strategies we can use to improve our social
perceptions? Provide an example of each.




                                              42
        5. Define the concept of a role, and identify some of the roles you are playing at
this stage of your life.




      6. Explain how advertising relates to our self-concepts and ideal self-concepts.
Provide examples of popular ads that utilize this approach.




      Helpful Links
     http://www.adiosbarbie.com – Adios Barbie
     This site looks at self-esteem by discussing the ―Barbie image‖ and its effect on
women and men.

      http://www.parascope.com/articles/0397/sublim.htm - The Subliminal Scares
      This link connects to an article on the impact of subliminal meanings on the
perception process.

      http://www.mentalhelp.net/psyhelp/chap7/chap7l.htm - Disliking Others
      Without Valid Reasons: Prejudice
      Material from the book Psychological Self Help by Clayton Tucker-Ladd helps the
reader understand the roots of prejudice.

      http://www.mentalhelp.net/psyhelp/chap14/chap14d.htm - Changing your Self-
Concept and Building Self-Esteem
      Another set of material from Tucker Ladd‘s book looks at self-concept and self-
esteem.

       http://www.serve.com/shea/stereodf.htm - The Meaning and Significance of
Stereotypes in Popular Culture
       Many people seem to have stereotypical ideas concerning people of other
cultures. Robert Shea looks at stereotypes of Americans held by people from other
cultures.

      http://www.coping.org/seas/model.htm – Tools for Coping



                                               43
CHAPTER 3: Communicating Verbally

Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer these questions:

      What are the purposes of language?
      What is the relationship between language and meaning?
      How do culture and gender affect language use?
      How can you make you language more clear?
      How can you make your messages more memorable?
      How can you ensure your listener will understand the words you choose?
      How can you phrase messages to demonstrate linguistic sensitivity?

Interactive Chapter Outline
I. The Nature of and Purposes for Language
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

       A. Purposes of Language

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

       B. The Relationship between Language and Meaning

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


     C. Culture and Gender Influences on Language Use
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________




                                       44
II. Improving Language Skills

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

      Language that Clarifies Meaning

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

     Make Your Messages Memorable
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


      Use Linguistic Sensitivity

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________




Key Terms
language
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

speech community
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

words
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________




                                        45
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


denotation
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

connotation
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________



syntactic context
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

low-context cultures
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


high-context cultures
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________



feminine styles of language
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________




                               46
masculine styles of language
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


specific words
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

concrete words
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


precise words
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


dating information
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


indexing
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


Generalizations
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


vivid wording
_______________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________



                               47
simile
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


metaphor
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


emphasis
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


jargon
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


slang
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


generic language

_______________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________




                               48
Activities
Skill Learning Activity 3.1
Identifying Specific Language

Pick an article or essay from your favorite magazine (either the print or online version).
Read through the piece, highlighting instances in which the writer uses concrete words
and precise words. Also identify places in which the writer employs abstractions or
generalizations that could be made more specific if they were expressed with either
concrete or precise words.


Activity 3.2
Dating and Indexing Messages

Read the examples below and practice adjusting messages so that they are dated or
indexed. After writing your first draft, check to make sure that your revision is more
concrete, precise, and provides examples and details. Now read your response aloud.
Does it sound "natural"? If not, revise it until it does.
When you‘re done with this activity, compare your answers to the authors‘ at the
Premium Website for Communicate! Look for them in the Skill Learning activities for
Chapter 3.

    1. Oh, Jamie's an accounting major, so I'm sure she keeps her checkbook
    balanced.
2. Forget taking statistics; it's an impossible course.
3. Never trying talking to Jim in the morning; he's always grouchy.
4. Don't bother to buy that book for class. You'll never use it.
5. I can't believe you bought a dog. I mean, all they do is shed.


3.3: Similes and Metaphors
Over the next three days, as you read books, newspapers, and magazine articles and
listen to people around you talk, make notes of both the trite and original similes and
metaphors you hear. Choose three that you thought were particularly vivid. Write a
paragraph in which you briefly describe how and why they impressed you.



Activity 3.4
Test Your Competence - Clarifying General Statements
       Rewrite each statement on the following page to make it more specific. Work to
make general and abstract words more concrete and precise. When you‘re done with
this activity, compare your answers to the authors‘ at the Premium Website for
Communicate! Look for them in the Skill Learning activities for Chapter 3.



                                                49
1. My neighbor has a lot of animals that she keeps in her yard.


2. When I was a little girl, we lived in a big house in the Midwest.



3. My husband works for a large newspaper.



4. She got up late and had to rush to get to school. But she was late anyway.



5. Where‘d you find that thing?



6. I really liked going to that concert. The music was great.



7. I really respect her.



8. My boyfriend has long hair and a tattoo.



9. She was wearing a colorful scarf and bright shirt that was a little short.



10. We need to have more freedom to choose our courses.




                                          50
Activity 3.5
Observe and Analyze: Crude Language Audit
        For the next three days, keep a log of each incident where you use crude or
vulgar language or hate speech. Record where you were, who you were with, what you
said, and why you choose to use the language you did. At the end of the three days
review and analyze your data. Based on your analysis write a paragraph in the space
below that describes your crude language behavior. How pervasive is your use of
crude speech? Are there particular settings or certain people you are more likely to
swear in front to? Are there settings or with people you are less likely to swear? What
words are your ―favorites.‖ Why do you use crude speech? Then evaluate how
satisfied you are with the frequency with which you use vulgar language and with your
reasons for using crude speech. Do you think that you are more crude and vulgar in
your speech practices today or has your use of crude language improved. To what do
you attribute any change. You can download additional log sheets at the Communicate!
web site.




                                              51
       Crude Language Audit Log Sheet for Activity 3.5
       Date         Setting        Others            Crude        Reaso
and                          present           language        n for
aprx time                                                    language




                                          52
Activity 3.6
Denotative Meanings

       1. Compile a list of ten slang or ―in‖ words. Discuss how the meanings you
assign to these words differ from the meanings your parents or grandparents assign to
them (for example, ―He‘s bad!‖). Use the worksheet below to complete your work.


                                                                 Parents/Grandpare
              Word                    Your Meanings
                                                                 nts Meanings
      1.


      2.


      3.


      4.


      5.


      6.


      7.


      8.


      9.


      10.




                                             53
       2. Write your own definition of each of the following words; then go to a
dictionary and see how closely your definition matches the dictionary‘s

      building__________________________________________________________

      ________________________________________________________________

      justice___________________________________________________________

      ________________________________________________________________

      love_____________________________________________________________

      ________________________________________________________________

      success__________________________________________________________

      ________________________________________________________________

      band____________________________________________________________

      ________________________________________________________________

      glass____________________________________________________________

      ________________________________________________________________

      peace___________________________________________________________

      ________________________________________________________________

      freedom__________________________________________________________

      ________________________________________________________________

      honor____________________________________________________________

      ________________________________________________________________



Activity 3.7
Monitoring Your Use of Language

    Tape-record at least ten minutes of your conversation with a friend of family
member. Talk about a subject that you hold strong views about: affirmative action,



                                               54
welfare, taxes, candidates for office, etc. Be sure to get permission from the other
person before you tape. At first, you may feel self-conscious about the recorder. But as
you get into the discussion, it is quite likely that you will be able to converse normally.
       Next, play back the tape and take notes of sections where your language might
have been clearer. Using these notes, write better expressions of your ideas for each
section you noted by using more precise, specific, and concrete language and by dating
and indexing generalizations.
       Now replay the tape again. This time take notes on any racist, sexist, or biased
expression that you used. Using these notes, write more appropriate expressions for
the ones you used.
       Finally, using the worksheet that follows, write a paragraph or two that describes
what you have learned about your use of language from this experience.

       Monitoring Your Use of Language Worksheet

       Conversation time and date: _________________________________

       Conversation participants: ___________________________________

       Conversation topic: ________________________________________

       Areas of unclear language: __________________________________

       ________________________________________________________

       ________________________________________________________


       Areas of sexist, racist or biased language: ______________________

       ________________________________________________________

       ________________________________________________________


       What have you learned?




                                                55
Activity 3.8
Using Technology

How your ideas are worded can make a great deal of difference in whether people will
understand or be influenced by what you say. You can use your word processing
software to help you with your brainstorming. Nearly every word processing package
has a thesaurus (a list of words and their synonyms) for the user to access. For
instance, in the Microsoft Word package, the user can highlight a specific word, click on
―Tools,‖ drag down to ―Thesaurus,‖ and be presented with synonyms for the word. For
practice, select any word that you would like to improve upon and look at the synonym
choices available. Then select the choice you believe would be most meaningful. For
instance, if you highlighted ―difficult‖ when you clicked on Thesaurus, you would be
shown hard, laborious, arduous, and strenuous. If you wanted more choices, you could
then highlight one of these words to see additional choices. If you are trying to make
the point that studying can be difficult, you might decide to use arduous as the most
precise word.



Activity 3.9
What Would You Do? A Question of Ethics

Read the scenario titled What Would You Do? A Question of Ethics, and then answer
the questions that follow in the space below.




3.7 Using InfoTrac College Edition
Although it is easy to spot sexism in language when someone uses a negative slang
term to describe a person of the opposite sex, there are other ways language can be
considered ―sexist.‖
Using the InfoTrac College Edition subject guide, enter the search terms ―sexism in
language.‖ Click on ―Periodical references.‖ See ―Gender Issues in Advertising
Language,‖ Nancy Artz (1999). Focus on one of the issues discussed in the article.
What is the significance of the examples presented? Why should people be concerned
about this issue?


3.8 Using InfoTrac College Edition



                                               56
It is interesting to observe how language use and word choice changes over time.
Using the InfoTrac College Edition subject guide, attempt to find information on how
language use and word choice has changed over time. Be sure to discuss the article
―One person's word choice can be another's insult‖ Sarasota Herald Tribune, Dec 9,
2001 pBS3. What are some of the reasons for the changing use of words?


3.9 Using InfoTrac College Edition
Using InfoTrac College Edition, find and read the article ―I love you man: Overt
expression of affection in male-male interaction,‖ by Mormon and Floyd. Summarize
the article using the worksheet below, then develop guidelines for how men can use
language to develop intimacy.

      Article Summary:




      Guidelines for Creating Intimacy Using Language:




                                             57
Web Resource 3.1
Merriam-Webster Online

An easy way to consult a thesaurus is to access Merriam-Webster‘s online Collegiate
Thesaurus. Use your Communicate! website to access Web Resource 3.1 Merriam-
Webster Online. Select the chapter resources for Chapter 3, then click on ―web
resources.‖



Web Resource 3.2
Slang Dictionary
Slang and jargon are so pervasive that there are special dictionaries devoted to the
specialized vocabulary of different communities. To access one maintained by
California State University at Pomona, use your Communicate! website to access Web
Resource 3.2: Slang Dictionary at the Communicate! Web site.




                                             58
      Chapter 3 Self-Test (answers at the end of this workbook)
      True/False

       _____1. The text defines language as the body of symbols and the systems for
their use that are common to the people of the same language community.

      _____2. Connotative meanings are the standard dictionary meanings for words.

      _____3. A word‘s meaning can be affected by other words in the same
sentence.

      _____4. Saying ―35mm SLR‖ instead of ―camera‖ is an example of using
concrete words.

      _____5. Dating information is telling when the information was true.

      _____6. The United States is a speech community

      _____7. One of the uses of language is to talk about language.


      Multiple Choice

      _____1.   Which of the following is true of denotative meanings?
           a.   meanings change over time
           b.   meanings vary depending on life experiences
           c.   there can be more than one denotative meaning for a word
           d.   all of these are true
           e.   none of these are true

      _____2.   Saying ―A professor puts in long, hard years to earn his degree‖
           a.   is an example of word connotation
           b.   is an example of word denotation
           c.   may be an example of sexist language
           d.   may be an example of specific language

      _____3.   One of the best skills to use to avoid stereotyping is
           a.   dating
           b.   feedback
           c.   denotation
           d.   connotation
           e.   indexing




                                               59
       _____4. In response to the statement ―I don‘t think we should ask Jessica to be
on the team – smart kids make lousy athletes,‖ you might use an indexing response
such as
             a. although geniuses are usually weak, we don‘t know Jessica is a genius
             b. we can still ask her to be on the team because she is our friend
             c. Its true Jessica is smart, but we don‘t know if she is athletic too.
             d. Jessica is not as smart as you think
             e. None of these are indexing statements

      _____5.   Jargon
           a.   is technical terminology
           b.   is never appropriate
           c.   is often useful for dating information
           d.   is the same as slang
           e.   none of the above

      _____6.   A speech community
           a.   is a group of people who speak the same language
           b.   can range in size from just a few people to hundreds of millions
           c.   is the same as a language community
           d.   all of the above
           e.   none of the above

      _____7. Your friend tells you he will be around to see you ―tomorrow morning.‖
He shows up at 11:45 AM while you expected him at 9 AM. You and he get into a
discussion about the meaning of ―tomorrow morning.‖ This is an example of
             a. how we use language to discuss things outside our immediate
                 experience.
             b. indexing
             c. using language to limit
             d. using language to talk about language

      _____8.   In a high-context culture,
           a.    ―Yes‖ may mean ―no.‖
           b.    meaning is presented directly
           c.    context is irrelevant
           d.    none of the above
           e.    all of the above




                                                 60
      Essay

      1. Discuss the differences between low-context and high-context cultures.




     2. Analyze the statement ―women tend to use both more intensifiers and more
hedges than men.‖




     3. Compare and contrast connotative and denotative language. Provide
examples.




     4. What are the key aspects of speaking appropriately? Be sure to include an
example of each.




      5. What are the four uses of language? Provide an example of each.




      6. Should hate speech in the media be regulated? Why or why not? If yes, then
who should decide what can be broadcast, by what mechanisms, and under what
circumstances?




                                             61
         Helpful Links

     http://www.apa.udel.edu/apa/publications/texts/nonsexist.html - Guidelines for
     Non-Sexist Use of Language
     The language policy of the American Philosophical Association is an excellent
example of both the rationale for and implementation of language use guidelines.

       http://www.uottawa.ca/academic/arts/writcent/hypergrammar/conndeno.html -
       Connotations and Denotations
       Written by David Megginson of the University of Ottawa, this site offers a concise
look at connotations and offers an example.

http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/inclusiv.ht
m - Do’s and Don’ts of Inclusive Language
        From the Honolulu County Committee on the Status of Women. A set of
guidelines on the use of inclusive language.

         http://www.britannica.com/dictionary - Britannica Dictionary and Thesaurus
         Another good online dictionary and thesaurus.

         (See your Communicate! website for links to other websites referenced in your
text.)




                                                62
   CHAPTER 4: Communicating through Nonverbal
Behaviors

   Learning Objectives
   After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer these questions:

         What are the characteristics of nonverbal communication?
         In what ways do we communicate nonverbally with our bodies?
         In what ways do we communicate nonverbally with our voices?
         In what ways do we communicate nonverbally with our use of space?
         In what ways do we communicate nonverbally with our use of time?
         What can you do to improve your nonverbal communication skills?

   Interactive Chapter Outline
   I. Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication Behavior
         ___________________________________________________________

          ___________________________________________________________

   II. Types of Nonverbal Communication
          ___________________________________________________________

          ___________________________________________________________


          A. Use of Body: Kinesics
          ___________________________________________________________

          ___________________________________________________________

               1. Gestures
          ___________________________________________________________

          ___________________________________________________________


                2. Eye Contact

          ___________________________________________________________

          ___________________________________________________________


                                          63
     3. Facial Expression

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


     4. Posture

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

     5. Haptics
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


B. Use of Voice: Vocalics
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


     1. Pitch
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


     2. Volume
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


     3. Rate

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________




                            64
     4. Quality (Timbre)
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


     5. Intonation
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


     6. Vocalized Pauses
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


C. Use of Space: Proxemics
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


     1. Personal Space

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

     2. Physical Space

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

     3. Artifacts
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________




                          65
      D. Use of Time: Chronemics

      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________

II. Self-Presentation Cues

      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________

      A. Physical Appearance
      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________


      B. Clothing and Grooming
      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________


III. Guidelines for Improving Nonverbal Communication
       ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________


      A. Sending Nonverbal Messages

      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________

      B. Interpreting Nonverbal Messages


      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________




                                    66
Key Terms
nonverbal communication behaviors

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

kinesics or body motions

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

gestures
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

illustrators
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

emblems
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

adaptors

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

eye contact or gaze
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________




                                    67
oculesics

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

facial expression
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

posture
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

body orientation
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

body movement
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

haptics
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


vocalics
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

paralanguage
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________




                               68
pitch
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

volume
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

rate
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

quality
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


intonation
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


vocalized pause

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

proxemics
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

personal space
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________




                               69
physical space
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

artifacts
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

chronemics
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

monochronic time orientation
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

polychronic time orientation
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

endomorphs
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

mesomorphs
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

ectomorphs
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________




                               70
Activities
Skill Learning Activity 4.1
Observe and Analyze: Body Motions
       Find a public setting (for example, a restaurant) where you can observe two
people having a conversation. They should be close enough to you so that you can
observe their eye contact, facial expression, and gesture—but not close enough that
you can hear what they are saying. Carefully observe the interaction with the goal of
answering the following questions: What is their relationship? How did each person feel
about the conversation. Did feelings change over the course of the conversation? Was
one person more dominant? What seemed to be the nature of the conversation (social
chit-chat, plan making, problem solving, argument, intimate discussion)? Take notes of
the specific nonverbal behavior that led you to each conclusion and write a paragraph
describing this experience and what you have learned.




       Activity 4.1 Observation Form: Body Motions
       Behavior (frequency)

                                       Participant 1                  Participant 2
Eye contact                     High       Med          Low    High       Med     Low
Smiling                         High       Med          Low    High       Med     Low
Forward lean of body            High       Med          Low    High       Med     Low
Touches or plays with hair      High       Med          Low    High       Med     Low
Touches or plays with clothes   High       Med          Low    High       Med     Low
Taps hand or fingers on surface High       Med          Low    High       Med     Low
Arm position relative to body   High       Med          Low    High       Med     Low

       What is their relationship?
        Acquaintances           Intimate friends             Romantic partners
        Business associates     Friends

       What type of conversation did this appear to be?
        Social chit-chat        Plan making                  Problem solving
        Argument                Intimate sharing



                                                       71
      How did each person feel about the conversation (what emotions were
displayed)?
      Participant 1:
      Participant 2:

      Did feelings change over the course of the discussion? If so, how?
      Participant 1:
      Participant 2:

      Who was more dominant?
       Participant 1
       Participant 2
       Neither seemed to dominate




                                             72
Activity 4.2
Vocal Characteristics

Spend a few hours listening to public or talk radio. If possible, listen to a station that
broadcasts in a language with which you are unfamiliar. Attempt to block out your
awareness of the speakers‘ words and instead, focus on the meaning communicated by
the pitch, volume, rate, and quality of their speech. Be sure to listen to a number of
different speakers and record your results in a log. Can you detect any variations in the
vocal characteristics of the different speakers? If so, what do you make of these
variations and what they say about each speaker‘s message?
To help you complete this activity, you can use the log sheet provided in your Premium
Website for Communicate! Look for it in the Skill Learning activities for Chapter 4.



Activity 4.3
Observe & Analyze - Violating Intimate Space Norms

Enter a crowded elevator. Get on it, and face the back. Make direct
eye contact with the person you are standing in front of. When you disembark record
the person‘s reactions. On the return trip, introduce yourself to the person who is
standing next to you and engage in an animated conversation. Record the reaction of
the person and others around you. Get on an empty elevator and stand in the exact
center. Do not move when others board. Record their reactions. Be prepared to share
what you have observed with your classmates.




Activity 4.4

Observe and Analyze: Self-Presentation Audit


Once you have completed the audit sheet below, review how you have described
yourself on each of the self-presentation dimensions. Then write a short essay in which
you describe how you present yourself, evaluate how satisfied you are with this image,
and list what if any adjustments to your self-presentation you would like to make so that
your self-presentation matches the image you are trying to project.




                                               73
Self-Presentation Audit
  1. Body type
    a. What is your body type?                         ____________________________
    b. How does your body type affect your             ____________________________
      communication with others?                       ____________________________
    c. Given your body type, are you in ―good          ____________________________
      shape.‖                                          ____________________________
    d. Does your body type seem to affect              ____________________________
      how others react to you?                         ____________________________


  2. Clothing and personal grooming
    a. Take a tour of your closet and drawers.         ____________________________
      Describe your dominant clothing style.           ____________________________
    b. Why do you choose to dress as you               ____________________________
      do?                                              ____________________________
    c. What does your style of dress                   ____________________________
      communicate to those who see you?                ____________________________
    d. Is this consistent with the image you           ____________________________
      wish to project?                                 ____________________________
    e. To what extent do the clothes you own           ____________________________
      permit you to alter your image?                  ____________________________
    f. Are there certain types of clothing that        ____________________________
      you feel you should acquire in order to          ____________________________
      project a different image? If so,                ____________________________
      describe the clothing and how it would           ____________________________
      alter the image you project.                     ____________________________
    g. Do you have any body art (permanent             ____________________________
      tattoos)? If so, describe the location(s)        ____________________________
      and design(s).                                   ____________________________
    h. How did you choose the location(s) for          ____________________________
      the body art?                                    ____________________________
    i. If you have body art that is usually            ____________________________
      visible, what did you want those who             ____________________________



                                                  74
     saw it to think about you? What do you          ____________________________
     think those who see the tattoo think            ____________________________
     about you? Are you pleased that they            ____________________________
     would conclude this?                            ____________________________
  j. Do you have body piercing? If so,               ____________________________
     describe the locations and the jewelry          ____________________________
     that you usually wear in them.                  ____________________________
  k. How did you choose the location(s)?             ____________________________
  l. If you have piercings that are usually          ____________________________
     visible, what did you want those who            ____________________________
     saw them to think about you? What do            ____________________________
     you think those who see the piercings           ____________________________
     think? Are you pleased that they would          ____________________________
     conclude this?                                  ____________________________


3. Poise
  a. How comfortable are you when you                ____________________________
     meet strangers?                                 ____________________________
  b. How comfortable are you in expressing           ____________________________
     your ideas in a small gathering of              ____________________________
     friends?                                        ____________________________
  c. How well are you able to figure out what        ____________________________
     must be done and to take charge in a            ____________________________
     crisis?                                         ____________________________
  d. Do you enjoy speaking in front of a             ____________________________
     large group of people?                          ____________________________
  e. Do you enjoy the job interviewing               ____________________________
     process and find it easy to answer              ____________________________
     questions and present your ideas?               ____________________________
  f. Are you satisfied with your level of            ____________________________
     poise?                                          ____________________________
  g. Do others praise you for your self-             ____________________________
     confidence?                                     ____________________________




                                                75
4. Touch
  a. Do you like to touch others?                    ____________________________
  b. Are you comfortable being touched by            ____________________________
    others?                                          ____________________________
  c. Are you comfortable giving a stranger a         ____________________________
    firm hand shake?                                 ____________________________
  d. Are you comfortable hugging a casual            ____________________________
    acquaintance?                                    ____________________________
  e. Do you find it easy to initiate hugging?        ____________________________
  f. Do you touch more or less than others           ____________________________
    in your family? Friendship circle?               ____________________________
    Workplace?                                       ____________________________
  g. Have other people commented on your             ____________________________
    use of touch? If so, what have they              ____________________________
    said?                                            ____________________________
  h. Overall, what messages do you think             ____________________________
    you send to others by how you use                ____________________________
    touch?                                           ____________________________
  i. Are you satisfied with these messages?          ____________________________


5. Time
  a. How well do your expectations for the           ____________________________
    duration of activities meet the realities        ____________________________
    that you encounter? Do you                       ____________________________
    consistently over- or underestimate the          ____________________________
    time that activities will last? How does         ____________________________
    this affect others perceptions of and            ____________________________
    communication with you?                          ____________________________
  b. Do your activities correspond to those          ____________________________
    expected in a given period, or do you            ____________________________
    keep a personal schedule that is at              ____________________________
    odds with the expectations of most of            ____________________________
    the other people with whom you                   ____________________________
    interact? How does your activity                 ____________________________



                                                76
  schedule affect what others think about        ____________________________
  you?                                           ____________________________
c. How do you view time? Are you more of         ____________________________
  monochronic or a polychronic in your           ____________________________
  use of time? Do you usually arrive Very        ____________________________
  early? Early? Exactly on time? Late?           ____________________________
  Very late? Do others comment on your           ____________________________
  early or late arrival? How does this           ____________________________
  affect how others see you?                     ____________________________
d. How well does your use of time                ____________________________
  correspond to that of those with whom          ____________________________
  you communicate most frequently?               ____________________________




                                            77
Activity 4.5
Gender Variations in Body Motions
       Find a place in the cafeteria or another public spot where you can observe the
conversation of others. You are to observe the nonverbal behaviors of three dyads for
at least five minutes each. First, observe the interaction of two men, then the interaction
of two women, and finally, the interaction of a man and a woman. Using the
Observation Tally Sheet provided here, record each participant‘s behavior and any
other behavioral cues you note. Using these observation notes, review the material on
male and female use of body motions. Did your observations confirm these trends? If
they did not, develop an explanation about why they didn‘t, using the sheet that follows.


       Nonverbal Behavior Observation Form: Body Motions

       Dyad #1:
       Behavior (frequency)               Participant 1 (sex: _)    Participant 2 (sex: __)

       Eye contact                        High    Med   Low           High   Med    Low
       Smiling                            High    Med   Low           High   Med    Low
       Forward lean of body               High    Med   Low           High   Med    Low
       Touches or plays with hair         High    Med   Low           High   Med    Low
       Touches or plays with clothes      High    Med   Low           High   Med    Low
       Taps hand or fingers on surface    High    Med   Low           High   Med    Low
       Arm position relative to body      High    Med   Low           High   Med    Low


       Dyad #2:
       Behavior (frequency)               Participant 1 (sex: _)    Participant 2 (sex: __)

       Eye contact                        High    Med   Low           High   Med    Low
       Smiling                            High    Med   Low           High   Med    Low
       Forward lean of body               High    Med   Low           High   Med    Low
       Touches or plays with hair         High    Med   Low           High   Med    Low
       Touches or plays with clothes      High    Med   Low           High   Med    Low
       Taps hand or fingers on surface    High    Med   Low           High   Med    Low
       Arm position relative to body      High    Med   Low           High   Med    Low



       Dyad #3:
       Behavior (frequency)               Participant 1 (sex: _)    Participant 2 (sex: __)

       Eye contact                        High    Med   Low           High   Med    Low
       Smiling                            High    Med   Low           High   Med    Low
       Forward lean of body               High    Med   Low           High   Med    Low
       Touches or plays with hair         High    Med   Low           High   Med    Low



                                                 78
      Touches or plays with clothes   High Med       Low          High Med      Low
      Taps hand or fingers on surface High Med       Low          High Med      Low
      Arm position relative to body   High Med       Low          High Med      Low

      Using these observation notes, review the material on male and female use of
body motions. Did your observations confirm these trends? If they did not, develop an
explanation about why they didn‘t:




Activity 4.6 Vocal Interferences
        Tape-record yourself talking for several minutes about any subject. When you
finish, estimate the number of vocal interferences you used. Then replay the tape and
compare the actual number with your estimate. How close was your estimate? Wait a
day or two and try it again. As your ear becomes trained, your estimates will be closer
to the actual number. Keep a record of your improvement using the worksheet provided
below. Now that you have raised your awareness, identify the vocal interference you
use most frequently and develop a communication improvement plan (see the sample in
Chapter 1) to reduce your use of that vocal interference.

      Vocal Interference Worksheet

      Date                Estimated Number           Actual Number       Difference
      1.

      2.

      3.

      4.

      5.

      6.

      7.

      8.

      9.

      10.

      Most commonly used interference:




                                             79
         Activity 4.7
         Cultural Differences in Self-Presentation
         Interview or converse with two international students from different countries. Try
to select students whose cultures differ from one another and from the culture with
which you are most familiar. Develop a list of questions related to the self-presentation
behaviors discussed in your text and record them in the space provided below and on
the following page. Try to understand how people in the international student‘s country
differ from you in their use of nonverbal self-presentation behaviors. Prepare to share
what you have learned with your classmates.

       Interview Questions and Answers (Student #1):




       Interview Questions and Answers (Student #2):




                                                80
Activity 4.8
What Would You Do?

Read the What Would You Do: A Question of Ethics scenario in Chapter 4. Answer the
following questions in the space provided here.

       1. Analyze Barry‘s nonverbal behavior. What was he attempting to achieve?




       2. How do you interpret Lisa and Marquez‘s nonverbal reactions to Barry?




       3. Was Barry‘s behavior ethically acceptable? Explain.



 4.9 Using InfoTrac College Edition
       Touching behavior can be perceived as a sign of comforting, affection, or
harassment. Using the InfoTrac College Edition subject guide, enter the term ―touch.‖
Click on ―periodical references.‖ Then open ―Just the right touch,‖ Patrick McCormick
(June 1999) for a discussion of touch as comforting. Under what circumstances is
touch most comforting?


4.10 Using InfoTrac College Edition
        A great deal of research has been done on the importance of touch in healing
and health care. Using InfoTrac College Edition, find Studies Give new Meaning to
Hands-on Healing, Psychology Today, March 2000 v33 i2 p25. Then using the “View
other articles linked to these subjects‖ feature of InfoTrac College Edition, find similar
articles and summarize their findings below. Were you surprised at what you found?

4.11 Using Technology
       As you watch a tape or DVD of a movie or a television program, select a
segment where two people are talking with each other for a couple of minutes. The first
time you watch, mute the audio (turn off the sound). Based on nonverbal behaviors
alone, determine the climate of the conversation (Are the people flirting? In conflict?
Discussing an issue? Kidding around? Making small talk?). What nonverbal behaviors
and reactions led you that conclusion? Watch the video a second time, observing



                                                81
nonverbals but also listening to vocal variations in volume, pitch, and rate of speed. Do
any of these vocal cues add to your assessment? Then watch it a third time, focusing
on what the characters are saying. Now analyze the segment. What percentage of
meaning came from nonverbal elements? What did you learn from this exercise?

4.12 Using the Internet
        Using e-mail, chat room, discussion board or online instant messaging software,
conduct a running conversation with a friend, classmate or other acquaintance. Do not
use videoconferencing software. Be sure to discuss several issues, engaging in both
serious and humorous interactions. Analyze the conversation and its outcomes. Were
there any ambiguities or misunderstandings? Were there any moments when you could
not tell if your partner was being funny, serious, sarcastic, or emotional? Were there
any times when your partner could not tell your level of sarcasm, humor, or emotion?
Were these problems resolved? If so, how? Would a face-to-face conversation have
avoided some or all of these problems? Why or why not?




Web Resource 4.1
Maria Brazil
Maria-Brazil.org is a U.S.-based Web site dedicated to Brazilian culture. The link at your
Premium Website will take you to a page on the site that depicts how Brazilians use
body language to communicate. How does Brazilian body language compare to body
language used in the United States?




                                               82
      Chapter 4 Self-Test (answers at the end of this workbook)
      True/False

    _____1. Nonverbal cues provide very little social meaning in interpersonal
communication.

      _____2. When Shari uses her hands to show shape and size while saying ―A
bocce ball is about 6 inches in diameter,‖ she is using body action as an illustrator.


       _____3. Personal space is the part of the physical environment over which you
exert control.


      _____4. Cultures throughout history have practiced body painting.


      _____5. In some cultures, eye contact is considered rude.

     _____6. Paralanguage is the nonverbal ―sound‖ of what we hear; how
something is said.

      _____7. Asian cultures are for the most part high-contact cultures.


      Multiple Choice

      _____1.   Pitch
           a.   is defined as highness or lowness of tone
           b.   changes often accompany volume changes
           c.   may be higher when someone is expressing nervousness
           d.   all of the above

       _____2. If Dwayne pounds his fist on the table while he is telling Diane ―Don‘t
bother me right now,‖ we can say Dwayne is
             a. using body movement to mimic emotion
             b. using body movement to describe emotion
             c. using body movement to emphasize speech
             d. none of the above




                                               83
      _____3.   Vocal characteristics
           a.   convey no meaning beyond the words themselves
           b.   include pitch, volume, rate, and quality
           c.   can convey significant meaning
           d.   b and c
           e.   none of the above

      _____4.   Which of the following is an example of ―paralanguage‖?
           a.   pointing at the dog
           b.   moving the furniture around to improve communication
           c.   saying one word in a sentence louder than the others
           d.   ignoring the dog

      _____5. You are driving a nail with a hammer. You accidentally hit your finger.
The look on your face in response to the hammer hitting your thumb would be
             a. a display of the feelings
             b. an adapter to the situation
             c. a tension reliever
             d. a regulator
             e. a polychronic

      _____6.   Eye contact
           a.   shows we are paying attention
           b.   can reveal emotions
           c.   allows us to monitor the effects of communication
           d.   all of the above

        _____7. We observe Gracie slamming her purse down on the table and loudly
yelling ―I can‘t stand calculus!‖ We then assume that she meant to do this. This is an
example of what principle of nonverbal communication?
                a. nonverbal communication accompanies verbal communication
                b. nonverbal communication takes the place of verbal communication
                c. nonverbal communication has less meaning than verbal messages
                d. nonverbal communication is assumed to be intentional by the observer.

      _____8. Body movements
           a. take the place of a word or phrase
           b. illustrate what the speaker is saying
           c. control or regulate the flow of information
           d. relieve tension
           e. all of the above




                                              84
      Essay

      1. Discuss some cultural variations in self-presentation




       2. Discuss how vocal interferences can influence the perception you make on
others.




      3. Describe the four distances of informal space identified in the chapter. Give
an example of a situation in which each distance would be appropriate.




     4. What are the elements of paralanguage, and how does each element affect
message meaning? Provide examples to illustrate your points.




       5. Discuss why effective communicators need to understand cultural and gender
differences in the interpretation of nonverbal behaviors.




                                              85
         Helpful Links
    http://www.unl.edu/casetudy/456/traci.htm - “Analysis of Cultural
Communication and Proxemics,” (By Traci Olsen.)

      http://www.csun.edu/~vcecn006/nonverb.html - “Nonverbal Communication
Helps Us Live”
      A helpful review of the importance of nonverbal communication in everyday life.
From California State University Northridge.

     http://www.ivillage.com/home/fengshui/articles/0,,415228_270596,00.html - 4
Feng Shui Success Stories
     The art of ―Feng Shui‖ is explained in this alternative look at the importance of
management of the environment. From iVillage.com.

       http://members.aol.com/nonverbal3/eyecon.htm - Eye Contact
       This site that looks at eye contact from a variety of different perspectives, some
with photos for examples. From the Center for Nonverbal Studies

      http://members.aol.com/nonverbal2/index.htm - The Center for Nonverbal
Studies homepage (Created by David Givens.)

         (See your Communicate! website for links to other websites referenced in your
text.)




                                                86
CHAPTER 5: Listening and Responding

Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer these questions:

      What is listening, and why is it important?
      What are the five different types listening?
      How can you improve your listening skills by focusing your attention?
      How can you improve your listening skills to increase understanding?
      What are three tactics that can help you remember what you hear?
      How can you improve your listening skill of evaluating what you‘ve heard?
      How can you improve your listening skills so that you appropriately
       respond to what you‘ve heard?

Interactive Chapter Outline

I. What Is Listening?
      ___________________________________________________________

       ___________________________________________________________


II . Types of Listening
        ___________________________________________________________

       ___________________________________________________________


       A. Appreciative Listening
       ___________________________________________________________

       ___________________________________________________________


       B. Discriminative Listening
       ___________________________________________________________

       ___________________________________________________________



                                       87
      C. Comprehensive Listening
      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________


      D. Empathic Listening
      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________


      E. Critical Listening
      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________


III. Steps in the Listening Process



      A. Attending
      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________


      B. Understanding

      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________

      C. Remembering
      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________


      D. Evaluating
      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________




                                      88
      E. Responding
      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________


IV. Conversation and Analysis

      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________



Key Terms
hearing
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

listening
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

attending
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

understanding

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

content paraphrase
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________




                                89
feelings paraphrase
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

empathy
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

empathic responsiveness
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

perspective taking
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

sympathetic responsiveness
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


remembering
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


mnemonic device

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


________________________________________________________________

factual statements
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________




                               90
       inferences
       ________________________________________________________________

       ________________________________________________________________




Activities
Skill Learning Activities

Activity 5.1
Questions and Paraphrases


       Provide an appropriate question and paraphrase for each of these statements.
To get you started, look at this author‘s model:


       Example: ―It‘s Dionne‘s birthday, and I‘ve planned a big evening. Sometimes I
think Dionne believes I take her for granted—well, after tonight she‘ll know I think she‘s
something special!‖
       Question: ―What specific things do you have planned?‖
       Paraphrase: ―If I‘m understanding you, you‘re really proud that you‘ve planned a
night that‘s going to be a lot more elaborate than what Dionne expects on her birthday.‖
1. Luis: ―It was just another mind-numbing class. I keep thinking one of these days
   Professor Romero will get excited about something. He is a real bore!‖
2. Angie: ―Everyone seems to be raving about the new reality show on Channel 5 last
   night, but I didn‘t see it. You know, I don‘t watch the ‗boob tube.‘‖
3. Kaelin: ―I don‘t know if it‘s me or Mom, but lately she and I just aren‘t getting along.‖
4. Aileen: ―I‘ve got a report due at work and a paper due in management class. On top
   of that, it‘s my sister‘s birthday, and so far I haven‘t even had time to get her
   anything. Tomorrow‘s going to be a disaster.‖




                                                   91
Activity 5.2
Empathizing Effectively

        Write a paragraph describing a time when you effectively empathized with
another person. What was the person‘s emotional state? How did you recognize it?
What were the nonverbal cues? Verbal cues? What type of relationship do you have
with this person? How similar at the two of you? What type of empathizing did you
use? Why?




Activity 5.3
Test Your Competence - Creating Mnemonics
Mnemonics are useful memory aids. Construct a mnemonic for the five phases of the
listening process: attending, understanding, remembering, evaluating, and responding.
Record your mnemonic. Tomorrow, while you are getting dressed, see whether you
can recall the mnemonic you created. Then see whether you can recall the phases of
the Listening process from the cues in your mnemonic. How well did you do? Write a
brief paragraph describing your experience.

Activity 5.4
Test Your Competence – Listening to Remember

At the Communicate! web site you can take a listening test to evaluate how well you
remember what you hear, with and without notes. The information presented assumes
that you are on your first day of a new job working in a college department office. You
will listen to the directions once and then take a test. This first time, you should not take
notes. The second time, as you listen, take notes. Then use these notes to help you
answer the questions on the second test. To complete this activity online, use your
Communicate! website to access Student Resources for Chapter 5, then click on Skill
Learning Activities and select this activity.


Activity 5.5
Test Your Competence – Evaluating Inferences

       For each of the statements below, identify the fact(s), and identify the
inference(s). Then, write three specific questions that ―test‖ the validity of the inference.
You can also complete this activity on-line at the Communicate! web site and compare
your answers to the model supplied by the authors. At the web site select Student
Resources for Chapter 5, and then select this activity.




                                                 92
Example: The campus walk-in health clinic is understaffed. I stopped by the other day
   and had to wait two hours to be seen.
     Fact: I had to wait two hours to be seen at the walk-in clinic
     Inference: The clinic is understaffed.
     Questions:
     1. Is one person‘s experience alone enough to support the inference?
     2. Are there times when there is not a backlog?
            3. Are there other things besides staffing levels which could account for
     the wait?

       1. Christy got a 96% on the first test. She must have crammed all weekend.


      2. Kali‘s pregnant. Just look at how tight her jeans are, she can barely keep
them buttoned.


       3. You can‘t get a good job, unless you know someone. Mike searched
       everywhere for six months before he finally talked to his next-door neighbor who
       hired him for his construction company.




       4. If you want to go to dental school when you graduate, forget it. In the past
       three years, none of the students from this program who applied, got in.


       5. Kids today are growing up too fast. I mean, they carry cell phones and
       everything.


Activity 5.6
Critically Analyzing the Use of Facts and Inferences in the Media

Watch a political talk show and an infomercial on television. If possible, record the two
programs so you can watch them more than once. While you are watching the
programs, note as many individual factual statements and inferences in each program
as you can. Next, write a paragraph in which you answer these questions: What was the
ratio of factual statements to inferences in the two programs (for example, 1-to-1, 1-to-2,
and so on)? Did these results surprise you? If so, how? Were the ratios different for the
two programs? If so, how did the results conform to or deviate from your expectations?
How did evaluating the inferences used in the two programs change your perception of
their messages?
    To help you complete this activity, you can use the log provided in your Premium
Website for Communicate! Look for it in the Skill Learning activities for Chapter 5.



                                                93
Activity 5.7 Conversation and Analysis
        Use your Communicate! website to access the video clip of Damien and Chris‘s
conversation. Click on the ―In Action!‖ icon in the menu, then click on ―Conversation
menu‖ in the menu bar. Select ―Damien and Chris Overview‖ to watch the video (it
takes a minute for the video to load). As you watch the interaction, analyze how well
Damien uses the skills of active listening and how well his responses demonstrate
effective support and comforting. You can respond to this and other analysis questions
by clicking on ―Analysis‖ in the menu bar. When you‘re done with this activity, compare
your answers to the authors‘ at the Premium Website for Communicate! Look for them
in the Skill Learning activities for Chapter 5. Below is a transcript of this conversation
that you can use to take notes as you watch the video.

       Note: Damien and Chris work in a small shop selling shirts and gifts. Usually
they get along well, but lately Chris has seemed standoffish. Damien decides to talk
with Chris to see if anything is wrong. Damien approaches Chris in the break room.

       Conversation                                           Analysis

        Damien: Chris, you‘ve been kind of             ____________________________
quiet lately, man. What‘s been going on?
                                                       ____________________________
                                                       ____________________________
       Chris: Nothing.
                                                       ____________________________
                                                       ____________________________
       Damien: Come on, man, What‘s
going on?                                              ____________________________
                                                       ____________________________

       Chris: Just life. (shrugs) I‘m just kind        ____________________________
of down right now.                                     ____________________________
                                                       ____________________________
       Damien: Well, what am I here for? I             ____________________________
thought we were friends.
                                                       ____________________________
                                                       ____________________________
        Chris thinks about it and decides to
talk about it.                                         ____________________________
                                                       ____________________________
        Chris: Well, Carl‘s been on my case            ____________________________
the last few weeks.                                    ____________________________
                                                       ____________________________
      Damien: Why? Did you do                          ____________________________
something?
                                                       ____________________________



                                                  94
       Chris: Oh, he says that I‘m sloppy               ____________________________
when I restock and I‘m not always ―polite‖ to
                                                        ____________________________
our customers. You know, just ‗cuz I don‘t
smile all the time. I mean, what does he                ____________________________
want—little Mary Sunshine?
                                                        ____________________________
                                                        ____________________________
        Damien: So you‘re angry with the
                                                        ____________________________
boss.
                                                        ____________________________

        Chris: Yeah, I guess. . . no, no, not           ____________________________
so angry, I‘m just frustrated. I come in to work        ____________________________
every day and I try to do my job and I don‘t
complain. You know, I‘m sick and tired of               ____________________________
getting stuck back there in the stock room              ____________________________
reorganizing everything. It‘s not like they‘re
paying us big bucks here. And Carl shouldn‘t            ____________________________
expect us to be charming with everybody                 ____________________________
who walks through that door. I mean, half of
the people who walk through that door are,              ____________________________
well, they‘re totally rude and act like jerks.          ____________________________
                                                        ____________________________
        Damien: Yeah, I feel like you on that.          ____________________________
Some of those people shouldn‘t be allowed
out in public. What is Carl saying about how            ____________________________
you‘re dealing with the customers?                      ____________________________
                                                        ____________________________
      Chris: Oh, he just says that I‘ve                 ____________________________
changed and that I‘m not being ―nice.‖ I
mean, he used to call me his top guy.                   ____________________________
                                                        ____________________________
         Damien: I mean, you know how Carl              ____________________________
is. He‘s a fanatic about customer service.              ____________________________
You know how, when we first started, he
drilled us about being polite and smiling and           ____________________________
being courteous at all times. So maybe when             ____________________________
he says ―you‘re not being nice,‖ he just
means that you‘re not doing it all the way you          ____________________________
used to. I mean, I‘ve notice a change. I                ____________________________
mean, you‘re just not yourself lately. Is
anything going on outside of work?                      ____________________________
                                                        ____________________________
         Chris: You could say that. Sarah and           ____________________________
I just bought a house, so money‘s been a bit            ____________________________
tight. Now, she wants to quit her job and start
a family, and I‘m not sure we can afford it. On         ____________________________



                                                   95
top of it all, my kid sister shows up a few            ____________________________
weeks ago on our doorstep, pregnant, and
                                                       ____________________________
now she‘s living with us, so yeah, it is a bit
overwhelming. And I‘m a bit worried that               ____________________________
Carl‘s going to fire me.
                                                       ____________________________
                                                       ____________________________
       Damien: Wow, that is a lot of stuff! I
                                                       ____________________________
can understand why you‘re down, but did
Carl really threaten to fire you?                      ____________________________
                                                       ____________________________
        Chris: No, no, but I‘m not perfect and         ____________________________
he could use my ―attitude‖ as an excuse to
fire me.                                               ____________________________
                                                       ____________________________

         Damien: Well, did you think about             ____________________________
telling him what‘s been going on? And                  ____________________________
maybe, you know, he‘ll understand and cut
you some slack.                                        ____________________________
                                                       ____________________________

       Chris: Or he could see that I really            ____________________________
have changed and he‘d can me.                          ____________________________
                                                       ____________________________
        Damien: Ok, well, just tell me this. Do        ____________________________
you like working here?
                                                       ____________________________
                                                       ____________________________
        Chris: Yeah, of course I do.
                                                       ____________________________
                                                       ____________________________
        Damien: OK, well, then, you‘ve just
got to tough it out. I mean, you‘ve just got to        ____________________________
use the game face on these people. You                 ____________________________
used to be the best at doing that. So you‘re
just gonna have to get back to being a                 ____________________________
salesman, and leave everything else behind.            ____________________________
                                                       ____________________________
        Chris: I guess I never realized how            ____________________________
much my problems were affecting my work. I
thought Carl was just out to get me, but now
you‘re noticing something too, then maybe I
have changed. Thanks. Thanks for talking
this out.




                                                  96
        Activity 5.8
        Attending
        Select an information-oriented program on your public television station. Watch
at least fifteen minutes of the show while lounging in a comfortable chair or while
stretched out on the floor with music playing on a radio in the background. For the next
fifteen minutes, make a conscious effort to use the guidelines for increasing
attentiveness. Then contrast your listening behaviors. What differences did you note
between the second segment and the first? What were the results of those differences?


       Activity 5.9
       Using InfoTrac College Edition
       Why is listening perceived to be important in so many professions? Which
specific listening skills seem to be agreed upon as most important?
       Using InfoTrac College Edition, search for the subject of ―listening.‖ To answer
the questions, open several articles and summarize their findings below. Be sure to
include the bibliographic information for each article you discuss.




        5.10
        Using InfoTrac College Edition
        Search using the term ―Empathy.‖ Find the article with the very long title:
―Emotional care of the patient & family in terminal illness: caring for a dying patient can
be very demanding. Pat MacDonald explains how expressing empathy can help
patients and their families but being aware of your own emotional needs is equally
important.‖ Why is empathy important in health care, especially care of the terminally
ill? Do you think you could ―understand the world of the dying patient?‖ Summarize the
article below.


       Activity 5.11
       What would you do? A Question of Ethics

     Read the What Would You Do: A Question of Ethics scenario in Chapter 5.
Answer the following questions in the space provided here.

        1. How ethical was Janeen‘s means of dealing with her dilemma of not wanting
to talk on the phone but not wanting to hurt Barbara‘s feelings?




                                                97
      2. Identify ways in which both Janeen and Barbara could have used better and
perhaps more ethical interpersonal communication skills. Rewrite the scenario
incorporating these changes.




    Web Resource 5.1: Mnemonics (p.)
    You can read more about mnemonic techniques at MindTools.com. Use your
Communicate! website to access Web Resource 5.1: Mnemonics.




                                            98
      Chapter 5 Self-Test (answers at the end of this workbook)
      True/False


      _____1. The goal of discriminative listening is to accurately understand the
speaker‘s meaning.

      _____2. Listening involves noting verbal cues only.

     _____3. Saying something over three or four times until you remember it is an
example of a mnemonic.

      _____4. Inferences are never true.

     _____5. The process of decoding a message to reflect the speaker‘s intended
meaning is known as attending.

      _____6. Comforting usually just takes a single phrase or sentence.

      _____7. Critical analysis is the process of evaluating a statement in order to
determine its truthfulness.



      Multiple Choice

       _____1. ―The process of receiving, attending to, and assigning meaning to aural
and visual stimuli‖ is the definition of
              a. listening
              b. critical analysis
              c. empathy
              d. inference making

      _____2.   Physical posture
           a.   is irrelevant to listening
           b.   guarantees successful listening
           c.   is part of being prepared both mentally and physically to listen
           d.   is only part of assigning meaning to information
           e.   none of the above




                                               99
     _____3. Maria says to Lisa, ―I saw Carlos earlier, and he‘s really excited about
something.‖ Maria‘s behavior is an example of
             a. a factual statement
             b. an inference
             c. attending
             d. empathy

        _____4. Fred says ―Man, I really blew that assignment, I guess I‘m just not cut
out for physics!‖ Barney replies ―If I understand you right, you didn‘t do a good job on
last night‘s homework?‖ Barney is using what strategy of improving understanding?
               a. empathy
               b. questioning
               c. attending
               d. paraphrasing
               e. articulating

       _____5. Michelle remembers phone numbers by visualizing how her fingers
move across the dial pad, even to the extent of pretending to ―dial‖ a phone number in
air. This artificial memory aid is an example of
                a. inference making
                b. a mnemonic device
                c. a selection device
                d. critical analysis
                e. supporting behavior

      _____6.   Offering supportive messages
           a.   is part of the responding process
           b.   can help express care and interest in the other
           c.   can cheer up the other
           d.   all of the above
           e.   none of the above

        _____7. Albert has just told Paco that he just found out he failed his biology
midterm. If Paco pictures himself in that same situation, imagines how he would feel in
that situation, and then assumes that Albert is feeling the same way, Paco is
exemplifying:
               a. respect
               b. framing
               c. perspective taking
               d. questioning




                                               100
      _____8. Carla just told Keri that Zack broke up with her. Keri feels compassion
and concern for her friend, but she does not feel Carla‘s sense of loss and sadness.
Which of the following choices best represents Keri‘s feelings?
              a. She is feeling empathy for Carla
              b. She is feeling sympathy for Carla
              c. She is feeling respect for Carla
              d. She is perspective taking

      Essay

      1. Describe the different stages of the listening process.




      2. Describe several ways to improve your ability to remember information.




      3. Explain the difference between factual statements and inferences, and
discuss why it is important to understand the difference.




     4. What are some characteristics of effective support messages? Give
examples.




      5. What is the difference between sympathy and empathy? Provide an example
of each.




                                              101
       Helpful Links

        http://www.csbsju.edu/academicadvising/help/eff-list.html - Effective Listening
        College of Saint Benedict | Saint John's University study skills guide for effective
listening and note-taking in class

      http://www.listen.org/quotations/quotes.html - Quotations About Listening
      The International Listening Association‘s list of quotes about listening. The
association‘s home page is http://www.listen.org/.

      http://userpages.umbc.edu/~cweide1/oraloutline.html - ―Barriers to Effective
Listening”
      by Jack E. Hulbert.

        http://marriage.about.com/cs/listening/index.htm?once=true&iam=dpile&terms=+
effective++listening - Listening
        This site from About.com explores the importance of listening in marriage.

      http://www.vandruff.com/art_converse.html - “Conversational Terrorism”
      This site includes is a humorous approach to a discussion of what not to do when
responding to others.

       http://www.campaign-for-
learning.org.uk/campaigns/learningatwork/lawday/resources/tolerenceskills.htm -
Tolerance & Empathy Skills Resources
       The Campaign for Learning‘s Tolerance and Empathy Skills Resources site.
       (See your Communicate! website for links to other websites referenced in your
text.)




                                                102
                                                    II
INTERPERSONAL
COMMUNICATION


6. Communicating across Cultures
7. Communicating in Relationships
8. Communication Skills in Interpersonal Relationships




                            103
CHAPTER 6: Communicating across Cultures
Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer these questions:

      What is intercultural communication?
      What is the relationship between a dominant culture and a co-culture?
      How does the communication of people from individualistic cultures differ
       from that of people in collectivist cultures?
      How does the communication of people from high uncertainty-avoidance
       cultures differ from that of people from low uncertainty-avoidance
       cultures?
      How does the communication of people from high power-distance cultures
       differ from that of the people from low power-distance cultures?
      How does the communication of people from masculine cultures differ
       from that of people from feminine cultures?
      What barriers do we face when communicating interculturally?
      How can you improve your intercultural communication?

Interactive Chapter Outline
I. Culture and communication

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

    A. Intercultural communication

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________


B. Dominant cultures and co-cultures

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

       1. Race

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________


                                       104
       2. Ethnicity

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

       3. Sex and gender

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________


       4. Religion

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________


       5. Sexual orientation

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

       6. Social class

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

       7. Age


 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

C. Cultural identity


 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________



                               105
II. Identifying cultural norms and values

        ____________________________________________________

        ____________________________________________________

       A. Individualism-collectivism

        ____________________________________________________

        ____________________________________________________

       B. Uncertainty avoidance

        ____________________________________________________

        ____________________________________________________

       C. Power distance

        ____________________________________________________

        ____________________________________________________

       D. Masculinity-femininity

        ____________________________________________________

        ____________________________________________________


III. Barriers to effective intercultural communication

        ____________________________________________________

        ____________________________________________________

       A. Anxiety

        ____________________________________________________

        ____________________________________________________

       B. Assuming similarity or difference




                                                 106
       ____________________________________________________

       ____________________________________________________

      C. Ethnocentrism

       ____________________________________________________

       ____________________________________________________

      D. Stereotypes and prejudice

       ____________________________________________________

       ____________________________________________________

      E. Incompatible communication codes

       ____________________________________________________

       ____________________________________________________

      F. Incompatible norms and values

       ____________________________________________________

       ____________________________________________________


IV. Intercultural communication competence

       ____________________________________________________

       ____________________________________________________

      A. Adopt correct attitudes

       ____________________________________________________

       ____________________________________________________

      B. Acquire knowledge about other cultures

       ____________________________________________________

       ____________________________________________________



                                             107
C. Develop culture-specific skills


 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________




Key Terms
altruism

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

co-cultures

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

collectivist culture

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

culture shock

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

dominant culture
____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________




                                     108
egocentricity

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

ethnicity

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

ethnocentrism

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

feminine culture

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

flexibility

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

high power-distance culture

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

high uncertainty-avoidance culture

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________




                                     109
 individualistic culture

_____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

intercultural communication

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

intercultural empathy

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

low power-distance culture

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

low uncertainty-avoidance culture

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

masculine culture

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

religion
 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________




                                    110
       social class

        ____________________________________________________

        ____________________________________________________


       Activities
     Activity 6.1
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Race and Ethnicity
       What is the difference between race and ethnicity? Can you think of examples of
people who are ethnically different but racially the same? Racially different but ethnically
the same? Can you think of anyone for who both designations might be identical? For
whom the two designations might be contradictory? What does this analysis suggest
about the accuracy and legitimacy of such classification systems?
           This activity corresponds to Skill Learning Activity 6.1 in your textbook.
You can complete this activity online and, if requested, e-mail it to your professor. Go to
your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access Skill Learning Activity 6.1.


       Examples of individuals who are ethnically different but racially the same:

        ____________________________________________________

        ____________________________________________________

       Examples of individuals who are racially different but ethnically the same:

        ____________________________________________________

        ____________________________________________________

       Examples of individuals who are racially and ethnically the same:

        ____________________________________________________

        ____________________________________________________

       Examples of individuals who are racially and ethnically different:

        ____________________________________________________

        ____________________________________________________



                                                111
     Activity 6. 2
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Similarities and Differences
        Recall a time when you visited a place that was different from your usual social
milieu: a different country, a different city, a different kind of club or market. Did you
assume any similarities or differences? Were your assumptions correct? How did they
affect your perception of the place? How did they affect your appreciation for or
enjoyment of the place?
               This activity corresponds to Skill Learning Activity 6.2 in your textbook.
You can complete this activity online and, if requested, e-mail it to your professor. Go to
your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access Skill Learning Activity 6.2.

       Location: _____________________________________________

     Basis of                  Similarity                 Difference
Assumptions               Assumptions                Assumptions
       Race
       Ethnicity
      Sexual
Orientation
       Religion
       Social class
       Age
       Individualism-
Collectivism
      Uncertainty
Avoidance
       Power Distance
      Masculinity-
Femininity


       Impact of assumptions: __________________________________

        ____________________________________________________

        ____________________________________________________




                                               112
     Activity 6.3
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Acquiring Correct Cultural Knowledge (p.
119)
        For the next week conduct research into a distinct culture with which you
currently have little or no familiarity. This culture can be grounded in gender, race,
religion, ethnicity, social class, sexual orientation, age or some combination of these
factors, but whatever culture you choose to study be sure it is one that you can access
locally. First, arrange to observe members of the culture engaged in a typical activity
and make note of as many of their individual communication behaviors as you can. Be
sure to take your notes respectfully, being careful not to offend those you observe. Next,
spend some time formally researching the culture and its communication behaviors at a
library or over the Internet, only consulting reputable sources for your information.
Finally, observe members of the culture once more and then write a paragraph in which
you answer these questions: What were your impressions of the culture‘s
communication behaviors the first time you observed its members? How were these first
impressions altered, if at all, by your formal research into the culture? How did your
formal research affect your second observation of the culture?
                This activity corresponds to Skill Learning Activity 6.3 in your textbook.
You can complete this activity online by going to your Communicate! Online Textbook
Resources to access Skill Learning Activity 6.3.


      Activity 6.4
Note-taking log

      Name of culture observed: _______________________________

      Communication Behavior Observations (time 1)

      Individualism-Collectivism ________________________________

        ____________________________________________________

        ____________________________________________________

      Uncertainty Avoidance ___________________________________

        ____________________________________________________

        ____________________________________________________




                                               113
Power Distance ________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

Masculinity-Femininity ___________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

Other Observations _____________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________


Research on the culture

Research Source: ______________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

Summary _____________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

Research Source: ______________________________________

 ____________________________________________________




                                 114
Summary _____________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

Research Source: ______________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

Summary _____________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________


Communication Behavior Observations (time 2)

Individualism-Collectivism ________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

Uncertainty Avoidance ___________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

Power Distance ________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________




                                    115
       Masculinity-Femininity ___________________________________

        ____________________________________________________

        ____________________________________________________

       Other Observations _____________________________________

        ____________________________________________________

        ____________________________________________________

        ____________________________________________________




     Activity 6.5
Gender and Language
        Consider the following statements about men and women in U.S. culture. After
you have thought about each of these statement, locate some references from your
library, the Internet, or other sources. Consider your own reactions and those ideas from
the sources you locate. Write a brief essay that summarizes both your ideas and those
that you located.

      Why is it that a man who is ordinary in physical appearance is described as
       average or pleasant looking while an ordinary woman is described as homely?
      Why are thoughtful men described as considerate while thoughtful women are
       considered oversensitive?
      Why are devious men considered shrewd while devious women are considered
       scheming?
      Why are angry men defined as outraged while angry women are considered
       hysterical?




                                              116
       Activity 6.6
Identifying Cultural Values
       Take some time to think about the values that characterized U.S. American
culture. List five of the values that you think are most important.

      1. ________________________________________________________

      2. _________________________________________________________

      3. _________________________________________________________

      4. _________________________________________________________

      5. _________________________________________________________


      How are those values communicated?

       __________________________________________________________

       __________________________________________________________

       __________________________________________________________


      How do those values help or inhibit intercultural communication?

       __________________________________________________________

       __________________________________________________________

       __________________________________________________________

       __________________________________________________________




                                             117
     Activity 6.7
Checking Assumptions
       Listen to someone on the radio who you have never heard before and have
never seen. After listening to that person for about 20–30 minutes, answer the following
questions.

      How old is the speaker? _________________________________

      What is the ethnicity of the speaker? ________________________

      What is the sexual orientation of the speaker? ________________

      What is the religion of the speaker? ________________________

      What are the speaker‘s values? ___________________________

        ____________________________________________________

      What is the social class of the speaker? _____________________

       Now, write a brief essay that summarizes your assumptions. Discuss why you
made those assumptions. Explain how your assumptions may impede interactions with
others.


Activity 6.7
My Cultures
       Think about the various cultures that you belong to. These could include your
nationality, ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender, etc. Which cultures do you consider
most important to you? Make a list of the three most important. Include a list of the
values that you believe are associated with each of those cultures. Why did you select
these cultures over others you belong to?

      1. __________________________________________________

        ____________________________________________________ a.

        ____________________________________________________ b.

      2. __________________________________________________

        ____________________________________________________ a.

        ____________________________________________________ b.

      3. __________________________________________________


                                              118
        ____________________________________________________ a.

        ____________________________________________________ b.


     Activity 6.8
What Would You Do?
        Read the scenario titled ―A Question of Ethics‖ in the chapter and then write a
brief essay answering the two questions found there.
1. What exactly are Margeaux‘s ethical obligations to Madhukar in this situation? Why?
2. Does the fact that Tyler is not the host relieve him of all ethical responsibility in this
    case?
    Additionally, why do you think dietary restrictions are an important part of some
religions?


Activity 6.9
Culture Clash
        Use your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to locate the article ―Culture
Clash‖ by Anver Versi. The article can be found in InfoTrac by searching ethnocentrism
in the subject guide and then viewing the periodical references. Write a brief reaction
essay regarding the influence of ethnocentrism and culture clash on business practices,
particularly in African nations.


     Activity 6.10
Power Distance
      Use your Communicate Online Textbook Resources to locate the article ―Who‘s
in Change? Cultural Value Differences: The Concept of Power Distance‖ by Don
Rutherford. The article can be found in InfoTrac by searching power-distance in the
keyword search. Read the article and then write a brief essay describing what you
would do if you were in Bob‘s position. Consider how power-distance has an impact on
your own life in your workplace or at school.




                                                119
Web Resource 6.1: Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions
       Geert Hofstede‘s website lists national scores in five cultural dimensions: power
distance index, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance index, and long-term
orientation.

       6.2: Individualism and Collectivism
       This page from WestEnd.com, an agency that does research in education, offers
resources that explore the differences between individualism and collectivism and their
implications for teaching. One of their publications, a knowledge brief called Bridging
Cultures in Our Schools: New Approaches that Work, discusses sources of cross-
culture conflicts and describes strategies for resolving them. To read the brief online,
click on the link ―View online/PDF.‖




                                              120
      Chapter Self-Test
(answers at the end of this workbook)

      True/False
1. _____Culture shock occurs only when a person travels to another country.

2. _____All people in the United States are members of one dominant culture.

3. _____Race and ethnicity are essentially the same thing.

4. _____In terms of social class, the dominant culture of the United States reflects the
   culture of the middle class.

5. _____High uncertainty-avoidance cultures like the United States have a lower
   tolerance for unpredictable people, relationships, and events than low uncertainty-
   avoidance cultures.

6. _____People from low power-distance cultures believe that inequalities in power or
   status should be underplayed or muted.

7. _____Ethnocentrism is the belief that one‘s own culture is superior to others.

8. _____One way to improve intercultural communication is to be open minded in new
   situations.

9. _____The opposite of altruism, a trait that can improve intercultural communication,
   is egocentricity.




                                              121
       Multiple Choice
1. _____All of the following are true of gender differences except:
    a. women are primarily concerned with personal relationships when they
       communicate
    b. men tend to include others in conversation more than women
    c. men tend to focus on tasks or outcomes when they communicate
    d. women tend to actively respond to others more than men when they
       communicate

2. _____ Ethnicity is influenced by:
   a. language
   b. nationality
   c. religion
   d. ancestral customs
   e. all of the above

3. _____The dominant culture of the United States reflects _____ values and practices.
   a. Buddhist
   b. Jewish
   c. Judeo-Christian
   d. Islamic

4. _____Which of the following is not associated with individualistic cultures?
   a. competition between people is desirable
   b. personal rights and responsibilities are emphasized
   c. voicing one‘s opinion is respected
   d. maintaining the avoidance of embarrassment

5. _____When José receives assignment guidelines from his instructor, he prefers very
   specific guidelines and a rubric that will be used to evaluate his work so that he
   knows precisely how he will be graded. José is likely from a __________ culture.
   a. high uncertainty-avoidance
   b. low uncertainty-avoidance
   c. high power-distance
   d. low power-distance

6. _____Coming from rural Utah, Melissa felt some apprehension and discomfort about
   her first week of class at New York University. Which barrier to effective intercultural
   communication is she likely experiencing?
   a. anxiety
   b. assuming similarity
   c. ethnocentrism
   d. prejudice




                                               122
7. _____Bob, who is originally from the United States, has been working in Mexico for
   a automobile manufacturer. He has an idea for improving production efficiency, but
   he believes the system for listening to and adopting his idea is out-of-date and
   resistant to change. He knows the system in the United States is superior. Which
   barrier to effective intercultural communication is he experiencing?
   a. anxiety
   b. assuming similarity
   c. ethnocentrism
   d. prejudice

8. _____One way to improve intercultural communication is to be aware that we may
   feel uneasy or unsure of ourselves in new situations. We can improve
   communication by being okay with that uncertainty. This means of improving
   intercultural communication is:
   a. being tolerant of ambiguity
   b. being open-minded
   c. being altruistic
   d. none of these

9. _____Paul decided to take a trip to Costa Rica so that he could learn about that
   culture by actively participating in it. Which means of improving intercultural
   communication is he using?
   a. formal study
   b. immersing oneself in the culture
   c. tolerating ambiguity
   d. being open-minded


      Essay
1. Describe the characteristics of both low and high power-distance cultures




2. Describe a situation in which either assuming similarity or assuming difference would
   inhibit intercultural communication.




                                              123
        Helpful Links

        Altruism
http://www.altruists.org/about/altruism/
        Visit this site to learn more about the norms and values associated with altruism.
Find ideas for becoming more altruistic and enhancing this value in your community.

        High and Low Culture
http://www.sociology.org.uk/p2t3a.htm
        Find more information on this website related to social class. Read about some
of the distinctions that are made between ―high‖ and ―low‖ culture.

      Mexican Culture
      http://www.cyborlink.com/besite/mexico.htm
      An interesting website that explores some of the features of a collectivist culture,
namely Mexico.

        Improving Communication
http://www.diplomacy.edu/Language/Communication/improving.htm
        An interesting website with various guidelines for improving intercultural
communication. This site is directed to international diplomats.

        Uncertainty Avoidance Index
http://www.clearlycultural.com/geert-hofstede-cultural-dimensions/uncertainty-
avoidance-index/
        A fascinating website that discusses the uncertainty avoidance levels associated
with countries around the globe.

        See your Communicate! website for links to other websites referenced in your
text.




                                                124
    CHAPTER 7: Understanding Interpersonal
Relationships
   Learning Objectives
   After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer these questions:

         What is competent communication in acquaintance, friendship, and
          intimate relationships?
         How do disclosure and feedback affect relationship life cycles?
         What role does communication play in beginning, developing, maintaining
          and deteriorating relationships?
         How do dialectal tensions operate in interpersonal relationships?


   Interactive Chapter Outline
   I. Types of Relationships
         ___________________________________________________________

          ___________________________________________________________

          A. Acquaintances

          ___________________________________________________________

          ___________________________________________________________

                1. Acquaintanceship Guidelines

          ___________________________________________________________

          ___________________________________________________________

          B. Friends

          ___________________________________________________________

          ___________________________________________________________

               1. Friendship Guidelines
          ___________________________________________________________

          ___________________________________________________________



                                          125
     C. Close Friendships or Intimates
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________


          1. Intimacy Guidelines
     ___________________________________________________________

        ___________________________________________________________
II. Disclosure and Feedback in Relationship Life Cycles

     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________

     A. The Open Pane
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________


     B. The Secret Pane
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________


     C. The Blind Pane
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________


     D. The Unknown Pane
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________




                                126
III. Communication in the Stages of Relationships
       ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________

     A. Beginning Relationships

     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________


     B. Developing Relationships
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________


     C. Maintaining Relationships

     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________

     D. Deteriorating and Dissolving Relationships

     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________




                                    127
IV. Dialectics in Interpersonal Relationships
      ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________


     A. Relationship Dialectics
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________


          1. Autonomy – Connection
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________


          2. Openness – Closedness
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________


          3. Novelty – Predictability
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________


     B. Managing Dialectical Tensions

     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________



Key Terms
relationships
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________




                                   128
good relationship
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

acquaintances
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


impersonal communication
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


saving face
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

friends
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

trust
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

close friends or intimates
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


platonic relationship
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________




                               129
romantic relationship
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


self-disclosure
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


feedback

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

Johari window
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


maintaining a relationship
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


relationship transformation

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

dialectic
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________




                               130
relational dialectics
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


autonomy
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


connection
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


openness

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

closedness

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

novelty

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

temporal selection
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________


topical segmentation




                               131
      neutralization

      ________________________________________________________________

      ________________________________________________________________

      reframing
      ________________________________________________________________

      ________________________________________________________________



      Exercises


Activity 7.1
Observe and Analyze: Distinguishing Between Types of Relationships
       1. List five people who you have known for some time whom you consider to be
acquaintances. Why do you consider these people to be acquaintances rather than
friends? What do you talk about with each of these people? What subjects do you
avoid? Do any of these relationships have the potential to become friendships, if so,
what would you have to do to make that transition?
       2. List five people who you have known for some time whom you consider to be
friends. Why do you consider each of these people to be a friend? How does your
relationship with each differ from you relationships with your acquaintances? What do
you talk about with each of these people? What subjects do you avoid? Do any of
these relationships have the potential to become best friendships or intimate
relationships? If so, what would you have to do to make the transition?
       3. List one to three people who you have known for some time whom you
consider to be your best friends or your intimates. Why do you consider each of these
people to be best friends or intimates? What do you talk about with each of these
people? What subjects do you avoid? How does each of these relationships differ from
those you have with your friends?
       Write an essay in which you describe what you have learned about your
relationships. You may write this essay and e-mail it to your instructor on line at the
Communicate! web site. This activity corresponds with Skill Learning Activity 7.1 in your
textbook.


Activity 7.2
Observe and Analyze: Johari Window
       Access Web Resource 7.2: Interactive Johari Window. Select five or six
adjectives from the grid provided that you feel accurately describe yourself. Enter your
name (or an alias if you‘d prefer) and save your grid. Then ask a few of your friends,


                                               132
relatives, or colleagues to access your grid and pick out five or six adjectives from that
grid that they feel describe you.
               When you have finished, write a paragraph discussing what you have
learned. Did the adjectives other people picked to describe you match the adjectives
you picked for yourself? How does this information explain your experiences in
developing and sustaining relationships? Does this suggest any changes you need to
make to improve your relationships?


7.3: Dialectics in Your Relationships
        Choose one of your current close friendship or intimate relationships. It can be
with a friend or family member. Briefly explain this assignment and ask your relationship
partner if she or he is willing to help you with this assignment and to have what you
discuss become part of a short paper you are doing for this class. Only if your partner
consents should you proceed. Otherwise, find another friend or intimate.
1. Briefly explain the concept of relationship dialectics to your partner. You may want to
    have them read the section of this chapter that explains these.
2. Once your partner understands the concepts, have a conversation about each of
    you has experienced each of these tensions over the course of your relationship.
    Can you each think of specific instances when you were ―out of sync‖? How did this
    play out in the relationship? Be specific and be sure to talk about each of the three
    dialectical tensions.
3. Based on your conversation, write a short paper/journal entry in which you describe
    what you learned. How has hearing your partner talk about how he or she
    experienced these changed your understanding?
4. Given what you have learned in this conversation, how can you use this to improve
    this relationship going forward.

Activity 7.4: Trevor and Meg
       After you‘ve watched the video of Trevor and Meg and have read the transcript of
their conversation, answer the following questions.
1. How do Trevor and Meg disclose their feelings and offer feedback?
2. What stage of their relationship life cycle do they seem to be in and why?
3. What dialectical tensions are they dealing with and what strategies are they, or
   should they be, using to manage them?
4. What is Meg‘s real fear?
       When you‘re done with this activity, compare your answers to the authors‘ at the
Premium Website for Communicate! Look for them in the Skill Learning activities for
Chapter 7.


Activity 7.5 Observe and Analyze: Advice on Cyber Relating
       Imagine that a good friend of yours has become involved in a ―serious‖ cyber-
relationship and has asked for your advice. Based on what you have learned in this
course, and your own knowledge of cyber relationships, write this friend a letter in
which you give your friend educated advice on how to manage this relationship. You‘ll


                                                133
want to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of cyber relationships, but also be
sure to recommend and explain specific communication skills that you have learned
that might help this friend to be more effective in the relationship.




Activity 7.6
Using InfoTrac College Edition
       How does online education impact the relationship between students and
teachers? Many students and teachers feel the relationship developed in a classroom
setting is very important to educational success. So what happens when that face-to-
face relationship is replaced with an online one? Using the InfoTrac College Edition
subject guide, enter the term ―online relationship.‖ See Joan E. Thiele, Carol Allen and
Mary Stucky‘s article ―Effects of web-based instruction on learning behaviors of
undergraduate and graduate students‖ in Nursing and Health Care Perspectives.
Summarize the article in the space provided below. What did the authors find? Are you
surprised? Why?


Activity 7.7
Using the Web
        Select one of the web sites noted at the end of this chapter. Each one is
indicative of the hundreds of web sites dealing with the material from this chapter.
Review the site and summarize the content in the space below. Compare this material
to that found in your text. What are the similarities and/or differences between the web
page and the text material? Attempt to explain any differences you might find.


Activity 7.8
What Would You Do? A Question of Ethics
       Read the What Would You Do: A Question of Ethics scenario, and answer the
following questions in the space provided here.

   1. How is Jeff acting ethically/unethically in this situation?
   2. Like Jeff, people in general have a reputation of acting differently in cyberspace
than they do in the real world. Are the ethics of cyberspace any different from those of
the real world? What about fantasy—are the ethics of our private desires different from
the real world? Are we ethically obliged to disclose our fantasies to our loved ones?

Finally, use guidelines from Chapter 7 to role-play key moments in this scenario,
changing them to improve the communication ethics and the outcome of the situation.




                                              134
Web Resources
      7.1: Holding Effective Conversations
      This bonus chapter discusses how to hold effective conversations.


      7.2:    Interactive Johari Window
      This interactive site allows you to gauge your personality awareness. Describe
yourself from the adjectives provided, then ask your friends and colleagues to describe
you from the same adjectives. This site will build a window of overlap and difference for
you—a type of Johari window.


      7.3:    In-Person versus Cyberspace Relationships
      Go to this page at the Psychology of Cyberspace Web site to read a thorough
comparison of the differences between relationships in person and electronically
mediated relationships.




                                               135
      Chapter 7 Self-Test
      (answers at the end of this workbook)

      True/False


      1. _____In the beginning stage of a relationship, your goal is to understand how
         the other person sees the world.


      2. _____A dialectic is a tension between competing forces.


       3. _____ The three primary types of relationships are acquaintances, friendships,
and close friends and intimates.

       4. _____The Johari window is a tool used to examine the relationship between
disclosure and conflict.


      5. _____ Autonomy is the desire to link your actions and decisions with your
partner.


      6. _____Reframing is a strategy in which your change your perception
concerning the level of tension in a relationship.

        7._____Even when conflicts are managed effectively, they inevitably weaken a
friendship.




      Multiple Choice


      _____1.    When you risk putting your well being in the hands of another, you are
      showing
            a.   commitment
            b.   trust
            c.   self-disclosure
            d.   idea-exchange behaviors
            e.   none of the above




                                              136
_____2.   Which of the following is not something we expect from our friends?
     a.   positiveness
     b.   assurance
     c.   openness
     d.   defensiveness



_____ 3. Friendship guidelines include:
      a. initiation
      b. responsiveness
      c. self-disclosure
      d. emotional support
      e. all of the above



_____4. An intimate relationship in which the partners are not sexually involved
with each other is referred to as:
       a. dialectical
       b. an acquaintanceship
       c. platonic
       d. romantic


_____5. In the Johari window, which pane contains information that the other
person knows about you but that you are unaware of?
      a. open pane
      b. secret pane
      c. blind pane
      d. unknown pane


_____6. In which stage of a relationship do we engage the relationship filtering
model?
     a. the beginning stage
     b. the developing stage
     c. the deteriorating stage
     d. none of the above




                                          137
      Essay



      1. What are the signs that a relationship is deteriorating? Can such relationships
         be saved? If so, how?




      2. What are the different strategies that you can use to get information about
another person? Why is this important for developing relationships?




       3. What is the JoHari window and what is it used to explain? Can the shape of
the ―panes‖ change? Why or why not?




      4. What is a dialectic? Why are dialectics important in relationships?




      5. What are the major competencies for developing and maintaining friendships?
What role does communication play in each of them?




                                              138
      Helpful Links
      http://www3.azwestern.edu/psy/dgershaw/lol/marriages.last.htm - Why
      Marriages Last
      This site by David Gershaw examines seven reasons why partners think their
marriages last.


      http://www.etsu.edu/philos/faculty/hugh/honesty.htm - Honesty and Intimacy
      An article from Journal of Social and Personal Relationships explores the role of
honesty in developing and maintaining personal relationships. By G. Graham and H.
LaFollette.


     http://humanresources.about.com/careers/humanresources/cs/conflictresolves/in
     dex.htm?iam=dpile&terms=%2Binterpersonal+%2Bconflict – Conflict
     Resolution/Controversy Management
     A long address, but one that leads to a useful site that explores conflict resolution
and management.


      http://pertinent.com/pertinfo/business/kareCom3.html - Six Ways to Get Along
      Better
      This site by Kare Anderson looks at simple strategies for preventing conflicts.


       http://www.geocities.com/research93/ - Close Relationships and Personality
       Research Web Site
       Close Relationships and Personality Research Web Site has a fun and
interesting personality quiz that helps determine your ―attachment style.‖

(See your Communicate! website for links to other websites referenced in your text.)




                                               139
CHAPTER 8:         Communication Skills in Interpersonal
                   Relationships
   Learning Objectives
   After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer these questions:

         What are the characteristics of comforting messages?
         How can you manage disclosure and privacy in your relationships?
         How do people negotiate different needs, wants, and preferences?
         How do we deal with conflict in our relationships?
         What is a collaborative approach to conflict?

   Interactive Chapter Outline

   I. Comforting messages
   ___________________________________________________________

   ___________________________________________________________
        A. Skills for comforting
   ___________________________________________________________

   ___________________________________________________________
        B. Gender and cultural considerations in comforting


   ___________________________________________________________

   ___________________________________________________________


   II. Managing privacy and disclosure in relationships
   ___________________________________________________________

   ___________________________________________________________
        A. Levels of intimacy
   ___________________________________________________________

   ___________________________________________________________




                                   140
     B. Expectations of reciprocity
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________
     C. Information co-ownership
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________
     D. Guidelines for appropriate disclosure
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________
     1. Sharing personal information
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________
     2. Sharing feelings
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________
     3. Providing personal feedback
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

     E. Communication skills for managing privacy
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________
     1. Indirect strategies for maintaining privacy
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________
     2. Direct strategy for maintaining privacy: Establish a boundary

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


III. Negotiating different needs, wants, and preferences in relationships
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

      A. Communicating personal needs, wants, and preferences: passive,



                                      141
aggressive, and assertive behavior
      ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________
          B. Cultural variations in passive, aggressive, and assertive behavior
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________


     III. Managing conflict in relationships
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________
          A. Styles of conflict
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________
          B. Guidelines for Collaboration

     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________

     Key Terms
     accommodating

     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________
     aggressive behavior

     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________
     assertive behavior

     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________




                                            142
buffering

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


collaboration

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

comforting

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________
compromising

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________
constructive criticism

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

describing behavior

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

describing feelings

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________




                               143
disclosure
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

establishing a boundary
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

forcing

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

giving advice
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

interpersonal conflict

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________


negative face needs
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

passive behavior
 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

positive face needs
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________




                               144
praise
____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

privacy management
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

reframe the situation
 ____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

withdrawing
 ____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________




                               145
       Activities
     Activity 8.1
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Self-Disclosure and Popular Media
        Popular American culture has a reputation for promoting self-disclosure that
probably exceeds that of any other culture in the world. Yet clearly, as the phrase ―too
much information‖ indicates, it is still possible to practice self-disclosure inappropriately
in popular American culture. Of course, what may be inappropriate for one person can
be appropriate for another. Find three instances of self-disclosure in popular media
(film, television, radio, magazines, newspapers, or the Internet) and write a paragraph
on each explaining why you think the particular instance of self-disclosure is appropriate
or inappropriate.
                You can complete this activity by using your Communicate! Online
Textbook Resources to access Skill Learning Activity 8.1. This activity corresponds to
Skill Learning Activity 8.1 in your textbook.

       Self-Disclosure Instance #1




       Self-Disclosure Instance #2




       Self-Disclosure Instance #3




                                                146
      Activity 8.2
Test Your Competence: Building Your Vocabulary of Emotions (p. 178)
        For each statement below, select three words from the Vocabulary of Emotions
listed below that might fit the statement, but would present different emotional reactions.
To compare you choices to the authors‘ models, complete this activity online at the
Communicate! website. Select student resources for Ch. 7 and then select activities.
        This activity corresponds to Skill Learning Activity 8.2 in your textbook. You can
also complete this activity online by accessing your Communicate! Online Textbook
Resources. When you‘re done with this activity, compare your answers to the authors‘.

Vocabulary of Emotions
       Words Related to Angry
       annoyed     enraged              incensed           infuriated
       irate       livid                mad                outraged
       Words Related to Loving
       affectionate amorous             aroused            caring
       fervent      heavenly            passionate         tender
       Words Related to Embarrassed
       flustered   humiliated      mortified               overwhelmed
       rattled     shamefaced      sheepish                uncomfortable
       Words Related to Surprised
       astonished astounded             baffled            jolted
       mystified   shocked              startled           stunned
       Words Related to Fearful
       afraid      anxious              apprehensive       frightened
       nervous     scared               terrified          worried
       Words Related to Disgusted
       aghast      appalled             dismayed           horror-struck
       nauseated repulsed               revolted           sickened
       Words Related to Hurt
       abused      damaged              forsaken           hassled
       mistreated offended              pained             wounded
       Words Related to Happy
       cheerful    contented            delighted          ecstatic
       elated      glad                 joyous             pleased




                                               147
      Words Related to Lonely
      abandoned alone                  deserted           desolate
      forlorn     isolated             lonesome           lost
      Words Related to Sad
      blue        depressed            downcast           gloomy
      low         miserable            morose             sorrowful
      Words Related to Energetic
      animated    bouncy               brisk              lively
      peppy       spirited             sprightly          vigorous


      1. I feel _______________ when you call me late at night.

      2. I am _______________ that she told everyone about that.

      3. He was _______________ when he discovered what she had done.

      4. Witnessing that accident really made me feel _______________.

      5. When my father died I felt _______________.

      6. I‘m _______________ about graduating.

      7. I‘m _______________ about losing my job.

      8. I was _______________ when the doctor told me I needed surgery.

      9. I suppose I should understand that it was a mistake, but I feel ____________.

      10. When you look at me like that, I feel _______________.

        Look at each word in the Vocabulary of Emotions, say ―I feel . . . ,‖ and try to
identify the feeling this word describes. Next make a list of those feelings that you
recognize as ones that you experience. Then recall recent situations where you could
have used each of these words. Write the message that would have been appropriate
for each situation.




                                               148
       Activity 8.3
Identifying Descriptions of Feelings
          For each statement below, determine if the message is a description of feelings.
If it is, place a ―D‖ next to it. If you determine the message is not a description of
feelings, then supply a message that would be a description of feelings.
          You can also complete this activity online by accessing the Communicate! Online
Textbook Resources and then compare your responses to the models provided by the
authors. This activity corresponds to Skill Learning Activity 8.3 in your textbook.

1. That was a great movie!



2. I was really cheered by the flowers.


3. I feel that you not respecting my rights.


4. Yuck!


5. Damn—I screwed that up again. I feel like an idiot.


6. I feel certain I got the job because I was the most qualified person.


7. Congratulations, I feel happy for you.


8. When Pam‘s around, I feel like a third wheel.


9. I‘m ecstatic about winning the award.


       10 I‘m sick and tired of you.




                                                149
     Activity 8.4
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Praising and Criticizing
        Think of someone you need to praise and someone to whom you would like to
give constructive criticism. Prepare feedback for each person in the space below. Use
the following steps:
1. Begin by writing sentences that identify your general impression.
2. Recall and write down the specific behaviors, actions, and messages that led to your
   impression.
3. Identify all the consequences that occurred as a result.
4. If you have any advice that seems appropriate, record it.
5. Write a short feedback message that follows the guidelines for effective praise or
   criticism.




                                             150
      Activity 8.4 (cont’.)
      Now in the next day or two have a feedback conversation with at least one of
these people and use your preparation to help you deliver the feedback. Then write a
paragraph describing what happened and how well the behavior was received. Analyze
why you believe the feedback was received as it was.
      To help you complete this activity, you can use the worksheet provided in your
Premium Website for Communicate! Look for it in the Skill Learning activities for
Chapter 8.


     Activity 8.5
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Passive and Aggressive Behavior
       Describe two incidents in the past where you behaved passively or aggressively.
Now analyze each situation. What type of situation was it? Did someone make a
request? Did you need to express a preference or right? Was someone imposing on
you? What type of relationship did you have with the person (stranger, acquaintance,
friendship, business, intimate, romantic)? How did you feel about how you behaved? If
you had used assertive messages what might you have said?


      Activity 8.6
Assertive Messages (p. 186)
       For each of these situations, write an assertive response. When you‘re done with
this activity, compare your answers to the authors‘ at the Premium Website for
Communicate! Look for them in the Skill Learning activities for Chapter 8.

1. You come back to your dorm, apartment, or house to finish a paper that is due
   tomorrow, only to find that someone else is using your computer.
Assertive response:




                                             151
2. You work part time at a clothing store. Just as your shift is ending, your manager
   says to you, ―I‘d like you to work overtime, if you would. Martin‘s supposed to replace
   you, but he just called and can‘t get here for at least an hour.‖ You have dinner
   guests arriving in two hours.
Assertive response:




3. During a phone call with your elderly grandmother, she announces, ―your Great Aunt
   Margie called, and I told her you‘d be happy to take us grocery shopping and out to
   lunch on Saturday. You were planning to spend Saturday working on your portfolio
   to take to interview next week.
Assertive response:




4. You and your friend made a date to go dancing, an activity you really enjoy. When
   you meet, your friend says, ―If it‘s all the same to you, I thought we‘d go to a movie
   instead.‖
Assertive response:




5. You‘re riding in a car with a group of friends on the way to a party when the driver
   begins to clown around by swerving the car back and forth, speeding up to tailgate
   the car in front, and honking his horn. You perceive that this driving is dangerous
   and you‘re becoming scared.
Assertive response:




                                               152
     Activity 8.7
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Your Conflict Profile
        Access and print out Web Resource 8.2: Your Conflict Profile, an InfoTrac
College Edition article called ―How Do You Manage Conflict?‖ by Dawn M. Baskerville.
Fill out and score the self-assessment questionnaire and graph your results. Read the
description of each pattern. Study these results. Do they seem to capture your
perception of your conflict profile accurately? Which are your dominant styles? Are your
scores close together, or are there one or two styles that seem to dominate and other
styles you prefer not to use? How does this pattern equip you to handle the conflicts you
have experienced? Based on the information from this self-assessment, what do you
need to do to become better able to handle conflict in your relationships? Write a
paragraph in which you describe what you have learned about your conflict profile.
        This activity corresponds to Skill Learning Activity 8.7 in your textbook.

      Activity 8.8
      Jan and Ken
      After you‘ve watched the video of Jan and Ken and have read the transcript of
their conversation, answer the following questions.
1. How does each person handle this conflict?
2. How well does each person listen to the other?
3. Are Jan and Ken appropriately assertive?
4. Comment on how well each provides feedback and describes feelings?
      When you‘re done with this activity, compare your answers to the authors‘ at the
Premium Website for Communicate! Look for them in the Skill Learning activities for
Chapter 8.

      Activity 8.9
Using InfoTrac College Edition
        As we have seen, assertiveness is sometimes perceived as aggressiveness.
Using the InfoTrac College Edition subject guide, enter the term ―Assertiveness.‖ Find
the article ―An assertiveness training program for indecisive students attending an Italian
University‖ Career Development Quarterly, June 2003 v51 i4 p322(13). Summarize the
study‘s discussion of the relationship between assertiveness and various social skills.
Were you surprised by the articles‘ conclusions?


      Activity 8.10
Using InfoTrac College Edition
       Are males really more aggressive than females on average? Are there cultural
differences in what constitutes assertive behavior? Using InfoTrac College Edition, try to


                                               153
determine what the research suggests. Using the subject guide, enter ―assertive‖ and
locate references that focus on differences across cultures and/or genders. What did
you find? Summarize your results below.




      Activity 8.11
Using Technology
        Sign on to an online chat room. Spend at least five minutes just ―lurking‖
(listening). Then begin to participate in the chat. Considering both your comments and
those with whom you are ―chatting,‖ how do the levels of self-disclosure differ from in-
person conversations? Is there really much self-disclosure occurring? If so, how doe
sit compare to self-disclosure in face-to-face encounters? How can you tell if the
disclosures are truthful? Use the space below to record your observations. (If you need
an introduction to chat rooms and how to get started, enter Yahoo! Chatrooms, click on
―search,‖ and then click on ―People connection chat.‖ http://chat.yahoo.com/)

      Chat room entered: _________________________________________




                                              154
     Activity 8.12
What Would You Do? A Question of Ethics
       Read the What Would You Do: A Question of Ethics scenario, and answer the
following questions in the space provided here.

1. Assuming that Ronaldo declines Chauncey‘s offer to cheat, what are the remaining
   ethical issues he faces? Which would be more ethically compromising, letting
   Chauncey and Doug get away with cheating or betraying their trust by notifying the
   professor about their actions?




2. When, if ever, is it ethically acceptable to divulge information that you have sworn
   not to share with others?




                                               155
       Web Resource 8.1
       How to Say No
       The University of Florida‘s Counseling website and Hampden-Syndey College‘s
Counseling Center website provide good advice about how to refuse requests, including
unfair and unreasonable requests.


       Web Resource 8.2
       Your Conflict Profile
       Learn about conflict management and determine your conflict management style
by reading the article "How Do You Manage Conflict?" by Dawn M. Baskerville.


       Web Resource 8.3
       Skills for Collaborative Conflict
       This article, ―Resolving Conflicts through Collaboration,‖ describes how to initiate
conflict and how to respond to conflicts initiated by others.




                                                156
       Chapter Self-Test
(answers at the end of this workbook)

       True/False
_____1.       Assertive behavior and aggressive behavior are the same.

_____2.       Passive behavior is best for maintaining and improving interpersonal
   relationships.

_____3.      You should always try to increase the level of self-disclosure in
   interpersonal relationships even if the other person does not.

_____4.       It is best to ask permission before providing constructive criticism.

_____5.     Early in relationships, it is best to self-disclose the kind of information you
   would want others to self-disclose to you.

_____6.      When we describe the feelings we are experiencing, we should also
   provide some judgment of that emotional experience.

_____7.     Relational dialectics are seemingly opposing forces, such as openness-
   closedness, that occur in all interpersonal relationships.


       Multiple Choice
_____1.       Margie tells Estelle that she dated Tommy for a while, but she stopped
   when she decided his only interest in her seemed to be sexual. Margie‘s statement
   could be classified as:
   a. description of feelings
   b. self-disclosure
   c. expression of feelings
   d. passive behavior
   e. aggressive behavior




                                                157
_____2.      When in the earlier stages of a relationship, it probably is a good idea to:
   a. not self-disclose any information during your first meeting
   b. disclose information only if asked to by the other person
   c. reveal the kind of information about yourself that you want the other
      person to disclose to you.
   d. only disclose feelings

_____3.     You are reviewing another student‘s paper at his/her request. The best
   way to open your criticism would be:
         a. Your first paragraph is great, but some of the other paragraphs are
     disorganized
         b. The paper is disorganized
         c. There are many problems here, but I think we can fix them.
         d. It‘s ok, but…
         e. None of the above are acceptable starts to constructive criticism

_____4.       Henry is looking over his exam. He finds a mistake in his professor‘s
   addition of his total score. If Henry behaves assertively, which of the following does
   he say to his professor?
   a. You made a mistake. I get 5 more points.
   b. Would you go over my test again?
   c. I‘m really angry that you counted my points wrong!
   d. When I counted my point total, it came to 89, five more than the total on
      the exam cover. Am I correct?

_____5.      You know that someone made a mistake that impacts you, but you say
   nothing. This is illustrative of:
   a. assertive behavior
   b. aggressive behavior
   c. passive behavior
   d. precision
   e. none of the above

_____6.       In the middle of a conflict situation, you say ―All right, you win—I don‘t
   want to fight anymore!‖ This is an example of
   a. withdrawal
   b. forcing
   c. bonding
   d. accommodating




                                                158
_____7.      While passing by, Paul notices Anna‘s test grade and why she got one of
   her answers wrong. He then says to Anna ―Hey, I see where you made a mistake
   on number 3 here. Let me show you how to fix it.‖ Anna reacts negatively by saying
   ―Get away from me! Who asked for your opinion?!‖ Where did Paul go wrong in his
   attempt to offer constructive criticism to Anna:
   a. He failed to be specific
   b. He failed to ask Anna‘s permission before criticizing her
   c. He did not describe her feelings
   d. He failed to attend to negative face needs


_____8.      Masking or hiding feelings may be appropriate when
   a. you are being assertive
   b. when you are being aggressive
   c. when the situation is of little importance
   d. withholding feelings is never appropriate


      Essay
1. Discuss the differences between assertive, passive, and aggressive behaviors.




2. Describe the several guidelines for offering constructive criticism and why they are
   important.




3. What is the role of self-disclosure in the development of relationships?




4. Identify and discuss some basic skills that can help you succeed when you are
   providing emotional comfort.




                                              159
5. Describe the five styles of conflict, and provide an example of a situation in which
   each one would be appropriate.




       Helpful Links

        Self-Disclosure and Openness
http://www.mhnet.org/psyhelp/chap13/chap13i.htm
        Psychological Self Help by Clayton E. Tucker-Ladd offers a tutorial on how to
overcome the fear of self-disclosure many people have.

        Self-Disclosure and Openness
http://www.mhnet.org/psyhelp/chap13/chap13j.htm
        This site continues the discussion found in the first site above.

        Giving Constructive Criticism
http://www.minoritycareernet.com/newsltrs/96q2give.html
        A concise list of hints for giving constructive criticism from Minority Career
Network.

        Assertive Communication
http://www.uiowa.edu/~ucs/asertcom.html
        A good list of techniques on how to be assertive along with a discussion of the
importance of assertiveness. This site was developed by the University of Iowa‘s
University Counseling Service.

        The Test Café
http://www.testcafe.com/sert/
        Another assertiveness test. This one is from the Test Café, a website full of
interesting self-quizzes.


(See your Communicate! website for links to other websites referenced in your text.)




                                                 160
APPENDIX: Interviewing
Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer these questions:

      What types of questions are used in interviews?
      How do you prepare for and conduct an information-gathering interview?
      How do you present yourself successfully in a job interview?
      How do you participate in a media interview?

Interactive Chapter Outline
I. Structuring Interviews
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


A. The Interview Protocol
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

B. Effective Questions
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

     1. Primary and secondary questions
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

       2. Open and closed questions

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

       3. Neutral and leading questions

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


                                       161
     C. Order and Time Constraints in Interview Protocols
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


II. Guidelines for Conducting Information Interviews
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

     A. Doing Research about Interviewees
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

     B. Conducting an Information Interview

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________




III. Conducting employment interviews
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

     A. Preparing for the interview

     _____________________________________________________

     _____________________________________________________

     B. Conducting the interview

     _____________________________________________________

     _____________________________________________________




                                      162
     1. It all begins with research
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

     2. Write an effective cover letter
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

     3. Prepare a professional resume
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

     B. Electronic cover letters and resumes
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

     C. Preparing to be interviewed
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

D. Guidelines for job interviewees
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


IV. Interviewing strategies for job seekers
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

     A. Applying for the job

     _____________________________________________________

     _____________________________________________________

           1. Write an effective cover letter

           _____________________________________________________




                                     163
           2. Prepare a professional resume

           _____________________________________________________

           _____________________________________________________

     B. Electronic cover letters and resumes

           _____________________________________________________

           _____________________________________________________

     C. Preparing to be Interviewed
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

     D. Guidelines for job interviewees
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

     E. Following up after the interview
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


V. Strategies for Interviews with the Media
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

     A. Before the interview
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

     B. During the interview

_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________




                                    164
Key Terms


bridge

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

closed questions

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

cover letter

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

electronic cover letters and résumés

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

interview

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

interview protocol

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

leading questions

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________




                                       165
neutral questions

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

open questions

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

primary questions

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

résumé

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

secondary questions

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________

talking points

 ____________________________________________________

 ____________________________________________________




                               166
      Activities
     Activity A.1
Open and Closed Questions
        Indicate which of the following questions are open (O) and which are closed (C).
If the question is open, write a closed question seeking similar information; if the
questions is closed, write an open question. Make sure that your questions are neutral
rather than leading.
        This activity corresponds to Skill Learning Activity A.1 in your textbook.

      ___ 1. What leads you to believe that Sheldon will be appointed?

      ___ 2. How many steps are there in getting a book into print?

      ___ 3. Will you try out for the Shakespearean play this year?

      ___ 4. When are you getting married?

      ___ 5. Have you participated in the garden project?


     Activity A.2
Observe & Analyze: Information Interviews
          Select a televised interview (for example, a news program, infomercial, or
   congressional hearing) for analysis. You may want to video tape it so you can watch
   it several times. Using the worksheet below, count the number of open, closed,
   neutral, leading, and follow-up questions. After viewing the interview, analyze it.
   Was there a good balance of questions? Did the interviewer as appropriate follow-
   up questions? What was the apparent goal of the interview? Was it reached? What
   grade would you give the interviewer? Why? What were the interviewer‘s
   strengths? Weaknesses? When you have finished analyzing the interview, write a
   paragraph discussing your analysis in the space below.
       This activity corresponds to Skill Learning Activity A.2 in your textbook. You can
also complete this activity online by using your Communicate! Online Textbook
Resources.


           Questions Type Tally
          Qu                  Open                    Closed                    Total
    estions
         Ne
   utral
           Le
   ading



                                               167
           Foll
   ow-up
           Tot
   al


     Activity A.3
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Interviewing an Interviewer
       Make an appointment to interview a human resource manager who is
responsible for employment interviewing. Prepare an interview protocol that probes this
manager about his or her interviewing practices. After the interview, compare this
manager‘s practice to the text discussion. Submit your protocol, interview notes, and a
short essay that describes what you have learned to your instructor. You may complete
this activity online and e-mail it to your instructor. This activity corresponds to Skill
Learning Activity A.3 in your textbook.

     Activity A.4
Résumé and Cover Letter
          Read the help wanted ads in your local newspaper until you locate a job you
   would enjoy. Write a résumé and cover letter applying for this position. To link you
   to an online resume service to draft and print your resume, use your Communicate!
   Online Textbook Resources to access Web Resource A.7: Résumé Builder. When
   you have completed your résumé and cover letter, if requested, submit them to your
   instructor.

     Activity A.5
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Thinking Like an Interviewer
        Read the sample résumé depicted in Figure A.4, or find another sample résumé
more to your interest online by using your Online Textbook Resources for
Communicate! to access Web Resource A.10: Sample Resumes Online. Analyze the
résumé based on the position for which it was written and on the candidate‘s education,
experience, and skills. Write ten primary questions you would ask the job candidate if
you were going to interview him or her for the position.
        You can complete this activity online and, if requested, e-mail it to your instructor.
Use your Online Textbook Resources for Communicate! to access Skill Learning
Activity A.5.




                                                 168
     Activity A.6
Conversation and Analysis: Elliott Miller’s Interview
        Use your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access the video clip of
Elliott Miller‘s job interview at Community Savings and Loan. As you watch the video,
notice how well both Karen Bourne and Elliott Miller follow the guidelines for effective
interviews. A transcript of the conversation is printed below which allows you to take
notes as you watch the video.

        Note: Elliott Miller is a second-semester senior who has double-majored in
business and communication. Today he is interviewing with Community Savings and
Loan, which is recruiting managerial trainees. Elliott has dressed carefully. He has on
his good charcoal suit, a light blue shirt, a conservative necktie, and wingtips. At 10am
sharp he knocks on the office door of Karen Bourne, the person with whom he has an
interview. She is in her mid-thirties and dressed in a conservative navy blue suit. She
opens the door and offers her hand to Elliott.


       Conversation                                   Analysis

            Bourne: Mr. Miller, I see           ___________________________
   you‘re right on time. That‘s a good
                                                ___________________________
   start. (They shake hands.)
                                                ___________________________
          Miller: Thank you for inviting
   me to interview today.                       ___________________________
           Bourne: Sit down. (He sits in        ___________________________
   the chair in front of her desk; she sits
                                                ___________________________
   behind the desk.) So you‘re about to
   finish college are you? I remember           ___________________________
   that time in my own life—-exciting
                                                ___________________________
   and scary!
          Miller: It‘s definitely both for      ___________________________
   me. I‘m particularly excited about the       ___________________________
   job here at Community Savings and
   Loan.                                        ___________________________

        Bourne: (smiles) Then there‘s a         ___________________________
mutual interest. We had a lot of                ___________________________
applications, but we‘re interviewing only
eight of them. What I‘d like to do is get a     ___________________________
sense of your interests and tell you about      ___________________________
our managerial trainee program here, so
that we can see if the fit between us is as     ___________________________
good as it looks on paper. Sound good to        ___________________________
you?
                                                ___________________________
           Miller: Great.
                                                ___________________________
      Bourne: Let me start by telling
you about a rather common problem               ___________________________



                                               169
we‘ve had with our past managerial                ___________________________
trainees. Many of them run into a
                                                  ___________________________
problem-—something they have trouble
learning or doing right. That‘s normal            ___________________________
enough –- we expect that. But a lot of
                                                  ___________________________
trainees seem to get derailed when that
happens. Instead of finding another way           ___________________________
to approach the problem, they get
                                                  ___________________________
discouraged and give up. So I‘m very
interested in hearing what you‘ve done            ___________________________
when you‘ve encountered problems or
                                                  ___________________________
road blocks in your life.
                                                  ___________________________
             Miller: Well, I can remember
    one time when I hit a real road block.        ___________________________
    I was taking an advanced chemistry
                                                  ___________________________
    course, and I just couldn‘t seem to
    understand the material. I failed the         ___________________________
    first exam, even though I‘d studied
                                                  ___________________________
    hard.
                                                  ___________________________
           Bourne: Good example of a
    problem. What did you do?                     ___________________________
         Miller: I started going to all the       ___________________________
tutorial sessions that grad assistants
offer. That helped a little but I still wasn‘t    ___________________________
getting the material the way I should. So,        ___________________________
I organized a study team and offered to
pay for pizzas so that students who were          ___________________________
on top of the class would have a reason           ___________________________
to come.
                                                  ___________________________
             Bourne: (nodding with
    admiration) That shows a lot of               ___________________________
    initiative and creativity. Did the study      ___________________________
    team work?
                                                  ___________________________
        Miller: (smiling) It sure did. I
wound up getting a B in the course, and           ___________________________
so did several other members of the               ___________________________
study team who had been in the same
boat I was in early in the semester.              ___________________________

           Bourne: So you don‘t mind              ___________________________
    asking for help if you need it?               ___________________________
                                                  ___________________________
                                                  ___________________________
           Miller: I‘d rather do that than        ___________________________
    flounder, but I‘m usually pretty able to
    operate independently.                        ___________________________
            Bourne: So you prefer                 ___________________________



                                                 170
   working on your own to working with           ___________________________
   others?
                                                 ___________________________
         Miller: That depends on the
                                                 ___________________________
situation or project. If I have all that I
need to do something on my own, I‘m              ___________________________
comfortable working solo. But there are
                                                 ___________________________
other cases in which I don't have
everything I need to do something well –-        ___________________________
maybe I don‘t have experience in some
                                                 ___________________________
aspect of the job or I don‘t have a
particular skill or I don‘t understand some      ___________________________
perspectives on the issues. In cases like
                                                 ___________________________
that, I thing teams are more effective
than individuals.                                ___________________________
            Bourne: Good. Banking                ___________________________
   management requires the ability to
                                                 ___________________________
   be self-initiating and also the ability to
   work with others. Let me ask another          ___________________________
   question. As I was looking over your
                                                 ___________________________
   transcript and resume, I noticed that
   you changed your major several                ___________________________
   times. Does that indicate you have
                                                 ___________________________
   difficulty making a commitment and
   sticking with it?                             ___________________________
           Miller: I guess you could             ___________________________
   think that, but it really shows that I
   was willing to explore a lot of               ___________________________
   alternatives before making a firm             ___________________________
   commitment.
                                                 ___________________________
        Bourne: But don‘t you think that
you wasted a lot of time and courses             ___________________________
getting to that commitment?                      ___________________________
            Miller: I don‘t think so. I          ___________________________
   learned something in all of the course
   I took. For instance, when I was a            ___________________________
   philosophy major, I learned about             ___________________________
   logical thinking and careful
   reasoning. That‘s going to be useful          ___________________________
   to me in management. When I was               ___________________________
   majoring in English, I learned how to
   write well and how to read others‘            ___________________________
   writing critically. That‘s going to serve     ___________________________
   me well in management too.
                                                 ___________________________

        Bourne: So what led you to your          ___________________________
final decision to double major in business       ___________________________
and communication? That‘s kind of an



                                                171
unusual combination.
           Miller: It seems a very natural
   one to me. I wanted to learn bout
   business because I want to be a
   manager in an organization. I need to
   know how organizations work and I
   need to understand different
   management philosophies and
   styles. At the same time, managers
   work with people, and that means I
   have to have strong communication
   skills.




      Activity A.7
Test Your Competence: Mock Interview
        Pair with one of your classmates and conduct mock interviews. You and your
classmate should exchange the material you prepared in Activity A.7. You will prepare
and participate in two interviews, one in which you will use your partner‘s ad, resume,
and cover letter to prepare and interview your partner for a job, and the other in which
your partner will use the material you supply to interview you for a job. Your instructor
will provide you will additional information regarding this assignment. This activity
corresponds with Skill Learning Activity A.7 in your textbook.

       Activity A.8
       Critiquing a Media Interview


        Select a TV interview program like The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer, Larry King
Live, or some other program whose focus is a lengthy interview with an expert, a media
personality, or a political leader. Tape the interview so that you can replay it during your
analysis. Make a list of the questions the interviewer asked, and analyze them to
determine which were the primary, secondary, and follow-up questions. What was the
mix of open and closed questions. How did this mix affect the tone of the interview and
the amount and kind of information offered by the interviewee? What percentage of the
questions were neutral versus leading? Were the leading questions confrontational or
cooperative? How did these questions affect the tone of the interview and the amount or
kind of information offered by the interviewee. What do you think the purpose of this
interview was? How effective was the interviewer in accomplishing this purpose? What
one thing might the interviewer have done better?
       This activity corresponds to Skill Learning Activity A.8 in your textbook.




                                                172
      Activity A.9
Using InfoTrac College Edition
        Under the subject ―cover letter,‖ see ―Quick! Take cover! A cover letter is your
best ticket to a great job—if you know how to write a good one!,‖ by Tamra B. Orr in
Career World, Jan 2003 v31 i4 p20(2). Compare the article‘s recommendations with
those from your text. Note at least three ideas on preparing cover letters that you would
want to follow.


      Activity A.10
Using InfoTrac College Edition
      What skills are required for today‘s jobs? Using the subject guide, use the
search term ―job skills.‖ Review several articles and summarize what they say about
the importance of job skills in the employment marketplace. What skills are important?
How are organizations ensuring future employees get these skills? Do you think
necessary skills have changed over time? Why?


      Activity A.11
Using Technology
        Many career-oriented websites like Monster.com not only allow job seekers to
browse through job listings, they also offer the ability to post your resume online so that
organizations that are seeking applicants may review your qualifications online. Go to
one of the career search websites listed at the end of this chapter and complete the
online registration and resume submission process. Some sites allow you to upload a
file containing your resume, while others ask you to fill out an online form. Also
complete the ―career profile‖ or other online questionnaire used to establish the types of
jobs you are seeking or are qualified for. Use your actual list of qualifications and skills,
location preference, salary range, etc. Periodically check back to the website and note
how many times your resume was viewed and if any potential employers contacted you
via e-mail or phone. Be prepared to share your results with the class.


     Activity A.12
What Would You Do? A Question of Ethics
     Read the What Would You Do: A Question of Ethics scenario in the chapter, and
answer the following questions in the space provided here.

       1. Was Ken‘s presentation of his past experiences on his résumé ethical? Is this
type of behavior deliberately deceptive or simply an exaggeration of the truth?




                                                173
       2. How should we deal with statements like ―Everybody does it‖?




      Web Resource A.1
E-mail Interviews
        To read some useful tips for conducting electronic interviews using e-mail, use
your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access Web Resource A.1: E-mail
interviews.


      Web Resource A.2
150 Typical Job Interview Questions
      For a list of potential interview questions, use your Communicate! Online
Textbook Resources to access Web Resource A.2: 150 Typical Job Interview
Questions.


      Web Resource A.3
Discrimination Laws and Interviewing
      To read a generalized discussion of the types of questions that should not be
asked in interviews, use your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access
Web Resource A.3: Discrimination Laws and Interviewing.




     Web Resource A.4
Ten Cover Letter Don’ts
       To read a list of several cover letter faux pas that you will want to avoid, use your
Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access Web Resource A.4: Ten Cover
Letter Don‘ts.




                                                174
      Web Resource A.5
What is your Objective?
      To read more about formulating career objective statements, use your
Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access Web Resource A.5: What is your
Objective?


     Web Resource A.6
Résumé Pet Peeves
       To read about –and avoid- the top twenty résumé pet peeves identified by 2,500
recruiters, use your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access Web
Resource A.6: Résumé Pet Peeves.


     Web Resource A.7
Résumé Builder
       To link to an online resume service to draft and print your résumé, use your
Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access Web Resource A.7: Résumé
Builder.


      Web Resource A.8
Internet-Ready Résumé
      For more information on electronic résumés, use your Communicate! Online
Textbook Resources to access Web Resource A.8: Internet-Ready Résumé.


       Web Resource A.9
Virtual Interview (p. 219)
      To sharpen your interview skills, answer sample questions and receive help to
improve your answers, use your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access
Web Resource A.9: Virtual Interview.


     Web Resource A.10
Sample Résumés Online
      To view numerous examples of résumés that may be of assistance in preparing
your own, use your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access Web
Resource A.10: Sample Résumés Online.




                                             175
      Web Resource A.11
Notable Notes
     For tips on writing thank-you notes, use your Communicate! Online Textbook
Resources to access Web Resource A.11: Notable Notes.




       Chapter Self-Test
(answers at the end of this workbook)

True/False
_____1.      ―You probably won‘t elect to have the surgery, will you?‖ is an example of
   a leading question.

_____2.       You should plan to arrive 10-15 minutes prior to your appointment for an
   interview.

_____3.       The job interview is not a place for the job candidate to ask questions of
   the interviewer.

_____4.      Open questions are broad-based questions designed to allow the
   interviewee to respond however he or she wishes.

_____5.       Follow-up questions are planned or unplanned questions designed to
   further probe the answer to a primary question.

_____6.       Closed questions allow the interviewee the opportunity to control the
   interview and take up additional time.

_____7.       Bridges are transitions used by interviewees during a media interview.


       Multiple Choice
_____1.        Which of the following is not a good thing to do in a cover letter?
   a. include your qualifications
   b. include contact information
   c. ask for an interview only indirectly
   d. keep it short
   e. all of the above are ok.




                                                176
_____2.       If an interviewer wants an interviewee to express details, ideas and
   feelings, the interviewer will most likely avoid using
   a. leading questions
   b. open questions
   c. follow-up questions
   d. closed questions

_____3.      Which of the following behaviors is not advised by your text?
   a. starting a conversation about salary and benefits
   b. learning about the company
   c. asking about your specific duties within the company
   d. acting as if you want the job
   e. showing up early for the interview appointment

_____4.        Electronic cover letters and resumes
   a. have become increasingly popular
   b. may be different from paper versions in several ways
   c. usually should be kept simple in format
   d. can be sifted electronically
   e. all of the above

_____5.        During a media interview, you should:
   a. present appropriate nonverbal cues
   b. make clear and concise statement
   c. realize that you are always ―on the record‖
   d. learn how to bridge
   e. all of the above

_____6.       Questions an interviewee might be expected to ask in an interview include
   a. Can you describe a typical work day?
   b. What is the biggest challenge in this job?
   c. Interviewees should not ask questions during an interview
   d. a and b




                                              177
_____7.        When conducting an interview for information, you should do all of the
   following except:
   a. be courteous during the interview.
   b. listen carefully.
   c. keep the interview moving.
   d. make sure that your nonverbal reactions are in keeping with the tone you
       want to communicate.
   e. audio record the interview in all cases, especially if you plan to publish the
       interview.

_____8.        Interviewing for information
   a. can be used by students conducting research
   b. is more likely to be successful if well-planned in advance
   c. requires an interview protocol
   d. can be used by health care professionals
   e. all of the above


      Essay

1. Discuss the different types of interview questions and their purposes.




2. What are the key points of information that should be included in a resume?




3. Describe the differences between an electronic resume and a conventional resume.
   Why do these differences exist?




4. Discuss key elements involved in preparing for an interview.




                                              178
5. How should one behave during an interview? Include a discussion of non-verbal
   elements.




       Helpful Links
        Monster.com
http://www.monster.com
        A free site for posting your resume and looking for jobs. You can search by
location, job type, etc.

         Employment 911
http://www.employment911.com
         Similar to Monster.com, employment911.com claims to have over three million
job listings.

         Job Searching
http://jobsearch.about.com/careers/jobsearch/cs/interviews/index.htm
         This site from About.com offers a long list of interview resources including a long
list of questions commonly asked by interviewers and a long list of questions
interviewees should consider asking. Also, tips on dress, thank you notes and other
topics.

        JobWeb Resumes and Interviews
http://www.jobweb.com/Resumes_Interviews/default.htm
        Tips for resume and cover letter writing. The main Jobweb.com site is also very
useful.

        How to conduct an interview
http://stringers.media.mit.edu/interview.htm
        This site provides some guidelines regarding the stages of the interview process.


      Many colleges and universities have resources available for their students and
graduates to assist them in career placement. Check your school’s website for more
information. Also see your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources for links to other
websites referenced in your text.




                                                179
    III
    GROUP COMMUNICATION


9. Communicating in Groups
10. Problem Solving in Groups




                                180
CHAPTER 9:          Communicating in Groups
   Learning Objectives
   After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer these questions:

         What makes a group different from a mere assembly of people?
         What are the characteristics of healthy groups?
         How do groups develop?
         What are some types of groups we might participate in?
         How can you evaluate group dynamics?

   Interactive Chapter Outline
   I. Characteristics of healthy groups

          ___________________________________________________________

          ___________________________________________________________

          A. Healthy groups have ethical goals

          ___________________________________________________________

          ___________________________________________________________

          B. Healthy groups are interdependent

          ___________________________________________________________

          ___________________________________________________________




                                          181
C. Healthy groups are cohesive

      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________

      D. Healthy groups develop and abide by productive norms

      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________

      E. Healthy groups are accountable

      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________

      F. Healthy groups are synergetic

      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________

II. Stages of group development

      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________



A. Forming

      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________

      B. Storming

      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________




                                     182
C. Norming

     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________

     D. Performing

     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________

     E. Adjourning

     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________


III. Types of groups
        ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________

     A. Families
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________

     B. Social friendship groups
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________

     C. Support groups
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________

     D. Interest groups
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________




                                183
      E. Service groups
      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________


      F. Work groups

      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________


IV. Evaluating Group Dynamics

      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________


Key Terms

accountability

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

adjourning

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________


blended family
 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________




                                184
cohesiveness

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

consensual families

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

forming

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

ground rules

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________


healthy group

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

heterogeneous group

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

homogeneous group

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

laissez-faire family
  __________________________________________________________




                               185
 __________________________________________________________


mixed family

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

norming
 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________


norms
 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________


nuclear family
 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________


pluralistic family
 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________


protective family

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________



service groups

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________



                               186
single-parent families
 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________


storming
 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________


support groups

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

synergy

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

team-building activities

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

work group
 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________


work group goal

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________




                               187
      Activities

       Activity 9.1
Cohesiveness in Homogeneous versus Heterogeneous Groups
       Identify two groups (for example, a sports team, study group, fraternal or
community group, or work team) to which you belong; one should have members you
consider to be homogeneous, and the other, members you consider to be
heterogeneous.
    Analyze the demographic differences in each group. When you have completed this
analysis, write a paragraph that discusses cohesiveness in each group. How cohesive
is each group? Are both groups equally cohesive? Was it easier or more difficult to
establish cohesiveness in a particular group? What real or potential pitfalls result from
the level of cohesiveness in each group?
    To help you complete this activity, you can use the demographic analysis provided in
your Premium Website for Communicate! Look for it in the Skill Learning activities for
Chapter 9.

       Activity 9.2
Stages of Group Development
       Think of a group to which you have belonged for less than one quarter, semester,
or term (if you have an assigned group in this course, use that group). Now, write a
paragraph that begins by identifying the stage of development the group is currently in
and then describe how this group transitioned through each of the previous stages of
group development. What event(s) do you recall as turning points, marking the group‘s
movement from one stage to another? Has the group become ―stuck‖ in a stage, or has
it developed smoothly? What factors contributed to that? What can you do to help this
group succeed in the stage that it is in and transition to the next stage?

        Activity 9.3
Homogenous and Heterogeneous Groups
Visit the website of a large company, such as General Motors, General Electric, or Coca
Cola. Search the site and find the names and brief background sketches of the
members of the Board of Directors. Analyze the ways in which the members are similar
or different. Answer the following questions in the space provided below:

1. What relevant knowledge and skills might each bring to the group‘s decision process




                                              188
2. What viewpoints are not represented by the board members?




3. How might an absence of these viewpoints affect their discussions?




     Activity 9.4
What Would You Do? A Question of Ethics
     Read the What Would You Do: A Question of Ethics scenario in Chapter 9.
Answer the following questions in the space provided here.

1. What did the group really know about the Boardman Center? Is it good group
   discussion practice to rely on a passing comment on one member?




2. Regardless of whether the meeting went smoothly, is there any ethical problem with
   this process? Explain.




                                            189
       Web Resources
       9.1: Setting Group Norms
       This site at Brushy Fork Institute, a group dedicated to advancing leadership and
community development in the Appalachians, features information on setting norms that
contribute to group effectiveness.

       9.2: Groupthink
       This site features an article whose purpose is to raise awareness about
groupthink and to provide some suggestions that can help task-oriented groups avoid
this phenomenon.




Chapter Self-Test
(answers at the end of this workbook)

      True/False
_____1.     Effective groups are most likely to be made up of heterogeneous
   members.


_____2. A work group should include as many people as possible so there will be less
   work for each group member..

_____3. Because a family consists of individuals who are intimately related, it cannot
   be considered a group.

_____4. A social friendship group is composed of individuals who come together
   because they share a concern or hobby.

_____5. ―A clearly stated future state of affairs desired by enough members of the
   group to motivate the group to work toward its achievement‖ is the definition of a
   work group goal.

_____6.     In a group that is not cohesive, members may be indifferent towards the
   group goal, not like each other, and work in ways that prevent the group from being
   successful.

_____7.      Team-building activities are designed to help the group work better
   together.




                                              190
      Multiple Choice
_____1.      The process of choosing among alternatives is:
   a. decision making
   b. norming
   c. performing
   d. storming


_____2. Which of the following is (are) characteristics of healthy groups?
   a. They are cohesive
   b. They are interdependent
   c. They pursue ethical goals
   d. All of the above

_____3.      Tanya shows up late for a group meeting. The discussion had already
   begun and as she entered the room, she was greeted by several angry looks.
   Which of the following best explains their reaction to Tanya‘s tardiness?
   a. storming was in progress
   b. norms had not yet been established
   c. groupthink was occurring
   d. an on-time norm had been developed by that group

_____4.      Adjourning is
   a. the end of the meeting
   b. the stage of group development where members assign meaning to what
      they have done
   c. the stage of group development concerned with the establishment of
      group standards
   d. none of the above




                                              191
_____5.   The saying ―two heads are better than one‖ refers to
     a.   cohesiveness
     b.   synergy
     c.   group dynamics
     d.   ground rules

_____6.      Groupthink
          a. is to be commended, it shows the group members are all on the same
          page.
          b. is the result of storming
          c. can be prevented by avoiding disagreement
          d. none of the above are true in relation to groupthink

_____7.      Research suggests that all of the following factors lead to group
   cohesiveness except:
   a. Attractiveness of the group‘s purpose
   b. Voluntary membership
   c. Feeling of freedom to share opinions
   d. Effectiveness of leadership

_____8.      During the __________ stage of group development, the group clarifies its
   goals and determines the roles each member will have in the group power structure.
   a. forming
   b. storming
   c. norming
   d. performing
   e. adjourning


      Essay

1. Explain how norms develop both formally and informally within groups.




2. What are the characteristics of an ideal work group goal? Why are such goals
   important to the effective functioning of a work group?




                                              192
3. Discuss the stages of group development. Label each one, and note why it is
   important.




4. Define synergy, and explain why it is an important characteristic of healthy groups.




        Helpful Links
        Groupthink
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Groupthink
        From Wikipedia, this site discusses groupthink and offers links to additional
resources.

        Group Dynamics
http://www.mapnp.org/library/grp_skll/theory/theory.htm
        Assembled by Carter McNamara, this site looks at the basic nature of groups and
how they develop.

        Setting Group Goals
http://www.montana.edu/wwwpb/pubs/mt8401.html
        This site, from the Montana State University Extension Service, explores the
rationale for having group goals.


        See your Communicate! website for links to other websites referenced in your
text.




                                               193
CHAPTER 10: Problem Solving in Groups
Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer these questions:
    What are the steps in the systematic problem-solving process?
    How does leadership function most effectively in problem-solving groups?
    What are group member responsibilities when participating in meetings?
    How can groups communicate their solutions to others?

Interactive Chapter Outline
I. The problem-solving process
       ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________

      A. Step one: Identify and define the problem
      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________

      B. Step two: Analyze the problem
      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________

      C. Step three: Determine criteria for judging solutions
      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________

      D. Step four: Identify alternative solutions
      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________

      E. Step five: Evaluate solutions an decide
      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________




                                     194
      F. Step six: Implement the agreed-upon solution

      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________



II. Shared leadership
       ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________

      A. Task roles

      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________
      B. Maintenance roles

      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________

      C. Procedural roles

      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________




III. Making meetings effective

      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________




                                     195
A. Guidelines for meeting leaders

      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________

      1. Before the meeting

      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________

      2. During the meeting

      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________


      3. Following up

      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________


B. Guidelines for meeting participants


      1. Before the meeting

      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________

      2. During the meeting

      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________




                                         196
     3. Following up

     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________


IV. Conversation and analysis
      ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________

     A. Conversation
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________



V. Communicating group solutions
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________

     Written formats
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________

     Oral formats
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________

     Virtual reports
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________




                               197
Key Terms

agenda
 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

brainstorming
 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

comprehensive report
 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

decision making
 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

deliverables
 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

executive summary
 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

expediter

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________




                               198
harmonizer

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

informal (emergent) leader

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

information or opinion analyzer
  __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________


information or opinion giver

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

information or opinion seeker

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

initiator

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________


logistics coordinator
  __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________




                                199
maintenance roles
 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________


mediator
 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________


oral brief
 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________


oral report

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________


panel discussion
 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________


problem definition
 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

procedural roles
 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

question of fact
 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________



                               200
question of policy
 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

question of value

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

remote access report (RAR)
 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

role

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

shared leadership function
 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________


streaming video

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

supporter

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

symposium
 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________




                               201
task roles
 __________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________


tension reliever
 __________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________


written brief
 __________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________




                               202
        Activities

       Activity 10.1: Stating Problems
       Indicate whether each of the following is a question of fact, a question of value,
or a question of policy. When you‘re done with this activity, compare your answers to
the authors‘ at the Premium Website for Communicate! Look for them in the Skill
Learning activities for Chapter 10.

1.   What should we do to increase the quality of finished parts?
2.   Do police stop African American drivers more frequently than other drivers?
3.   Should television news organizations use exit polls to call elections?
4.   Is John guilty of involuntary manslaughter?
5.   Is seniority the best method of handling employee layoffs?
6.   What is the best vacation plan for our family?

       Activity 10.2: How Does Your Group Solve Problems?
       Analyze a situation in which a group to which you belong attempted to solve a
problem. Write a paragraph in which you answer the following questions. Did the group
use all six of the problem-solving steps listed here? If not, which steps did the group
overlook? Were there any steps the group should have placed more emphasis on? Was
the group successful or not in its efforts to solve the problem? Explain why you think this
was or was not the case.

        Activity 10.3: Emerging Informal Leadership in CBS’s Survivor Series
        Watch a recent episode of one of the popular CBS Survivor series. Select one
tribe and identify the dominant roles that each member of the group seems to play in
that episode. Who is vying for informal leadership? How are they trying to gain or
maintain their leadership? What do you think will happen to each leader candidate?
               To help you complete this activity, use the link to the website for each
Survivor series provided in your Premium Website for Communicate! (Look for it in the
Skill Learning activities for Chapter 10.) Click on the ―Video‖ link in the menu at the top
of the homepage to access video to each season‘s episodes. Click on the ―Recaps‖ link
for the group you chose and see how well your predictions held up. Write a short essay
describing what you have learned.

        Activity 10.4: Identifying Roles

Match the typical comment to the role it is most characteristic of. When you‘re done with
this activity, compare your answers to the authors‘ at the Premium Website for
Communicate! Look for them in the Skill Learning activities for Chapter 10.




                                                203
Roles
        a. aggressor
        b. analyzer
        c. expediter
        d. gatekeeper
        e. harmonizer
        f. information or opinion giver
        g. information or opinion seeker
        h. interpreter
        i. supporter
        j. tension reliever
        k. withdrawer

        Comments
1.  Did anyone discover if we have to recommend only one company?
2.  I don‘t have time to help with that.
3.  I think Rick has an excellent idea.
4.  Stupid idea, Katie. Why don‘t you stop and think before you open your mouth?
5.  Kwitabe doesn‘t necessarily agree with you, but he would consider it rude to openly
    disagree with someone who is older.
6. Josiah, in your plan weren‘t you assuming that we‘d only need two days rest for
    rehearsal?
7. Lisa, I understand your point. What do you think about it, Paul?
8. Okay, so we‘ve all agreed that we should begin keeping time longs. Now shouldn‘t
    we be thinking about what information needs to be on them?
9. Wow, it‘s getting tense in here. If we don‘t chill out soon, we‘re likely to
    spontaneously combust. And, hello, that‘ll be a problem ‘cause we‘re the only engine
    company in this area of town, right?
10. Barb, I don‘t think that your position is really that different from Saul‘s. Let me see if I
    can explain how they relate.
11. I‘ve visited that home before, and I found that both the mom and dad are trying very
    hard to help their son.



        Activity 10.5: Member Meeting Responsibilities
        Recall the last time you attended a small group problem-solving meeting. On a
scale of 1 to 5 (1 = not at all, 2 = poorly, 3 = somewhat, 4 = well done, 5 = to the best of
my ability) rate yourself on how well you carried out each of the preparation,
participation, and follow-up guidelines. Analyze your responses and determine how
effectively you participated in that meeting. What do you need to work on to become a
more valuable member of a problem-solving group? Why? Write a paragraph in which
you describe what you have learned.
               To help you complete this activity, you can use the check sheet provided
in your Premium Website for Communicate! Look for it in the Skill Learning activities for
Chapter 10.


                                                  204
       Activity 10.6: Group Communication
       After you‘ve watched the video of Thomas, Davinia, Joyce, and Pat and have
read the transcript of their conversation, answer the following questions.
1. Is the group‘s goal clear?
2. Do they have sufficient diversity in their membership?
3. What stage of group development do they seem to be in?
4. Are they using the problem-solving method?
5. What roles are being played by each member?
6. Do they appear to be prepared for the meeting?
       When you‘re done with this activity, compare your answers to the authors‘ at the
Premium Website for Communicate! Look for them in the Skill Learning activities for
Chapter 10.

      Activity 10.7
Using InfoTrac College Edition
       Under the subject ―leadership,‖ click on ―periodical references.‖ Scroll to
―Principles of Leadership,‖ by Edward Moyers, July 15, 2000. Look for the heading ―II:
Leadership is not a popularity contest,‖ and find the statement ―Respect is what a true
leader strives for – not just to be liked by all the people you are involved with.‖ Of the
eight ways of earning respect, which one or two do you believe it is most important to
put into practice? Why?


      Activity 10.8
Using InfoTrac College Edition
       What does it take to be an effective leader? Search the subject ―leader‖ and
locate three to four articles on the subject. Summarize those articles in a brief essay in
terms of the characteristics associated with effective leadership.


      Activity 10.9
Thinking about Roles
       Which of the three types of positive roles (task, maintenance, procedural)
discussed do you perform the most frequently when you are in a group? Which do you
perform the least frequently? Which role is easiest for you to perform? Which role is
most difficult for you? Why? Do you ever enact any of the self-centered roles? If so,
which ones? Do you see why these roles hurt the effectiveness of the group? How can
you eliminate these behaviors?

      Activity 10.10
The Problem-Solving Process
       Describe how you would use the six steps in the problem-solving process to
arrive at a solution to the following situation.



                                                205
         Your manager at work has decided that you and your co-workers should
   decide whether it is time to upgrade your company supplied mobile phone hardware
   and service. If you decided to upgrade, you are suppose to do the research and
   choose the equipment and service provider.




     Activity 10.11
What Would You Do? A Question of Ethics
     Read the What Would You Do: A Question of Ethics scenario in your text.
Answer the following questions in the space provided here.

1. Should Sue follow Heather‘s advice? Why or why not?




2. What would you do if you were in Heather‘s situation? What advice would you give
   Sue?




      Web Resources
      10.1: What’s Your Problem?
      This page at the Web site for the Sheridan Institute of Technology and Advanced
Learning suggests that later stages of problem solving move more quickly if the group
has thoroughly studied, discussed, and agreed on the problem.

     10.2: Rules for Brainstorming
     This site at the Center for Leadership and Community Engagement, George
Mason University, features a list of rules to guide the brainstorming process.

       10.3: Identifying Your Team Player Style
       Determine whether you are a contributor, collaborator, communicator, or
challenger using this survey at the Professional Teambuilding website.

      10.4: Taking Notes
      For useful tips on how to take minutes in meetings, visit this page at the
MeetingWizard.org Web site.




                                               206
      Chapter Self-Test
(answers at the end of this workbook)

      True/False
_____ 1. A role is a specific pattern of behavior that one group member performs.

_____2.     Information givers are people who probe the content and reasoning of
   members.

_____3. The expert opinion method for deciding puts final responsibility for a decision
   in the hands of a person outside the group with great knowledge or expertise in the
   matter.

_____4. Step One in the problem-solving process is to analyze the problem.

_____5.      It is possible for an individual to play more than one role in a group.

_____6.     Group members can become informal leaders by coming to group
   meetings prepared.

_____7.     It is important for a leader to speak to group participants before the
   meeting.




                                               207
      Multiple Choice
_____1.      Which of the following is not one of the three types of roles discussed in
   the text?
   a. task-related
   b. maintenance
   c. procedural
   d. other-centered


_____2.       In a problem-solving group, Maria provides the group with data that helps
   it to make an effective decision. Maria‘s role can be described as
   a. information or opinion giver
   b. information or opinion seeker
   c. analyzer
   d. harmonizer

_____3.       In terms of following up after a meeting, group members should do all of
   the following except:
   a. review and summarize their notes
   b. evaluate their own effectiveness
   c. review decisions
   d. communicate progress
   e. play devil‘s advocate

_____4.      Len has been appointed the chair of the committee in charge of selecting
   a new student representative to the governing board. He is what type of leader?
   a. informal
   b. formal
   c. charismatic
   d. framing




                                               208
_____5.      A group decides to define the problem it has been tasked to decide as
   follows: ―Should the company abolish the current pension plan and abolish the
   current dental plan.‖ This group has committed which error in problem
   consideration:
   a. The problem should use specific and precise language.
   b. The problem should be stated as a question.
   c. The problem should be a policy issue.
   d. The problem should contain only one central idea.
   e. The group has committee no error.


_____6.      The group member who ensures that everyone has an opportunity to
   speak and be heard is the:
   a. orienter
   b. gatekeeper
   c. encourager
   d. analyzer

_____7.      Mark compliments Dana on the quality of her contribution by saying ―Nice
   point Dana!‖ Mark is enacting what role at this time?
   a. harmonizer
   b. enourager
   c. gatekeeper
   d. monopolizer
   e. interpreter

_____8.      Which of the following is not one of the activities a leader completes
   before the meeting?
   a. prepare the agenda
   b. arrange the time and place of the meeting
   c. review the agenda
   d. speak with each group participant




                                               209
      Essay

1. Discuss the differences between formal and informal leadership. Note differences in
   the areas of how one becomes a leader and how one maintains leadership.




   2. What are some of the guidelines the text provides to assist leaders in making
   meetings more productive? Of all of these, which do you feel is the most important
   and why?




   3. Discuss the differences between task and maintenance roles. Why are
   maintenance roles important to effective groups?




   4. Review the six steps in the decision-making process, and identify the tasks that
   should be completed in each step.




                                             210
   5. Discuss the threats to individuals‘ health and welfare that online social groups
   can pose. Should these groups be more closely regulated? Why or why not?




       Helpful Links
        Motivation and Leadership Styles
http://www.motivation-tools.com/workplace/leadership_styles.htm
        This site, by Motivational Tools.com, explores the relationship between different
styles of leadership and motivation

        Big Dog’s Leadership Page
http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leader.html
        By Don Clark, this site offers an overview of leadership styles and skills.

        Overview of leadership in Organizations
http://www.mapnp.org/library/ldrship/ldrship.htm
        Carter McNamara‘s site reviews leadership in the organization, covering topics
such the difference between leading and managing, how to lead, and offering links to
other resources.

        Check Out Your Own Leadership Style
http://www.teal.org.uk/styleind.htm
        This site allows you to take an online quiz to determine your style of leadership.

        Leadership And The Enneagram
http://www.breakoutofthebox.com/ldrho.htm
        A review of 9 different leadership styles by Mary R. Bast.

        Brainstorming
http://projects.edtech.sandi.net/staffdev/tpss99/processguides/brainstorming.html
        From process Guides, a brief guide to how to brainstorm

        Brainstorming
http://www.jpb.com/creative/brainstorming.php
        Another guide to brainstorming, from Bwiti.




                                                211
        Brainstorming Software
http://www.jpb.com/brainstormer/index.php
        A link to free (trial) software that is designed to improve the brainstorming
process and results. From Bwiti.


       See your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources for links to other websites
referenced in your text.




                                                212
       IV
       PUBLIC SPEAKING


11.   Developing and Researching a Speech Topic
12.   Organizing Your Speech
13.   Adapting Verbally and Visually
14.   Overcoming Speech Apprehension by Practicing Delivery
15.   Informative Speaking
16.   Persuasive Speaking




                                  213
CHAPTER 11: Developing and Researching a Speech
   Learning Objectives

   After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer the following questions:

         How can you choose a good topic for your speech?
         How can you analyze your audience and setting so that your speech topic
          and goal are appropriate?
         How can you adapt your speech goal to your audience?
         What are the three types of information sources for speeches?
         How can you evaluate sources to ensure that the information they provide
          is unbiased and true?
         Why is it important for you to make a record of the information you find?
         How do you orally cite sources during your speech?

   Interactive Chapter Outline
   I. Identifying topics
          ___________________________________________________________

          ___________________________________________________________

          A. List subjects

          ___________________________________________________________

          ___________________________________________________________

          B. Brainstorm and concept map for potential topics

          ___________________________________________________________

          ___________________________________________________________

   II. Analyze the audience
          ___________________________________________________________

          ___________________________________________________________

   A. Identify audience analysis information needs

          ___________________________________________________________



                                          214
       ___________________________________________________________

       B. Gather audience data

       ___________________________________________________________

       ___________________________________________________________

III. Analyze the setting

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________
IV. Select a topic

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

V. Write a speech goal

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________
    A. Identify your general goal

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

       B. Phrase a specific goal statement

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________


VI. Locate and evaluate information sources
 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________




                                       215
    A. Personal knowledge, experience, and observation

__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

    B. Secondary research
__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

         1. Books
__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

          2. Articles

__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

          3. Newspapers
__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

          4. Encyclopedias
__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

          5. Statistical sources
__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

          6. Biographical references

__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________




                                  216
             7. Books of quotations

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

           8. Government documents
 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

             9. Internet-based resources

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

     C. Primary research
 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

           1. Surveys
 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

             2. Interviews

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

           3. Experiments
 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________


VII. Evaluate sources

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________




                                      217
       1. Authority

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

       2. Objectivity

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

       3. Currency

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________



VIII. Identify and select relevant information

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

       A. Factual statements

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

              1. Statistics

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

           2. Examples
 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________




                                         218
     B. Expert opinions

__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

    C. Elaborations
__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

          1. Anecdotes and narratives
__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

          2. Comparisons and contrasts
__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

          3. Quotations
__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________


IX. Draw information from multiple cultural perspectives
 __________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

X. Record information
 __________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

     A. Prepare research cards

__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________




                                 219
XI. Cite sources in speeches
 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________




Key Terms

anecdotes

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

audience adaptation

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

audience analysis

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

brainstorming

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

comparisons


 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________




                               220
concept mapping

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

contrasts

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

demographics


 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

examples

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

expert

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

expert opinions

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

factual statements

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________




                               221
general speech goal

 __________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

narratives

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

oral footnote
 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

periodicals

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

plagiarism

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

primary research

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

secondary research


 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________




                                  222
specific speech goal

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

statistics

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

subject

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

survey

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________

topic

 __________________________________________________________

 __________________________________________________________




                               223
      Activities
      Activity 11.1
Brainstorm and Concept Map for Topics
       Action Step 1.a
1. Divide a sheet of paper into three columns. Label column 1 with your major or
   vocation such as ―Art History‖; label column 2 with a hobby or an activity, such as
   ―Chess‖; and label column 3 with a concern or an issue, such as ―Water Pollution.‖
2. Working on one subject column at a time, quickly brainstorm a list of at least 15
   related topics for each column.
3. Place a check mark next to the 3 topics in each list that you would most
 enjoy speaking on.
4. Keep these lists for future use in choosing a topic for an assigned speech.

This activity corresponds to Action Step 1.a in your textbook.




                                               224
Brainstorming Worksheet
    Vocation or major         Hobby or activity       Concern or interest


                                                

                                                

                                                

                                                

                                                

                                                

                                                

                                                

                                                

                                                

                                                

                                                

                                                

                                                

                                                

                                                

                                                

                                                




                                           225
      Activity 11.2
Analyze Your Audience
       Action Step 1.b
1. Decide on the audience characteristics (demographics and subject-specific
    information that you need in order to choose a topic and adapt to your
    audience).
2. Choose a method for gathering audience information.
3. Collect the data.
4. You can also use the checklist below to help you with your audience analysis.
          This activity corresponds to Action Step 1.b in your textbook.



          Audience Analysis Checklist
Subject

Data
1. The average audience member‘s education level is _____ high school ______ college
    ______ postgraduate.
2. The ages of the audience range from ______ to ______. The average age is about
    ______.
3. The audience is approximately ______ percent male and ______ female.
4. My estimate of the average socioeconomic level of the audience is ______ low
    ______ middle ______ high.
5. Most audience members are ______ of the same occupation/major ______ of different
    occupations/majors
6. The audience members are ______ mostly of the same race ______ a mixture of races.
7. The audience members are ______ mostly of the same ethnicity ______ a mixture of
    ethnicities.
8. The audience members are ______ mostly practice the same religion ______ practice a
    mixture of religions.
9. Most audience members are from the same ______ country ______ state ______ city
    ______ neighborhood.




                                              226
10. Most audience members speak ______ the same first language ______ different first
    languages ______ English as a common language ______ some other common language
    (list them:    ).

Predictions based on audience data
1. Audience knowledge of the subject will be ______ extensive ______ moderate
    ______ limited because          .
2. Audience interest in this subject is likely to be ______ high ______ moderate ______
    low because      .
3. Audience attitude toward my subject is likely to be ______ positive ______ neutral
    ______ negative because         .
4. My initial credibility with the audience is likely to be ______ high ______ medium
    ______ low because       .



     Activity 11.3
Understand the Speech Setting
     Action Step 1.c
     Hold a conversation with the person who arranged for you to speak, and get
answers to the following questions:

      1. What are the special expectation for the speech?



      2. What is the appropriate length for the speech?



      3. How large will the audience be?



      4. Where will the speech be given?



      5. What equipment is necessary to give the speech?



      Write a short paragraph mentioning which aspects of the setting are most
important for you to consider in speech preparation and why. This activity corresponds


                                                  227
to Action Step 1.c in your textbook.


     Activity 11.4
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Audience and Setting
        Attend a public speech delivered outside of your school setting. If your schedule
makes viewing a live speech difficult, you may watch a speech delivered on TV or cable
(try C-SPAN). In watching the speech, give close consideration to the audience and the
setting and evaluate how these might have influenced the speaker. Was the speech
itself pitched directly at the immediate interests of the audience? If not, did the speaker
attempt to draw connections between his or her topic and the audience‘s interests? Did
the speaker use any particular words or gestures to connect better with the audience?
What about the manner in which the speaker was dressed; how might this have played
with the audience? Can you discern any influence the setting might have played on the
speaker?

1. In addition to the questions above, use the Setting Checklist below to collect
   information about your occasion and location of your speech.
2. Write a short statement indicating which of these seem most important to your
   speech preparation? Why?
3. Save the results. You will use the data from this checklist throughout the preparation
   process.

       This activity corresponds to Skill Learning Activity 11.1 in your textbook.




                                                228
Setting Checklist
       Topic:


1. When will the speech be given?
2. Where in the program does the speech occur?
3. How large will the audience be?
4. Where in the program does the speech occur?
5. What is the time limit for the speech?
6. What is the layout of the room?


7. What equipment is necessary to give the speech?


      Activity 11.5
Select a Topic
Action Step 1.d
1. Review the three topics that you checked from each of the lists of topics that you
   brainstormed during Action Step 1.a, the Audience Analysis you completed during
   Action Step 1.b, and the Setting Checklist you completed during Action Step 1.c.
2. From the three categories in the brainstorming list, select the subject area that you
   want to use for your first speech.
3. Next, select which of the three topics that you checked that you think would be of
   greatest benefit to your audience.

       This activity corresponds to Action Step 1.d in your textbook.




                                               229
      Topic Selection Worksheet
     Vocation or major            Hobby or activity       Concern or interest


                                                    

                                                    

                                                    

                                                    

                                                    

                                                    

                                                    

                                                    

                                                    

                                                    

                                                    

                                                    

                                                    

                                                    

                                                    



My topic will be:




                                           230
Activity 11.6
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Recognizing a Specific Goal
Access InfoTrac College Edition and do a PowerTrac search with the journal name
(jn) ―Vital Speeches.‖ Find a speech on a topic that interests you. Then read that
speech in order to identify the speaker‘s goal. Was the goal clearly stated in the
introduction? Was it implied but clear? Was it unclear? Note how this analysis can
help you clarify your own speech goal. Write a paragraph explaining what you have
learned. This activity corresponds with Skill Learning Activity 11.2 in your textbook.

   Name of speech:




   Specific goal of speech:




   Goal stated in introduction? (yes/no):




   Summary of what you learned:




                                            231
      Activity 11.7
Writing a Specific Goal
       Action Step 1.e
Write a specific goal for your first major speech.

Type of speech? _____________________________________________

1. Write a draft of your general speech goal using a complete sentence that
   specifies the type response you want from the audience:

2. Does it focus on the particular response that you want from your audience?
    Revise it to be more precise.

3. Review the specific goal statement. If it contains more than one idea, select
    one and redraft your specific goal statement.

4. Test the infinitive phrase. Does the infinitive phrase express the specific
    audience reaction desired? If not, revise the infinitive phrase.

Write your final wording of the specific goal that you will use in your speech:




At the Communicate! Online Textbook Resources you will be directed to Speech Builder
Express, a step-by-step program that will help you develop your speech as you work
through each of the action steps. This activity corresponds with Action Step 1.e in your
textbook.


     Activity 11.8
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Evaluating Online Sources
       The Internet can be a gold mine for a researcher, but the challenge can be
knowing the fool‘s gold from the real thing. Pick a subject at random and search the
Internet for information on it. Find five reliable and five unreliable online sources on your
subject, explaining your rationale for your evaluation of each source. This activity
corresponds with Skill Learning Activity 11.3 in your textbook.




                                                232
                      Evaluating Online Sources Worksheet

Topic selected:

Reliable source #1:

Rationale:



Reliable sources #2:

Rationale:



Reliable sources #3:

Rationale:



Reliable sources #4:

Rationale:



Reliable sources #5:




                                      233
               Evaluating Online Sources Worksheet (Cont’.)

Unreliable source #1:

Rationale:



Unreliable source #2:

Rationale:



Unreliable source #3:

Rationale:



Unreliable source #4:

Rationale:



Unreliable source #5:

Rationale:




                                   234
      Activity 11.9
Locate and Evaluate Information Sources
       Action Step 2.a
       The goal of this activity is to help you compile a list of potential sources for
your speech.
1. Identify gaps in your current knowledge that you would like to fill.
2. Identify a person, or an event, or a process that you could observe to broaden your
    personal knowledge base.
3. Brainstorm a list of key words that are related to your speech goal.
4. Work with paper or electronic versions of your library's card catalog, periodical
   indexes (including InfoTrac College Edition), and general references discussed in
   this chapter, find and list specific resources that appear to provide information for
   your speech.
5. Use a search engine, identify Internet sponsored and personal websites that may be
    sources of information for your speech.
6. Identify a person you could interview for additional information for this speech.
7. Skim the resources you have identified to decide which are likely to be most useful.
8. Evaluate each resource to determine how much faith you can place in the
    information.
       This activity corresponds to Action Step 2.a in your textbook.


      Activity 11.10
Prepare Research Cards
      Action Step 2.b
  The goal of this activity is to review the source material that you identified in Activity
  11.8 and record specific items of information that you might wish to use in your
  speech.
1. Carefully read all print and electronic sources (including web material) that you have
    identified and evaluated as appropriate sources for your speech. Review your notes
    and tapes from all interviews and observations.




                                                 235
2. As you read an item (fact, opinion, example, illustration, statistic, anecdote, narrative,
    comparison/contrast, quotation, definition, or description) that you think might be
    useful in your speech, record the item on a 3 x 5 note card or on the appropriate
    online note card form for this activity, available at the Communicate! Online
    Textbook Resources. (If you are using an article that originally appeared in a
    periodical but that you read online, use the periodical note card form.)
  This activity corresponds with Action Step 2.b in your textbook.


                     Electronic Note Card for a Book
       Heading
       Notes




       Author(s) or editor(s) (last name, first name, middle initial)




       Title
       Page number(s) on which this item was found
       Year of publication
       Place of publication (city, state, or country)
       Publishing company




                                                 236
                      Electronic Note Card for a Periodical

Heading
Notes




Author(s) (if listed) (last name, first name, middle initial)




Title of article

Title of periodical
Page number(s) of the article
Page number(s) on which this item was found
Day/month/year of publication (depending on periodical)
Volume number




                                           237
                   Electronic Note Card for a Newspaper

Heading
Notes




Author(s) (if listed) (last name, first name, middle initial)




Title of article
Title of newspaper
Section number
Page number(s) of the article
Page number(s) on which this item was found
Day/month/year of publication




                                           238
              Electronic Note Card for a General Reference

Heading
Notes




Item author
Item/article title (if one is listed)
Volume author(s) or editors (s) (last name, first name, middle initial)




Reference title
Page number(s) on which this item was found
Year of publication
Place of publication (city, state, or country)
Publishing company




                                          239
                    Electronic Note Card for a Website

Heading
Notes




Web address
Author(s) (last name, first name, middle initial)




Web page title (article)
Date of original posting
Date of most recent update




                                          240
                    Electronic Note Card for an Interview

Heading
Notes




Interviewee (last name, first name, middle initial)
Interviewee’s title or qualifications
Interviewee’s organizational affiliation
Date of interview
Place of interview (city, state, or country)
Title




                                           241
   Electronic Note Card for an Original Survey or Observation

Heading
Notes




Place of survey or observation (city, state, or country)


Date(s) of survey or observation
Description of people surveyed
Person, event, or process observed




                                         242
Activity 11.11
Audience Attitude toward Your Topic
      There are many organizations that poll public opinion on topics. If you have no
idea about how your specific audience might react to your topic, you may be able to find
some idea of general attitudes by accessing public opinion polls. The following
websites are good places to look for opinion polls:

     http://www.WashingtonPost.com (Click on ―Politics,‖ then ―Polls‖)
     http://www.pollingreport.com
     http://www.gallup.com

       Visit each of these sites and examine the polling data available. These may be
useful for your speeches.


     Activity 11.11
What Would You Do? A Question of Ethics
     Read the What Would You Do: A Question of Ethics scenario in your text.
Answer the following questions in the space provided here.

1. While blatantly fabricating information from a source is clearly unethical, what about
   when someone like Alessandra writes quotations based on her memory of earlier
   reading?




2. What ethical obligations does Alessandra have to her sources?




                                               243
       Web Resource 11.1
       Brainstorming
       For ideas about how to use brainstorming for developing speech topics, check
out the handout "Brainstorming and Topic Development," prepared by the Auburn
University English Center.


       Web Resource 11.2
       Statistics Online
       The Statistical Abstract of the United States contains a summary of social,
political, and economic statistics on the United States.


       Web Resource 11.3
       Online Biographical References
       LibrarySpot.com provides numerous links to online biographical references.


       Web Resource 11.4
       Online Encyclopedias
       LibrarySpot.com also provides numerous links to online encyclopedias.


       Web Resource 11.5
       Quotations Online
       Bartleby.com features links to Web-based sources of quotations. Scroll down to
the Quotations section.


       Web Resource 11.6
       Government Publications Online
       The Central Library at Vanderbilt University hosts an excellent site that features
links to several frequently used U.S. federal government documents.




                                               244
       Web Resource 11.7
       Conducting Surveys
       If you want to conduct your own survey, Online Magazine at InfoToday.com
features important tips for collecting information.


       Web Resource 11.8
       Analyzing Information Sources
       Visit this site, hosted by Cornell University, to read about criteria you can use to
evaluate the credibility of your sources.




       Chapter Self-Test
(answers at the end of this workbook)

       True/False
_____ 1.      Topic and subject are the same thing in public speaking.

_____2.       ―A broad area of knowledge‖ is the definition of a topic.

_____3.      Personal observation can be a useful method of gathering data about an
   audience.

_____4.     You will be less likely to be able to move about when the audience is
   much larger than approximately 50 people.


_____5. Concept mapping is a visual means of exploring connections between a
   subject and related ideas.

_____6.       In order to not mislead your audience, use statistics that are both recent
   and older.

_____7.       Objectivity of the source is not important when judging sources.

_____8.       Factual statements can be verified.




                                                245
       Multiple Choice
_____1.      The method for generating topics discussed in the text is called
   a. brainstorming
   b. analyzing
   c. adapting
   d. recording

_____2.       The sentence: ―I want the audience to understand the procedure for
   registering for classes at the college‖ is an example of
   a. general speech goal
   b. thesis statement
   c. specific speech goal
   d. topic sentence
   e. none of the above

_____3.     The size of the audience
   a. has no bearing on speech preparation
   b. may limit how much you are able to move around
   c. may require you to wear a microphone
   d. b and c

_____4.      Tiffany is sitting in the class she will be giving a speech to in the future.
   She looks around the room, noting the average age of her classmates, their gender
   and ethnic makeup. Tiffany is engaging in what practice?
   a. group affiliation
   b. uniqueness
   c. brainstorming
   d. gathering audience data by observation

_____5.      Which of these is not mentioned as a source of information for your
   speeches?
   a. personal experience
   b. books and articles
   c. your instructor
   d. United States government publications

_____6.      If your topic is ―in the news‖, which of the following is likely true:
   a. books will be better sources since they offer depth of information
         b. electronic databases will not be good sources as they are not current
   c. encyclopedias will likely be your only source of information
   d. periodicals will likely be your primary source of information as they are more
      current than books.




                                               246
_____7.      Interviews
   a. are not useful sources for speeches
   b. are best left to professionals
   c. can be very effective if you ask the right person good questions
   d. are great to use because they require no preparation

_____8.       ―The length of this aircraft carrier is equal to three and one half football
   fields.‖ This statement is an example of a(n)
   a. contrast
   b. comparison
   c. statistic
   d. opinion


       Essay
1. Why is it important to know about your audience before you give a speech?



2. Why is it important to have a clear speech goal? Discuss this from the perspective
   of both audience and speaker.




3. Discuss the different methods for gathering audience data.




4. Why is it often important to draw sources from a variety of backgrounds?




5. Discuss the criteria for evaluating sources.




                                                  247
6. In your opinion, is Wikipedia a valid information source? Why or why not?




       Helpful Links
        Topic Development
http://www.public-speaking.org/public-speaking-articles.htm#topic
        A series of articles on topic development from the Advanced Public Speaking
Institute.

        Audience
http://www.public-speaking.org/public-speaking-articles.htm
        A few articles on the audience from the Advanced Public Speaking Institute.

        Toastmasters International
http://www.toastmasters.org/
        The homepage for Toastmaster‘s International, an organization devoted to
improving speaking skills.

        Polling Report.com
http://www.pollingreport.com
        Contains lists of public polling results and information on public opinion research.

      The Gallup Organization
      http://www.gallup.com
      Gallup is an organization devoted to research on public opinion. Much polling
data can be found at their extensive website.

       See your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources for links to other websites
referenced in your text.




                                                248
CHAPTER 12: Organizing Your Speech
Learning Objectives

After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer the following questions:

      How can you determine the main points of your speech?
      How can you construct a thesis statement for your speech?
      How can you prepare a well-written speech outline?
      How can you create an effective introduction to your speech
      How can you create an effective conclusion for your speech?

Interactive Chapter Outline

I. Developing the body of the speech
      ___________________________________________________________

       ___________________________________________________________

       A. Determining main points

       ___________________________________________________________

       ___________________________________________________________

       B. Writing a thesis statement

       ___________________________________________________________

       ___________________________________________________________


C. Outlining the body of the speech

       ___________________________________________________________

       ___________________________________________________________

       1. Wording main points

       _____________________________________________________

       _____________________________________________________



                                       249
     2. Selecting an organizational pattern for main points

     _____________________________________________________

     _____________________________________________________

           a) Time order__________________________________________

           b) Narrative order______________________________________

           c) Topic order__________________________________________

           d) Logical reasons order__________________________________

     D. Selecting and outlining supporting material

     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________

     E. Preparing section transitions and signposts
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________

II. Creating the introduction
      ___________________________________________________________

     __________________________________________________________

     A. Getting attention

     ___________________________________________________________

     __________________________________________________________


        1. Startling statements

     _____________________________________________________

     _____________________________________________________




                                     250
       2. Rhetorical and direct questions

      _____________________________________________________

      _____________________________________________________

      3. Jokes


      4. Personal references

      _____________________________________________________

      _____________________________________________________

      5. Quotations

      _____________________________________________________

      _____________________________________________________

      6. Stories

      _____________________________________________________

      _____________________________________________________


      7. Suspense

      _____________________________________________________

      _____________________________________________________


B. Establishing Listener Relevance

      _____________________________________________________

      _____________________________________________________

C. Stating the thesis

_____________________________________________________




                                      251
D. Establishing your credibility

_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

E. Setting a tone

_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

F. Creating a bond of goodwill

       _____________________________________________________

       _____________________________________________________


III. Crafting the conclusion

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


       A. Summary

       ___________________________________________________________

       ___________________________________________________________

       B. Clincher

       ___________________________________________________________

       ___________________________________________________________

IV. Listing sources
        ___________________________________________________________

       ___________________________________________________________




                                   252
V. Reviewing the outline
     ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________


Key Terms

clincher
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

direct quote
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

joke
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

listener relevance link
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

logical reasons order

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

main points
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

narrative order

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


                               253
organizing
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


parallel
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

personal reference
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

quotation
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

rhetorical question
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


section transitions

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________



speech outline
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________




                               254
startling statement
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

story
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

supporting material

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

thesis statement
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

time (sequential) order

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

topic order
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

transitions

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________




                               255
       Activities

     Activity 12.1
Determining Main Points
       Action Step 3.a
       The goal of this activity is to help you determine three to five main ideas or main
points that you will present in your speech.

1.    List all of the ideas you have found that relate to the specific goal of your
   speech.
2.    If there are more than five:
   a. Draw a line through each of the ideas that you believe the audience already
      understands, or that you have no supporting information for, or that just seem
      too complicated for the time allowed.
   b. Look for and combine ideas that can be grouped together under a larger
      heading.
3.    From those ideas that remain, choose the two to five that you think will make the
   best main points for your audience.

You can complete this activity online with Speech Builder Express, view a student
sample of this activity, and, if requested, e-mail your completed activity to your
instructor. Use your Premium Web site for Communicate! to access the Action Step
activities for Chapter 12..


      Activity 12.2
Writing a Thesis Statement
       Action Step 3.b
       The goal of this activity is to use your specific goal statement and the main
points you have identified to develop a well-worded thesis statement for your speech.

1. Write the specific goal you developed in Chapter 11 Speech Action Step Activity
   1.e.

2. List the main points you determined in Action Step 3.a

3. Now write a complete sentence that combines your specific goal with your main
   point ideas.
You can complete this activity online with Speech Builder Express, view a student
sample of this activity, and, if requested, e-mail your completed activity to your
instructor. Use your Premium Web site for Communicate! to access the Action Step
activities for Chapter 12..




                                               256
     Activity 12.3
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Identifying Thesis Statements
        Access the American Rhetoric Online Speech Bank. Select five speeches and
listen to the audio recordings or read the printed transcript of each speech. Identify and
write down the thesis statements in each. Not all speeches have explicit thesis
statements, but they do have an implied thesis or purpose. If you feel any one of the
speeches you have selected does not contain an explicit thesis, identify its implied
thesis or purpose.
               You can complete this activity online. Use your Online Textbook
Resources for Communicate! to access Skill Learning Activity 12.1.


       Identifying Thesis Statements Worksheet

       Speech title 1:

       Thesis statement:



       Speech title 2:

       Thesis statement:



       Speech title 3:

       Thesis statement:



       Speech title 4:

       Thesis statement:



       Speech title 5:

       Thesis statement:




                                               257
     Activity 12.4
Organizing and Outlining the Main Points of Your Speech
       Action Step 3.c
       The goal of this activity is to help you phrase and order your main points.

1. Write your thesis statement (Action Step 3.b).
2. Underline the two to five main points determined for your thesis statement.
3. For each underlined item, write one sentence that summarizes what you want your
   audience to know about that idea.
4. Review the main points as a group.
   a. Is the relationship of each main point statement to the goal statement clearly
       specified? If not, revise.
   b. Are the main points parallel in structure? If not, revise.
5. Choose an organizational pattern for your main points and write them in this order.
   Place a ―I.‖ before the main point you will make first, a ―II.‖ before your second point,
   etc.

You can complete this activity online with Speech Builder Express, view a student
sample of this activity, and, if requested, e-mail your completed activity to your
instructor. Use your Premium Web site for Communicate! to access the Action Step
activities for Chapter 12..




                                                258
     Activity 12.5
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Identifying Main Points
        Choose one of the speeches you listened to or read in Skill Learning Activity
12.1. Listen to or read it again, but this time identify and write down the main points in
each. What type of organizational pattern is the speaker using in the speech?
               You can complete it online and, if requested, e-mail it to your instructor.
Use your Online Textbook Resources for Communicate! to access Skill Learning
Activity 12.2.


       Identifying Main Points Worksheet

       Speech title:

       Organization pattern used:

       Main point 1:



       Main point 2:



       Main point 3:



       Main point 4:



       Main point 5:




                                                259
     Activity 12.6
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Identifying Supporting Material
        Using the speech you chose in Skill Learning Activity 12.1, list the various types
of support the speaker uses to develop each main point. Does the speaker
acknowledge the sources of this information? Are there types of support that you
thought should have been used that are missing from this speech? Does the speaker
seem to rely on one type of support to the exclusion of others? Why do you suppose
that the speaker chose the types of support that were used?
        You can complete this activity online and, if requested, e-mail it to your instructor.
Use your Online Textbook Resources for Communicate! to access the Skill Learning
Activities.


       Identifying Supporting Material Worksheet

       Speech title:



       Types of supporting materials used by speaker:




       How are sources acknowledged?




       Supporting material missing from speech?




       Reasons for supporting materials used?




                                                 260
      Activity 12.7
Selecting and Outlining Supporting Material
Action Step 3.d
The goal of this activity is to help you develop and outline your supporting
material. Complete the following steps for each of your main points.

1. List the main point.

2. Using your note cards list the key information related to that main point that you
   uncovered during your research.

3. Analyze that information by crossing out information that seems less relevant, or
   doesn‘t fit.

4. Look for information that seems related and can be grouped under a broader
   heading.

5. Try to group information until you have between 2 and 4 supporting points.

6. Write the supporting points in full sentences.

7. Repeat this process for all main points.

8. Write an outline using roman numerals for main points, capital letters for supporting
   points, and arabic numbers for material related to supporting points.

You can complete this activity online with Speech Builder Express, view a student
sample of this activity, and, if requested, e-mail your completed activity to your
instructor. Use your Premium Web site for Communicate! to access the Action Step
activities for Chapter 12..




                                               261
      Activity 12.8
Preparing Section Transitions
        Action Step 3.e
        The goal of this exercise is to help you prepare section transitions. Section
transitions appear as parenthetical statements before/after each main point. Using
complete sentences:

1. Write a transition from your first main point to your second.

2. Write a transition from each of your remaining main points to the one before it.

3. Add these transitional statements to your outline.

You can complete this activity online with Speech Builder Express, view a student
sample of this activity, and, if requested, e-mail your completed activity to your
instructor. Use your Premium Web site for Communicate! to access the Action Step
activities for Chapter 12..




                                               262
      Activity 12.9
Writing Speech Introductions
       Action Step 3.f
       The goal of this activity is to create choices for how you will begin your speech.

1. For the speech body you outlined earlier, write three different types introductions for
   your speech chosen from these types: a startling statement, rhetorical question,
   story, personal reference, quotation, or suspense. Choose types that you believe
   would be appropriate for your speech goal and audience.

2. Of the three introductions you drafted, which do you believe is the best? Why?

3. Next, plan how you will introduce your thesis statement.

4. Develop a very short statement that will establish your credibility.
5. Consider how you might establish goodwill during the introduction.

6. Write that introduction in outline form.

You can complete this activity online with Speech Builder Express, view a student
sample of this activity, and, if requested, e-mail your completed activity to your
instructor. Use your Premium Web site for Communicate! to access the Action Step
activities for Chapter 12..




                                                263
     Activity 12.10
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity
        Identifying Transition Statements, Introductions, and Conclusions
        Use the same speech you chose for Skill Learning Activity 12.1.

1.       Identify the transition statements the speaker used to move from one main point
     to another.




2.       Identify the type of introduction the speaker used. Do you think it was effective? If
     so, why? If not, why not?




3.      Identify the type of conclusion the speaker used. Why do you think the speaker
     chose to end the speech in this way? Was the conclusion effective? If so, why? If
     not, why not?




        You can complete this activity online and, if requested, e-mail it to your instructor.
Use your Online Textbook Resources for Communicate! to access Skill Learning
Activity 12.4.




                                                 264
      Activity 12.11
Creating Speech Conclusions
Action Step 3.g
The goal of this activity is to help you create choices for how you will conclude your
speech.

1. For the speech body you outlined earlier, write three different conclusions (summary,
   story, appeal to action, or emotional impact) that review important points you want
   the audience to remember and leave the audience with vivid imagery or an
   emotional appeal.

2. Which do you believe is the best? Why?

3. Write that conclusion in outline form.

You can complete this activity online with Speech Builder Express, view a student
sample of this activity, and, if requested, e-mail your completed activity to your
instructor. Use your Premium Web site for Communicate! to access the Action Step
activities for Chapter 12..



     Activity 12.12
Compiling a List of Sources
Action Step 3.h
The goal of this activity is to help you record the list of sources you used in the speech.

1. Review your note cards, separating those whose information you have used in your
   speech from those you have not.

2. List the sources whose information was used in the speech by copying the
   bibliographic information recorded on the note card.

3. For short lists, organize your list alphabetically by the last name of the first author.
   Be sure to follow the form shown in Figure 12.2. If you did not record some of the
   bibliographic information on your note card, you will need to revisit the library or data
   base to find it.

You can complete this activity online with Speech Builder Express, view a student
sample of this activity, and, if requested, e-mail your completed activity to your
instructor. Use your Premium Web site for Communicate! to access the Action Step
activities for Chapter 12..




                                                265
      Activity 12.13
Using InfoTrac College Edition
        Using InfoTrac College Edition, enter ―Vital Speeches‖ in the journal name box.
View Vital Speeches and identify three speeches to look at; then view those speeches.
Read and analyze the introductions and conclusions to those speeches. Which ones
meet the goals discussed in this chapter? What could the speakers have done to make
the introductions and conclusions better? What qualities, if any, did you find helpful in
preparing your introduction and conclusion?


      Activity 12.14
Using the Web
       Locate a website of quotations. Browse the site. Seek quotes relevant to your
speech and write a few in the space below. How may these be used to enhance your
introduction and/or conclusion? (Be sure to copy full bibliographic information
concerning the source of the quote.)


     Activity 12.15
What Would You Do? A Question of Ethics
     Read the What Would You Do: A Question of Ethics scenario in your text.
Answer the following questions in the space provided here.

      1. What are the ethical issues here?




      2. Is anyone really hurt by Marna‘s opening the speech with this story?




      3. What are the speaker‘s ethical responsibilities?


      Web Resource 12.1
Writing Different Types of Thesis Statements
       For guidance on writing analytical, expository, and persuasive thesis statements,
use your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access Web Resource 12.1:
Writing Different Types of Thesis Statements.


                                              266
      Chapter Self-Test
(answers at the end of this workbook)

      True/False

_____ 1.     Transition statements should not be placed in the outline.

_____2.       Topic order organizes the main ideas of a speech by categories or
   divisions.

_____3.      Organizing the main points by steps in a process is called logical order.

_____4.      Using a rhetorical question in the introduction is a poor idea because as
   the audience ponders the answer to the question, they will not be paying attention to
   the speech.

_____5.      The appeal to action ends a persuasive speech.

_____6.      Organizing is the process of selecting and arranging the main ideas and
   supporting material to be presented in the speech in a manner that makes it easy for
   the audience to understand.

_____7.      One way for main points to have parallel structure is to use the same
   introductory words.

_____8.      Organizing your main points using steps in a process is an example of the
   time or sequential ordering of main points.




                                              267
       Multiple Choice
_____1.       A thesis statement
   a. is a sentence that identifies the topic of your speech and the main ideas you will
      present
   b. is the same as the specific goal statement
   c. should be written after the introduction
   d. is not necessary in a well-organized speech

_____2.        Main points should be
   a. clear
   b. written in parallel structure format
   c. limited to five or fewer in number
   d. meaningful
   e. all of the above

_____3.       Daniel organizes his speech on changing the oil in a car with main ideas
   that are the steps in the process. His speech is organized using what order?
   a. time order
   b. logical reasons order
   c. problem-solution order
   d. topic order

_____4.      At the end of her first main idea, Alexandra says: ―Now that we have seen
   the causes of credit card debt, let‘s look at what we can do about it.‖ You recognize
   this sentence as a:
   a. conclusion
   b. main point
   c. section transition
   d. attention getter
   e. none of the above

_____5.       You are listening to a speech that starts off with the following: ―What
   would you do if you won the lottery today? Would you spend the money? Would
   you save it? Would you donate it?‖ You recognize this as what type of introduction?
   a. startling statement
   b. rhetorical question
   c. reference
   d. emotional impact
   e. parallel structure




                                              268
_____6.     The two major goals of a speech conclusion are
   a. summarize and bond with the audience
   b. bond with the audience and emotionally impact the audience
   c. emotionally impact the audience and explain your thesis
   d. summarize and emotionally impact the audience

_____7.        Listing sources
   a. is usually done alphabetically by author‘s last name
   b. will enable you to direct audience members to your sources
   c. can be done using a bibliographic style format such as APA or MLA
   d. all of the above

_____8.         What is the problem with the following outline segment?

   I. Freshwater fishing requires certain pieces of equipment.
      A. A good-quality rod will help your casting.
      B. A properly constructed reel will help gain proper distance
      C. Fishing line of the right weight will allow you to catch larger fish
      D. Years of fishing experience also help.

   a.   The main idea is written as a full sentence
   b.   There are not enough subdivisions
   c.   Subdivision D does not belong as ―experience‖ is not a piece of equipment.
   d.   There is nothing wrong with this outline segment


        Essay
1. Discuss several different goals of an introduction and at least three different ways of
   achieving those goals.




2. Identify three different ways of organizing a speech, and provide an example of
   each.




                                                269
3. What are the four main types of conclusions, and what are their main objectives?




4. Discuss three techniques you can use in your introduction to gain the audience‘s
   attention, and provide an example of a speech in which each technique would be
   effective.




       Helpful Links
        Organization
http://www.public-speaking.org/public-speaking-articles.htm#organization
        A set of articles on organization from the Advanced Public Speaking Institute.

        Openings
http://www.public-speaking.org/public-speaking-articles.htm#openings
        A set of articles on openings (introductions) from the Advanced Public Speaking
Institute.

        Closings
http://www.public-speaking.org/public-speaking-articles.htm#closings
An article on closings (conclusions) from the Advanced Public Speaking Institute.

        Powerful Introductions
http://ezinearticles.com/?Public-Speaking-Tips:-10-Easy-Ways-To-Prepare-A-Powerful-
Introduction&id=76023
        See this site for tips on preparing your introduction.

        Speech Conclusions
http://www.aresearchguide.com/3tips.html
        See this website for tips on creating an effective speech conclusion.

       See your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources for links to other websites
referenced in your text.




                                               270
CHAPTER 13: Adapting Verbally and Visually
Learning Objectives

After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer the following questions:

      What can you do to demonstrate the relevance of your speech to your
       audience?
      How can establish common ground in your speech?
      What can you do to bolster your credibility as a speaker?
      How can you help your audience comprehend and retain your message?
      What can you do to adapt to the cultural differences between you and your
       audience?
      What are the different types of presentational aids?
      What criteria can you use to select presentational aids?
      What guidelines should you follow to construct and integrate
       presentational aids?

Interactive Chapter Outline
I. Adapting to your audience verbally
      ___________________________________________________________

       ___________________________________________________________

       A. Relevance

       ___________________________________________________________

       ___________________________________________________________

             1. Establish timeliness

             _____________________________________________________

             _____________________________________________________

       2. Establish proximity

             _____________________________________________________

             _____________________________________________________




                                       271
      3. Demonstrate personal impact

      _____________________________________________________

      _____________________________________________________

B. Common ground

      _____________________________________________________

      _____________________________________________________


1. Use personal pronouns

      _____________________________________________________

      _____________________________________________________

2. Ask rhetorical questions

      _____________________________________________________

      _____________________________________________________

3. Draw from common experiences

      _____________________________________________________

      _____________________________________________________


C. Speaker credibility
_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________


1. Demonstrate knowledge and expertise

      _____________________________________________________

      _____________________________________________________




                              272
      2. Establish trustworthiness

             _____________________________________________________

             _____________________________________________________

      3. Display personableness
             _____________________________________________________

             _____________________________________________________


D. Information Comprehension and Retention
_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________


      1. Appeal to diverse learning styles
           _____________________________________________________

             _____________________________________________________

      2. Orient the audience with internal reviews
            _____________________________________________________

             _____________________________________________________


      3. Choose specific and familiar language
           _____________________________________________________

             _____________________________________________________


E. Adapting to Cultural Differences

             _____________________________________________________

             _____________________________________________________

      1. Work to be understood when speaking in your second language
           _____________________________________________________

             _____________________________________________________



                                      273
     2. Choose nonoffensive language
          _____________________________________________________

           _____________________________________________________


     3. Choose culturally appropriate supporting material
          _____________________________________________________

           _____________________________________________________


II. Adapting to audiences visually
       ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________


    A. Types of presentational aids

     1. Actual objects

           _____________________________________________________

           _____________________________________________________

           2. Models

           _____________________________________________________

           _____________________________________________________

           3. Photographs

           _____________________________________________________

           _____________________________________________________


           4. Simple drawings and diagrams

           _____________________________________________________

           _____________________________________________________



                                      274
              5. Maps

                     _____________________________________________________

                     _____________________________________________________

              6. Charts

                     _____________________________________________________

                     _____________________________________________________

              7. Graphs
                    _____________________________________________________

                     _____________________________________________________

              8. audio materials
                    _____________________________________________________

                     _____________________________________________________

              9. audiovisual materials
                    _____________________________________________________

                     _____________________________________________________


       B. Criteria for Choosing Presentational Aids
                     _____________________________________________________

                     _____________________________________________________


       C. Designing Effective Presentational Aids

                     _____________________________________________________

                     _____________________________________________________

III. Methods for displaying visual aids

              ___________________________________________________________

              ___________________________________________________________




                                             275
A. Posters

      _____________________________________________________

      _____________________________________________________

B. Whiteboards or chalkboards

      _____________________________________________________

      _____________________________________________________

C. Flipcharts
       _____________________________________________________

      _____________________________________________________


D. Handouts
     _____________________________________________________

      _____________________________________________________


E. Document cameras
     _____________________________________________________

      _____________________________________________________


F. CD/VCR/DVD players and LCD projectors
      _____________________________________________________

      _____________________________________________________


G. Computer-mediated slide show
     ____________________________________________________

      ____________________________________________________




                                276
Key Terms

actual object

_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________


bar graphs
_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

charts

_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

common ground

__________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

credibility
_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

flip chart

_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________


graph
_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________




                               277
initial audience attitudes
_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

knowledge and expertise

_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________


Kolb’s cycle of learning
_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________


LCD multimedia projector
_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________


learning style
_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________


line graphs


_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________




                               278
personal pronouns
_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

personableness

_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

pie graph

_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________


presentational aid
_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________


proximity
_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________


rhetorical questions
_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________




                               279
       trustworthiness
       _____________________________________________________

       _____________________________________________________

       visual aid
       _____________________________________________________

       _____________________________________________________


       word charts
       _____________________________________________________

       _____________________________________________________




       Activities
     Activity 13.1
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Creating Common Ground
       Use your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access InfoTrac College
Edition and search for the article ―A Question of Real American Black Men,‖ by Bailey B.
Baker, Jr., Vital Speeches, April 15, 2002. Analyze how this speaker used use personal
pronouns, rhetorical questions, common experiences, and personalized information to
create common ground. Write a short essay describing the conclusions of your
analysis.

      You can complete this activity online and, if required, e-mail it to your instructor.
Use your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access Skill Learning Activity
13.1.




                                                280
      Activity 13.2
Adapting to Your Audience Verbally
       Action Step 4.a
The goal of this activity is to help you plan how you will adapt your material to the
specific audience verbally.

Write your thesis statement: _________________________________________

Review the audience analysis that you completed in Action Steps 1.b and 1.c. As you
review your speech outline that you completed in Action Steps 3.a–3.h, plan the
supporting material you will use to verbally adapt to your audience by answering the
following questions:

1.      How can I adapt this material so that it is relevant to this audience by showing
     that it is timely, proximate, and has a personal impact on them?
2.      How can I make this material easier for the audience to comprehend by orienting
     them, defining key terms, using vivid examples, personalizing the information,
     comparing unknowns with knowns, and using diverse methods of development?
3.      How can I establish common ground by using personal pronouns, asking
     rhetorical questions, and drawing from common experiences.
4.      How can I establish my credibility by demonstrating my knowledge and expertise,
     my trustworthiness, and my personableness.
5.      How can I adapt to the language and cultural difference that exist between me
     and the audience?

You can complete this activity online with Speech Builder Express, view a student
sample of this activity, and, if requested, e-mail your completed activity to your
instructor. Use your Premium Web site for Communicate! to access the Action Step
activities for Chapter 13.




                                              281
Activity 13.3
Adapting to Your Audience Visually
       Action Step 4.b
       The goal of this activity is help you decide what visual aids you will use in your
speech.
1. Identify the key ideas in you speech that you believe a visual presentation would
   increase audience interest, understanding, or retention.
2. For each idea you have identified, list the type of visual you think would be most
   appropriate to develop and use.
3. For each visual you have identified, decide on the method you will use to present it.
4. Write a brief paragraph describing why you chose the types and methods that you
   did. Be sure to consider how your choices will affect your preparation time and the
   audience‘s perception of your credibility.

You can complete this activity online with Speech Builder Express, view a student
sample of this activity, and, if requested, e-mail your completed activity to your
instructor. Use your Premium Web site for Communicate! to access the Action Step
activities for Chapter 13.



      Visual Aid Planning Chart
              Idea                    Type of aid               Display method




                                              282
     Activity 13.4
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Evaluating Visual Aids
        Analyze speeches or other public presentations such as lectures, articles,
essays, newscasts, infomercials, etc. that you can find on campus, in print, online, or via
television. Evaluate the use of at least one item from each of the following visuals aids:
1) objects, 2) models, 3) photographs, 4) slides, 5) film/video clip, 6) drawing, 7) maps,
8) charts, and 9) graphs. How effectively does the speaker or author use each item to
illustrate or support his or her speech or presentation? Are there other ways the speaker
might have used the visual aid more effectively? Would a different type of visual aid
have conveyed the presentation‘s message more clearly?
                You can complete this activity online and, if requested, e-mail it to your
instructor. Use your Online Textbook Resources for Communicate! to access Skill
Learning Activity 13.2.


      Activity 13.5
Using InfoTrac College Edition
        Search for the journal ―Vital Speeches.‖ View ―Vital Speeches‖ and attempt to
find a speech on or related to your topic. If there are none, find a speech that sounds
interesting to you. Read that speech. Look for ways the speaker attempted to create
common ground. Did the speaker use personal pronouns or rhetorical questions?
Share common experiences? Personalize information? If you find many examples,
how did they help make the speech better? If you found few examples, how would their
use have made the speech better? Discuss what you found below.




                                               283
      Activity 13.6
Using InfoTrac College Edition
       Using InfoTrac College Edition, do a subject search using the term ―visual aids.‖
Find the article titled ―The effect of a nonverbal aid on preschoolers' recall for color, ― by
J. Ling and M. Blades. (Journal of Genetic Psychology, Sept 2000.) Read the article,
and summarize the findings below. How do the research findings presented relate to
the use of visual aids in speeches?


      Activity 13.7
Using Technology
       Go to http://einstein.cs.uri.edu/tutorials/csc101/powerpoint/ppt.html and review
the basics for using Microsoft PowerPoint software. (If you prefer or if you have
different presentation software available at your home or school, use an Internet search
engine such as Google to find an online tutorial for your software of choice.)
Presentation software can be useful in creating computerized presentations, overheads,
slide shows and/or handouts. Using the tutorial, teach yourself the basics of the
program and design a possible visual aid for your speech. How can a visual aid of this
type influence the audience‘s attitude toward the speaker?


      Activity 13.8
Preparing a Handout
      Prepare a one-page handout on ―Mistakes to Avoid When Using Visual Aids.‖
The audience will be your speech class. The handout should be clear, visually
appealing, focus on main points and reflect an understanding of the material covered in
Chapter 13 of your text. Be prepared to discuss and present your handout to your
classmates.




                                                 284
      Activity 13.9
Evaluating Visual Aids
        Using the handout designed in Activity 13.8 or one you have prepared for your
first speech, analyze it using the following checklist. Considering your analysis, would
you make any changes to your visual aid? If so, what would they be?


       Visual Aid Assessment Checklist

                            Excellen         Good             Average            Poor (D)
                    t (A)              (B)             (C)
        Type of
visual aid is
suited to the
audience
        Aid is
visually
pleasing overall
        Size of
type is
appropriate and
pleasing to the
eye.
        Both
upper and
lower case type
used
        Limit the
number of
phrases to six
        Focus
on information
that is
emphasized in
the speech
        Color
and/or clip art,
if used,
enhances
impact




                                               285
     Activity 13.10
Graphing Numerical Data
       Locate an article in a journal, newspaper or magazine that presents data in
numerical form. (You may choose to use InfoTrac College Edition or the Internet to
locate a suitable article.) After you have examined the numerical data, decide how to
represent that data visually. After you have decided, create an appropriate chart. You
may decide to create your chart using PowerPoint or other appropriate software. After
you create your visual, us a copy of the Visual Aid Assessment Check List to evaluate
the quality of your visual. Be prepared to share your visual with your classmates.


       Visual Aid Assessment Checklist

                            Excellen         Good           Average           Poor (D)
                    t (A)              (B)           (C)
        Type of
visual aid is
suited to the
audience
        Aid is
visually
pleasing overall
        Size of
type is
appropriate and
pleasing to the
eye.
        Both
upper and
lower case type
used
        Limit the
number of
phrases to six
        Focus
on information
that is
emphasized in
the speech
        Color
and/or clip art,
if used,
enhances
impact



                                               286
     Activity 13.11
What Would You Do? A Question of Ethics
     Read the What Would You Do: A Question of Ethics scenario in the chapter.
Answer the following questions in the space provided here.

1. In a speech, is it ethical to adapt in a way that resonates with your audience but isn‘t
   in keeping with what you really believe? Why or why not?




2. Could Kendra have achieved her goal using a different method? How?




                                               287
      Web Resource 13.1
Visual Aids
       For a thorough discussion of the methods and guidelines for using visual aids,
use your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access Web Resource 13.1:
Visual Aids.

       Web Resource 13.2
       PowerPoint Tips & Tutorials

       For a concise but informative list of tips for creating and displaying PowerPoint
slides effectively, use your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access Web
Resource 13.2: PowerPoint Tips & Tutorials. Be sure to click on the link titled
―PowerPoint: Web Image Capturing and Basic Slide Show.‖


       Chapter Self-Test
(answers at the end of this workbook)

       True/False
______ 1.     The perception that the speaker and the audience share the same or
   similar information, feelings and experiences is called common ground.

______2.     An important way to let the audience know you are aware of them is by
   using personal pronouns.

______3.    Since chalkboards are usually large, they are best suited for larger, more
   complex visual aids that take time to be written down.

______4.     Since rhetorical questions invite the audience to participate mentally in the
   idea being discussed, they distract from the speaker and therefore should not be
   used in speeches.

______5.      The easiest method for displaying simple drawings is by using poster
   board.

______6.      Handouts can be a distraction in that audience members may pay more
   attention to the handout than to the speaker.

______7.      Three visual aids for a five-minute speech is usually appropriate.

______8.    Visuals that use all-capital letters are easier to read than visuals that use
   upper- and lowercase type.


                                               288
______9. LCD projectors should be used primarily in smaller settings such as
   classrooms.



        Multiple Choice
______1.    The following statement uses what method to build and maintain the
   audience‘s interest? (The audience is a group of college seniors.)

   ―Have you ever wondered what life will be like after college? Will you be able to get
   a job? Will you earn enough to afford a house, a nice car, good clothes? Will you
   be able to save for retirement? Get married? Go to graduate school? Well, today
   I‘d like to help you answer some of those questions by detailing steps you can take
   now to ensure financial security.‖

   a.   proximity
   b.   timeliness
   c.   rhetorical sensitivity
   d.   demographics

______2.      In her speech, Karen says: ―Let me bring this information a little closer to
   home. Over 100,000 people a year die of this disease. That‘s twice the population
   of this town and five times the population of this college! Some of these people live
   right here in this community.‖ This is an example of
   a. developing common ground through personalizing information
   b. developing common ground by sharing a common experience
   c. adapting to the audience visually
   d. the use of proximity

______3.     ―The level of trust an audience has in you‖ is the definition of
   a. attitude
   b. credibility
   c. audience analysis
   d. trustworthiness
   e. none of the above




                                                289
______4.      A diagram that shows relationships among parts of a single unit is called
   a. a bar graph
   b. a line graph
   c. an organizational chart
   d. a pie graph

______5.      Christina wishes to compare the market share of two different soft drink
   companies to each other. The most appropriate visual aid to do this would be
   a. a bar graph
   b. a pie graph
   c. a line chart
   d. a photograph
   e. a proximity graph

______6.     Salvatore wishes to show the audience the chain of command of the
   organization he works for. A useful visual aid for this might be:
   a. graph
   b. pie chart
   c. flow chart
   d. model
   e. none of the above

______7.     Which of the following is true about handouts?
   a. they can be distracting
   b. they are easy to prepare
         c. each member of the audience can have their own copy of your visual aid
   d. the audience may focus on the handouts when you want them looking at you.
         e. all of the above

______8.     Which of the following is not true about visual aids?
   a. the more, the better
   b. ideas hard to explain verbally might be easily explained visually
   c. the size of the audience influences the type of visual aid used and the method of
      displaying it.
         d. all the statements are true

______9.      Which of the following is not true regarding the principles for designing
   effective presentational aids?
           a. Use a print or type size that can be seen easily by your entire audience.
           b. Use a typeface that is easy to read and pleasing to the eye
           c. Limit the lines of type to ten or less
           d. Add pictures or clip art where appropriate to add interests




                                               290
      Essay
1. Discuss several ways in which a speaker may build her or his credibility with an
   audience.




2. What are the major types of presentational aids, and how can they improve the
   quality of a speech?




3. Discuss the ways that speakers should be aware of and adapt to cultural
   differences.




      Helpful Links
        Audio Visual and Props
http://www.public-speaking.org/public-speaking-articles.htm
        The Advanced Public Speaking Institute contains a series of articles on the use
of visual aids.

        Using Visual Aids Effectively
http://www.hawaii.edu/mauispeech/html/visual_aids.html
        This website from the University of Hawaii offers several suggestions for the
effective use of visual aids.

        Using Visual Aids
http://sorrel.humboldt.edu/~jmf2/floss/visual-aids.html
        Types of visual aids and tips for using them, with some Internet-based examples.

        When Your Presentation Crashes . . .
http://www.fastcompany.com/online/07/130crash.html
        Tips on giving a ―catastrophe free‖ presentation when using visual aids and
technology by Eric Matson.


                                               291
        PowerPoint Tutorial
http://einstein.cs.uri.edu/tutorials/csc101/powerpoint/ppt.html
        An online tutorial for using Microsoft PowerPoint presentation software by the
Department of Computer Science at the University of Rhode Island.


       See your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources for links to other websites
referenced in your text.




                                               292
CHAPTER 14: Overcoming Speech Apprehension by
            Practicing Delivery

   Learning Objectives

   After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer the following questions:

         What are the symptoms and causes of public speaking apprehension?
         What techniques can you use to manage public speaking apprehension?
         What can you do to use your voice effectively?
         What are the three most common delivery methods?
         What can you do to conduct effective rehearsal sessions?
         How can you use presentational aids effectively during your speech?
         What criteria can you use to evaluate the effectiveness of a speech?

   Interactive Chapter Outline
   I. Public speaking apprehension
         ___________________________________________________________

          ___________________________________________________________


          A. Symptoms and causes

          ___________________________________________________________

          ___________________________________________________________

          B. Managing your apprehension
          ___________________________________________________________

          ___________________________________________________________


          1. Communication orientation
          ___________________________________________________________

          ___________________________________________________________




                                          293
     2. Visualization
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________

     3. Systematic desensitization
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________

     4. Cognitive restructuring
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________

     5. Public speaking skills training
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________


II. Characteristics of an Effective Delivery Style
       ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________

     A. Use a conventional style
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________

     B. Be animated

     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________


III. Effective Use of Your Voice
        ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________




                                294
     A. Speak intelligibly
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________


     B. Use vocal expressiveness

     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________


IV. Effective Use of Your Body
       ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________


     A. Facial expressions
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________

     B. Gestures
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________

     C. Movement
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________


     D. Eye contact
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________


     E. Posture
     ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________



                                   295
          F. Poise
          ___________________________________________________________

          ___________________________________________________________


          G. Appearance
          ___________________________________________________________

          ___________________________________________________________


     V. Delivery Methods
            ___________________________________________________________

          ___________________________________________________________

          A. Impromptu speeches

          ___________________________________________________________

          ___________________________________________________________

          B. Scripted speeches
          ___________________________________________________________

          ___________________________________________________________


          C. Extemporaneous speeches
          ___________________________________________________________

          ___________________________________________________________

V. Rehearsal
      ___________________________________________________________

     ___________________________________________________________




                                     296
A. Preparing speaking notes
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


B. Handling presentational aids

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

C. Recording, analyzing, and refining speech delivery
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

1. First practice
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


2. Analysis
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


3. Second practice

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

4. Additional practices
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________




                                  297
         VI. Criteria for Evaluating Speeches

         ___________________________________________________________

         ___________________________________________________________


Key Terms
accent

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

adaptation reaction
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

animated
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

anticipation reaction

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

appearance
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

articulation
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________




                                                298
audience contact
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

cognitive restructuring
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

communication orientation
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

communication orientation motivation (COM)
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

confrontation reaction
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

conversational style
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

extemporaneous speech

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

eye contact

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________




                                        299
facial expression
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


gestures

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


impromptu speech
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

intelligible
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


monotone
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


movement
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


pauses
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________




                                    300
pitch
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


poise
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


posture
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


pronunciation

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


public speaking apprehension
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

public speaking skills training

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

  quality
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________




                                    301
  rate
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


rehearsing

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

scripted speech

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

speaking notes


___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

spontaneity
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


systematic desensitization

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


visualization

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________




                                    302
vocal expressiveness

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


volume
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________




      Activities
      Activity 14.1
      Controlling Nervousness
Interview one or two people who give frequent speeches (a minister, a politician, a
lawyer, a businessperson, or a teacher). Ask what is likely to make them more or less
nervous about giving the speech. Find out how they cope with their nervousness. Write
a short paragraph summarizing what you have learned from the interviews. Then
identify the behaviors used by those people that you believe might work for you. This
activity corresponds to Skill Learning Activity 14.1 in your textbook.



      Activity 14.2
Articulation Practice
The goal of this activity is to have you practice articulating difficult word combinations.
Go to www.jimpowell.com/ArticulationEx[BA1], where you will find a list of sentences
that are difficult to articulate. Practice saying each of these sentences until you can do
so without error. Then write a short paragraph describing your experience. This activity
corresponds to Skill Learning Activity 14.2 in your textbook.




                                               303
     Activity 14.3
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity
     Evaluating Speaker Vocal and Body Action Behaviors
        Attend a public speech event on campus or in your community. Watch and
evaluate the speaker‘s use of vocal characteristics (voice and articulation), bodily action
(facial expressions, gestures, movement, poise, and posture), enthusiasm, spontaneity,
fluency, and eye contact. Which vocal or body action behaviors stood out and why?
How did the speaker‘s use of voice, bodily actions, enthusiasm, spontaneity, fluency,
and eye contact contribute to or detract from the speaker‘s message? What three
things could the speaker have done to improve the delivery of the speech?



       Evaluating Speaker Vocal and Body Action Behaviors Worksheet

       Evaluation of speaker‘s voice and articulation:




       Evaluation of speaker‘s bodily actions (facial expressions, gestures, movement,
poise, and posture), enthusiasm, spontaneity, fluency, eye contact:




       Which characteristics stood out? Why?




                                               304
       Which characteristics contribute to or detract from speaker‘s message?




       Three areas for improvement:




      Activity 14.4
Practice Presenting Your Speech
      Action Step 5
      The goal of this activity is to rehearse your speech, analyze it, and rehearse it
again. One complete rehearsal includes (1) a practice, (2) an analysis, and (3) a
second practice.

1. Find a place where you can be alone to practice your speech. Follow the six points
   of the First Practice as listed in the chapter.

2. Listen to the tape. Review your outline as you listen and then answer the
   questions on the Rehearsal Analysis Checklist (see next page).

3. Go through the six steps outlined for the first practice. Then answer the
   questions on the checklist for the second practice. Continue as needed.

        You can complete this activity online, print out copies of the Rehearsal Analysis
Sheet, see a student sample of a practice round, and, if requested, e-mail your work to
your instructor. Use your Premium Website for Communicate! to access the Action Step
activities for Chapter 14.




                                               305
Rehearsal Analysis Checklist
First Practice
Are you satisfied with how well:
       The introduction got attention and led into the speech? _______
      The main points were clearly stated? _______ And well developed? _______
      The material adapted to the audience? _______
      The section transitions were present? _______ And clear? _______
      The conclusion summarized the main points? _______
      The conclusion left the speech on a high note? _______
      Visual aids were used? _______
      The ideas were expressed vividly? _______ And emphatically? _______
You maintained a conversational tone throughout? _______
Sounding enthusiastic? _______ Sounding spontaneous? _______
Speaking fluently? _______
      List the three most important changes you will make in your next practice
session.
      One:
      Two:
      Three:




                                             306
Rehearsal Analysis Checklist
Second Practice
Are you satisfied with how well:
      The introduction got attention and led into the speech? _______
      The main points were clearly stated? _______ And well developed? _______
      The material adapted to the audience? _______
      The section transitions were present? _______ And clear? _______
      The conclusion summarized the main points? _______
      The conclusion left the speech on a high note? _______
      Visual aids were used? _______
      The ideas were expressed vividly? _______ And emphatically? _______
You maintained a conversational tone throughout? _______
Sounding enthusiastic? _______ Sounding spontaneous? _______
Speaking fluently? _______
      List the three most important changes you will make in your next practice
session.
      One:
      Two:
      Three:


      Go through the six steps outlined for the first practice. Then assess:
      Did you achieve the goals you set for the second practice?     Yes ____ No ____

        Reevaluate the speech using the checklist, and continue to practice until you are
satisfied with all parts of your presentation.




                                               307
      Activity 14.5
Visualizing Your Success
       The goal of this activity is to have you visualize your success by ―mentally‖
imagining yourself effectively delivering your speech. To complete this activity, use your
Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access Web Resource 14.1: Visualizing
Your Success. Follow the directions to listen to an audio clip that will help you visualize.
Write a short paragraph describing this experience below or e-mail it to your instructor.




     Activity 14.6
Presenting Your First Speech
1. Follow the Speech Plan Action Steps to prepare an informative or persuasive
   speech. The time and other parameters for this assignment will be announced by
   your instructor.

2. Criteria for evaluation include all the essentials of topic and purpose, content,
   organization, presentation, but special emphasis will be placed on clarity of goal,
   clarity and appropriateness of main points, and delivery. As you practice your
   speech, you can use the diagnostic speech critique sheet as a checklist to ensure
   that you are meeting the basic criteria in your speech.

3. Prior to presenting your speech, prepare a complete sentence outline and a written
   plan for adapting your speech to the audience. If you have used Speech Builder
   Express to complete the action step activities online, you will be able to print out a
   copy of your completed outline. Your adaptation plan should describe how you plan
   to verbally and visually adapt your material to the audience and should address how
   you will
   1. Indicate key aspects of audience that you will need to adapt to
   2. Establish common ground
   3. Build and maintain audience interest
   4. Adjust to the audience‘s knowledge and sophistication
   5. Build speaker credibility
   6. Adapt to audiences‘ attitudes toward your speech goal
   7. Adapt to audiences from different cultures and language communities (if relevant
       for you in this speech)
   8. Use visual aids to enhance audience understanding and memory




                                                308
If you completed the action step activities in Chapter 13, you can use them as the basis
    of your written adaptation plan.

       Speech Critique Checklist
       Check all items that were accomplished effectively.

       Content
_____ 1. Was the goal of the speech clear?
_____ 2. Did the speaker have high-quality information?
_____ 3. Did the speaker use a variety of kinds of developmental material?
_____ 4. Were visual aids appropriate and well used?
_____ 5. Did the speaker establish common ground and adapt the content to the audience‘s
         interests, knowledge, and attitudes?


       Organization
_____ 1. Did the introduction gain attention, gain goodwill for the speaker, and lead into the
         speech?
_____ 2. Were the main points clear, parallel, and in meaningful complete sentences?
_____ 3. Did transitions lead smoothly from one point to another?
_____ 4. Did the conclusion tie the speech together?


       Presentation
_____ 1. Was the language clear?
_____ 2. Was the language vivid?
_____ 3. Was the language emphatic?
_____ 4. Did the speaker sound enthusiastic?
_____ 5. Did the speaker show sufficient vocal expressiveness?
_____ 6. Was the presentation spontaneous?
_____ 7. Was the presentation fluent?
_____ 8. Did the speaker look at the audience?
_____ 9. Were the pronunciation and articulation acceptable?
_____ 10. Did the speaker have good posture?
_____ 11. Was speaker movement appropriate?
_____ 12. Did the speaker have sufficient poise?

       Based on these criteria, evaluate the speech as (check one):
       _____ excellent _____ good _____ satisfactory _____ fair _____ poor




                                                   309
      Activity 14.7
Using InfoTrac College Edition
      Using InfoTrac College Edition, locate and read the article ―Breaking the
language barrier,‖ by Stephanie Nickerson. Answer the following questions.

1. Under what speaking circumstances is it important to speak clearly and slowly?




2. Describe one suggestion offered in the article to slow down your rate of speech.




3. Why do you think Nickerson advocates not apologizing to an audience for speech
   habits and accents? Do you feel you have any such habits?




                                              310
      Activity 14.8
Using InfoTrac College Edition
       Access InfoTrac College Edition. Search to find the journal Vital Speeches.
Select and read a speech. Then evaluate the speech using the speech critique
checklist from Activity 14.6. How effective was the speech? What change would you
suggest based on your evaluation? Write a paragraph detailing your evaluation below.


     Activity 14.9
What Would You Do? A Question of Ethics
     Read the What Would You Do: A Question of Ethics scenario in Chapter 14.
Answer the following questions in the space provided here.

1. Is mocking behavior in a formal public speaking setting, either by an audience
   member or a speaker, an ethical matter? Explain your answer.




2. What ethical obligations does an audience member have to a speaker? What about
   a speaker to his or her audience?




                                              311
     Activity 14.10
Speech Analysis
       Use the Speech Critique Sheet on the following page to analyze the sample
speech provided in Chapter 14. While you are reading the speech, cover the right side
of the page so you are unable to see the authors‘ analysis. When your analysis is
complete, compare your results to that of the authors. Where do you agree with their
analysis? Where do you disagree?

      Note: You will be unable to evaluate the speaker on some aspects of
presentation as the speech is in written, not verbal form.

       You may use this form to also evaluate a recorded version of your own speech or
one of the speeches provided on the Communicate! Online Textbook Resources. An
extra copy of the form is provided here for that purpose.




                                             312
        Diagnostic Speech Checklist
        (Check all items that were done effectively.)

        Content
_____   1. Was the goal of the speech clear?
_____   2. Did the speaker have high-quality information?
_____   3. Did the speaker use a variety of kinds of developmental material?
_____   4. Were visual aids appropriate and well used?
_____   5. Did speaker establish common ground and adapt content to the audience?

Organization
_____ 6. Did the introduction gain attention, goodwill and lead into the body?
_____ 7. Were the main points clear, parallel and meaningful?
_____ 8. Did transitions lead smoothly from one point to another?
_____ 9. Did the conclusion tie the speech together?

     Presentation
_____ 10. Was the language clear?
_____ 11. Was the language vivid?
_____ 12. Was the language emphatic?
_____ 13. Did the speaker sound enthusiastic?
_____ 14. Was the speaker vocally expressive?
_____ 15. Was the presentation spontaneous?
_____ 16. Was the presentation fluent?
_____ 17. Did the speaker look at the audience?
_____ 18. Were pronunciation and articulation acceptable?
_____ 19. Did the speaker have good posture?
_____ 20. Was speaker movement appropriate?
_____ 21. Did the speaker have sufficient poise?

        Comments




        Based on these criteria, evaluate the speech as (check one):

        _____ excellent, _____ good, _____ satisfactory, _____ fair, _____ poor.




                                                313
      Web Resource 14.1
      Visualizing Your Success
      Try out this visualization exercise. It features a recorded and printed script that
can help you manage your anxiety as your prepare to deliver your speech.

       Web Resource 14.2
       Body Motions and Audience Attention
       To explore how body motions affect audience attention during a speech, go to
the Presentation-Pointers site and read the article ―Capture an Audience‘s Attention:
Points on Posture, Eye, Contact and More‖ by Marjorie Brody. Presentation-
Pointers.com is a site that features many articles about how to give effective speeches.




                                                314
        Chapter Self-Test
(answers at the end of this workbook)

        True/False
___ 1. Because being nervous is natural, there is no way to cope with it.

___2. ―Speaking without having the exact wording of what you will say memorized‖ is
   the definition of extemporaneously.

___3. Movement can enhance the conversational quality of a speech.

___4. Because notes detract from eye contact, you should not use them when
   delivering a speech.

___5. You should talk about your visual aid while showing it.

___6. The surge of anxiety you feel as you begin your speech is called the adaptation
   reaction.

___7. Systematic desensitization is a method that reduces apprehension by gradually
   having you visualize increasingly more frightening events.

___8. Pitch is the speed at which you talk.

___9. The practice of mocking public figures is largely a product of modern, mass-
   communication cultures.


        Multiple Choice

___1. The vocal characteristic that is distinguished by the degree of loudness of the
   tone you make is called:
   a. pitch
   b. volume
   c. rate
   d. quality

___2.   Saying ―libary‖ instead of ―library‖ is an error in
   a.   articulation
   b.   precision
   c.   pronunciation
   d.   expressiveness




                                                   315
___3.   Saying ―What ya gonna do‖ for ―What are you going to do?‖ illustrates
   A    slurring
   b.   dropping word endings
   c.   articulation errors
   d.   all of the above

___4. How many 3 x 5 note cards would normally be sufficient for a six- to eight-minute
   speech?
   a. one or two
   b. two to four
   c. six to eight
   d. at least nine

___5.   What are the three major areas of emphasis for evaluating speeches?
   a.   content, presentation, and articulation
   b.   content, organization, and nervousness
   c.   content, organization, and presentation
   d.   articulation, emphasis, and vividness



___6.   Public speaking apprehension
   a.   is normal
   b.   is unusually high in about 15 percent of the U.S. population
   c.   varies over the course of the speech
   d.   all of the above
   e.   none of the above

___7. At the last minute, you are called upon to deliver a brief speech at your
   manager‘s retirement dinner. What type of delivery are you likely to use?
   a. impromptu
   b. scripted
   c. extemporaneous
   d. rehearsed


        Essay
1. Identify the five different components of conversational quality, and discuss why it is
   important to achieve a conversational quality in your speeches.




                                               316
2. Discuss some guidelines for using visual aids in a speech. Focus on using the aid,
   not creating it.




3. What can you do to reduce public speaking apprehension?




4. Review some of the criteria for measuring an effective speech.




5. Discuss the importance of rehearsal and how to schedule and perform rehearsals for
   maximum benefit.




                                             317
      Helpful Links
        Five Ways to Make Your Body Speak
http://www.ljlseminars.com/bodyspeaks.htm
        A discussion of the impact of speaker‘s body language on the audience by Lenny
Laskowski.

        Practice
http://www.public-speaking.org/public-speaking-articles.htm#practice
        Articles on practicing from the Advanced Public Speaking Institute.

        Stage Fright
http://www.public-speaking.org/public-speaking-articles.htm#stage
        Articles on apprehension from the Advanced Public Speaking Institute.

        Managing Speaking Apprehension
http://www.nvcc.edu/home/npeck/spd100/blueprintfiles/nervous.htm
        Some additional tips for managing your public speaking apprehension.

        Delivering Your Speech
http://www.speechtips.com/delivering.html
        Tips on delivery from Speechtips.com.
        (To go to the main page: http://www.speechtips.com)


       See your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources for links to other websites
referenced in your text.




                                               318
CHAPTER 15: Informative Speaking
Learning Objectives

After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer the following questions:

      What are the characteristics of informative speaking?
      What are the major methods of informing?
      What are the two most common informative speech frameworks?
      What are the major elements of process speeches?
      What are the major types of expository speeches?

Interactive Chapter Outline

I. Characteristics of effective informative speaking
      ___________________________________________________________

       ___________________________________________________________

       A. Intellectually stimulating

       ___________________________________________________________

       ___________________________________________________________

       B. Relevant

       ___________________________________________________________

       ___________________________________________________________

       C. Creative
       ___________________________________________________________

       ___________________________________________________________

       D. Memorable
       ___________________________________________________________

       ___________________________________________________________




                                       319
     E. Address diverse learning styles
          ___________________________________________________________

            ___________________________________________________________


II. Methods of informing
              ___________________________________________________________

            ___________________________________________________________

     A. Description

            ___________________________________________________________

            ___________________________________________________________

     B. Definition

            ___________________________________________________________

            ___________________________________________________________

     C. Comparison and contrast

            ___________________________________________________________

            ___________________________________________________________

     D. Narration

            ___________________________________________________________

            ___________________________________________________________

     E. Demonstration




III. Common informative speech frameworks
             ___________________________________________________________

            ___________________________________________________________




                                      320
A. Process speech frameworks

      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________


B. Expository speech frameworks
      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________

      1. Exposition of political, economic, social, religious, or ethical issues
      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________


      2. Exposition of historical events and forces
      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________


      3. Exposition of a theory, principle, or law

      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________


      4. Exposition of creative work
      ___________________________________________________________

      ___________________________________________________________




                                        321
Key Terms

antonym
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

comparison and contrast
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

creative
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

definition
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

demonstration
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

description
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

expository speech
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

informative speech
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________




                               322
intellectually stimulating
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


listener relevance links
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


narration
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


process speech
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

productive speaking

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

synonym
___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________




                               323
        Activities
      Activity 15.1
Creating through Productive Thinking
Use the table below to practice productive thinking. Create a list of all of the speech
ideas suggested by these data. This activity corresponds to Skill Learning Activity 15.1
in your textbook.


                   Table of Annual High School Dropout Rates
                                   October 1999
            Characteristics                      Dropout Rate
Total                                                4.7

Sex
 Male                                                      4.3
 Female                                                    5.1

Race and Hispanic Origin
 White                                                     4.4
 White non-Hispanic                                        3.8
 Black                                                     6.0
 Asian and Pacific Islander                                4.8
 Hispanic (of any race)                                    7.1

Family Income
 Less than $20,000                                         9.0
 $20,000–$39,000                                           3.8
 $40,000 and over                                          2.3

Grade Level
 10th grade                                                2.7
 11th grade                                                3.7
 12th grade                                                8.5

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current
Population Survey, October, 1999.




                                             324
       Activity 15.2
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity:
Techniques to Emphasize Important Information
       Use your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access Web Resource
15.2: ―Characteristics of Change Agents,‖ a speech by Billy O. Wireman that is
available through InfoTrac College Edition. Analyze the techniques that the speaker
used to emphasize important points. How could the speaker have improved his
emphasis? Can you identify specific places and techniques where this aspect of the
speech could have been improved? Write an essay in which you analyze this aspect of
the speech and make specific recommendations for improving it.

      This activity corresponds to Skill Learning Activity 15.2 in your textbook.


          Emphasis Analysis Data Sheet
           Visu               Repe         Transiti                 Hum            Mem
      al aids            tition           ons                  or             ory aids




     Activity 15.3
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Evaluating Demonstrations
        Watch an informative speech involving a demonstration and evaluate how
effectively the speaker performed the demonstration. (Do-it-yourself and home
improvement TV programs, like those shown on the cable DIY and HGTV channels,
often feature demonstrations.) Did the speaker perform a complete or modified
demonstration? Did the speaker only use the tools, equipment, or other items needed to
perform the demonstrated task, or did he or she also use other items such as visual
aids? How effective was the demonstration overall? Were there any areas of the
demonstration the speaker could have improved?
               This activity corresponds to Skill Learning Activity 15.3 in your textbook.




                                               325
      Activity 15.4
An Informative Speech
1. Follow the Speech Plan Action Steps to prepare an informative speech. Your instructor
   will announce the time limit and other parameters for this assignment.

2. Criteria for evaluation include all the general criteria of topic and purpose, content,
   organization, presentation, but special emphasis will be placed on how intellectually
   stimulating the topic is made for the audience, how creatively ideas are presented,
   how well the relevance of this topic for the audience is conveyed, and how clearly
   the important information is emphasized. Use the Informative Speech Critique
   Checklist to critique yourself as you practice your speech.

3. Prior to presenting your speech, prepare a complete sentence outline and source list
   (bibliography) as well as a written plan for adapting your speech to your audience. If
   you have used Speech Builder Express to complete the action step activities online,
   you will be able to print out a copy of your completed outline and source list. Your
   adaptation plan should describe how you plan to verbally and visually adapt your
   material to the audience and should address how you will: (1) establish common
   ground, (2) build and maintain audience interest, (3) adjust to the audience‘s
   knowledge and sophistication, (4) build speaker credibility, (5) adapt to audiences‘
   attitudes toward your speech goal, (6) adapt to audiences from different cultures and
   language communities (if relevant for you in this speech), and (7) use visual aids to
   enhance audience understanding and memory.




                                               326
       Informative Speech Critique Checklist
Check all items that were accomplished effectively.
       Primary criteria
____ 1.    Was the specific goal designed to increase audience information?
____ 2.    Did the speaker show creativity in idea development?
____ 3.    Was the information intellectually stimulating?
____ 4.    Did the speaker show the relevance of the information?
____ 5.    Did the speaker emphasize the information?
____ 6.    Were the methods use to present the information appropriate for the ideas
           presented?
       General criteria
____ 1.    Was the specific goal clear?
____ 2.    Was the introduction effective?
____ 3.    Were the main points clear?
____ 4.    Was the conclusion effective?
____ 5.    Was the language clear, vivid, and emphatic?
____ 6.    Was the speech delivered enthusiastically,         with    vocal   expressiveness,
           spontaneously, fluently, and with eye contact?

       Based on these criteria, evaluate the speech as (check one):
       ____ excellent ____ good ____ average ____ fair ____ poor




                                                  327
Activity                                                                          15.5
Speech and Analysis


Making Ethanol
by Louisa Greene

1. Review the outline and adaptation plan developed by Louisa Greene in
   preparing her speech on making ethanol.
2. Next, read the transcript of Louisa‘s speech.
3. Use the Expository Speech Evaluation Checklist from Figure 15.7 to help you
   evaluate this speech.
4. Use your Online Textbook Resources for Communicate! to watch a video clip
   of Louisa presenting her speech in class.
5. Write a paragraph of feedback to Louisa describing the strengths of her
   presentation and what you think she might do next time to be more effective.




                                             328
                             Expository Speech Evaluation Checklist


          Type of Expository Speech
          _____     Exposition of political, economic, social, or religious issue
          _____     Exposition of historical events or forces
          _____     Exposition of a theory, principle, or law
          _____     Exposition of creative work


          Primary Criteria
_____ 1. Was the specific goal of the speech to provide well-researched information on
         a complex topic?
_____ 2. Did the speaker effectively use a variety of methods to convey the
         information?
_____ 3. Did the speaker emphasize the main ideas and important supporting
         material?
_____ 4. Did the speaker use high quality sources for the information presented?
_____ 5. Was the speech well organized with clearly identifiable main points?
_____ 6. Did the speaker present in depth high quality information?


          General Criteria
_____ 1. Was the specific goal clear?
_____ 2. Was the introduction effective in creating interest and introducing the process
         to be explained?
_____ 3. Was the speech organized using time order?
_____ 4. Was the language clear, vivid, emphatic, and appropriate?
_____ 5. Was the conclusion effective in summarizing the steps?
_____ 6. Was the speech delivered enthusiastically, with vocal expressiveness,
         fluency, spontaneity, and directness?

      Based on these criteria, evaluate the speech as (check one):
      ____ excellent ____ good ____ average ____ fair ____ poor




                                               329
      Activity 15.6
Using InfoTrac College Edition
      Using InfoTrac College Edition, conduct a subject search for ―learning,‖ then click
on ―Learning, Psychology of.‖ Look for articles that discuss ―how people learn‖ and
―how people think‖ to gain additional information that is relevant to informative speaking.
Read one or more articles to help you better understand how to prepare your
informative speech. Summarize your findings below.




      Activity 15.7
Using Technology
        Adding humor to a speech is one way to add emphasis to a point and interest to
the speech in general. Visit http://www.public-speaking.org/public-speaking-
articles.htm#humor or do an Internet search for ―humorous anecdotes.‖ See if you can
find a way to add humor to at least one point in your speech. Summarize your efforts in
the space below. Be sure to record any necessary bibliographic information so that you
may cite your source in the speech.




                                               330
     Activity 15.8
What Would You Do? A Question of Ethics
     Read the What Would You Do: A Question of Ethics scenario in Chapter 15.
Answer the following questions in the space provided here.

1. Is Paul‘s proposed behavior unethical? Why?




2. What should Gina say to challenge Paul‘s last statement?




                                            331
       Web Resource 15.1
       A Theory about Genius
       To read about techniques that can help stimulate ―productive― rather than
―reproductive― thought, go to creativity expert Michael Michalko‘s site and find the article
―A Theory about Genius‖ in the Library of Articles.


       Web Resource 15.2
       Change Agents
       To analyze a speech for its use of emphasis, use AccessMyLibrary.com (free
with registration) to find the article ―Characteristics of Change Agents‖ by Billy O.
Wireman.




       Chapter Self-Test
(answers at the end of this workbook)

       True/False
____ 1.       Your audience will perceive information to be intellectually stimulating
   when it is new to them and when it is explained in a way that peaks audience
   curiosity.

____2.       Creativity is using information in a way that yields different or original
   ideas and insights.

____3. Listener relevance links clarify to the audience why the information presented
   in the speech is important to them.


____4.        ―Antonyms‖ are words that have the same or nearly the same meanings.

____5.        One way to define something is by using a familiar synonym or antonym.

____6.        Narration is a method of informing that explains something by recounting
   events.

____7.       When giving an informative speech on drilling in the Arctic National
   Wildlife Refuge, it would be acceptable to present only one side of the story.




                                                332
       Multiple Choice
____1.         Sara is giving her speech on tobacco production. After she gives a
   statistic on how much tobacco is harvested each year in this country, she repeats
   the statistic, pauses briefly, smiles, and says ―That‘s a lot of smoke!‖ Sara is trying
   to
   a. substitute for a visual aid
   b. enhance credibility
   c. add emphasis
   d. show relevance

____2.        The letters ―NAACP‖ are one example of a(n)
   a. acronym
   b. synonym
   c. antonym
   d. definition
   e. word association

____3.       Stuart gives his speech on ―How to make chocolate chip cookies.‖ His
   speech is most likely to be
   a. an extended example
   b. a demonstration or process explanation
   c. an extended definition
   d. an exposition

____4.        ―The causes for juvenile delinquency‖ is most likely a topic for
   a. demonstrative speaking
   b. extemporaneous speaking
   c. definitional speaking
   d. expository speaking

____5.         Which of the following are effective ways of enhancing your creativity?
   a. gather plenty of useful information to work from
   b. allow plenty of time for the creative process to work
   c. create alternate choices and different perspectives
   d. all of the above




                                                333
____6.         In his speech about new financial aid options for college students, Neil
   tells his audience that ―everyone in this room needs money for college, and this
   scholarship is available to all of you!‖ Neil is trying to:
   a. make the topic relevant to the audience
   b. enhance his credibility
   c. demonstrate association
   d. be expository

____7.        A speech on Intelligent Design would likely be an exposition of:
   a. political, economic, social, or political issues.
   b. historical people and events.
   c. theory, principle, or law.
   d. expositions of creative work.

____8.        Rhonda is giving an informative speech on how to construct a powered
   model airplane. She chooses to complete some of the model at home and do only
   part of the work in front of the audience. Rhonda is:
   a. hurting the usefulness of the speech by leaving out some information
   b. using a modified demonstration format
   c. using exposition formally
   d. speaking by definition

       Essay
1. List and describe each of the methods of informing discussed in the text. Include an
   example of each.




2. Describe how you might organize an informative speech on how to do some simple
   process (such as a recipe). What method if informing would this be?




                                               334
3. What are the main criteria for evaluating an informative speech?




4. How does a speaker emphasize information? Why is this important? Provide
   examples of each method you discuss.




5. Describe the role of creativity in speaking, and provide examples of how we can
   improve our creative ability.




6. In your opinion, is information provided by the news media biased? Provide
   examples to support your answer.




                                             335
      Helpful Links
        Mindtools memory page
http://www.mindtools.com/memory.html
        A site for learning more about mnemonics and other skills used to improve
memory.

        Online Etymology Dictionary
http://www.etymonline.com/
        This great site allows you to research word origins. By Douglas Harper.

        Online Speech Bank
http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speechbank.htm
        An index of over 5000 speeches presented by American Rhetoric.

        Humor Techniques
http://www.public-speaking.org/public-speaking-articles.htm#humor
        A list of links for tips, techniques and samples for using humor in speeches from
the Advanced Public Speaking Institute.

        Speeches
http://www.historychannel.com/speeches/index.html
        An archive of great speeches presented by The History Channel.


       See your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources for links to other websites
referenced in your text.




                                               336
CHAPTER 16: Persuasive Speaking
Learning Objectives

After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer the following questions:

      How do people listen to and evaluate persuasive messages?
      What are the different types of persuasive speaking goals or propositions?
      How does the target audience‘s initial attitude toward your topic affect your
       proposition?
      How do you develop strong arguments to support your proposition?
      What are some common fallacies to avoid when developing your reasons?
      How can you demonstrate goodwill in your speech?
      How might you motivate your audience to act?
      What are some common organizational patterns for persuasive speeches?

Interactive Chapter Outline
I. How We Process Persuasive Messages: The Elaboration Likelihood Model
(ELM)
______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

II. Writing persuasive speech goals as propositions

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

     A. Types of Persuasive Goals
______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________


     B. Tailoring your proposition to your audience
______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________




                                        337
     1. Opposed
______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

     2. Neutral


______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

     3. In favor


______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________


III. Developing arguments (logos) that support your proposition
______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________


     A. Finding reasons to use as main points
______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

     B. Selecting evidence to support reasons
______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

     C. Types and tests of arguments

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________




                                   338
     D. Avoiding fallacies in your reasons and arguments
______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________


III. Increasing audience involvement through emotional appeals (pathos)

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________


IV. Cueing your audience through credibility (ethos): Demonstrating goodwill

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________


V. Motivating your audience to act through incentives

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________


      A. Using incentives to satisfy unmet needs

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

      B. Creating incentives that outweigh costs

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________


VI. Organizational patterns for persuasive speeches
______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________




                                       339
     A. Statement of reasons
______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

     B. Comparative advantages

_____________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

     C. Criteria satisfaction
______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________


     D. Refutative
______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________


     E. Problem-solution

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________


     F. Problem-cause-solution
______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

     G. Motivated sequence pattern

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________




                                     340
Key Terms
apathetic
______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________


argue from analogy

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________


argue from causation
______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

argue from example
______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________



argue from sign

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________


argument
______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________


comparative advantages pattern

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________


                                 341
criteria satisfaction pattern
______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________



either-or
______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________


empathy

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________


false cause

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________


goodwill
______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________


hasty generalization
______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________




                               342
impartial

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

incentive
______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________


incremental change

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

logos
______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________


motivated sequence pattern
______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________


pathos
______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________


persuasive speech

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________




                               343
problem-cause-solution pattern
______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________


problem-solution pattern
______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________


proposition

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________


proposition of policy
______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________


proposition of value

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

reasons
______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

refutative pattern
______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________




                               344
         statement of reasons
         ______________________________________________________________

         ______________________________________________________________

         straw person
         ______________________________________________________________

         ______________________________________________________________

         target audience
         ______________________________________________________________

         ______________________________________________________________

         uninformed
         ______________________________________________________________

         ______________________________________________________________




         Activities
       Activity 16.1
  Observe & Analyze Journal Activity
        A Specific Goal Statement in a Persuasive Speech
The goal of this activity is to find and analyze a specific goal statement.

  1. Use your Premium Web site for Communicate! to access Web Resource 16.1:
     Maintaining the Faith, and read ―Terrorism and Islam: Maintaining the Faith,‖ a
     speech by Mahathir Bin Mohamad, Prime Minister of Malaysia given at the OIC
     Conference of Ministers of Endowments and Islamic Affairs, in Kuala Lumpur, May
     7, 2002. This speech is available through Infotrac College Edition. Identify the
     specific goal statement.

  2. Given the composition of the audience, what do you think their initial attitude was
     toward the speaker‘s position?

  3. Write a paragraph in which you analyze this goal statement. What type of specific
     speech goal is this? Does this goal seem appropriate for this audience? Explain
     your reasoning.




                                                   345
        You can complete this activity on line at the Communicate! Online Textbook
  Resources and e-mail your analysis to your instructor. This activity corresponds to Skill
  Learning Activity 16.1 in your textbook.


       Activity 16.2
  Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Giving Good Reasons and Evidence
The goal of this activity is to analyze reasons and evidence.

  1. Use your Premium Web site for Communicate! to access Web Resource 16.1:
     Maintaining the Faith, and read ―Terrorism and Islam: Maintaining the Faith‖
     Mahathir Bin Mohamad. Identify each of the main points or reasons that the speaker
     offers in support of his thesis.

  2. Are his reasons ―good‖? Are they supported? Relevant? Adapted to the Audience?

  3. Analyze his supporting evidence. Assess the quality, currency, and relevancy to his
     reasons.

  4. Identify two kinds of reasoning links that he uses and then test them using the
     appropriate questions. Are the links you tested logical? Explain.

  5. Are there any fallacies that you can detect in his argument? Explain.




       Activity 16.3
  Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Motivating Audiences
         The goal of this activity is to analyze motivational tactics.

  1. Use your Premium Web site for Communicate! to access Web Resource 16.1:
     Maintaining the Faith, and read ―Terrorism and Islam: Maintaining the Faith‖
     Mahathir Bin Mohamad. Analyze the incentives that Mahathir presents.

  2. What emotions do you think that he hopes to arouse? What information does he
     present to stimulate emotions. Does he seem to phrase the ideas in a way that
     elicits those emotions? Explain.

          You can complete this activity at the Communicate! Online Textbook Resources
  and e-mail your analysis to your instructor. This activity corresponds to Skill Learning
  Activity 16.3.




                                                   346
     Activity 16.4
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Persuasive Organizational Methods
      The goal of this activity is to analyze organizational patterns.

1. Use your Premium Web site for Communicate! to access Web Resource 16.1:
   Maintaining the Faith, and read ―Terrorism and Islam: Maintaining the Faith‖
   Mahathir Bin Mohamad. Analyze the organizational methods Mahathir uses.

2. How well does his pattern fit the attitudes you believe his audience holds toward his
   position? Are there other patterns that might have served him better?



     Activity 16.5
Speech and Analysis
      Sexual Assault Policy a Must
      by Maria Lucia R. Anton

1. Review the Outline and Adaptation Plan developed by Maria Lucia R. Anton in
   preparing her speech on the need for strong and explicit policies to combat sexual
   assault on college campuses.

2. Next, read the transcript of Maria Lucia‘s speech.

3. Use the Persuasive Speech Evaluation Checklist from Figure 16.4 to help you
   evaluate this speech.

4. Use your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to watch a video clip of Maria
   Lucia presenting her speech in class.

5. Write a paragraph of feedback to Maria Lucia describing the strengths of her
   presentation and what you think she might do next time to be more effective.




                                               347
                     Persuasive Speech Evaluation Checklist


      Primary Criteria
_____ 1. Was the specific goal phrased as a proposition (were you clear what position
         on the issue the speaker was taking)?
_____ 2. Did the proposition appear to be adapted to the initial attitude of most
         members of the audience?
_____ 3. Were emotional appeals used to involve the audience with the topic?
_____ 4. Were the reasons used in the speech
                _____     directly related to the proposition?
                _____     supported by strong evidence?
                _____     persuasive for the particular audience?
_____ 5. Was the evidence (support) used to back the reasons (claims)
                _____     from well respected sources?
                _____     recent and/or still valid?
                _____     persuasive for this audience?
                _____     typical of all evidence that might have been used?
                _____     sufficient (enough evidenced was cited)?
_____ 6. Could you identify the types of arguments that were used?
                _____     Did the speaker argue from example?
                   _____ If so, was it valid?
                _____     Did the speaker argue from analogy?
                   _____ If so, was it valid?
                _____     Did the speaker argue from causation?
                   _____ If so, was it valid?
                _____     Did the speaker argue from sign?
                   _____ If so, was it valid?
_____ 7. Could you identify any fallacies of reasoning in the speech?
                _____     hasty generalizations
                _____     arguing from false cause
                _____     ad hominem attacks




                                             348
_____ 8. Did the speaker demonstrate goodwill?
_____ 9. If the speech called for the audience to take action,
         _____ Did the speaker describe incentives and relate them to audience
                 needs?
         _____ Did the speaker acknowledge any costs associated with the action?
_____ 8. Did the speaker use an appropriate persuasive organizational pattern?
         _____      statement of reasons
                 _____     problem/solution
                 _____     comparative advantages
                 _____     criteria satisfaction
                 _____     motivated sequence

General Criteria
_____ 1. Was the proposition clear? Could you tell the speaker‘s position on the issue?
_____ 2. Was the introduction effective in creating interest and involving the audience
         in the speech?
_____ 3. Was the speech organized using an appropriate persuasive pattern?
_____ 4. Was the language clear, vivid, emphatic, and appropriate?
_____ 5. Was the conclusion effective in summarizing what had been said and
         mobilizing the audience to act?
_____ 6. Was the speech delivered enthusiastically, with vocal expressiveness,
         fluency, spontaneity, and directness?
_____ 7. Did the speaker establish credibility?
         _____     expertise
         _____     personableness
         _____     trustworthiness

Overall evaluation of the speech (check one):
_____ excellent _____ good _____ average _____ fair _____ poor
Use the information from this checklist to support your evaluation.




                                             349
      Activity 16.6
A Persuasive Speech
1. Follow the speech plan action steps to prepare a persuasive speech in which you
   affect audience belief or move your audience to action. Your instructor will announce
   the time limit and other parameters for this assignment.

2. Criteria for evaluation include all the general criteria of topic and purpose, content,
   organization, presentation, but special emphasis will be placed on the primary
   persuasive criteria of how well the speech‘s specific goal was adapted to the
   audience‘s initial attitude toward the topic, the soundness of the reasons, the
   evidence cited in support of them, the use of motivational language, and the
   credibility of the arguments.

3. Use the Persuasive Speech Critique Checklist to critique yourself as you practice
   your speech.

4. Prior to presenting your speech you are to prepare a complete sentence outline and
   source list (bibliography). If you have used Speech Builder Express to complete the
   action steps online, you will be able to print out a copy of your completed outline and
   source list. Also prepare a written plan for adapting your speech to the audience.
   Your adaptation plan should address the following issues:
   a. How does your goal adapt to whether your prevailing audience attitude is in
       favor, no opinion, or opposed?
   b. What reasons will you use, and how will the organizational pattern you select fit
      your topic and audience?
   c. How will you establish your credibility with this audience?
   d. How will you motivate your audience by using incentives or by appealing to their
      emotions?



           Activity 16.7
   Using InfoTrac College Edition
   Under the subject ―attitude change,‖ click on ―Periodical references.‖ Look for
   articles that discuss how audiences process information. Make a special effort to
   find an article or articles by Richard Petty. Summarize your findings here.




                                                350
      Activity 16.8
Using InfoTrac College Edition
        Using ―persuasion techniques‖ as your search term, locate the article ―Get your
way using lawyers‘ techniques‖ by Noelle C. Nelson. Summarize the techniques the
article presents and how you may use them in your speech, focusing on the following:

1. How does Nelson‘s argument about the failure of the prosecutors in the O. J.
   Simpson trial ―to clearly and explicitly ask for what they wanted‖ fit in with Monroe‘s
   motivational pattern?

2. Draft a statement where you clearly and explicitly ask for what you want in your first
   persuasive speech.

3. How is Nelson‘s advice to use ―everyday language‖ consistent with the motivational
   pattern of speech organization?


      Activity 16.9
Using Technology
        Who better to demonstrate persuasive speaking skills but a lawyer? Watch The
Practice, Law & Order, Family Law, or some other show that depicts a legal trial.
Evaluate the way the attorneys try to persuade the jury to accept their point of view.
What do they do to build their credibility? How do they incorporate emotional appeal in
their remarks? How do they reason with juries? What do they do that makes them
particularly effective or ineffective in their speeches? Summarize your findings here.


      Activity 16.10
Using InfoTrac College
       Access InfoTrac College and locate several articles related to the Elaboration
Likelihood Model. Using those articles, summarize the basic tenets of the theory. Then,
apply the model to a persuasive speech you heard in class. How well does the theory
explain the persuasive techniques used by your classmates during their speeches?
Write a short paragraph summarizing your findings.

       *




                                                351
Web Resource 16.1
Terrorism and Islam: Maintaining the Faith
       To read an interesting persuasive speech, use your Communicate! Online
Textbook Resources to access Web Resource 16.1: Terrorism and Islam: Maintaining
the Faith.


      Web Resource 16.2
Evoking Negative and Positive Emotions
       To read about the impact of emotions on persuasion, use your Communicate!
Online Textbook Resources to access Web Resource 16.2: Evoking Negative and
Positive Emotions.


      Web Resource 16.3
Motivated Sequence Speech
     To learn more about the motivated sequence organizational pattern, use your
Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access Web Resource 16.3: Motivated
Sequence Speech.


       Chapter Self-Test
(answers at the end of this workbook)

       True/False
_____ 1.      ―Reasons‖ and ―evidence‖ are the same thing.

_____ 2.   If an audience is highly in favor of your speech goal, then you should
   emphasize motivation and practical suggestions.

_____ 3.   Argument by analogy involves supporting a claim with a single
   comparable example that is significantly similar to the subject of the claim.

_____ 4.      Arguing by sign is does not require observable data.

_____ 5.     The problem solution format works to clarify the nature of a problem and
   for showing why a proposed solution is best.

_____ 6.     The motivated sequence pattern is identical to the problem solution
   pattern except it deletes the attention step.




                                               352
_____ 7.     One reason why an audience may have no opinion is that it is uninformed
   of the goal.

_____ 8. Commercials, including infomercials, are a form of persuasion.




       Multiple Choice
_____ 1.        Juan is giving a persuasive speech on why we should stiffen penalties for
   child abuse. He wants to present three reasons why we should do this. His speech
   is likely to be organized using
   a. problem-solution pattern
   b. statement of reasons pattern
   c. motivated sequence pattern
   d. comparative advantages pattern

_____ 2.       Leticia argues we should not do what George suggests because ―George
   is an idiot!‖ This is an example of
   a. an ad hominem argument
   b. a logical reasons argument
   c. a motivational appeal
   d. an appeal to authority
   e. an appeal to credibility

_____ 3.     Gaining recognition is an example of
   a. a physiological need
   b. a cognitive need
   c. a safety need
   d. a belongingness and love need
   e. an esteem need

_____ 4.      Which of the following is NOT a way to build credibility with your
   audience?
   a. resist personal attacks
   b. give sources for all information
   c. tell the truth
   d. use a hasty generalization
   e. all are acceptable for building credibility




                                               353
_____ 5.        Review the following persuasive speech components:

          Proposition
          ―I want my audience to vote for the state income tax measure on the November
ballot‖

Main ideas
I. Income from the measure will allow government to increase services.
II. Income from the measure will allow a reduction the sales tax.
III. Income from the measure will provide for state employee raises.

This speech is organized in
   a. logical reasons order
   b. problem solution order
   c. comparative advantages order
   d. motivational pattern

_____ 6.     The three attitudes an audience might have concerning your goal are:
   a. In favor, no opinion, neutral
   b. In favor, neutral, opposed
   c. In favor, no opinion, reasoned
   d. No opinion, opposed, reasoned

_____ 7.      You can judge the quality of the reasons you include in your persuasive
   speech according to which of the following questions?
   a. Is the reason directly related to providing the proposition?
   b. Do I have strong evidence to support a reason?
   c. Will this reason be persuasive for this audience?
   d. All of the above are appropriate questions.

_____ 8.      When selecting evidence for your persuasive speech, you should consider
   which of the following questions?
   a. Does the evidence come from a well-respected source?
   b. Is the evidence recent; if not, is it still valid?
   c. Does the evidence really support the reason?
   d. Will this evidence be persuasive for this audience?
   e. All of these questions should be considered.




                                               354
      Essay
1. How can a speaker use voice and language to add emotional impact to a speech?
   Why is this important?




2. Why is it important to have good reasons to support your speech goal? What is the
   relationship between reasons and evidence?




3. What are some common fallacies? Provide examples.




4. How does a persuasive speaker motivate an audience to act? Describe the key
   principles, and provide examples of each.




5. What are the different attitudes an audience might have toward a speech goal, and
   why is it important to know this information when preparing a speech?




                                            355
       Helpful Links
        Logical Fallacies
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logical_fallacy
        An entry from Wikipedia regarding logical fallacies.

        Translating Statistics
http://entrepreneurs.about.com/cs/marketing/a/presentingstats.htm?terms=public+speak
ing
        An interesting article on making statistical evidence more understandable to your
audience.

        Motivating Your Audience
http://www.tlcsem.com/pmotivate.htm
        Some interesting techniques for motivating an audience during public speaking.

        Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/regsys/maslow.html
        A site from the University of Tennessee offering more information on Maslow‘s
hierarchy and related ideas.

       See your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources for links to other websites
referenced in your text.




                                                356
Answers to True/False and Multiple Choice Questions




                   357
Chapter 1:                7. D
T/F                       8. E
1. T
2. F         Chapter 3:
3. F         T/F
4. F         1. T
5. T         2. F         Chapter 5:
6. T         3. T         T/F
7. T         4. F         1. T
8. F         5. T         2. F
             6. F         3. F
M/C          7. T         4. F
1. B                      5. F
2. A         M/C          6. F
3. C         1. C         7. T
4. D         2. C
5. C         3. E         M/C
6. B         4. C         1. A
7. E         5. A         2. C
8. A         6. A         3. B
             7. D         4. D
Chapter 2:   8. A         5. B
T/F                       6. D
1. T         Chapter 4:   7. C
2. T         T/F          8. B
3. F         1. F
4. F         2. T         CHAPTER 6
5. T         3. F         T/F
6. F         4. T         1.   F
7. T         5. T         2.   F
             6. T         3.   F
M/C          7. F         4.   T
1. A                      5.   F
2. B                      6.   T
3. D         M/C          7.   T
4. B         1. D         8.   T
5. A         2. C         9.   T
6. B         3. D
7. A         4. C         M/C
8. C         5. A         1. B
             6. D         2. E
                          3. C
                    358
4.   D       7. B         CHAPTER 10
5.   A       8. C         T/F
6.   A                    1. T
7.   C                    2. F
8.   A       APPENDIX     3. F
9.   B       T/F          4. F
             1. T         5. T
             2. T         6. T
Chapter 7:   3. F         7. T
T/F          4. T
1. T         5. T         M/C
2. T         6. F         1. D
3. T         7. T         2. A
                          3. E
4. F
             M/C          4. B
5. F
             1. C         5. D
6. T                      6. B
             2. B
             3. A         7. B
M/C          4. E         8. C
1. B         5. E
2. D         6. D
3. E         7. E         CHAPTER 11
4. C         8. E         T/F
5. C                      1. F
6. A         CHAPTER 9    2. F
             T/F          3. T
             1. T         4. T
CHAPTER 8    2. F         5. T
T/F          3. F         6. F
1. F         4. F         7. F
2. F         5. T         8. T
3. F         6. T
4. T         7. T         M/C
5. T                      1. A
6. F         M/C          2. C
7. T         1. A         3. D
             2. D         4. D
M/C          3. D         5. B
1. B         4. B         6. D
2. C         5. B         7. C
3. A         6. D         8. B
4. D         7. D
5. C         8. B         CHAPTER 12
6. D                      T/F
                    359
1.   F       T/F
2.   T       1. F         CHAPTER 16
3.   F       2. F         T/F
4.   F       3. T         1. F
5.   T       4. F         2. T
6.   T       5. T         3. T
7.   F       6. F         4. F
8.   T       7. T         5. T
             8. F         6. F
M/C          9. F         7. T
1. A                      8. T
2. E         M/C
3. A         1. B         M/C
4. C         2. A         1. B
5. B         3. D         2. A
6. D         4. B         3. E
7. D         5. C         4. D
8. C         6. D         5. C
             7. A         6. B
                          7. D
CHAPTER 13                8. E
T/F
1. T         CHAPTER 15
2. T         T/F
3. F         1. T
4. F         2. T
5. T         3. T
6. F         4. F
7. T         5. T
8. T         6. T
9. F         7. F

M/C          M/C
1. B         1. C
2. D         2. A
3. B         3. B
4. D         4. D
5. A         5. D
6. C         6. A
7. E         7. C
8. A         8. B
9. C

CHAPTER 14
                    360

				
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